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1.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 42(supl.1): 64-78, mayo 2022. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1393996

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El consorcio europeo BIOMED-2 se creó para determinar si una población linfoide de difícil clasificación patológica es clonal. En Colombia, la implementación de estas pruebas comenzó en el 2015 en el Instituto Nacional de Cancerología E.S.E. (Bogotá). Objetivos. Determinar el comportamiento de las pruebas de reordenamiento clonal o clonalidad linfoide. y determinar las dificultades de su uso en nuestro medio verificando su adaptación local y los resultados en una serie retrospectiva de casos y consecutiva de proliferaciones linfoides sometidas a los protocolos BIOMED-2. Materiales y métodos. A partir de las historias clínicas, se recolectaron los datos clínicos e histológicos y los resultados de los análisis de los reordenamientos en todos los casos de proliferaciones linfoides sometidas a los protocolos BIOMED-2, entre febrero de 2015 y mayo de 2019. Resultados. Se hallaron 132 casos, de los cuales 47 se clasificaron mediante los protocolos de Biomed-2 como hiperplasias linfoides reactivas, 62 como linfomas T, 19 como linfomas B y 3 como neoplasias linfoides de linaje no establecido. Solo en un caso falló la extracción de ADN. Según estos resultados, la mayor dificultad diagnóstica para el patólogo fue el análisis de los infiltrados linfoides T, la mayoría (44) de los cuales correspondía a lesiones cutáneas. Conclusiones. Las pruebas de clonalidad pueden usarse en tejidos de diversa calidad en nuestro medio como ayuda en el diagnóstico de proliferaciones linfoides de difícil clasificación. Es importante hacerlas e interpretarlas de manera multidisciplinaria y considerar cada caso por separado.


Introduction: The European BIOMED-2 consortium was created to evaluate clonality in lymphoproliferations that are difficult to diagnose. In Colombia, the implementation of these tests began in 2015 at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología E.S.E., Bogotá. Objectives: To determine the behavior of the rearrangement tests for lymphoid clonality and the difficulties of its implementation in our field through a series of retrospective and consecutive cases of lymphoid proliferation subjected to the BIOMED-2 protocols. Materials and methods: Clinical and histological data and the results of the rearrangement analysis of all cases of lymphoid proliferation subjected to the BIOMED-2 protocols between February 2015 and May 2019 were collected from clinical histories. Results: We recovered 132 samples from which 47 corresponded to reactive lymphoid hyperplasias, 62 to T lymphomas, 19 to B lymphomas, and three to lymphoid neoplasms of unestablished lineage. Only in one case did DNA extraction fail. According to these results, the greatest diagnostic difficulty for the pathologist was the analysis of T lymphoid infiltrates, most of which (44) were skin lesions. Conclusions: Clonality tests can be used in tissues of different quality to help in the diagnosis of lymphoid proliferations that are difficult to classify. It is important to implement and interpret them in an interdisciplinary way considering each case separately.


Subject(s)
Lymphoma , Immunoglobulins , Gene Rearrangement, T-Lymphocyte , Genes, T-Cell Receptor , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
2.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408431

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las membranopatías son anemias hemolíticas hereditarias debidas a anomalías cualitativas o deficiencias cuantitativas de las proteínas del citoesqueleto del glóbulo rojo. Objetivo: Actualizar el diagnóstico de las membranopatías con la inclusión de las últimas recomendaciones del comité de grupos de expertos a nivel nacional e internacional. Métodos: Se realizó una revisión de la literatura en inglés y español, a través del sitio web PubMed y el motor de búsqueda Google académico, de artículos publicados en los últimos cinco años. Análisis y síntesis de la información: Las enfermedades de mayor interés clínico son: la esferocitosis, la eliptocitosis y la estomatocitosis hereditaria. Estas en general se heredan con carácter autosómico dominante pero existen formas que se transmiten con carácter recesivo, sin descartar posible mutación de novo. Para su diagnóstico se utilizan pruebas que incluyen el estudio de la morfología de los glóbulos rojos, la fragilidad osmótica, la lisis de glicerol acidificado, la criohemólisis hipertónica, la prueba de unión a la eosina-5'-maleimida por citometría de flujo, la electroforesis en gel de poliacrilamida con dodecilsulfato sódico y la ectacitometría. Conclusiones: Las membranopatías pueden sospecharse de manera preliminar teniendo en cuenta algunas alteraciones de la morfología eritrocitaria, aunque el diagnóstico se basa en estudios familiares y otros de carácter confirmatorio de la enfermedad, como los estudios moleculares. Los profesionales de la salud que atienden a pacientes jóvenes con anemia deben considerar la posibilidad de una anemia hemolítica por trastornos de la membrana eritrocitaria(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: Membranopathies are inherited hemolytic anemias due to qualitative abnormalities or quantitative deficiencies of red blood cell cytoskeletal proteins. Objective: to update the diagnosis of membranopathies with the inclusion of the latest recommendations from the committee of expert groups at the national and international level. Methods: A review of the literature in English and Spanish was carried out, through the PubMed website and the academic search engine Google, in articles published in the last five years. Analysis and synthesis of information: The diseases of greatest clinical interest are: spherocytocis, elliptocytosis and hereditary stomatocytosis. These are generally inherited with an autosomal dominant character but there are forms that are transmitted recessively, without ruling out a possible de novo mutation. For its diagnosis, tests are used that include the study of red blood cell morphology, osmotic fragility, acidified glycerol lysis, hypertonic cryohemolysis, eosin-5'-maleimide binding test by flow cytometry, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and ectacytometry. Conclusions: Membranopathies can be preliminarily suspected taking into account some alterations in erythrocyte morphology, although the diagnosis is based on family studies and others confirming the disease, such as molecular studies. Healthcare professionals caring for young patients with anemia should consider the possibility of hemolytic anemia due to red cell membrane disorders(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Osmotic Fragility , Health Personnel , Delivery of Health Care , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Anemia, Hemolytic , Flow Cytometry
3.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 52(2): e20200894, 2022. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | VETINDEX, LILACS | ID: biblio-1339655

ABSTRACT

Seed germination is a complex process controlled by many factors, in which physical and biochemical mechanisms are involved and the mobilization of reserves is crucial for this process to occur. Although, seed reserve mobilization is usually thought to be a post-germination process, seed reserve proteins mobilization occurs during germination. This study quantified seed proteins of bean genotypes during different hydration times, in order to understand the process of protein mobilization and whether there is relationship of this biochemical component with seed vigor. This study was conducted using seeds with different levels of vigor, genotypes with highest (13, 42, 55 and 81) and lowest (07, 23, 44, 50, IPR-88-Uirapurú and Iapar 81) physiological quality. High vigor genotypes showed greater efficiency in hydrolysis and mobilization of protein component, because they presented low globulins content in cotyledons at radicle protrusion in relation to low vigor genotypes (07, 23 and 50). The protein alpha-amylase inhibitor, observed in all genotypes, is involved with the longer time needed for radicle protrusion, according to the band intensity difference in genotypes 07, 44 and Iapar 81.


A germinação de sementes é um processo complexo controlado por muitos fatores, nos quais mecanismos físicos e bioquímicos estão envolvidos e a mobilização de reservas é decisiva para que esse processo ocorra. Embora a mobilização de reservas de sementes seja considerada um processo pós-germinativo, a mobilização das proteínas de reserva de sementes ocorre durante a germinação. Este estudo teve como objetivo quantificar as proteínas de sementes de genótipos de feijão durante os diferentes tempos de hidratação, a fim de compreender o processo de mobilização proteica e se há relação desse componente bioquímico com o vigor das sementes. Este estudo foi realizado utilizando sementes com diferentes níveis de vigor, genótipos com maior (13, 42, 55 e 81) e menor (07, 23, 44, 50, IPR-88-Uirapurú e Iapar 81) qualidade fisiológica. Os genótipos de alto vigor apresentaram maior eficiência na hidrólise e mobilização do componente proteico, pois apresentaram baixo teor de globulinas nos cotilédones na protrusão radicular em relação aos genótipos de baixo vigor (07, 23 e 50). A proteína inibidora da alfa-amilase, observada em todos os genótipos, está envolvida com o maior tempo necessário para a protrusão da radícula, de acordo com a diferença de intensidade da banda nos genótipos 07, 44 e Iapar 81.


Subject(s)
Seeds/chemistry , Genetic Variation/genetics , Proteins/analysis , Phaseolus/embryology , Mass Spectrometry , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
4.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1138-1148, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927769

ABSTRACT

Loofah seeds ribosome inactivating protein luffin-α was fused with a tumor-targeting peptide NGR to create a recombinant protein, and its inhibitory activity on tumor cells and angiogenesis were assessed. luffin-α-NGR fusion gene was obtained by PCR amplification. The fusion gene was ligated with pGEX-6p-1 vector to create a recombinant plasmid pGEX-6p-1/luffin-α-NGR. The plasmid was transformed into E. coli BL21, and the target protein was isolated and purified by GST affinity chromatography. The luffin-α-NGR fusion gene with a full length of 849 bp was successfully obtained, and the optimal soluble expression of the target protein was achieved under the conditions of 16 ℃, 0.5 mmol/L IPTG after 16 h induction. SDS-PAGE and Western blotting confirmed the recombinant protein has an expected molecular weight of 56.6 kDa. Subsequently, the recombinant protein was de-tagged by precision protease digestion. The inhibitory effects of the recombinant protein on liver tumor cells HepG2 and breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 were significantly stronger than that of luffin-α. The Transwell and CAM experiment proved that the recombinant protein luffin-α-NGR also had a significant inhibitory effect on tumor cells migration and neovascularization. The inhibitory activity on tumor cells and angiogenesis of the recombinant luffin-α-NGR protein lays a foundation for the development of subsequent recombinant tumor-targeting drugs.


Subject(s)
Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Plasmids , Recombinant Proteins/pharmacology , Saporins/metabolism
5.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 52: 85-92, July. 2021. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283600

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nonribosomal peptide synthases (NRPS) can synthesize functionally diverse bioactive peptides by incorporating nonproteinogenic amino acids, offering a rich source of new drug leads. The bacterium Escherichia coli is a well-characterized production host and a promising candidate for the synthesis of nonribosomal peptides, but only limited bioprocess engineering has been reported for such molecules. We therefore developed a medium and optimized process parameters using the design of experiments (DoE) approach. RESULTS: We found that glycerol is not suitable as a carbon source for rhabdopeptide production, at least for the NRPS used for this study. Alternative carbon sources from the tricarboxylic acid cycle achieved much higher yields. DoE was used to optimize the pH and temperature in a stirred-tank reactor, revealing that optimal growth and optimal production required substantially different conditions. CONCLUSIONS: We developed a chemically defined adapted M9 medium matching the performance of complex medium (lysogeny broth) in terms of product concentration. The maximum yield in the reactor under optimized conditions was 126 mg L-1, representing a 31-fold increase compared to the first shaking-flask experiments with M9 medium and glycerol as the carbon source. Conditions that promoted cell growth tended to inhibit NRPS productivity. The challenge was therefore to find a compromise between these factors as the basis for further process development.


Subject(s)
Peptide Synthases/metabolism , Bioreactors/microbiology , Escherichia coli , Temperature , Biotechnology , Carbon/metabolism , Models, Statistical , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Bioengineering , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
6.
Int. j. morphol ; 39(1): 64-69, feb. 2021. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385315

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The expression of aquaporin-1 (AQP1) in choroid plexus and aquaporin-4 (AQP4) in astrocyte of the hippocampal formation (HF) was studied in the rat to determine the role of AQP1 and AQP4 in the pathophysiology of systemic hyponatremia (SH). SH was induced by coadministration of dextrose solution intraperitoneally and through subcutaneous implantation of an osmotic minipump containing 8-deamino-arginin vasopressin (50ng/µl/h) for 24 and 48 h. Twenty- four and 48 h after the drug administration, there were significant reductions in Na+ concentration (111 ± 5 and 104 ± 2 mmol) and serum osmolarity (240 ± 13 and 221 ± 14 mOsm/L) as compared with control values (140 ± 4.7 mmol and 296 ± 5.2 mOsm/L), (p<0.01). The expression of AQP1 in the choroid plexus was increased three to five times from 24 h to 48 h after SH (329.86 ± 10.2 % and 531.5 ± 4.4 %, n=4, p<0.01). In contrast, AQP4 expression was significantly decreased up to 48 h after SH (36 ± 9 %, n=4, p<0.01). Quantitative immunoblotting revealed significant decreases of neuronal proteins in the HF after 24 to 48 h of SH. Therefore, we suggest that altered expression of AQP1 and AQP4 plays important role in the pathogenesis of systemic hyponatremia.


RESUMEN: En este análisis se estudió la expresión de acuaporina-1 (AQP1) en plexo coroideo y acuaporina-4 (AQP4) en astrocitos de la formación hipocampal (FH) en ratas para determinar el papel de AQP1 y AQP4 en la fisiopatología de la hiponatremia sistémica (HS). La HS fue inducida mediante la coadministración de solución de dextrosa por vía intraperitoneal y mediante la implantación subcutánea de una minibomba osmótica que contenía vasopresina 8-desaminoarginina (50 ng /µ l / h) durante 24 y 48 h. Veinticuatro y 48 h después de la administración del fármaco, hubo reducciones significativas en la concentración de Na + (111 ± 5 y 104 ± 2 mmol) y la osmolaridad sérica (240 ± 13 y 221 ± 14 mOsm /µL) en comparación con los valores de control (140 ± 4,7 mmol y 296 ± 5,2 mOsm / L), (p <0,01). La expresión de AQP1 en el plexo coroideo se incrementó de tres a cinco veces de 24 a 48 h después de HS (329,86 ± 10,2 % y 531,5 ± 4,4 %, n = 4, p <0,01). Por el contrario, la expresión de AQP4 se redujo significativamente hasta 48 h después de HS (36 ± 9 %, n = 4, p <0,01). La inmunotransferencia cuantitativa reveló disminuciones significativas de proteínas neuronales en el FH después de 24 a 48 h de SH. Por lo tanto, sugerimos que la expresión alterada de AQP1 y AQP4 juega un papel importante en la patogénesis de la hiponatremia sistémica.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Brain/metabolism , Aquaporin 1/metabolism , Aquaporin 4/metabolism , Hyponatremia/metabolism , Immunoblotting , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
7.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 8(1): 10-23, 2021. il 27 c
Article in Spanish | LILACS, DIGIUSAC, LIGCSA | ID: biblio-1348245

ABSTRACT

Neurolaena lobata es utilizada tradicionalmente en Centroamérica para tratar la mordedura de serpiente, pero su efectividad para contrarrestar el envenenamiento producido por Bothrops asper ha sido poco estudiada. Se evaluó la capacidad del extracto etanólico de sus hojas para inhibir las actividades proteolítica, fosfolipasa A2 (PLA2; evaluada como hemólisis indirecta) y coagulante del veneno in vitro. El material vegetal fue colectado en Izabal, Guatemala, secado, se hicieron extracciones con etanol y se evaluó la presencia de actividades proteolítica, PLA2 y coagulante in-trínsecas en ensayos de concentración-actividad. Los efectos inhibitorios de la actividad proteolítica y PLA2 del veneno se evaluaron después de pre-incubar concentraciones variables del extracto con concentraciones fijas de veneno. La inhibición de la actividad coagulante del veneno no fue evaluada porque el extracto presentó actividad anticoagulante intrínseca dependiente de la concentración. El extracto inhibió completamente las actividades proteolítica (CE50 = 15.7 µg/µl) y PLA2 (CE50 = 32.5 µg/µl) del veneno. El análisis fitoquímico utilizando ensayos macro y semimicrométricos de cromatografía en capa fina, demostró la presencia de flavonoides, cumarinas, saponinas, taninos, sesquiterpenlactonas y aceites esenciales en el extracto. Su efecto sobre las proteínas del veneno se evaluó por electroforesis SDS-PAGE, mostrando cambios en el patrón electroforético atribuidos a la formación de complejos moleculares con los metabo-litos del extracto. Los resultados indican que el extracto podría inhibir los efectos tóxicos del veneno inducidos por las metaloproteinasas dependientes de zinc (SVMPs) y PLA2s, pero podría afectar las alteraciones en la coagulación, coadyuvando en la desfibrinogenación inducida por el veneno.


Neurolaena lobata has been used by traditional healers in Central America to treat snakebite, but its ability to neutralize Bothrops asper envenomations needs to be proved. This study evaluated the inhibitory potential of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of N. lobata against proteolytic, phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and coagulant activities of the venom in vitro. Leaves were collected in Izabal, Guatemala, dried, extracted with ethanol and concentration-response assays were conducted to detect intrinsic proteolytic, PLA2 (evaluated as indirect hemolysis) and coagulant activities. Assays for anti-proteolytic and anti-PLA2 activities were performed after pre-incubation of several amounts of extract with a fixed concentration of venom. Inhibition assay for the coagulant effect of the venom was not tested because pre-incubation of thrombin with the extract prolonged the clotting time of plasma in a concentration-dependent manner. Proteolytic (EC50 = 15.7 µg/µl) and PLA2 (EC50 = 32.5 µg/µl) activities of the venom resulted completely inhibited by the extract. Phytochemical profiles, determined by micrometric assays and semi microanalysis by thin layer chro-matography, showed the presence of flavonoids, coumarins, saponins, tannins, sesquiterpene lactones and essential oils in the extract. SDS-PAGE was used to assess the action of the extract on the venom proteins. Results showed changes in the electrophoretic profile, probably due to the formation of insoluble complexes with plant specialized metabolites. These findings demonstrated that the extract could be able to inhibit toxic effects triggered by zinc-dependent snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) y PLA2s but might aggravate the alterations induced by the venom in coagulation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Antivenins/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Bothrops , Crotalid Venoms/antagonists & inhibitors , Proteolysis/drug effects , Phospholipase A2 Inhibitors/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal , Snake Bites/drug therapy , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Leaves , Ethanol/therapeutic use , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Guatemala , Medicine, Traditional
8.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200639, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278433

ABSTRACT

Abstract Ananas Comosus (also known as pineapple) is a part of Bromeliaceae family and it is consumed as food as well as folk medicine for the treatment of various diseases. It is reported that pineapple is a rich source of bromelain, a cysteine protease and it is considered as an important enzyme in different industries due to its significant therapeutic and industrial applications such as anticancer, anti-inflammatory and meat tenderizing. Bromelain is mostly present in fruit and stem of pineapple, but it is reported that crown, core, and peels, which constitute the waste of the pineapple plant, also contain bromelain but limited data is available. Therefore, the proposed study aimed at utilizing pineapple waste for the extraction and characterization of bromelain. Firstly, crude bromelain was extracted with phosphate buffer (pH 7), then it was subjected to partial purification using different fractions of ammonium sulphate (NH4)2SO4 such as 30, 40, 50 and 60% followed by desalting and concentration. Enzyme activity was calculated by using casein digesting unit (CDU) method. The results demonstrated that the crown bromelain showed highest purification of 4.34-fold at 30% (NH4)2SO4 saturation, whereas core and peel bromelain showed highest purification of 2.75 and 2.59-fold at 40% (NH4)2SO4 saturation. The molecular weight of crude and partially purified bromelain was determined by SDS-PAGE analysis and found to be 26 KDa. The pH and thermal stability of all the parts of pineapple showed maximum stability at pH 7 and at 35oC temperature.


Subject(s)
Bromelains/isolation & purification , Enzyme Activation , Ammonium Sulfate , Peptide Hydrolases , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
9.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21210002, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278453

ABSTRACT

Abstract In this study, the effects of Ellagic acid (EA) on protein expression in yeasts and cellular development were investigated. Four groups were formed. Groups: 1) Control group; yeast only cultivated group; 2) Ellagic Acid (EA) group: EA (10%) given group; 3) Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) Group: The group given H2O2 (15 mM); 4) EA + H2O2 group: EA (10%) + H2O2 (15 mM) group. After sterilization, EA (10%) and H2O2 (15 mM) were added to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) cultures and the cultures were grown at 30 °C for 1 hour, 3 hours, 5 hours and 24 hours (overnight). S. cerevisiae cell growth, lipid peroxidation MDA (malondialdehyde) analysis and GSH (glutathione) level were analyzed by spectrophotometer. Total protein changes were determined by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis and measured by the Bradford method. According to the obtained results, compared with the H2O2 group, cell development (1, 3, 5 and 24 hours), GSH level and total protein synthesis (24 hours) were increased with EA, while MDA level (24 hours) decreased. These results show that EA reduces oxidative damage, increases cell growth and it has a protective effect to promote protein synthesis in S. cerevisiae culture.


Subject(s)
Humans , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Ellagic Acid , Hydrogen Peroxide
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921319

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To find the different electrophoretic profiles of prion protein in carcinous and individual pericarcinous tissues in lysates of gastric, colon, liver, lung, thyroid, and laryngeal cancers.@*Methods@#Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blot were used to test the amounts and electrophoretic patterns of total PrP and the tolerance of PK (protease K) digestion among six various cancer tissue types.@*Results@#A mass of PrP signals with a large molecular weight were identified in the homogenates of peripheral tissues. The amounts and electrophoretic patterns of total PrP did not differ significantly between carcinous and pericarcinous tissues. PrPs in all types of the tested cancer samples were PK sensitive but showed diversity in the tolerance of PK digestion among various tissue types.@*Conclusions@#The study revealed that the included electrophoretic patterns of carcinous and pericarcinous tissues were almost similar. Unlike PrP-specific immunohistochemical assay, evaluation of PrP electrophoretic patterns in the peripheral organs and tissues by Western blot does not reflect tumor malignancy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cricetinae , Humans , Blotting, Western , Brain , Brain Chemistry , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Neoplasms/chemistry , Prion Proteins/analysis
11.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 27: e20210005, 2021. tab, graf, mapas, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1351019

ABSTRACT

Background: In the present study, we have tested whether specimens of the medically relevant scorpion Tityus pachyurus, collected from two climatically and ecologically different regions, differ in the biological activities of the venom. Methods: Scorpions were collected in Tolima and Huila, Colombia. Chemical profiles of the crude venom were obtained from 80 scorpions for each region, using SDS-PAGE and RP-HPLC. Assays for phospholipase A2, direct and indirect hemolytic, proteolytic, neuromuscular, antibacterial, and insecticidal activities were carried out. Results: The electrophoretic profiles of venom from the two regions showed similar bands of 6-14 kDa, 36-45 kDa, 65 kDa and 97 kDa. However, bands between 36 kDa and 65 kDa were observed with more intensity in venoms from Tolima, and a 95 kDa band occurred only in venoms from Huila. The chromatographic profile of the venoms showed differences in the intensity of some peaks, which could be associated with changes in the abundance of some components between both populations. Phospholipase A2 and hemolytic activities were not observable, whereas both venoms showed proteolytic activity towards casein. Insecticidal activity of the venoms from both regions showed significant variation in potency, the bactericidal activity was variable and low for both venoms. Moreover, no differences were observed in the neuromuscular activity assay. Conclusion: Our results reveal some variation in the activity of the venom between both populations, which could be explained by the ecological adaptations like differences in feeding, altitude and/or diverse predator exposure. However more in-depth studies are necessary to determine the drivers behind the differences in venom composition and activities.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Scorpions , Biological Products , Phospholipases A2 , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Anti-Bacterial Agents
12.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 35: e032, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1153607

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study tested the null hypothesis that antihistamine-containing syrup does not change salivary metabolites in vitro and in vivo. For the in vitro experiments, saliva from 10 volunteers was mixed with a syrup or pill suspension of loratadine (1 mg/ml Claritin®, Schering-Plough, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). For the in vivo experiment, 10 volunteers performed a mouth rinse with 10 mL of antihistamine syrup (Claritin®; Schering-Plough, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) for 20 seconds and then discarded the rinse water. After 20 seconds, 5 mL of unstimulated whole saliva was spit into a plastic tube kept on ice. The protein profile of in vitro and in vivo experiments was analyzed using 12% sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The samples were also analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, followed by Principal Component Analysis and Wilcoxon test (p < 0.05). There were differences in salivary metabolites after syrup interaction. The salivary concentrations of acetate, n-caproate, arginine, glutamate, and lysine among other metabolites were reduced with the syrup in both in vivo and in vitro experiments (p < 0.05), but no differences were observed when the pill suspension was used (p > 0.05). Similar changes in metabolite profiles were observed in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Electrophoresis revealed no difference in the salivary protein pattern. The null hypothesis was rejected because the intake of syrup medicine changes the salivary composition and influences oral homeostasis and susceptibility to oral diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Saliva , Salivary Proteins and Peptides , Brazil , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Histamine Antagonists
13.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(12): 1073-1076, Dec. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1155038

ABSTRACT

Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was analyzed to obtain information on leakage of acute-phase proteins from the blood into the respiratory lumen and about local synthesis. Ceruloplasmin, transferrin, albumin, α1-antitripsin, immunoglobulin G heavy, immunoglobulin G light, immunoglobulin A, haptoglobin, acidic glycoprotein, and P23 were measured in BALF from 30 horses without inflammatory disease by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). In serum, the same proteins were identified except for α1-antitrypsin. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) can be used for the determination of acute-phase proteins in BALF samples from horses. In healthy horses, the values are very low, but they can be compared with reference values to assist in the diagnosis of animals with respiratory diseases.(AU)


O líquido obtido através da lavagem broncoalveolar (LBA) foi analisado para obter informações sobre as proteínas da fase aguda. Ceruloplasmina, transferrina, albumina, α1-antitripsina, imunoglobulina G pesada, imunoglobulina G leve, imunoglobulina A, haptoglobina, glicoproteína ácida e P23 foram medidas nos LBA de 30 cavalos sem doença inflamatória por eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida com dodecilsulfato de sódio (SDS-PAGE). No soro, as mesmas proteínas foram identificadas, exceto a α1-antitripsina. Em conclusão, este estudo demonstra que a eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida (SDS-PAGE) pode ser usada para a determinação de proteínas de fase aguda em amostras de LBA em cavalos. Em cavalos saudáveis, os valores são muito baixos, no entanto, podem ser comparados e auxiliar no diagnóstico de animais com doenças respiratórias.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Biomarkers/analysis , Acute-Phase Reaction/diagnosis , Bronchoalveolar Lavage/veterinary , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Horses , Ceruloplasmin , Haptoglobins , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , Glycoproteins
14.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 48: 86-94, nov. 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1254836

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are the workhorse for obtaining recombinant proteins. Proteomic studies of these cells intend to understand cell biology and obtain more productive and robust cell lines for therapeutic protein production in the pharmaceutical industry. Because of the great importance of precipitation methods for the processing of samples in proteomics, the acetone, methanol-chloroform (M/C), and trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-acetone protocols were compared for CHO cells in terms of protein recovery, band pattern resolution, and presence on SDS-PAGE. RESULTS: Higher recovery and similar band profile with cellular homogenates were obtained using acetone precipitation with ultrasonic bath cycles (104.18 ± 2.67%) or NaOH addition (103.12 ± 5.74%), compared to the other two protocols tested. TCA-acetone precipitates were difficult to solubilize, which negatively influenced recovery percentage (77.91 ± 8.79%) and band presence. M/C with ultrasonic homogenization showed an intermediate recovery between the other two protocols (94.22 ± 4.86%) without affecting protein pattern on SDS-PAGE. These precipitation methods affected the recovery of low MW proteins (< 15 kDa). CONCLUSIONS: These results help in the processing of samples of CHO cells for their proteomic study by means of an easily accessible, fast protocol, with an almost complete recovery of cellular proteins and the capture of the original complexity of the cellular composition. Acetone protocol could be incorporated to sample-preparation workflows in a straightforward manner and can probably be applied to other mammalian cell lines as well.


Subject(s)
Animals , Recombinant Proteins , CHO Cells , Proteomics/methods , Acetone , Chemical Precipitation , Solubility , Trichloroacetic Acid , Cell Separation , Chloroform , Cell Culture Techniques , Methanol , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
15.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(4): 919-923, Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124877

ABSTRACT

Letrozole (Letro) is a drug commonly used for breast cancer treatment since it can decrease estrogen level. In experimental animal, the Letro has been used to induce the polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) model. Tyrosine phosphorylation (TyrPho) is an essential process in various biological functions both normal and abnormal conditions especially reproduction. Although some side effects of Letro are reported, the alterations of TyrPho responsible for liver and kidney functions have never been demonstrated. In this study, the blood serum, liver, and kidney of control and PCOS rats induced with Letro (orally, 1 mg/ KgBW) for consecutive 21 days were used to determine the serum biochemical components and to investigate the TyrPho expression using western blot analysis. Histopathology of such tissues was observed by Masson's trichrome staining. The results showed that Letro did not affect histological structures but significantly increased the serum levels of urea nitrogen, cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, LDL, ALT, AST, and alkaline phosphatase. Additionally, the TyrPho protein expressions of 32 and 27 kDas in liver and of 55 and 43 kDas in kidney were increased while of a kidney 26 kDa was decreased as compared to those of control. In conclusion, this recent study indicated that the changes of TyrPho proteins in liver and kidney induced with Letro associated with their functions by alteration of serum biochemical levels.


El letrozol (Letro) es un medicamento utilizado comúnmente para el tratamiento del cáncer de mama, debido a que puede disminuir el nivel de estrógeno. En animales de experimentación, el Letro se ha utilizado para inducir el modelo de síndrome de ovario poliquístico (PCOS). La fosforilación de tirosina (TyrPho) es un proceso esencial en diversas funciones biológicas, tanto en condiciones normales como anormales, especialmente en la reproducción. A pesar de informes que indican algunos efectos secundarios de Letro, no se han demostrado las alteraciones de TyrPho responsables de las funciones hepáticas y renales. En este estudio, el suero sanguíneo, el hígado y el riñón control y las ratas PCOS inducidas con Letro (por vía oral, 1 mg / KgBW) durante 21 días consecutivos se usaron para determinar los componentes bioquímicos del suero y para investigar la expresión de TyrPho usando análisis de transferencia Western. La histopatología de los tejidos se observó mediante la tinción tricrómica de Masson. Los resultados mostraron que Letro no afectó las estructuras histológicas, pero aumentó significativamente los niveles séricos de urea, colesterol, triglicéridos, HDL, LDL, ALT, AST y fosfatasa alcalina. Además, las expresiones de la proteína TyrPho de 32 y 27 kDas en el hígado y de 55 y 43 kDas en el riñón aumentaron mientras que en un riñón disminuyeron 26 kDa en comparación con el control. En conclusión, este estudio indicó que los cambios de las proteínas TyrPho en el hígado y los riñones inducidos con Letro se asociaron con sus funciones mediante la alteración de los niveles bioquímicos en suero.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/chemically induced , Letrozole/adverse effects , Kidney/drug effects , Liver/drug effects , Phosphorylation/physiology , Tyrosine/metabolism , Blotting, Western , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
16.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 40(2): 404-411, abr.-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124234

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Las especies Rhodnius (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) están conformadas por insectos hematófagos vectores de Trypanosoma cruzi, agente etiológico de la enfermedad de Chagas, y T. rangeli, parásito infectivo pero no patógeno para el vertebrado. El estudio de la diversidad proteica de la saliva de estos insectos permite la obtención de perfiles electroforéticos unidimensionales característicos de algunas especies de triatominos. Sin embargo, el reporte de los patrones electroforéticos de proteínas salivales de las especies de Rhodnius ha sido escaso. Objetivo. Hacer un análisis comparativo de los perfiles electroforéticos unidimensionales de las proteínas salivales de R. colombiensis, R. pallescens, R. pictipes, R. prolixus y R. robustus. Materiales y métodos. Se obtuvieron los perfiles electroforéticos de la saliva de las especies en estudio mediante electroforesis en gel de poliacrilamida con dodecilsulfato sódico (Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis, SDS-PAGE) y se construyó un fenograma mediante el método UPGMA (Unweighted Pair Group Method Using Arithmetic Averages). Resultados. Los perfiles electroforéticos de las proteínas solubles de saliva presentaron bandas en un rango de masa aproximado de 15 a 45 kDa, los cuales permitieron diferenciar las cinco especies estudiadas. El fenograma reveló la existencia de dos grupos principales: uno conformado por los grupos cisandinos Pictipes y Prolixus y otro constituido por el grupo transandino Pallescens. Conclusiones. Existen diferencias en los perfiles electroforéticos de las proteínas salivales entre R. colombiensis, R. pallescens, R. pictipes, R. prolixus y R. robustus, cuya variabilidad permitió construir un fenograma congruente con los grupos del género Rhodnius.


Introduction: Rhodnius (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) species are made up of haematophagous insect vectors for Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas' disease aetiological agent) and T. rangeli, an infective parasite that is not pathogenic for vertebrate hosts. The study of their salivary protein diversity enables the obtention of characteristic one-dimensional electrophoretic profiles of some triatomine species; however, few reports have dealt with Rhodnius species salivary proteins electrophoretic patterns. Objective: To compare R. colombiensis, R. pallescens, R. pictipes, R. prolixus, and R. robustus' salivary proteins one-dimensional electrophoretic profiles. Materials and methods: SDS-PAGE was used for obtaining electrophoretic profiles of saliva from the species under study. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) was used for constructing a phenogram. Results: Electrophoretic profiles of soluble saliva had protein bands ranging from 15 to 45 kDa, thereby enabling the five species studied to be differentiated. The phenogram revealed two main groups, one formed by the Pictipes and Prolixus cis-Andean groups and another consisting of the Pallescens trans-Andean group. Conclusion: Differences were revealed regarding R. colombiensis, R. pallescens, R. pictipes, R. prolixus, and R. robustus electrophoretic profiles of salivary proteins; their variability facilitated constructing a phenogram which was taxonomically congruent with the groups from the genus Rhodnius.


Subject(s)
Rhodnius , Salivary Proteins and Peptides , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
17.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 44: 33-40, Mar. 2020. graf, tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087694

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The preparation of broad bean koji is a key process in the production of Pixian broad bean paste (PBP). Protease is essential for the degradation of proteins during PBP fermentation. To obtain broad bean koji with high protease activity using the cocultivated strains of Aspergillus oryzae QM-6 (A. oryzae QM-6) and Aspergillus niger QH-3 (A. niger QH-3), the optimization of acid and neutral protease activities was carried out using Box­Behnken design with response surface methodology (RSM). RESULTS: The optimum conditions were found to be as follows: inoculation proportion (X1), 3:1 (A. oryzae QM-6: A. niger QH-3, w/w); culture temperature (X2), 33°C; inoculum size (X3), 0.5% (w/w); incubation time (X4), 5 d. The acid and neutral protease activities were 605.2 ± 12.4 U/g and 1582.9 ± 23.7 U/g, respectively, which were in good agreement with the predicted values. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis profiles revealed that the broad bean koji extracellular proteins in the case of cocultivation were richer compared to those in the case of A. oryzae QM-6 or A. niger QH-3 strain only. In addition, the free amino acids (FAAs) in the fermentation product were 55% higher in the cocultivation process than in that involving only A. oryzae QM-6, further confirming the diversity of proteases in the fermentation products. CONCLUSIONS: The optimal conditions of koji-making in PBP were obtained using RSM. The cocultivation of A. oryzae and A. niger increases the overall enzyme activities in the culture medium and the FAAs content, which would thus have potential application in the PBP industry.


Subject(s)
Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Aspergillus niger , Aspergillus oryzae , Fabaceae/enzymology , Coculture Techniques , Vicia faba , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Fermentation , Amino Acids
18.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18748, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285513

ABSTRACT

Conventional drug formulations are incapable of adequate delivery of proteins and peptides for therapeutic purposes. As these molecules have very short biological half-life, multiple dosing is required to achieve the desirable therapeutic effects. Microspheres are able to encapsulate proteins and peptide in the polymeric matrix while protecting them from enzymatic degradation. In this study Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) matrix type microspheres were fabricated using Polylactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) by double emulsion solvent evaporation method. The effects of variables such as homogenizer speed, molecular weight of polymer and the effect of pH of the water phases, were investigated against factors such as drug loading, encapsulation efficiency, morphology, size, drug distribution and release profile of the microspheres. Results, suggested that an increase in homogenization speed leads to a decrease in microsphere size. The increase in homogenization speed also caused a significant effect on the release profile only when higher molecular weight of polymer had been used.. The pH change of the internal aqueous phase led to modification of surface morphology of spheres to a porous structure that significantly increased the total amount of released protein. Integrity of protein structure was intact as shown by SDS-PAGE. According to the results, it can be concluded that we achieved a reproducible method regarding controlled protein delivery for different sizes of particles.


Subject(s)
In Vitro Techniques/methods , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Proteins , Microspheres , Serum Albumin, Bovine/administration & dosage , Efficiency/classification , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel/instrumentation , Emulsions
19.
Biol. Res ; 53: 03, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089073

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The pellicle, the acellular organic material deposited on the surface of tooth enamel, has been thought to be derived from saliva. In this study, protein compositions of the pellicle, gingival crevicular fluid, and saliva collected from healthy adults were compared to elucidate the origin of pellicle proteins. RESULTS: The pellicle, gingival crevicular fluid, and saliva from the parotid gland or mixed gland were collected; subsequently, protein expression in samples from the respective individual was compared by SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry. Following SDS-PAGE, proteins in the major bands were identified by mass spectrometry. The band pattern of pellicle proteins appeared different from those of gingival crevicular fluid, or saliva samples. Using mass spectrometry, 13 proteins in these samples were identified. The relative abundance of the proteins was quantitatively analyzed using mass spectrometry coupled with stable isotope labeling and by western blot. Cystatin S and α-amylase detected in pellicle were enriched in saliva samples, but not in gingival crevicular fluid, by western blot, and their abundance ratios were high in saliva and low in gingival crevicular fluid when analyzed by stable isotope labeling. Serotransferrin, however, was found only in the pellicle and gingival crevicular fluid by western blot and its abundance ratio was low in saliva. CONCLUSIONS: Our study revealed that the gingival crevicular fluid appears to contribute to pellicle formation in addition to saliva.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Saliva/chemistry , Proteins/analysis , Gingival Crevicular Fluid/chemistry , Dental Pellicle/chemistry , Mass Spectrometry , Blotting, Western , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
20.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 26: e20190048, 2020. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1056677

ABSTRACT

The Eastern Russell's viper, Daboia siamensis, is a WHO Category 1 medically important venomous snake. It has a wide but disjunct distribution in Southeast Asia. The specific antivenom, D. siamensis Monovalent Antivenom (DsMAV-Thailand) is produced in Thailand but not available in Indonesia, where a heterologous trivalent antivenom, Serum Anti Bisa Ular (SABU), is used instead. This study aimed to investigate the geographical venom variation of D. siamensis from Thailand (Ds-Thailand) and Indonesia (Ds-Indonesia), and the immunorecognition of the venom proteins by antivenoms. Methods: The venom proteins were decomplexed with reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, followed by in-solution tryptic digestion, nano-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and protein identification. The efficacies of DsMAV-Thailand and SABU in binding the various venom fractions were assessed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay optimized for immunorecognition profiling. Results: The two most abundant protein families in Ds-Thailand venom are phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor (KSPI). Those abundant in Ds-Indonesia venom are PLA2 and serine protease. KSPI and vascular endothelial growth factor were detected in Ds-Thailand venom, whereas L-amino acid oxidase and disintegrin were present in Ds-Indonesia venom. Common proteins shared between the two included snaclecs, serine proteases, metalloproteinases, phosphodiesterases, 5'nucleotidases and nerve growth factors at varying abundances. DsMAV-Thailand exhibited strong immunorecognition of the major protein fractions in both venoms, but low immunoreactivity toward the low molecular weight proteins e.g. KSPI and disintegrins. On the other hand, SABU was virtually ineffective in binding all fractionated venom proteins. Conclusion: D. siamensis venoms from Thailand and Indonesia varied geographically in the protein subtypes and abundances. The venoms, nevertheless, shared conserved antigenicity that allowed effective immunorecognition by DsMAV-Thailand but not by SABU, consistent with the neutralization efficacy of the antivenoms. A specific, appropriate antivenom is needed in Indonesia to treat Russell's viper envenomation.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Antivenins , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Daboia , Proteomics , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Phospholipases A2
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