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1.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e254483, 2023. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1440795

ABSTRACT

Compreender as estratégias de resolução de conflitos utilizadas por adolescentes na relação com seus pais é fundamental para entender como ocorre seu desenvolvimento saudável. Este artigo investigou a resolução de conflitos de adolescentes em situações de confronto entre o seu domínio pessoal e o controle parental. 36 adolescentes com idades entre 15 e 17 anos, divididos igualmente conforme o sexo, responderam a uma entrevista semiestruturada, que continha quatro situações de conflito hipotéticas. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de conteúdo semântica e a testes não paramétricos. Os resultados foram categorizados em sete estratégias: Assunção de culpa, Submissão, Mentira, Hostilidade, Diálogo/Explicação, Negociação e Outra. A forma predominante de resolução utilizada foi o Diálogo/Explicação, considerada como uma forma recorrente de defender o domínio pessoal. Foram encontradas diferenças em relação ao sexo dos participantes e à situação hipotética. Por fim, os resultados são discutidos em termos de grau de autonomia e tipo de defesa do domínio pessoal.(AU)


Understanding the conflict resolution strategies used by adolescents in their relationship with their parents is fundamental to understanding how their healthy development occurs. This article investigated the resolution of conflicts by adolescents in confrontation situations between their personal domain and parental control. A total of 36 adolescents, aged 15 to 17 years, divided equally according to sex, answered a semi-structured interview that contained four hypothetical conflict situations. Data were subjected to semantic content analysis and non-parametric tests. The results were categorized into seven strategies: Assumption of Guilt, Submission, Lie, Hostility, Dialogue/Explanation, Negotiation, and Other. The predominant form of resolution used was Dialogue/Explanation, considered a recurrent form of defense of the personal domain. Differences were found depending on the participants' gender and the hypothetical situation. Finally, the results are discussed regarding the degree of autonomy and type of defense of the personal domain.(AU)


Enterarse de las estrategias de resolución de conflictos que los adolescentes utilizan en la relación con sus padres es fundamental para comprender cómo ocurre el desarrollo saludable de los adolescentes. A partir de una entrevista semiestructurada, presentamos cuatro situaciones hipotéticas de conflicto que fueron analizadas y respondidas por 36 adolescentes de entre 15 y 17 años, divididos según el género. Los datos se sometieron a un análisis de contenido semántico y a pruebas no paramétricas. Los resultados se categorizaron en siete estrategias de resolución de conflictos: Asunción de culpa, Sumisión, Mentira, Hostilidad, Diálogo/Explicación, Negociación y Otros. La forma de resolución más utilizada fue Diálogo/Explicación, y esta categoría fue una forma de defensa del dominio personal. Asimismo, se encontraron diferencias en función del género de los participantes y conforme la situación hipotética. Los resultados se discuten en términos de grado de autonomía y tipo de defensa del dominio personal.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adolescent , Negotiating , Family Conflict , Anxiety , Orientation , Parent-Child Relations , Personal Satisfaction , Personality , Personality Development , Primary Health Care , Psychology , Psychology, Social , Psychosexual Development , Psychotherapy , Public Policy , Quality of Life , Role , Sex , Authoritarianism , Social Behavior Disorders , Social Change , Social Dominance , Social Environment , Socialization , Stereotyping , Stress, Psychological , Avoidance Learning , Taboo , Temperament , Temperance , Violence , Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms , Career Choice , Attitude , Child Advocacy , Child Welfare , Choice Behavior , Mental Health , Puberty , Adolescent Behavior , Parenting , Intergenerational Relations , Codependency, Psychological , Interview , Communication , Comprehensive Health Care , Privacy , Adult , Sexuality , Conduct Disorder , Feedback, Psychological , Disclosure , Dangerous Behavior , Principle-Based Ethics , Decision Making , Harm Reduction , Moral Development , Dissent and Disputes , Trust , Friends , Adolescent Development , Sexual Development , Dominance-Subordination , Education , Educational Status , Ego , Emotions , Escape Reaction , Fear , Emotional Intelligence , Sense of Coherence , Forgiveness , Protective Factors , Social Norms , Emotional Adjustment , Underage Drinking , Peer Influence , Conservative Treatment , Perfectionism , Cell Phone Use , Incivility , Self-Management , Ethnocentrism , Freedom , Frustration , Psychological Distress , Social Integration , Empowerment , Transtheoretical Model , Disinformation , Social Cohesion , Citizenship , Gestalt Therapy , Family Support , Psychological Well-Being , Guilt , Happiness , Hormones , Hostility , Human Development , Human Rights , Identity Crisis , Individuation , Juvenile Delinquency , Anger , Leisure Activities , Life Change Events , Loneliness , Love , Deception , Morals , Narcissism , Object Attachment
2.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e252098, 2023. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1440797

ABSTRACT

Este estudo teve como objetivo identificar o risco de desenvolvimento de transtorno de estresse pós-traumático (TEPT), bem como sua associação com pensamentos ou tentativas suicidas e a saúde mental de policiais militares feridos por arma de fogo, na Região Metropolitana de Belém (RMB), nos anos de 2017 a 2019. A pesquisa contou com a participação de 30 entrevistados, que responderam o Inventário Demográfico e a Lista de verificação de TEPT para o DSM-5 (PCL-5). Para análise dos dados, utilizou-se a técnica estatística Análise Exploratória de Dados e a técnica multivariada Análise de Correspondência. Os resultados revelaram a existência de risco de desenvolvimento do transtorno de forma parcial ou total em uma expressiva parcela da população entrevistada, tendo homens como maioria dos sintomáticos, com média de 38 anos, exercendo atividades operacionais e vitimados em via pública quando estavam de folga do serviço. O ferimento deixou a maioria com sequelas, com destaque para dores crônicas, limitações de locomoção e/ou mobilidade e perda parcial de um membro. E, ainda, policiais sintomáticos apresentaram comportamentos suicidas, relatando já terem pensado ou tentado tirar a própria vida. Desta forma, conclui-se que policiais militares são expostos constantemente a traumas inerentes a sua profissão. Quando há ameaça de vida, como nos casos de ferimentos por arma de fogo, são suscetíveis a sequelas físicas decorrente do ferimento, somadas a sequelas mentais tardias, como o surgimento de sintomatologias de TEPT e ideação suicida.(AU)


This study aimed to identify the risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and its associations around suicidal thoughts or attempts and mental health in military police officers injured by firearms, in the Metropolitan Region of Belem (RMB), from 2017 to 2019. The research had the participation of 30 respondents who answered the Demographic Inventory and the PTSD checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5). For data analysis, we used the statistical technique Exploratory Data Analysis and the multivariate technique Correspondence Analysis. The results revealed the existence of risk of developing partial or total disorder in a significant portion of the interviewed population, with men as most of the symptomatic individuals, with mean age of 38 years, developing operational activities and victimized on public roads when they were off duty. The injuries left most of them with sequelae, especially chronic pain, limited locomotion and/or mobility, and partial loss of a limb. In addition, symptomatic officers showed suicidal behavior, such as reporting they had thought about or tried to take their own lives. Thus, we conclude that military policemen are constantly exposed to traumas inherent to their profession. When their lives are threatened, as in the case of firearm wounds, they are susceptible to physical sequelae resulting from the injury, in addition to late mental sequelae, such as the appearance of PTSD symptoms and suicidal ideation.(AU)


Este estudio tuvo como objetivo identificar el riesgo de desarrollo de trastorno de estrés postraumático (TEPT) y sus asociaciones con pensamientos o tentativas suicidas y la salud mental en policías militares heridos por armamiento de fuego, en la Región Metropolitana de Belém (Brasil), en el período entre 2017 y 2019. En el estudio participaron 30 entrevistados que respondieron el Inventario Demográfico y la Lista de verificación de TEPT para el DSM-5 (PCL-5). Para el análisis de datos se utilizaron la técnica estadística Análisis Exploratoria de Datos y la técnica multivariada Análisis de Correspondencia. Los resultados revelaron que existen riesgos de desarrollo de trastorno de estrés postraumático de forma parcial o total en una expresiva parcela de la población de policías entrevistados, cuya mayoría de sintomáticos eran hombres, de 38 años en media, que ejercen actividades operacionales y fueron victimados en vía pública cuándo estaban de día libre del servicio. La lesión dejó la mayoría con secuelas, especialmente con dolores crónicos, limitaciones de locomoción y/o movilidad y la pierda parcial de un miembro. Aún los policías sintomáticos presentaran comportamiento suicida, tales como relataran qué ya pensaron o tentaron quitar la propia vida. Se concluye que los policías militaran se exponen constantemente a los traumas inherentes a su profesión. Cuando existe amenaza de vida, como en los casos de heridas por armamiento de fuego, son expuestos a secuelas físicas transcurridas de la herida, sumado a secuelas mentales tardías, como el surgimiento de sintomatologías de TEPT y la ideación suicida.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Pain , Wounds and Injuries , Wounds, Gunshot , Psychic Symptoms , Risk , Psychological Distress , Anxiety , Anxiety Disorders , Phobic Disorders , Prisons , Psychology , Runaway Behavior , Safety , Attention , Sleep Wake Disorders , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Suicide , Suicide, Attempted , Therapeutics , Violence , Behavioral Symptoms , Work Hours , Burnout, Professional , Adaptation, Psychological , Catatonia , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , Occupational Health , Self-Injurious Behavior , Civil Defense , Civil Rights , Panic Disorder , Public Sector , Cognition , Efficiency, Organizational , Contusions , Crime Victims , Substance-Related Disorders , Wit and Humor , Crime , Emergency Watch , Civil Protection Program , Civil Protection , Legal Process , Death , Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , Aggression , Depression , Dizziness , Dreams , Alcoholism , Escape Reaction , Disease Prevention , Surveillance of the Workers Health , Surveillance of Working Environment , Mental Fatigue , Fear , Catastrophization , Medicalization , Hope , Mindfulness , Criminal Behavior , Trauma and Stressor Related Disorders , Psychological Trauma , Physical Abuse , Cortical Excitability , Work-Life Balance , Occupational Stress , Gun Violence , Disaster Risk Reduction , Kinesiophobia , Psychological Well-Being , Suicide Prevention , Accident Prevention , Guilt , Headache , Health Promotion , Homicide , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Job Satisfaction , Mental Disorders
3.
J. Phys. Educ. (Maringá) ; 34: e3417, 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440399

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This article aims to analyze the Brazilian academic publications on fights and Physical Education. We used content analysis through a state of knowledge, with 38 articles as corpus. As results we built four empirical analytical categories: 1) Space and sociocultural aspects: they point the lack of infrastructure and the scarcity of materials as restrictive factors for the approach of the fight contents in schools; 2) Technologies/media: that serve as auxiliary tools for the inclusion of fights in school Physical Education; 3) Physical Education curriculum: addresses issues related to content, culture, documents and teachers; and 4) Pedagogical practice: which involves more specific issues observed in the studies, such as methodologies involving the application of the content to classes, experiences, dimensions of the content, activities and implications about the themes discussed in the content, such as the association with violence, gender discrimination and sexuality. We conclude that the studies show that the approach of fights as content in schools is still incipient, being the insecurity of the teacher a preponderant factor so that fights are not inserted. Thus, studies indicate the need to create materials and methodologies that help teachers, thus enabling the use of content already consolidated in the literature.


RESUMO Este artigo tem como objetivo analisar as publicações acadêmicas brasileiras sobre lutas e Educação Física. Utilizou-se a análise de conteúdo por meio de revisão narrativa, com 38 artigos como corpus. Como resultado construímos quatro categorias analíticas empíricas: 1) Espaço e aspectos socioculturais: apontam a falta de infraestrutura e a escassez de materiais como fatores restritivos para a abordagem dos conteúdos de luta nas escolas; 2) Tecnologias/mídias: que servem como ferramentas de auxílio para a inclusão das lutas na Educação Física escolar; 3) Currículo de Educação Física: aborda questões relacionadas a conteúdo, cultura, documentos e professores e 4) Prática pedagógica: que envolve questões mais específicas observadas nos estudos, como metodologias que envolvem a aplicação do conteúdo às aulas, vivências, dimensões do conteúdo, atividades e implicações sobre os temas discutidos no conteúdo, como a associação com a violência, a discriminação de gênero e a sexualidade. Concluímos que os estudos mostram que a abordagem das lutas como conteúdo nas escolas ainda é incipiente, sendo a insegurança do professor fator preponderante para que as lutas não sejam inseridas. Dessa forma, estudos indicam a necessidade de criar materiais e metodologias que auxiliem os professores, possibilitando assim a utilização de conteúdos já consolidados na literatura.


Subject(s)
Physical Education and Training , Teaching , Escape Reaction , Technology , Violence , Curriculum , Faculty , Systematic Review
4.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e244243, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1431131

ABSTRACT

A Avaliação Terapêutica (AT) é um processo avaliativo e interventivo proposto para ser semiestruturado e colaborativo com o objetivo de promover mudanças positivas no cliente, que é convidado a ter uma participação ativa durante o processo. Na AT, os resultados dos testes psicológicos padronizados ganham destaque como facilitadores do processo de autoconhecimento do cliente. Desse modo, usualmente, integram-se os achados de testes psicológicos de autorrelato com os métodos projetivos para gerar informações que possam ampliar a visão que o cliente tem de si. Neste artigo, buscou-se compreender o potencial de uso dos testes psicológicos e da relação colaborativa a partir de um caso atendido na perspectiva da AT. A participante, Violeta (nome fictício), foi atendida em 10 sessões com duração entre 60 e 115 minutos. Foram utilizados os testes psicológicos Escala de Bem-Estar Psicológico (Ebep), Escala de Vulnerabilidade e Estresse no Trabalho (Event), Bateria Fatorial de Personalidade (BFP), Método de Rorschach e Inventários de Habilidades Sociais 2 (IHS-2). Observou-se que, durante o processo, Violeta ampliou sua autopercepção, o que possibilitou mudanças no modo de agir em seus relacionamentos amorosos e na reflexão sobre como sua postura era vista por si e por seus colegas de trabalho. Acredita-se que a AT cumpriu com o objetivo de estabelecer uma experiência terapêutica que possibilitasse mudanças positivas para a cliente. Este estudo de caso contribuiu para ampliar a compreensão sobre a importância e o uso dos testes psicológicos neste modelo de avaliação psicológica.(AU)


The Therapeutic Assessment (TA) is an evaluative and interventional process proposed to be semi-structured and collaborative with the objective of promoting positive changes in the client, who is invited to have an active participation during the process. At the TA, the results of standardized psychological tests are highlighted as facilitators of the client's self-knowledge process. In this way, the findings of psychological self-report tests are usually integrated with projective methods to generate information that can broaden the client's view of themselves. In this article, understanding the potential use of psychological tests and of the collaborative relationship from a case treated from the TA perspective was sought. The participant, Violet (fictitious name), was assisted in 10 sessions lasting between 60 and 115 minutes. The psychological tests Psychological Well-Being Scale (EBEP), Vulnerability and Stress at Work Scale (EVENT), Personality Factorial Battery (BFP), Rorschach Method and Social Skills Inventories 2 (IHS-2) were used. It was observed that, during the process, Violet increased her self-perception, which allowed changes in her way of acting in her love life and in her reflection on how her posture was seen by herself and herco-workers. It is believed that TA fulfilled the objective of establishing a therapeutic experience that would enable positive changes for the client. This case study contributed to broaden the understanding about the importance and use of psychological testing in this psychological assessment model.(AU)


La Evaluación Terapéutica (ET) es un proceso de evaluación e intervención que se propone ser semiestructurado y colaborativo, con el objetivo de lograr cambios positivos en el cliente, quien es invitado a tener participación activa durante el proceso. En la ET se destacan los resultados de las pruebas psicológicas estandarizadas como facilitadoras del proceso de autoconocimiento del cliente. Los hallazgos de las pruebas psicológicas de autoinforme suelen integrarse con métodos proyectivos para generar información que pueda ampliar la visión que el cliente tiene de sí mismo. En este artículo se buscó comprender el uso potencial de las pruebas psicológicas y de la relación colaborativa a partir de un estudio de caso tratado desde la perspectiva de la ET. Atendieron a la participante Violeta (nombre ficticio), en 10 sesiones que duraron entre 60 y 115 minutos. Se utilizaron las pruebas psicológicas Escala de Bienestar Psicológico (EBEP), Escala de Vulnerabilidad y Estrés en el Trabajo (EVENT), Batería de Factorial de la Personalidad (BFP), Método de Rorschach e Inventario de Habilidades Sociales 2 (IHS-dos). Se observó que, durante el proceso, Violeta amplió su autopercepción, lo que permitió cambios en la forma de actuar en sus relaciones amorosas y en el reflejo de como ella y sus compañeros de trabajo veían su postura. Así, se cree que ET ha cumplido el objetivo de establecer una experiencia terapéutica que permitió cambios positivos a la cliente. Este estudio contribuyó a ampliar la comprensión sobre la importancia y el uso de las pruebas psicológicas en este modelo de evaluación psicológica.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Therapeutics , Psychological Techniques , Psychological Distress , Anxiety Disorders , Projection , Psychoanalysis , Psychological Tests , Psychology , Psychotherapy , Rabies , Rorschach Test , Shame , Social Adjustment , Social Behavior , Social Environment , Social Identification , Social Isolation , Social Support , Socialization , Avoidance Learning , Sublimation, Psychological , Temperance , Thinking , Unconscious, Psychology , Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms , Behaviorism , Shyness , Adaptation, Psychological , Attitude , Mental Health , Efficacy , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Negotiating , Mental Competency , Codependency, Psychological , Communication , Neurobehavioral Manifestations , Counseling , Affect , Disaster Vulnerability , Personal Autonomy , Defense Mechanisms , Behavior Control , Harm Reduction , Researcher-Subject Relations , Trust , Stress Disorders, Traumatic , Aggression , Dependency, Psychological , Depression , Diagnosis , Emotions , Escape Reaction , Exercise Therapy , Extraversion, Psychological , Fantasy , Resilience, Psychological , Fear , Video-Audio Media , Self-Control , Psychological Trauma , Psychosocial Support Systems , Occupational Stress , Neuroticism , Free Association , Frustration , Sadness , Respect , Leadership and Governance Capacity , Betrayal , Patient Care , Psychosocial Functioning , Psychosocial Intervention , Social Interaction , Information Avoidance , Listening Effort , Gestalt Therapy , Psychological Well-Being , Helping Behavior , Human Development , Identification, Psychological , Identity Crisis , Individuation , Interpersonal Relations , Interview, Psychological , Introversion, Psychological , Leadership , Loneliness , Mental Disorders , Mental Processes , Motivation , Negativism , Neurotic Disorders
5.
In. Assis, Simone Gonçalves de; Silveira, Liane Maria Braga. O tema da violência no ensino em saúde coletiva: Articulações com pesquisa e extensão. Rio de Janeiro, E-papers, 2018. p.293-314.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-968755

ABSTRACT

O presente capítulo chama atenção para a ausência e um fórum voltado especificamente para a discussão de casos de crianças e adolescentes desaparecidos , o que reflete menos uma suposta desimportância atribuída á temática e mais as dificuldades de se encontrar uma definição consensual das responsabilidades por sua gestão. Mostra também outra inovação promovida pelo ECA: a determinação de que uma das linhas da política de atendimento á criança e ao adolescente no Brasil deve ser provisão de serviços "de identificação e localização de pais, responsável, crianças e adolescentes desaparecidos. " (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Family , Child Advocacy , Child, Abandoned , Crime , Escape Reaction
6.
Rev. psicanal ; 21(1): 125-140, abr. 2014.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-716771

ABSTRACT

Neste artigo, veremos duas questões. Por um lado, a partir de Freud, sintetizo a perspectiva psicossomática, que considera que todos os seres humanos constituem uma unidade psicofísica e que todo o processo físico tem seu correlato afetivo específico. Como exemplo, destaco a importância do DNA mitocondrial, herdado somente da mãe. A outra questão que desenvolvo é seu correlato psíquico. Para isso, diferentemente de Freud, considero que a verdadeira horda primitiva é a família consanguínea (todos com todos, inclusive a própria mãe), e que – na filogenia – depois de se estabelecer a primeira proibição do incesto, começou a luta fratricida (todos contra todos). Estas marcas filogenéticas ganham força através da experiência ontogenética universal: estado pré-natal em e com a mãe, vinculo denominado siamês. O representante pós-natal dessa poderosa díade é a criança indômita. Nós a expressamos quando aspiramos restabelecer aquela segurança original, quando empreendemos lutas fratricidas para recuperar um lugar em e com equivalentes maternos (cônjuge, filhos, netos, líderes empresariais, institucionais, partidos políticos, etc.). Proponho adicionar às fases de desenvolvimento evolutivo o complexo prévio: estado siamês em e com a mãe-criança indômita-luta fratricida. E interpretar sua transferência em todas as biografias.


In this work I refer to two issues. First, from Freud, I synthesize a psychosomatic perspective, which considers that all human beings constitute a psychophysical unity and that every physical process has its specific affective correlate. As an example I focus on the importance of mitochondrial DNA, inherited only from the mother. The other issue is its psychical correlate. For this, unlike Freud, I rescue that the true primitive horde was the consanguineous family (everybody with everybody, even with their own mother). Thus – in the phylogeny – after establishing the first prohibition of incest, fratricide struggle began (all against all). These phylogenetic footprints gain strength by universal ontogenetic experience: prenatal state in and with mom, relationship that I call siamese. The postnatal representative of this powerful dyad is the indomitable child. We express it when we wish to restore that original security, when we establish fraternal struggles to regain a place in and with maternal equivalents (partners, children, grandchildren, business and institutional leaders, political parties, etc.). I propose to add in evolutionary developmental stages to this prior complex: siamese state in and with mom-indomitable child-fratricidal struggle. And interpret their transfer in all biographies.


En este trabajo me refiero a dos cuestiones. Por un lado, a partir de Freud sintetizo la perspectiva psicosomática que considera que todos los seres humanos constituimos una unidad psicofísica y que todo proceso físico posee su específico correlato afectivo. Como ejemplo me centro en la importancia del ADN mitocondrial, heredado solo por vía materna. Así, la otra cuestión que desarrollo es su correlato psíquico. Para eso, a diferencia de Freud, rescato que la verdadera horda primitiva fue la familia consanguínea (todos con todos, incluso la propia madre), y que – en la filogenia – luego de establecer la primera prohibición del incesto, comenzó la lucha fratricida (todos contra todos). Estas huellas filogenéticas cobran fuerza por la experiencia ontogenética universal: el estado prenatal en y con mamá, vínculo que denomino siamés. El representante postnatal de esta poderosa díada lo denomino niño indómito. Lo expresamos cuando aspiramos a restablecer aquella originaria seguridad, cuando establecemos luchas fraternas para reconquistar un lugar en y con equivalentes maternos (pareja, hijos, nietos, líderes empresariales, institucionales, partidos políticos, etc.). Propongo agregar en las fases del desarrollo evolutivo el complejo previo: estado siamés em y con mamá-niño indómito-lucha fratricida. E interpretar su transferencia en todas las biografias.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Genes, Mitochondrial/genetics , Psychosomatic Medicine , Psychoanalysis , Family Relations/ethnology , Psychoanalysis/methods , Escape Reaction , Maternal-Fetal Relations/psychology
7.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 325-329, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-233460

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the effects of beta-amyloid (Aβ) and apolipoprotein E4(apoE4) on choline acetyl transferase (ChAT) in hippocampus and to explore possible the synergistic effect of both Aβ and apoE4.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control group, Aβ group, apoE4 group and Aβ + apoE4 group. Rats in different group received injection of normal saline, Aβ1-40, apoE4 and Aβ1-40 + apoE4, respectively, into bilateral hippocampus CA1 regions under the control of a brain stereotaxic apparatus. The learning-memory ability with the escape latency and the times of passing platform and the expression of ChAT in hippocampus CA1 regions were documented.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The escape latency at fifth day and the times of passing platform and ChAT mRNA PU values were obtained for the control group (10.75 s ± 2.44 s, 4.13 ± 0.64, and 28.90 ± 4.43), apoE4 group (23.88 s ± 4.32 s, 2.38 ± 0.52, and 20.85 ± 3.98), Aβ group (43.50 s ± 9.78 s, 1.38 ± 0.52, and 16.96 ± 2.53), and Aβ + apoE4 group (70.63 s ± 10.04 s, 0.75 ± 0.71, and 13.01 ± 2.21). Through 5 days of training all animals acquired learning-memory ability with the gradually shortened escape latency, although injection of Aβ1-40 and apoE4 all induced learning-memory damage, due to a significantly prolonged the escape latency at fifth day (P < 0.01) and markedly decreased the times of passing platform (P < 0.01) in both Aβ and apoE4 group than in control group. An interaction between Aβ and apoE4 also was observed, with further prolonged escape latency(P < 0.01). ChAT mRNA PU values were significantly lower in the Aβ group and apoE4 group than in the control group (P < 0.01). Aβ and apoE4 demonstrated interaction in lowering ChAT mRNA level(P < 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Both Aβ and apoE4 induce an injury to hippocampal cholinergic system and its learning-memory ability, in which Aβ and apoE4 have a synergistic effect in the initiation of such injury.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Alzheimer Disease , Amyloid beta-Peptides , Toxicity , Apolipoprotein E4 , Toxicity , CA1 Region, Hippocampal , Physiology , Choline O-Acetyltransferase , Genetics , Metabolism , Drug Synergism , Escape Reaction , Learning , Memory , RNA, Messenger , Metabolism , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar
8.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 45(11): 1025-1030, Nov. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-650579

ABSTRACT

The escape response to electrical or chemical stimulation of the dorsal periaqueductal gray matter (DPAG) has been associated with panic attacks. In order to explore the validity of the DPAG stimulation model for the study of panic disorder, we determined if the aversive consequences of the electrical or chemical stimulation of this midbrain area can be detected subsequently in the elevated T-maze. This animal model, derived from the elevated plus-maze, permits the measurement in the same rat of a generalized anxiety- and a panic-related defensive response, i.e., inhibitory avoidance and escape, respectively. Facilitation of inhibitory avoidance, suggesting an anxiogenic effect, was detected in male Wistar rats (200-220 g) tested in the elevated T-maze 30 min after DPAG electrical stimulation (current generated by a sine-wave stimulator, frequency at 60 Hz) or after local microinjection of the GABA A receptor antagonist bicuculline (5 pmol). Previous electrical (5, 15, 30 min, or 24 h before testing) or chemical stimulation of this midbrain area did not affect escape performance in the elevated T-maze or locomotion in an open-field. No change in the two behavioral tasks measured by the elevated T-maze was observed after repetitive (3 trials) electrical stimulation of the DPAG. The results indicate that activation of the DPAG caused a short-lived, but selective, increase in defensive behaviors associated with generalized anxiety.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Anxiety/physiopathology , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Escape Reaction/drug effects , Panic Disorder/physiopathology , Periaqueductal Gray/drug effects , Behavior, Animal/physiology , Bicuculline/pharmacology , Electrodes, Implanted , Escape Reaction/physiology , Maze Learning/drug effects , Maze Learning/physiology , Periaqueductal Gray/physiology , Rats, Wistar
9.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 45(4): 349-356, Apr. 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-622750

ABSTRACT

Electrical stimulation of midbrain tectum structures, particularly the dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG) and inferior colliculus (IC), produces defensive responses, such as freezing and escape behavior. Freezing also ensues after termination of dPAG stimulation (post-stimulation freezing). These defensive reaction responses are critically mediated by γ-aminobutyric acid and 5-hydroxytryptamine mechanisms in the midbrain tectum. Neurokinins (NKs) also play a role in the mediation of dPAG stimulation-evoked fear, but how NK receptors are involved in the global processing and expression of fear at the level of the midbrain tectum is yet unclear. The present study investigated the role of NK-1 receptors in unconditioned defensive behavior induced by electrical stimulation of the dPAG and IC of male Wistar rats. Spantide (100 pmol/0.2 μL), a selective NK-1 antagonist, injected into these midbrain structures had anti-aversive effects on defensive responses and distress ultrasonic vocalizations induced by stimulation of the dPAG but not of the IC. Moreover, intra-dPAG injections of spantide did not influence post-stimulation freezing or alter exploratory behavior in rats subjected to the elevated plus maze. These results suggest that NK-1 receptors are mainly involved in the mediation of defensive behavior organized in the dPAG. Dorsal periaqueductal gray-evoked post-stimulation freezing was not affected by intra-dPAG injections of spantide, suggesting that NK-1-mediated mechanisms are only involved in the output mechanisms of defensive behavior and not involved in the processing of ascending aversive information from the dPAG.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Anxiety/physiopathology , Escape Reaction/physiology , Fear/physiology , Inferior Colliculi/drug effects , Neurokinin A/pharmacology , Periaqueductal Gray/drug effects , Receptors, Neurokinin-1/antagonists & inhibitors , Substance P/analogs & derivatives , Avoidance Learning , Electric Stimulation , Inferior Colliculi/physiology , Periaqueductal Gray/physiology , Rats, Wistar , Substance P/pharmacology , Vocalization, Animal
10.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 45(4): 328-336, Apr. 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-622754

ABSTRACT

The hypothalamus is a forebrain structure critically involved in the organization of defensive responses to aversive stimuli. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic dysfunction in dorsomedial and posterior hypothalamic nuclei is implicated in the origin of panic-like defensive behavior, as well as in pain modulation. The present study was conducted to test the difference between these two hypothalamic nuclei regarding defensive and antinociceptive mechanisms. Thus, the GABA A antagonist bicuculline (40 ng/0.2 µL) or saline (0.9% NaCl) was microinjected into the dorsomedial or posterior hypothalamus in independent groups. Innate fear-induced responses characterized by defensive attention, defensive immobility and elaborate escape behavior were evoked by hypothalamic blockade of GABA A receptors. Fear-induced defensive behavior organized by the posterior hypothalamus was more intense than that organized by dorsomedial hypothalamic nuclei. Escape behavior elicited by GABA A receptor blockade in both the dorsomedial and posterior hypothalamus was followed by an increase in nociceptive threshold. Interestingly, there was no difference in the intensity or in the duration of fear-induced antinociception shown by each hypothalamic division presently investigated. The present study showed that GABAergic dysfunction in nuclei of both the dorsomedial and posterior hypothalamus elicit panic attack-like defensive responses followed by fear-induced antinociception, although the innate fear-induced behavior originates differently in the posterior hypothalamus in comparison to the activity of medial hypothalamic subdivisions.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Dorsomedial Hypothalamic Nucleus/physiology , Escape Reaction/physiology , Hypothalamus, Posterior/physiology , Panic Disorder/metabolism , Bicuculline/pharmacology , Dorsomedial Hypothalamic Nucleus/drug effects , GABA-A Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Hypothalamus, Posterior/drug effects , Maze Learning , Pain Threshold/drug effects , Panic Disorder/etiology
11.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 45(4): 357-365, Apr. 2012. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-622757

ABSTRACT

This paper presents an up-to-date review of the evidence indicating that atypical neurotransmitters such as nitric oxide (NO) and endocannabinoids (eCBs) play an important role in the regulation of aversive responses in the periaqueductal gray (PAG). Among the results supporting this role, several studies have shown that inhibitors of neuronal NO synthase or cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) receptor agonists cause clear anxiolytic responses when injected into this region. The nitrergic and eCB systems can regulate the activity of classical neurotransmitters such as glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) that control PAG activity. We propose that they exert a ‘fine-tuning’ regulatory control of defensive responses in this area. This control, however, is probably complex, which may explain the usually bell-shaped dose-response curves observed with drugs that act on NO- or CB1-mediated neurotransmission. Even if the mechanisms responsible for this complex interaction are still poorly understood, they are beginning to be recognized. For example, activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 channel (TRPV1) receptors by anandamide seems to counteract the anxiolytic effects induced by CB1 receptor activation caused by this compound. Further studies, however, are needed to identify other mechanisms responsible for this fine-tuning effect.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Rats , Anxiety/physiopathology , Escape Reaction/physiology , Neurotransmitter Agents/physiology , Periaqueductal Gray/physiology , Synaptic Transmission/physiology , Anxiety/metabolism , Arachidonic Acids/pharmacology , Cannabinoid Receptor Agonists/pharmacology , Endocannabinoids/pharmacology , Endocannabinoids/physiology , Nitric Oxide/physiology , Periaqueductal Gray/metabolism , Polyunsaturated Alkamides/pharmacology , TRPV Cation Channels/physiology
12.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 45(4): 292-298, Apr. 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-622759

ABSTRACT

The mammalian stress response is an integrated physiological and psychological reaction to real or perceived adversity. Glucocorticoids are an important component of this response, acting to redistribute energy resources to both optimize survival in the face of challenge and to restore homeostasis after the immediate challenge has subsided. Release of glucocorticoids is mediated by the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, driven by a neural signal originating in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Stress levels of glucocorticoids bind to glucocorticoid receptors in multiple body compartments, including the brain, and consequently have wide-reaching actions. For this reason, glucocorticoids serve a vital function in negative feedback inhibition of their own secretion. Negative feedback inhibition is mediated by a diverse collection of mechanisms, including fast, non-genomic feedback at the level of the PVN, stress-shut-off at the level of the limbic system, and attenuation of ascending excitatory input through destabilization of mRNAs encoding neuropeptide drivers of the HPA axis. In addition, there is evidence that glucocorticoids participate in stress activation via feed-forward mechanisms at the level of the amygdala. Feedback deficits are associated with numerous disease states, underscoring the necessity for adequate control of glucocorticoid homeostasis. Thus, rather than having a single, defined feedback ‘switch’, control of the stress response requires a wide-reaching feedback ‘network’ that coordinates HPA activity to suit the overall needs of multiple body systems.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Rats , Feedback, Physiological/physiology , Glucocorticoids/physiology , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/metabolism , Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus/metabolism , Pituitary-Adrenal System/metabolism , Stress, Physiological/physiology , Escape Reaction/physiology , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/physiology , Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus/physiology , Pituitary-Adrenal System/physiology
13.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 44(10): 1048-1053, Oct. 2011. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-600686

ABSTRACT

It is known that chronic high levels of corticosterone (CORT) enhance aversive responses such as avoidance and contextual freezing. In contrast, chronic CORT does not alter defensive behavior induced by the exposure to a predator odor. Since different defense-related responses have been associated with specific anxiety disorders found in clinical settings, the observation that chronic CORT alters some defensive behaviors but not others might be relevant to the understanding of the neurobiology of anxiety. In the present study, we investigated the effects of chronic CORT administration (through surgical implantation of a 21-day release 200 mg pellet) on avoidance acquisition and escape expression by male Wistar rats (200 g in weight at the beginning of the experiments, N = 6-10/group) tested in the elevated T-maze (ETM). These defensive behaviors have been associated with generalized anxiety and panic disorder, respectively. Since the tricyclic antidepressant imipramine is successfully used to treat both conditions, the effects of combined treatment with chronic imipramine (15 mg, ip) and CORT were also investigated. Results showed that chronic CORT facilitated avoidance performance, an anxiogenic-like effect (P < 0.05), without changing escape responses. Imipramine significantly reversed the anxiogenic effect of CORT (P < 0.05), although the drug did not exhibit anxiolytic effects by itself. Confirming previous observations, imipramine inhibited escape responses, a panicolytic-like effect. Unlike chronic CORT, imipramine also decreased locomotor activity in an open field. These data suggest that chronic CORT specifically altered ETM avoidance, a fact that should be relevant to a better understanding of the physiopathology of generalized anxiety and panic disorder.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic/administration & dosage , Anxiety/drug therapy , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Corticosterone/administration & dosage , Imipramine/administration & dosage , Panic Disorder/drug therapy , Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic/pharmacology , Corticosterone/pharmacology , Escape Reaction/drug effects , Imipramine/pharmacology , Maze Learning/drug effects , Motor Activity/drug effects , Rats, Wistar
14.
Rev. biol. trop ; 58(4): 1199-1209, dic. 2010. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-637994

ABSTRACT

Escape by Anolis lizards is influenced by microhabitats and fight initiation distance increases with predation risk. Differences in microhabitat use among ecomorphs affect escape behavior, but only two studies have reported ecomorphological differences in flight initiation distance among Greater Antillean species. I studied effects of predation risk and microhabitats on escape behavior by conducting field experiments using two species of anoles, Anolis lineatopus and A. grahami, on the campus of the University of the West Indies at Mona, Jamaica. Because ecomorphological variation of anoles has evolved independently within each island of the Greater Antilles, but relationships between ecomorphs and escape behaviors are poorly known, I characterized microhabitat use and escape tactics, and determined relationships between flight initiation distance and two risk factors, habituation to human presence and perch height, in Anolis lineatopus, a trunk-ground anole and A. grahami, a trunk-crown anole. Sample sizes for A. lineatopus and A. grahami were 214 and 93, for microhabitat use and escape destinations, 74 and 34 for human presence and 125 and 34 for perch height. The two species occurred in similar microhabitats and exhibited similar escape tactics, but exhibited key differences expected for their ecomorphs. Both species were sighted frequently on the ground and on trees, but A. lineatopus were more frequently on ground and were perched lower than A. grahami. Both species escaped from ground to trees and when on trees hid on far sides and escaped without changing climbing direction with equal frequency. The frequency of fleeing upward was greater for A. grahami than A. lineatopus. Both species exhibited habituation by having shorter flight initiation distances in areas with more frequent exposure to people. In both species flight initiation distance increased as perch height decreased because, lizards had to climb farther to be out of reach when perched lower. The relationship between flight initiation distance and perch height may apply to other anole ecomorphs that flee upward when low perched on trees. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (4): 1199-1209. Epub 2010 December 01.


El escape de las largarijas Anolis está influenciado por el microhábitat y la distancia de iniciación de escape incrementa el riesgo de depredación. Las diferencias en el uso de microhábitats entre ecomorfos afecta el comportamiento de escape, pero sólo dos estudios han reportado diferencias ecomorfológicas en la distancia de iniciación de escape entre las especies de las Antillas Mayores. Se estudió el efecto de riesgo de depredación y la influencia del microhábitat en el comportamiento de escape, mediante la realización de experimentos de campo con Anolis lineatopus y A. grahami, en el campus de la Universidad West Indies en Mona, Jamaica. Debido a que las variaciones ecomorfológicas de Anolis han evolucionado independientemente en cada isla de las Antillas Mayores, la relación entre ecomorfos y el comportamiento de escape son pobremente conocidos. Se caracteriza el uso del microhábitat y las tácticas de escape, se determinan las relaciones entre la distancia de iniciación de escape y los dos factores de riesgo (habituación a presencia humana y altura a la que se posan) de Anolis lineatopus, una lagartija que habita en troncos-tierra y A. grahami, una lagartija de troncos-partes más altas. Los tamaños de muestra para A. lineatopus y A. grahami fueron: 214 y 93, para uso del microhábitat y destinos de escape 74, para presencia humana 34 y para perchas altas 125 y 34. Las dos especies se presentan en microhábitats similares y mostraron tácticas de escape parecidas, pero exhibieron diferencias claves esperadas para sus ecomorfos. Ambas especies fueron vistas con frecuencia en el suelo y en los árboles, pero A. lineatopus fue encontrada más frecuentemente en el suelo y debajo de A. grahami. Ambas especies escaparon del suelo a esconderse en los árboles y huían con igual frecuencia sin cambiar de dirección. La frecuencia de huir hacia arriba fue mayor para A grahami. Ambas especies mostraron habituación al tener distancias más cortas de iniciación de escape en zonas con exposición frecuente a la gente y la distancia de iniciación de escape incrementa cuando la altura de la percha disminuye, porque las lagartijas tienden a subir más al estar fuera de nuestro alcance cuando se posan en la parte baja. La relación entre la distancia de iniciación de escape y altura de la percha puede aplicar a otros ecomorfos de Anolis que huyen hacia arriba cuando están posados en las partes bajas de los árboles.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Ecosystem , Escape Reaction/physiology , Lizards/physiology , Jamaica , Predatory Behavior , Species Specificity
15.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 43(9): 869-873, Sept. 2010. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-556857

ABSTRACT

The medial hypothalamus is part of a neurobiological substrate controlling defensive behavior. It has been shown that a hypothalamic nucleus, the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH), is involved in the regulation of escape, a defensive behavior related to panic attacks. The role played by the DMH in the organization of conditioned fear responses, however, is less clear. In the present study, we investigated the effects of reversible inactivation of the DMH with the GABA A agonist muscimol on inhibitory avoidance acquisition and escape expression by male Wistar rats (approximately 280 g in weight) tested in the elevated T-maze (ETM). In the ETM, inhibitory avoidance, a conditioned defensive response, has been associated with generalized anxiety disorder. Results showed that intra-DMH administration of the GABA A receptor agonist muscimol inhibited escape performance, suggesting an antipanic-like effect (P < 0.05), without changing inhibitory avoidance acquisition. Although a higher dose of muscimol (1.0 nmol/0.2 µL; N = 7) also altered locomotor activity in an open field when compared to control animals (0.2 µL saline; N = 13) (P < 0.05), the lower dose (0.5 nmol/0.2 µL; N = 12) of muscimol did not cause any motor impairment. These data corroborate previous evidence suggesting that the DMH is specifically involved in the modulation of escape. Dysfunction of this regulatory mechanism may be relevant in the genesis/maintenance of panic disorder.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Anxiety Disorders/physiopathology , GABA-A Receptor Agonists/pharmacology , Hypothalamus/drug effects , Muscimol/pharmacology , Panic Disorder/etiology , Panic Disorder/physiopathology , Anxiety Disorders/etiology , Escape Reaction/drug effects , Hypothalamus/physiopathology , Maze Learning/drug effects , Motor Activity/drug effects , Rats, Wistar
16.
Clinics ; 65(8): 803-807, June 2010. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-557008

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of L-arginine on the learning and memory of estradiol-treated ovariectomized (OVX) rats. METHODS: Forty-eight rats were divided into six groups: (1) sham, (2) OVX, (3) sham-Est, (4) OVX-Est, (5) sham-Est-LA, and (6) OVX-Est-LA. The animals of the sham-Est and OVX-Est groups were treated by weekly injection of estradiol valerate (2mg/kg). The sham-Est-LA and OVX-Est-LA groups were treated in the same manner but with an additional daily injection of L-arginine (200mg/kg). After eight weeks, animals of all groups were tested in the Morris water maze. The escape latency and path traveled to reach the platform were compared between groups. RESULTS: Time latency and path length in the OVX group were significantly higher than in the sham group (P<0.05). The OVX-Est group had a significantly shorter traveled path length and time latency compared to the OVX group (P<0.001). Time latency and path length in the sham-Est group was significantly higher than in the sham group (P<0.001). Time latency and path length in the OVX-Est-LA group were significantly higher than in the OVX-Est group. CONCLUSIONS: These results allow us to propose that chronic treatment with estradiol enhances the spatial learning and memory of OVX rats, and that long term L-arginine treatment attenuates the effects of improvement produced by estradiol in OVX rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Arginine/administration & dosage , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Estradiol/administration & dosage , Estrogens/administration & dosage , Maze Learning/drug effects , Memory/drug effects , Escape Reaction , Ovariectomy , Rats, Wistar , Reaction Time
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-109517

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: A plunging ranula is relatively uncommon and represents a mucus escape reaction occurring from a disruption of the sublingual salivary gland. It is a common condition found in young adults, even though the reported age range is 2 - 61 years. We report our experience of a complete excision of a plunging ranula via the intraoral and submandibular approach. METHODS: A 23-year-old man had a large protruding mass in the right submandibular area. Initially, the protruding mass appeared bilaterally but the left side disappeared spontaneously. The MRI findings revealed a homogenous fluid attenuation mass in the submandibular space, suggesting a ranula. The sublingual gland was extirpated through the intraoral approach and the ranula excised totally via the submandibular approach. RESULTS: The patient had an uneventful postoperative course without infection, paralysis and tongue sensory changes, etc. The pathology findings were characteristic of a pseudocyst without a lining epithelium or endothelium but with a vascular fibro-conective tissue wall filled with mucinous fluid. No recurrence was observed on the submandibular area during the 8 month follow-up period. CONCLUSION: The combined intraoral approach and submandibular approach is an effective and highly recommended method for sublingual gland extirpation and complete excision of a plunging ranula.


Subject(s)
Humans , Young Adult , Endothelium , Epithelium , Escape Reaction , Follow-Up Studies , Mucins , Mucus , Paralysis , Ranula , Recurrence , Salivary Glands , Sublingual Gland , Tongue
18.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 41(4): 324-332, Apr. 2008. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-479680

ABSTRACT

A former study with scenarios conducted in Hawaii has suggested that humans share with non-human mammals the same basic defensive strategies - risk assessment, freezing, defensive threat, defensive attack, and flight. The selection of the most adaptive strategy is strongly influenced by features of the threat stimulus - magnitude, escapability, distance, ambiguity, and availability of a hiding place. Aiming at verifying if these strategies would be consistent in a different culture, 12 defensive scenarios were translated into Portuguese and adapted to the Brazilian culture. The sample consisted of male and female undergraduate students divided into two groups: 76 students, who evaluated the five dimensions of each scenario and 248 medical students, who chose the most likely response for each scenario. In agreement with the findings from studies of non-human mammal species, the scenarios were able to elicit different defensive behavioral responses, depending on features of the threat. "Flight" was chosen as the most likely response in scenarios evaluated as an unambiguous and intense threat, but with an available route of escape, whereas "attack" was chosen in an unambiguous, intense and close dangerous situation without an escape route. Less urgent behaviors, such as "check out", were chosen in scenarios evaluated as less intense, more distant and more ambiguous. Moreover, the results from the Brazilian sample were similar to the results obtained in the original study with Hawaiian students. These data suggest that a basic repertoire of defensive strategies is conserved along the mammalian evolution because they share similar functional benefits in maintaining fitness.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Anxiety/psychology , Biological Evolution , Defense Mechanisms , Fear/psychology , Students/psychology , Aggression , Analysis of Variance , Brazil , Escape Reaction/physiology , Hawaii , Immobility Response, Tonic/physiology , Risk Assessment , Surveys and Questionnaires , Translating , Urban Population
19.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 41(1): 54-59, Jan. 2008. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-469972

ABSTRACT

The learned helplessness (LH) paradigm is characterized by learning deficits resulting from inescapable events. The aims of the present study were to determine if protein-calorie malnutrition (PCM) alters learning deficits induced by LH and if the neurochemical changes induced by malnutrition alter the reactivity to treatment with GABA-ergic and serotonergic drugs during LH. Well-nourished (W) and PCM Wistar rats (61 days old) were exposed or not to inescapable shocks (IS) and treated with gepirone (GEP, 0.0-7.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally, N = 128) or chlordiazepoxide (0.0-7.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally, N = 128) 72 h later, 30 min before the test session (30 trials of escape learning). The results showed that rats exposed to IS had higher escape latency than non-exposed rats (12.6 ± 2.2 vs 4.4 ± 0.8 s) and that malnutrition increased learning impairment produced by LH. GEP increased the escape latency of W animals exposed or non-exposed to IS, but did not affect the response of PCM animals, while chlordiazepoxide reduced the escape deficit of both W and PCM rats. The data suggest that PCM animals were more sensitive to the impairment produced by LH and that PCM led to neurochemical changes in the serotonergic system, resulting in hyporeactivity to the anxiogenic effects of GEP in the LH paradigm.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Avoidance Learning/drug effects , GABA Modulators/pharmacology , Helplessness, Learned , Protein-Energy Malnutrition/drug therapy , Pyrimidines/pharmacology , Serotonin Receptor Agonists/pharmacology , Analysis of Variance , Body Weight , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Behavior, Animal/physiology , Chlordiazepoxide/pharmacology , Chlordiazepoxide/therapeutic use , Disease Models, Animal , Escape Reaction/drug effects , Escape Reaction/physiology , GABA Modulators/therapeutic use , Learning Disabilities/etiology , Protein-Energy Malnutrition/physiopathology , Protein-Energy Malnutrition/psychology , Pyrimidines/therapeutic use , Rats, Wistar , Serotonin Receptor Agonists/therapeutic use
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-343983

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To observe the effect of Jiannao Yizhi Decoction (JNYZD) on learning and memory in rats with similar Alzheimer's disease (AD), and to investigate its possible mechanism.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The composite AD rat model was established by injecting aggregated Abeta25-35 into the lateral cerebral ventricle of senile rats, and all the modeled rats were divided into 5 groups, the model group, the Donepezil group, the high-, middle-, and low-dose JNYZD group. All rats, except those in the model group, were treated respectively with Donepezil and JNYZD at the daily dose of 0.525 mg/kg, 42.4 g/kg, 21.2 g/kg, 10.6 g/kg for 21 days. The ability of learning and memory of rats in different groups was tested using Morris water maze, and the activity of acetylcholine esterase (AchE) and butyrocholin esterase (BehE) in serum were determined, too.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The escape latent period was shorter in all medicated group than in the model group (P<0.01 or P<0.05), and it was insignificantly different among all medicated groups (P>0.05). A decreasing trend of AchE and BchE activity presented in the high- and middle-dose JNYZD groups, but insignificant difference was shown as compared these indexes respectively with those in the Donepezil group. Furthermore, the improvement of learning and memory in similar AD rats was insignificantly different between the Donepezil group and the JNYZD groups (P>0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>JNYZD can improve the learning and memory ability of similar AD rats by influencing the activity of cholinesterase.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Acetylcholinesterase , Blood , Alzheimer Disease , Blood , Butyrylcholinesterase , Blood , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Escape Reaction , Learning , Maze Learning , Memory , Rats, Wistar
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