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Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(2): 191-201, Mar.-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364978


Abstract Background Physical Fitness Tests (PFTs) are part of military routines and are usually administered to applicants for the Brazilian corps member, including the civil police. Objective To identify in the literature, scientific articles aimed at assessing physical fitness of police and military personnel in Brazil, using PFTs. Methods This was a systematic review, using the PRISMA systematization, using the following search keywords "police", "military", "physical fitness test" and " PFT", in English and Portuguese. The databases used were ScienceDirect, PubMed, BVS (Lilacs) and Scielo. Only original works performed with police and military personnel in Brazil were selected, through the application of inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results After the screening process, 11 articles were selected from a total of 1,487. Conclusions The data collected from the selected articles suggest that older age is related to a decrease in physical fitness, and better performance in the tests is related to a lower risk of comorbidities. Although high-intensity training improves physical fitness and anthropometric data, it is associated with injury rates; physically active lifestyle is associated with better flexibility.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Physical Fitness , Police , Exercise Test/methods , Military Personnel , Body Weights and Measures , Brazil , Exercise , Comorbidity , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Military Health , Life Style
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 471-479, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935172


Objective: To investigate the postoperative cardiopulmonary fitness of children with congenital heart diseases (CHD). Methods: This is a retrospective study. A total of 136 children after cardiac correction undergoing cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) in Shanghai Children's Medical Center from March 1 to June 30, 2021 were selected. According to the surgical procedure, the children were divided into two groups: the biventricular correction group (BV group) (n=75) and single ventricular correction group (SV group) (n=61). The BV group was divided into two subgroups: simple congenital heart disease (S-CHD) group (n=35) and complex congenital heart disease (C-CHD) group (n=40). CPET parameters, including VO2 max, VO2/kg max, VO2/kg@AT, O2/HR max, HRR, PetCO2 max, CI, HRR at 1 min, VE/VCO2 slope, OUES/kg and EOV, were analyzed. CPET parameters of patients underwent different procedure were compared. In the subgroup analysis, CPET parameters of patients in S-CHD group and C-CHD group were compared. The parameters of the BV group were compared with the normal value. Linear correlation analysis was used to identify the correlation between the CPET parameters. Results: A total of 136 children with CHD after surgery were enrolled. The age was (9.4±3.1) (ranged 6.2-16.0) years, and there was 84 (61.8%) male. All the children completed CPET examination safely without experiencing serious circulation abnormalities. Compared with the SV group, the VO2/kg max ((32.6±6.9) ml·kg-1·min-1 vs. (23.5±5.9) ml·kg-1·min-1, P<0.001), O2/HR max ((7.24±2.93) ml/beat vs. (6.35±2.17)ml/beat, P=0.030), HRR at 1 min ((32.5±13.9) beat/min vs. (26.3±12.5) beat/min, P=0.036), OUES/kg (36.9±8.8 vs. 29.7±11.8, P=0.001) were significantly higher, VE/VCO2 slope (29.1±5.20 vs. 35.1±8.0, P<0.001) and incidence of EOV (32.0%(24/75) vs. 57.4%(31/61), P=0.027) were significantly lower in BV group. Compared with the simple CHD subgroup, VE/VCO2 slope and the incidence of EOV were higher, VO2/kg max, O2/HR max, HRR at 1 min and OUES/kg were lower in the complex CHD subgroup (all P<0.05). Cardiopulmonary function parameters of the BV group were lower than the normal value. Linear correlation analysis showed that VO2/kg@AT was strongly correlated with VO2/kg max (r=0.86, P<0.001), VO2/kg max was strongly correlated with OUES/kg (r=0.63, P<0.001), HRR was strongly correlated with CI (r=0.91, P<0.001), and VO2/kg max was strongly correlated with OUES/kg (r=0.63, P<0.001). VE/VCO2 slope was strongly correlated with PetCO2 max (r=1.00, P<0.001). Conclusions: The exercise cardiopulmonary function of children after single ventricular correction is weaker than that of biventricular correction, and the exercise tolerance of children after biventricular correction is lower than that of normal children. Among the children after biventricular correction, the exercise tolerance of children with complex CHD is lower than that of children with simple CHD. Postoperative CPET is of important realistic significance for CHD children.

Adolescent , Child , China , Exercise Test/methods , Female , Heart Defects, Congenital/surgery , Humans , Male , Oxygen Consumption , Retrospective Studies
In. Soeiro, Alexandre de Matos; Leal, Tatiana de Carvalho Andreucci Torres; Accorsi, Tarso Augusto Duenhas; Gualandro, Danielle Menosi; Oliveira Junior, Múcio Tavares de; Caramelli, Bruno; Kalil Filho, Roberto. Manual da residência em cardiologia / Manual residence in cardiology. Santana de Parnaíba, Manole, 2 ed; 2022. p.966-973, ilus, tab.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353818
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(5): 504-508, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288621


ABSTRACT Introduction: When athletes are performing sports training, many movements are of high intensity, and that training is repetitive, resulting in wear and tear on some injured parts. Objective: Sports athletes can damage parts of the body in high - intensity exercise. During the processing, it is necessary to identify and analyze the damaged parts in the image. However, the current relevant methods have low accuracy and different problems of efficiency and quality. Methods: In this paper, a Fish Swarm Algorithm is proposed to identify high-intensity motion damage images. According to the combination of adaptive threshold and mathematical morphology, the contour of the damaged part of the image is extracted. Results: The above-mentioned method can improve the accuracy of identifying damaged parts of sports injury images, shorten the recognition time, and has certain feasibility in determining sports injury parts. Conclusions: This method can be widely used in high-intensity sports injuries. Level of evidence II; Therapeuticstudies - investigation of treatment results.

RESUMO Introdução: Quando os atletas estão realizando treinamento esportivo, muitos movimentos são de alta intensidade, e esse treinamento é repetitivo, resultando em desgaste de algumas partes lesionadas. Objetivo: Os atletas podem danificar partes do corpo em exercícios de alta intensidade. Durante o processamento, é necessário identificar e analisar as partes danificadas da imagem. No entanto, os métodos atuais relevantes têm baixa precisão e problemas de eficiência e qualidade diferentes. Métodos: Neste artigo, um algoritmo Fish Swarm é proposto para identificar imagens danificadas por movimento de alta intensidade. Com base na combinação de limiar adaptativo e morfologia matemática, o contorno da parte danificada da imagem é extraído. Resultados: O método acima mencionado pode melhorar a precisão da identificação das partes danificadas das imagens de lesões esportivas, encurtar o tempo de reconhecimento e tem alguma viabilidade para determinar as partes das lesões esportivas. Conclusões: este método pode ser amplamente utilizado em lesões esportivas de alta intensidade. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos- investigação dos resultados do tratamento.

RESUMEN Introducción: Cuando los deportistas realizan entrenamientos deportivos, muchos movimientos son de alta intensidad, y ese entrenamiento es repetitivo, lo que genera desgaste en algunas partes lesionadas. Objetivo: Los deportistas pueden dañar partes del cuerpo en el ejercicio de alta intensidad. Durante el procesamiento, es necesario identificar y analizar las partes dañadas en la imagen. Sin embargo, los métodos relevantes actuales tienen baja precisión y diferentes problemas de eficiencia y calidad. Métodos: En este artículo, se propone un algoritmo Fish Swarm para identificar imágenes de daño por movimiento de alta intensidad. Según la combinación de umbral adaptativo y morfología matemática, se extrae el contorno de la parte dañada de la imagen. Resultados: el método mencionado anteriormente puede mejorar la precisión de la identificación de las partes dañadas de las imágenes de lesiones deportivas, acortar el tiempo de reconocimiento y tiene cierta viabilidad para determinar las partes de las lesiones deportivas. Conclusiones: este método puede ser ampliamente utilizado en lesiones deportivas de alta intensidad. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos- investigación de los resultados del tratamiento.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Exercise/physiology , Simulation Exercise/methods , Exercise Test/methods , Altitude , Heart Rate/physiology , Respiratory Function Tests , Models, Theoretical
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(2): 207-211, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280070


ABSTRACT Introduction: Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) has been described in the literature as a resource capable of improving physical performance. Objective: The purpose of this randomized double-blind study was to evaluate the influence of IPC on the neuromuscular performance of trained individuals. Methods: Twenty-four (24) resistance training participants (6 of them women) with a mean age of 25.8 ± 4.6 years were selected and divided into two groups: the upper limb group (ULG) composed of 12 individuals (4 women) and the lower limb group (LLG) composed of 12 individuals (2 women). The maximum repetitions test was applied in the bench press for the ULG and in the 45° leg press for the LLG, with 50% of the one-repetition maximum under control, placebo and IPC conditions, at a random interval of 72 hours between tests. The IPC was applied four hours before the tests by means of an analog sphygmomanometer cuff inflated to 220 mmHg on the arm for the ULG and on the thigh for LLG, with three cycles of five minutes each of ischemia and reperfusion, alternating between the right and left sides. For the placebo, the cuff was inflated to 40 mmHg without causing ischemia. The significance level for the Wilcoxon test was p <0.017, due to the Bonferroni correction. The effect size (ES) was also analyzed. Results: With IPC, the ULG performed 34.8 ± 4.8 repetitions, representing an improvement of 11.29% (IPC vs. control, ES = 0.68 and p = 0.002) and the LLG performed 40.5 ± 15.7 repetitions, representing an improvement of 37.47% (IPC vs. control, ES = 0.84 and p = 0.002). No significant improvements were observed for the placebo in either group. Conclusion: Our data showed that IPC positively influenced neuromuscular performance of both the upper and lower limbs. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies investigating the results of treatment (Prospectived comparative studye).

RESUMEN Introducción: El preacondicionamiento isquémico (PCI) ha sido descrito en la literatura como un recurso capaz de mejorar el desempeño físico. Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio aleatorio doble ciego fue evaluar la influencia del PCI en el desempeño neuromuscular de individuos entrenados. Métodos: Fueron seleccionados 24 individuos (6 mujeres) con promedio de edad de 25,8 ± 4,6 años, practicantes de entrenamiento resistido, divididos en dos grupos, siendo un grupo de miembros superiores (GMS) compuesto por 12 individuos (4 mujeres) y grupo de miembros inferiores (GMI) compuesto por 12 individuos (2 mujeres). El test de repeticiones máximas fue aplicado en el ejercicio de supino para el GMS y en el leg press 45° para el GMI con 50% de una repetición máxima, en las condiciones de control, placebo y PCI, de forma aleatoria con intervalo de 72 horas entre los tests. El PCI fue aplicado cuatro horas antes de los tests mediante un manguito de esfigmomanómetro analógico inflado a 220 mmHg en el brazo para el GMS y en el muslo para el GMI, siendo tres ciclos de cinco minutos de isquemia y cinco minutos de reperfusión, alternando los lados derecho e izquierdo. Para el placebo, el manguito quedó en 40 mmHg, sin provocar isquemia. El nivel de significancia del test de Wilcoxon fue p <0,017, debido a la corrección de Bonferroni. El tamaño del efecto (TE) también fue analizado. Resultados: Con el PCI, el GMS realizó 34,8 ± 4,8 repeticiones, representando mejora de 11,29% (PCI vs control, TE = 0,68 y p = 0,002) y el GMI realizó 40,5 ± 15,7 repeticiones, representando mejora de 37,47% (PCI vs control, TE = 0,84 y p = 0,002). Con el placebo, ambos grupos no mostraron mejora. Conclusión: Nuestros datos mostraron que el PCI influenció positivamente el desempeño neuromuscular tanto de miembros superiores como inferiores. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos: investigación de los resultados del tratamiento (estudio comparativo prospectivo).

RESUMO Introdução: O pré-condicionamento isquêmico (PCI) tem sido descrito na literatura como um recurso capaz de melhorar o desempenho físico. Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo randomizado duplo cego foi avaliar a influência do PCI no desempenho neuromuscular de indivíduos treinados. Métodos: Foram selecionados 24 indivíduos (6 mulheres) com média de idade de 25,8 ± 4,6 anos, praticantes de treinamento resistido, divididos em dois grupos, sendo um grupo de membros superiores (GMS), composto por 12 indivíduos (4 mulheres) e grupo de membros inferiores (GMI), composto por 12 indivíduos (2 mulheres). O teste de repetições máximas foi aplicado no exercício de supino para o GMS e no leg press 45° para o GMI com 50% de uma repetição máxima, nas condições de controle, placebo e PCI, de forma aleatória com intervalo de 72 horas entre os testes. O PCI foi aplicado quatro horas antes dos testes por meio de um manguito de esfigmomanômetro analógico inflado a 220 mmHg no braço para o GMS e na coxa para o GMI, sendo três ciclos de cinco minutos de isquemia e cinco minutos de reperfusão, alternando os lados direito e esquerdo. Para o placebo, o manguito ficou em 40 mmHg, sem provocar isquemia. O nível de significância do teste de Wilcoxon foi de p < 0,017, devido à correção de Bonferroni. O tamanho do efeito (TE) também foi analisado. Resultados: Com o PCI, o GMS realizou 34,8 ± 4,8 repetições, representando melhora de 11,29% (PCI vs. controle, TE = 0,68 e p = 0,002) e o GMI realizou 40,5 ± 15,7 repetições, representando melhora de 37,47% (PCI vs. controle, TE = 0,84 e p = 0,002). Com o placebo, ambos os grupos não apresentaram melhora. Conclusão: Nossos dados mostraram que o PCI influenciou positivamente o desempenho neuromuscular tanto de membros superiores quanto inferiores. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos-Investigação dos resultados do tratamento (Estudo prospectivo comparativo).

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Ischemic Preconditioning , Muscle Strength/physiology , Athletic Performance/physiology , Endurance Training/methods , Muscles/blood supply , Tensile Strength , Double-Blind Method , Exercise Test/methods
Motriz (Online) ; 27: e10210020520, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1180847


Abstract Aim: This study aimed to compare the performance, metabolic, hemodynamic, and perceived exertion during the 6-minute step test (6MST) conducted with different step heights in healthy subjects and also to compare the performance between different age groups for each step height. The association between age, body mass index, level of physical activity, and lower limb measurements with performance were also evaluated. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. Anthropometric measures, physical performance, and cardiovascular stress were evaluated during a self-paced 6MST with different step heights in healthy subjects in the age group of 18-59. All the participants underwent three-step tests (15 cm, 20 cm, and 30 cm) on the same day, in a randomized order. Results: Forty participants (20 men and 20 women) performed the tests. The performance in the test for the highest step was significantly lower compared to the step with the lowest height (152 ± 24 vs. 173 ± 27 and 184 ± 33; p < 0,05). The estimated peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) increased by ∼2.5−1·min−1 with the increase in step height. Hemodynamic variables, such as percent of maximum heart rate (%HRmáx), and systolic blood pressure increased as the step height increased. There was a fair correlation between performance and the level of physical activity in the test with a step height of 15 cm and 20 cm. Conclusion: A higher step height caused greater cardiovascular stress, without exceeding the submaximal levels of the test, indicating that the 6MST can be used as an accurate instrument for evaluating aerobic capacity in healthy individuals.

Humans , Exercise Test/methods , Walk Test/methods , Anthropometry/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies/instrumentation , Physical Functional Performance
Motriz (Online) ; 27: e10210017320, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287362


Abstract Aim: The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of considering single/ combined and raw/ standardized measures from the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder (KTK) and Fitnessgram tests on the relation between GMC and HRPF in four age-groups. Method: Participated five-hundred thirty-one children and adolescents (279 boys). The individuals were divided into four groups: 4 to 7, 7 to 9.5, 9.5 to 12, 12 to 15 years of age. We utilized the KTK and Fitnessgram tests to measure, respectively, GMC and HRPF. Bootstrap correlations and χ2 tests were performed for all individuals, and each group controlling for sex. Results: For the raw scores, correlations were around (absolute) r = 0.37, except body composition, with large decreases when controlling for age and sex. For standardized tests, considering either the GMC quotient or GMC categories, correlations were all significant (around r = 0.34). Finally, considering broad categories (apt/non-apt and coordinated/non-coordinated), the association was 0.16. Conclusions: We found clear influences of the measure utilized on the association between GMC and HRPF measures.

Humans , Child , Adolescent , Exercise/physiology , Motor Activity/physiology , Motor Skills/physiology , Exercise Test/methods
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 39: e2019322, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136759


ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate factors associated with the performance of children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis (CF) in the Modified Shuttle Test (MST) and compare it with healthy children and adolescents. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study, with children and adolescents divided into two groups: cystic fibrosis (CFG) and control (CG). Variables evaluated in the MST: walking distance, test level, heart rate variation (∆Hr), post-test mean arterial pressure (MAP Pt) and peripheral oxygen saturation variation (∆SPO2). Statistical analysis included Mann Whitney and Spearman coefficient tests, being significant p<0.05. Results: Sixty individuals aged 6-16 years old were evaluated. Anthropometric data was similar between groups. Differences between groups were shown for: baseline heart rate (BHr), peak heart rate (PHr), ∆Hr, recovery heart rate (RHr), post-test respiratory rate (PtBr), saturation variables, peripheral oxygen level (SpO2B) and level test. The ∆Hr and MAP Pt had a moderate positive correlation with distance and level test for both groups (respectively: r=0.6 / p<0.001; r=0.6 / p<0.001). In CFG, the level test had a significant association (r=0.4 - p=0.02) with %FEV1. Conclusions: Children with cystic fibrosis presented functional limitation in the Modified Shuttle Test, which was influenced by lung function.

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar os fatores que estão associados ao desempenho de crianças e adolescentes com fibrose cística (FC) no teste modificado de Shuttle (MST) e compará-los com os de crianças e adolescentes saudáveis. Métodos: Estudo de corte transversal com crianças e adolescentes divididos em dois grupos: grupo controle (GC) e grupo FC (GFC). As variáveis avaliadas no MST foram: distância caminhada, nível do teste, variação da frequência cardíaca (∆Fc), pressão arterial média pós-teste (PAMPt) e variação da saturação periférica de oxigênio (∆SpO2). Na análise dos dados, foram utilizados o Teste Mann-Whitney e o coeficiente de Spearman, sendo significante p<0,05. Resultados: Avaliaram-se 60 indivíduos (6-16 anos). Os grupos foram homogêneos em relação aos dados antropométricos. Foi observada diferença significante na frequência cardíaca basal (FcB), na frequência cardíaca de pico (FcP), na ∆Fc, na frequência cardíaca de recuperação (FcR), na frequência respiratória pós-teste (FRPt), na saturação periférica de oxigênio basal (SpO2B) e no nível do teste. A ∆Fc e a PAMPt tiveram correlação moderada positiva (respectivamente, r=0,6 / p<0,001; r=0,6 / p<0,001) com a distância caminhada e o nível do teste em ambos os grupos. No GFC o nível do teste teve associação (r=0,4 / p=0,02) com a porcentagem do predito do volume expiratório forçado do primeiro segundo (%VEF1). Conclusões: Crianças e adolescentes com FC apresentaram limitação funcional no teste modificado de Shuttle, influenciada pela função pulmonar.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Cystic Fibrosis/physiopathology , Exercise Test/methods , Cardiorespiratory Fitness , Physical Functional Performance , Oxygen Consumption , Blood Pressure , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Heart Rate
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 49(4): e826, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156508


Introducción: Las investigaciones sobre la incidencia de la masa muscular apendicular en la fuerza muscular en poblaciones sanas y clínicas es escasa, lo cual dificulta la práctica clínica y prescripción del ejercicio a los profesionales de la salud. Objetivo: Determinar la relación entre la masa muscular de miembros inferiores y la repetición máxima en sentadilla media en sujetos capacitados en el entrenamiento de la fuerza con sobrecargas. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo-correlacional con una muestra a conveniencia conformada por diez hombres (edad 17,40 ± 2,32 años, talla 172,10 ± 5,76 cm y una masa corporal de 79,13 ± 19,54 kg), se evaluó la fuerza máxima a través de un test de repetición máxima en el ejercicio sentadilla media, y la masa muscular de miembros inferiores fue estimada a través de una ecuación predictiva. Se utilizó el paquete estadístico PSPP (nivel de confianza del 95 por ciento y un p-valor de 0,05) para el análisis estadístico se aplicó las pruebas de normalidad (Shapiro-Wilk) y el coeficiente correlacional de Pearson. Resultados: La masa muscular de miembros inferiores y la repetición máxima en sentadilla media presentaron una distribución normal (p > 0,05), mientras que la relación entre la masa muscular de miembros inferiores y la repetición máxima en la sentadilla media fue negativa y no significativa (r = -0,45; p > 0,05). Conclusión: La masa muscular de miembros inferiores se relaciona de forma negativa y no significativa con la repetición máxima en sentadilla media en sujetos capacitados en el entrenamiento de la fuerza con sobrecargas(AU)

Introduction: Research on the incidence of appendicular muscle mass in muscle strength in healthy and clinical populations is scarce, making it difficult to practice and prescribe exercise for health professionals. Objective: Determine the relationship between lower limb muscle mass and maximum repetition in half squat in subjects trained in strength training with overloads. Methods: Descriptive-correlational study with a sample of ten men's convenience (age 17,40 ± 2,32 years, a size of 172,10 ± 5,76 cm and a body mass of 79,13 ± 19,54 kg), the maximum strength was evaluated through a maximum repetition test in the half squat exercise, and the muscle mass of lower limbs was estimated through a predictive equation. The PSPP statistical package (95 percent confidence level and a p-value of 0,05) was used for statistical analysis using the normality tests (Shapiro-Wilk) and Pearson correlational coefficient. Results: The muscle mass of lower limbs and the maximum repetition in half squat was presented a normal distribution (p > 0,05), while the relationship between the muscle mass of lower limbs and the maximum repetition in the half squat was negative and not significant (r = -0,45; p > 0,05). Conclusion: The muscle mass of lower limbs is negatively and not significantly related to the maximum repetition in half squat in subjects trained in strength training with overloads(AU)

Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Lower Extremity/anatomy & histology , Exercise Test/methods , Muscle Strength , Epidemiology, Descriptive
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 33(3): 263-271, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134371


Abstract Background: Stress test is used to detect coronary artery disease (CAD). The QTc interval dispersion (dQTc) is an electrocardiographic index of ventricular repolarization heterogeneity. Some researchers have linked transient myocardial ischemia induced by physical exertion with increased heterogeneity of ventricular repolarization measured by dQTc. Objectives: To study the patterns of dQT in patients with and without chronic obstructive CAD and to define a reliable cutoff point for dQT that could become a diagnostic criterion for myocardial ischemia. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the electrocardiogram in resting and in exercise of 63 patients submitted to exercise test and cardiac catheterization. We divided the patients into three groups: true negative (VN), true positive (VP) and false positive (FP). VN: patients with coronary lesion lower than 70% and exercise test without myocardial ischemia; VP: individuals with stenosis greater than 70% in coronary arteries and a test suggestive of myocardial ischemia; FP: people with stenosis lower than 70% in the coronary arteries and stress test with ischemia criteria. Values of p < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Resting dQTc was not different among the three groups. However, for the dispersion of the QTc interval in exercise was, respectively, 47 ± 17 ms, 72 ± 42 ms, and 61 ± 31 ms for VN, VP and FP (p = 0.003). Conclusions: Obstructive chronic coronary disease patients have an increase in dQTc during exercise. Measurement of dQTc may be helpful in the diagnosis of myocardial ischemia in the stress test.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnosis , Exercise Test/methods , Coronary Artery Disease/physiopathology , Chronic Disease , Myocardial Ischemia/diagnosis , Electrocardiography/methods , Analytical Epidemiology
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 114(2): 209-218, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088870


Abstract Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with increased mortality in heart failure (HF) patients. Objective: To evaluate whether the risk of AF patients can be precisely stratified by relation with cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) cut-offs for heart transplantation (HT) selection. Methods: Prospective evaluation of 274 consecutive HF patients with left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 40%. The primary endpoint was a composite of cardiac death or urgent HT in 1-year follow-up. The primary endpoint was analysed by several CPET parameters for the highest area under the curve and for positive (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) in AF and sinus rhythm (SR) patients to detect if the current cut-offs for HT selection can precisely stratify the AF group. Statistical differences with a p-value <0.05 were considered significant. Results: There were 51 patients in the AF group and 223 in the SR group. The primary outcome was higher in the AF group (17.6% vs 8.1%, p = 0.038). The cut-off value of pVO2 for HT selection showed a PPV of 100% and an NPV of 95.5% for the primary outcome in the AF group, with a PPV of 38.5% and an NPV of 94.3% in the SR group. The cut-off value of VE/VCO2 slope showed lower values of PPV (33.3%) and similar NPV (92.3%) to pVO2 results in the AF group. Conclusion: Despite the fact that AF carries a worse prognosis for HF patients, the current cut-off of pVO2 for HT selection can precisely stratify this high-risk group.

Resumo Fundamento: A fibrilação atrial (FA) está associada ao aumento da mortalidade em pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca (IC). Objetivo: Avaliar se o risco de pacientes com FA pode ser estratificado com precisão em relação aos pontos de corte do teste de esforço cardiopulmonar (TECP) para seleção do transplante cardíaco (TC). Métodos: Avaliação prospectiva de 274 pacientes consecutivos com IC com fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo ≤ 40%. O endpoint primário foi um composto de morte cardíaca ou TC urgente no seguimento de 1 ano. O endpoint primário foi analisado através de vários parâmetros do TECP para a maior área sob a curva e para o valor preditivo positivo (VPP) e negativo (VPN) em pacientes com FA e ritmo sinusal (RS) para detectar se os atuais pontos de corte para a seleção de TC podem estratificar com precisão o grupo com FA. Diferenças estatísticas com valor de p < 0,05 foram consideradas significativas. Resultados: Havia 51 pacientes no grupo de FA e 223 no grupo RS. O endpoint primário foi maior no grupo FA (17,6% vs. 8,1%, p = 0,038). O valor de corte de pVO2 para a seleção do TC mostrou um VPP de 100% e um VPN de 95,5% para o endpoint primário no grupo FA, com um VPP de 38,5% e um VPN de 94,3% no grupo RS. O valor de corte da inclinação VE/VCO2 apresentou valores mais baixos de VPP (33,3%) e valor semelhante de VPN (92,3%) aos resultados de pVO2 no grupo FA. Conclusões: Apesar do fato de a FA apresentar um pior prognóstico para os pacientes com IC, o atual ponto de corte de pVO2 para a seleção de TC pode estratificar com precisão esse grupo de alto risco.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Atrial Fibrillation/physiopathology , Atrial Fibrillation/mortality , Risk Assessment/standards , Exercise Test/standards , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Oxygen/metabolism , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Prognosis , Reference Standards , Stroke Volume/physiology , Time Factors , Proportional Hazards Models , Multivariate Analysis , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Follow-Up Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric , Exercise Test/methods , Heart Failure/mortality
Fisioter. Pesqui. (Online) ; 27(1): 57-63, jan.-mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090419


RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar e comparar respostas metabólicas, cardiovasculares e ventilatórias do incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT) e do Glittre activities of daily living test (Glittre-ADL test). Trata-se de um estudo transversal, realizado com indivíduos saudáveis. A capacidade funcional (CF) foi avaliada pela distância percorrida e consumo de oxigênio pico (VO2pico) no ISWT e pelo tempo gasto e VO2 no Glittre-ADL test. Trinta indivíduos percorreram 656,67 (IC95%:608,8-704,5) metros no ISWT e executaram o Glittre-ADL test em 2,4 (IC95%:2,2-2,6) minutos. O VO2 pico do ISWT foi 27,8 (IC95%25,6-29,9) versus 22,2 (IC95%20,5-24,1)mL×kg−1×min−1 (p<0,001) no estado estável (EE) do Glittre-ADL test. As correlações entre distância percorrida no ISWT e o tempo gasto no Glittre-ADL test, o VO2pico do ISWT e o VO2 no EE do Glittre-ADL test e a FC no pico do ISWT e no EE do Glittre-ADL test foram de moderada a alta magnitude. O Glittre-ADL test apresenta menores respostas metabólicas, cardiovasculares e ventilatórias se comparado ao ISWT.

RESUMEN El presente estudio tuvo el objetivo de evaluar y comparar las respuestas metabólicas, cardiovasculares y ventilatorias de incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT) y de Glittre activities of daily living test (Glittre-ADL test). Es un estudio transversal realizado con individuos sanos. La capacidad funcional (CF) se evaluó utilizando la distancia recorrida y consumo máximo de oxígeno (VO2máx) en el ISWT y el tiempo empleado y VO2 en el Glittre-ADL test. Treinta individuos caminaron 656,67 (IC95%:608,8-704,5) metros en el ISWT y realizaron el Glittre-ADL test en 2,4 (IC95%:2,2-2,6) minutos. El VO2 máx del ISWT fue de 27,8 (IC95%25,6-29,9) versus 22,2 (IC95%20,5-24,1)mL×kg−1×min−1 (p<0,001) en el estado estable (EE) del Glittre-ADL test. Las correlaciones entre la distancia recorrida en el ISWT y el tiempo empleado en el Glittre-ADL test, el VO2máx del ISWT y el VO2 en el EE de Glittre-ADL test y la FC en el máximo del ISWT y en el EE de Glittre-ADL test fueron de moderada a alta magnitud. El Glittre-ADL test presenta respuestas metabólicas, cardiovasculares y ventilatorias más bajas en comparación con el ISWT.

ABSTRACT The aim of the study was to assess and compare the cardiovascular, ventilatory and metabolic responses of the Incremental Shuttle Walk test (ISWT) and Glittre Activities of Daily Living test (Glittre-ADL test). This is a cross-sectional study with individuals. The functional capacity (FC) was evaluated by distance and peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) in the ISWT and time spent and VO2 in Glittre-ADL test. Thirty individuals went through 656.67 (CI95%:608.8-704.5) meters at the ISWT and performed the Glittre-ADL test in 2.4 (CI95%:2.2-2.6) minutes. The peak VO2 of the ISWT was 27.8 (CI95%25.6-29.9) vs. 22.2 (CI95%20.5-24.1) mL×kg−1×min−1 (p<0.001) in the steady state (SS) of the Glittre-ADL test. Correlations between distance traveled in the ISWT and the time spent in Glittre-ADL test, VO2 peak of ISWT and VO2 in SS of Glittre-ADL test and HR at the ISWT peak and at the Glittre-ADL test SS were moderate to high magnitude. The Glittre-ADL test has lower metabolic, cardiovascular and ventilatory responses compared to ISWT, despite correlations between variables.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Exercise Test/methods , Walk Test/methods , Physical Functional Performance , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Respiratory Function Tests , Spirometry , Activities of Daily Living , Cross-Sectional Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Energy Metabolism/physiology , Cardiorespiratory Fitness/physiology
Fisioter. Pesqui. (Online) ; 27(1): 64-70, jan.-mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090404


RESUMO O objetivo do estudo foi correlacionar a diferença entre capacidade vital lenta (CVL) e capacidade vital forçada (CVF) (CVL-CVF) com a atividade física na vida diária (AFVD) em pacientes com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica (DPOC); e verificar as diferenças na AFVD entre indivíduos com CVL maior ou menor do que a CVF. Vinte e oito indivíduos com DPOC (18 homens; 67±8 anos; VEF1: 40±13% previsto) tiveram a função pulmonar avaliada pela espirometria e foram divididos em dois grupos: CVL>CVF (n=17) e CVL≤CVF (n=11). Ademais, tiveram a AFVD avaliada objetivamente pelo monitor de atividade física DynaPort®, que quantifica na vida diária, dentre outros, o tempo gasto por dia andando, em pé, sentado e deitado. Não foram encontradas correlações significativas entre CVL-CVF e as variáveis da AFVD no grupo geral. No grupo CVL>CVF foi encontrada significância estatística na correlação entre a CVL-CVF e o tempo gasto por dia em pé (r=−0,56) e sentado (r=0,75). Já no grupo CVL≤CVF, houve correlação significativa somente com o tempo gasto por dia em pé (r=0,57) e deitado (r=−0,62). Ao comparar ambos os grupos, não houve diferença estatisticamente significante para nenhuma das variáveis da AFVD (p>0,05 para todas). No grupo com CVL maior que a CVF houve correlação alta com o tempo gasto sentado, mas não com o tempo andando. Portanto, indivíduos com maior obstrução ao fluxo aéreo segundo a diferença CVL-CVF tendem a gastar mais tempo em atividades de menor gasto energético, que não envolvam caminhar.

RESUMEN El presente estudio tuvo el objetivo de correlacionar la diferencia entre la capacidad vital lenta (CVL) y la capacidad vital forzada (CVF) (CVL-CVF) con la actividad física en la vida diaria (AFVD) de pacientes con enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica (EPOC); y verificar las diferencias de la AFVD entre individuos con CVL mayor o menor que la CVF. Se evaluaron la función pulmonar de veintiocho personas con EPOC (18 hombres; 67±8 años; VEF1: 40±13% esperado) mediante espirometría, y los dividieron en dos grupos: CVL>CVF (n=17) y CVL≤CVF (n=11). La AFVD también se evaluó objetivamente por el monitor de actividad física DynaPort®, el cual cuantifica el tiempo que se gasta en la vida diaria caminando, de pie, sentado y acostado. No se encontraron correlaciones significativas entre CVL-CVF y las variables de la AFVD en el grupo general. En el grupo CVL>CVF, se encontró una significación estadística en la correlación entre CVL-CVF y el tiempo que se gasta diariamente en pie (r=−0,56) y sentado (r=0,75). El grupo CVL≤CVF presentó una correlación significativa solo con el tiempo que se gasta diariamente en pie (r=0,57) y acostado (r=−0,62). La comparación entre ambos grupos no resultó en diferencias estadísticamente significativas en ninguna de las variables de AFVD (p>0,05 para todas). En el grupo con CVL mayor que la CVF, hubo una alta correlación con el tiempo que se gasta sentado, pero con el tiempo que se gasta caminando no se encontró este resultado. Se concluye que las personas con una mayor obstrucción del flujo de aire de acuerdo con la diferencia CVL-CVF tienden a gastar más tiempo en actividades con menos gasto de energía, las que no implican caminar.

ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to correlate the difference of vital capacity (VC) and forced vital capacity (FVC) (VC-FVC) with physical activity in daily life (PADL) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); and investigate the differences in PADL in individuals with VC smaller or greater than FVC. Twenty-eight patients with COPD (18 men, 67±8 years; FEV1: 40±13% predicted) had their lung function assessed by spirometry and were divided into two groups: VC>FVC (n=17) and VC≤CVF (n=11). Furthermore, they had their PADL evaluated by a validated activity monitor which measures, among other variables, time spent/day walking, standing, sitting and lying. There were no correlations between VC-FVC and the variables of PADL in the general group. In the group VC>FVC there was statistically significant correlation between VC-FVC and the time spent/day standing (r=−0.56) and sitting (r=0.75). In the group VC≤CVF , VC-FVC was significantly correlated with time spent/day standing (r=0.57) and lying (r=−0.62). When comparing the groups, there was no statistically significant difference for any variable of PADL (p>0.05 for all). In conclusion, in patients with VC greater than FVC there was high correlation with time spent/day sitting, but not with time spent/day walking. Therefore, individuals with greater airflow obstruction according to the VC-FVC difference tend to spend more time in activities of lower energy expenditure, which do not involve walking.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Exercise/physiology , Vital Capacity/physiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/physiopathology , Respiratory Function Tests , Spirometry/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Environmental Monitoring , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Exercise Test/methods , Sedentary Behavior
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200100, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136806


Abstract Patients with Chagas cardiomyopathy (ChC) usually progress with fatigue and dyspnea. Exercise tests are valuable for the functional evaluation of these patients. However, information about the applicability of the exercise tests is scattered, and no studies have systematically reviewed the results. Thus, the present review explored the general aspects and prognostic value of exercise tests in patients with ChC. A literature search of the MEDLINE, Web of Science, CINAHL, Scopus, and LILACS databases was performed to identify relevant studies. There were no data restrictions, and articles that met the objective of the study were selected. Articles written in English, Portuguese, and Spanish were considered, and 25 articles were finally included. The peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) was correlated with demographic and echocardiographic variables. Echocardiographic features of the left ventricular diastolic function and right ventricular systolic function appeared to be determinants of functional capacity, in addition to age and sex. VO2peak was associated with higher mortality, especially in patients with dilated ChC. The minute ventilation/carbon dioxide production slope (VE/VCO2 slope) was a strong predictor of survival; however, more studies are needed to verify this observation. Field tests showed moderate to strong correlation with VO2peak and thus may be inexpensive tools for the functional evaluation of patients with ChC. However, few studies have verified their prognostic significance. While exercise tests are useful tools for functional assessment, information is scarce regarding further considerations, and many of the criteria are based on guidelines for other heart diseases.

Humans , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/physiopathology , Ventricular Function, Left/physiology , Ventricular Function, Right/physiology , Exercise Tolerance/physiology , Exercise Test/methods , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Prognosis , Echocardiography
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eAO5256, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090048


ABSTRACT Objective To describe and identify the importance of different indicators of the aerobic and anaerobic fitness of male ultra-trail runners according to their level of participation (regional or national). Methods Forty-four male ultra-trail runners were assessed (36.5±7.2 years). They were classified as regional (n=25) and national (n=19). Wingate test was used to assess the anaerobic pathway. A progressive incremental running test was performed and ventilatory thresholds registered, in parallel to heart rate and lactate concentration at the end of the protocol. Comparison between groups was performed using independent samples t-test. Results No significant differences were found between outputs derived from Wingate test. For aerobic fitness, while examining absolute values, differences were uniquely significant for the second ventilatory threshold (ultra-trail regional runners: 3.78±0.32L.min-1; ultra-trail national runners: 4.03±0.40L.min-1 p<0.05). Meantime, when aerobic fitness was expressed per unit of body mass, differences were significant for the second ventilatory threshold (ultra-trail regional runners: 50.75±; ultra-trail national runners: 57.88± p<0.05) and also maximum volume of oxygen (ultra-trail regional runners: 57.33±; ultra-trail national runners: 63.39± p<0.05). Conclusion This study emphasized the importance of expressing physiological variables derived from running protocols per unit of body mass. Also, the second ventilatory threshold appears to be the best and the only aerobic fitness variable to distinguish between trail runners according to competitive level. Maximal oxygen uptake seems of relative interest to distinguish between long distance runners according to competitive level.

RESUMO Objetivo Descrever e comparar indicadores de aptidão metabólica em corredores de trilhas de longa distância (ultra trail running) adultos do sexo masculino, de acordo com o nível de competição (regional ou nacional). Métodos Foram avaliados 44 corredores masculinos com média de idade de 36,5±7,2 anos classificados como de nível regional (n=25) ou nacional (n=19). Foi utilizado o teste de Wingate para avaliação da via anaeróbica, enquanto o teste incremental de corrida em esteira também foi realizado para determinar os limiares ventilatórios, o consumo máximo de oxigênio, a frequência cardíaca e a concentração de lactato ao final do protocolo. A comparação entre os grupos foi realizada por estatística teste t para amostras independentes. Resultados As variáveis obtidas do teste Wingate não diferiram de forma significativa entre os grupos. No que diz respeito à aptidão aeróbica, foram encontradas diferenças significativas entre variáveis expressas em valores absolutos no segundo limiar ventilatório (corredores de nível regional: 3,78±0,32L.min-1; corredores de nível nacional: 4,03±0,40L.min-1; p<0,05). Quando considerados os valores expressos por unidade de massa corporal, o segundo limiar ventilatório (corredores de nível regional: 50,75±6,; corredores de nível nacional: 57,88±4,; p<0,05) e o volume máximo de oxigênio (corredores de nível regional: 57,33±7,; corredores de nível nacional: 63,39±4,; p<0,05) também diferiram de forma significativa. Conclusão Este estudo destacou a importância de se expressarem variáveis fisiológicas derivadas de protocolos de corrida por unidade de massa corporal. Além disso, o segundo limiar ventilatório pareceu ser o melhor e único indicador de aptidão aeróbica para a diferenciação de corredores de trilha de longa distância, segundo o nível competitivo. O consumo máximo de oxigênio não é especialmente relevante para distinguir os corredores de trilha de longa distância, segundo o nível competitivo.

Humans , Male , Adult , Running/physiology , Athletes , Oxygen/metabolism , Reference Values , Time Factors , Anaerobic Threshold/physiology , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric , Exercise Test/methods , Heart Rate/physiology
J. bras. pneumol ; 46(6): e20190232, 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134919


RESUMO Objetivo Verificar o poder discriminativo e o ponto de corte de diferentes protocolos do teste 4-metre gait speed (4MGS) para identificar capacidade de exercício preservada ou reduzida no teste de caminhada de 6 minutos (TC6min) em pacientes com Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica (DPOC); comparar os protocolos do 4MGS; e comparar as características dos indivíduos de acordo com o melhor ponto de corte encontrado. Métodos Foram avaliados 56 pacientes com DPOC. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos à avaliação das características antropométricas, função pulmonar (espirometria) e capacidade funcional de exercício (TC6min e 4 protocolos do 4MGS). No teste 4MGS, os pacientes foram instruídos a caminhar em velocidade usual e máxima em percursos de 4 metros (4MGS 4m - usual e máximo) e 8 metros (4MGS 8m - usual e máximo). Resultados Somente o protocolo 4MGS 4m-máximo foi capaz de identificar capacidade de exercício preservada no TC6min (AUC=0,70) com correlação moderada entre os testes (r=0,52; P<0,0001). O ponto de corte encontrado no 4MGS 4m-máximo foi de 1,27 m/s. Os pacientes com capacidade de exercício preservada (4MGS 4m-máximo ≥1,27m/s) atingiram maior distância percorrida no TC6min em %predito (91±2 vs 76±3; P<0,0001). Nas outras comparações envolvendo gênero, IMC, VEF1%pred e índice GOLD não ocorreram diferenças significantes entre os grupos. Além disso, a concordância de indivíduos classificados com capacidade de exercício preservada e reduzida no TC6min e no 4MGS 4m-máximo foi significante (P=0,008). Conclusão O teste 4MGS 4m-máximo pode ser utilizado para discriminar capacidade de exercício preservada em pacientes com DPOC, e se correlaciona com o TC6min.

ABSTRACT Objective To determine the discriminative capacity and cut-off point of different 4-metre gait speed test (4MGS) protocols in identifying preserved or reduced exercise capacity using the six-minute walk test (6MWT) in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD); also, to compare 4MGS protocols and characteristics of individuals according to the best cut-off point. Methods We evaluated fifty-six patients with COPD, all of which were submitted to the assessment of anthropometric characteristics, pulmonary function (spirometry) and functional exercise capacity (6MWT and four protocols of the 4MGS). In the 4MGS test, patients were instructed to walk at normal pace and at maximum speed in a 4 meters course (4MGS 4m - usual pace and at maximum) and 8 meters course (4MGS 8m - usual pace and at maximum). Results Only the 4MGS 4m-maximum protocol was able to identify preserved exercise capacity in the 6MWT (AUC=0.70) with moderate correlation between them (r=0.52; P=0<0.0001). The cut-off point found in the 4MGS 4m-maximum was 1.27 m/s. Patients with preserved exercise capacity (4MGS 4m-maximum ≥1.27m/s) walker greater distances on the 6MWT in %pred (91±2 vs 76±3; P<0.0001). In the other comparisons involving gender, BMI, FEV1% pred and GOLD index there were no significant differences between the groups. In addition, the agreement of individuals classified as preserved and reduced exercise capacity in the 6MWT and 4MGS 4m-maximum was significant (P = 0.008). Conclusion The 4MGS 4m-maximum test can be used to discriminate preserved exercise capacity in patients with COPD and correlates with the 6MWT.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Exercise Tolerance/physiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/physiopathology , Exercise Test/methods , Walking Speed , Gait/physiology , Quality of Life , Forced Expiratory Volume/physiology , Treatment Outcome , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Walk Test , Motor Activity/physiology
J. bras. pneumol ; 46(3): e20180422, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101261


ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the construct validity and reproducibility of the six-minute step test (6MST) in individuals with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Methods: We evaluated 48 volunteers diagnosed with OSA and treated with CPAP for at least two months. The volunteers underwent the six-minute walk test (6MWT) and the 6MST, in random order and on different days, with an interval of, at most, seven days between the two tests. Results: A moderate positive correlation was found between the distance walked on the 6MWT and the number of steps climbed on the 6MST (r = 0.520; p < 0.001). There was no significant difference between the two 6MSTs in terms of the number of steps climbed (121.7 ± 27.1 vs. 123.6 ± 26.7). Reproducibility for performance on the 6MST and for cardiovascular variables was considered excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient > 0.8). Regarding cardiovascular responses, the 6MST produced higher values than did the 6MWT for HR at six minutes, percent predicted maximum HR, and leg fatigue at six minutes, as well as for systolic blood pressure at six minutes and at one minute of recovery. Conclusions: The 6MST is valid and reproducible, producing greater cardiovascular stress than does the 6MWT. However, the 6MST is also characterized as a submaximal test for the assessment of exercise tolerance in individuals with OSA treated with CPAP.

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a validade do constructo e a reprodutibilidade do teste de degrau de seis minutos (TD6) em indivíduos com apneia obstrutiva do sono (AOS) tratados com continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP, pressão positiva contínua nas vias aéreas). Métodos: Foram avaliados 48 voluntários com diagnóstico de AOS e tratados com CPAP há, no mínimo, dois meses. Os voluntários foram submetidos ao teste de caminhada de seis minutos (TC6) e ao TD6, em ordem aleatória e em dias diferentes, com um intervalo de, no máximo, sete dias entre os dois testes. Resultados: Foi observada uma correlação positiva moderada entre a distância percorrida no TC6 e o número de subidas no TD6, (r = 0,520; p < 0,001). Não foram encontradas diferenças significativas no número de subidas entre os dois TD6 (121,7 ± 27,1 vs. 123,6 ± 26,7 degraus). A reprodutibilidade para o desempenho no TD6 e para as variáveis cardiovasculares foi considerada excelente (coeficiente de correlação intraclasse > 0,8). Com relação às respostas cardiovasculares, quando comparado ao TC6, o TD6 apresentou maiores valores em relação a FC no sexto minuto, percentual do predito da FC máxima, fadiga de membros inferiores no sexto minuto e pressão arterial sistólica no sexto minuto e no primeiro minuto da fase de recuperação. Conclusões: O TD6 é válido, reprodutível e causa maior estresse cardiovascular quando comparado ao TC6. No entanto, o TD6 também se caracteriza como um teste submáximo para a avaliação da tolerância ao esforço em indivíduos com AOS tratados com CPAP.

Humans , Exercise Tolerance/physiology , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/therapy , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure/methods , Exercise Test/standards , Reproducibility of Results , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/physiopathology , Exercise Test/methods
J. bras. pneumol ; 46(3): e20190102, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090811


RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar a concordância entre as medidas de controle da asma e a capacidade de exercício funcional em crianças e adolescentes com asma não controlada e controlada. Métodos Selecionamos crianças e adolescentes com asma de 7 a 17 anos, que foram atendidos no Ambulatório de Pneumologia Pediátrica da Universidade Estadual de Campinas. Todos os pacientes tiveram nível de controle da asma avaliado pelo questionário da Global Initiative for Asthma (GINAq), Teste de Controle da Asma (TCA), espirometria e teste de caminhada de seis minutos (TC6M). Os pacientes foram classificados como asma não controlada ou controlada em cada teste e a concordância entre as medidas foi avaliada pelas estatísticas do Kappa. A curva ROC foi calculada para o TC6M. O índice espirométrico da espirometria foi composto por FEV1, FEV1/FVC e FEF25-75%. Os resultados da espirometria e do TC6M foram comparados entre o grupo de asma não controlada e controlada pela GINAq. Resultados Dos 138 sujeitos incluídos, 78 (56,5%) eram do sexo masculino com idade média de 11,00 (7-17) anos. O GINAq detectou 68,8% dos pacientes com asma não controlada. Foi observada concordância moderada (p<0,001; k=0,56) e alta especificidade (100%) entre o GINAq e o TCA. No TC6M, o ponto de corte de 82,03% da distância prevista possibilitou a distinção de pacientes com asma controlada e não controlada. O índice espirométrico apresentou 73,4% de sensibilidade com o GINAq. Foram observados resultados piores no TC6M em pacientes com asma não controlada. Conclusões Este estudo destaca a importância de avaliar mais de uma medida para diferenciar o nível de controle da asma. O GINAq identificou mais pacientes com asma não controlada e apresentou concordância moderada com o TCA. O índice espirométrico foi associado à asma não controlada de acordo com o GINAq. O TC6M foi uma boa medida para distinguir pacientes com asma controlada e não controlada.

ABSTRACT Objective To assess the agreement among asthma control measures and functional exercise capacity in children and adolescents with uncontrolled and controlled asthma. Methods Children and adolescents with asthma from 7-17 years old were selected, and they were attended in the "Pediatric Pulmonology Outpatient Clinic of State University of Campinas", in Brazil. All patients had asthma control level assessed by Global Initiative for Asthma questionnaire (GINAq), Asthma Control Test (ACT), spirometry and six-minute-walk-test (6MWT). Patients were classified as uncontrolled or controlled asthma in each test and agreement among measures was assessed by kappa statistics. The ROC curve was calculated for the 6MWT. The spirometric index obtained from spirometry was composed by FEV1, FEV1/FVC and FEF25-75%. Spirometry and 6MWT results were compared between uncontrolled and controlled asthma group by GINAq. Results Of the 138 subjects included, 78 (56.5%) were male with median age of 11 (7-17) years old. GINAq detected 68.8% of patients with uncontrolled asthma. Moderate agreement (p < 0.001; k = 0.56) and high specificity (100%) was observed between GINAq and ACT. In 6MWT, the cut-off point of 82.03% of predicted distance was able to distinguish patients with controlled and uncontrolled asthma. Spirometric index presented 73.4% of sensitivity according to GINAq. The results for 6MWT in patients with uncontrolled asthma were the worst of all. Conclusion This study highlights the importance of assessing more than one measure to differentiate asthma control level. GINAq identified more patients with uncontrolled asthma and presented moderate agreement with ACT. Spirometric index was associated with uncontrolled asthma according to GINAq. 6MWT was a suitable measure to distinguish patients with controlled and uncontrolled asthma.

Humans , Male , Child , Adolescent , Asthma/physiopathology , Exercise Tolerance , Exercise Test/methods , Respiratory Function Tests , Asthma/drug therapy , Spirometry , Brazil , Breath Tests , Predictive Value of Tests , ROC Curve
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eRW5233, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142866


ABSTRACT Parkinson's disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder in old age. Aging process for elders with Parkinson's disease can induce gait disturbances with more functional disabilities than for elders without the disease. Treadmill training as a therapy has resulted in notable effects on the gait of patients with Parkinson's disease and may be a resource for geriatric neurological rehabilitation. This review aimed to study the effects on gait after treadmill training in elderly patients with Parkinson's disease. The search was performed in the databases PubMed®, LILACS, PEDro and EMBASE, with the following keywords: "Parkinson's disease", "elderly", "treadmill training" and "gait evaluation". The quality of the studies included was assessed by PEDro Scale. Eleven studies met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Eight studies were randomized, and only one did a follow-up. One can observe in this review that treadmill training with or without weight support (at least 20 minutes, two to three times a week, with progressive increase of loads, for minimum of 6 weeks) in elderly patients with the Parkinson's disease was effective to improve gait. In addition, both were considered safe (since some studies described the use of belts, even in unsupported training) and can be associated with therapies complementary to gait, such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, visual cues or anodal transcranial direct current stimulation. Treadmill training in elderly patients with Parkinson's disease is an intervention that improves gait outcomes, but further studies are required for better proofs.

RESUMO A doença de Parkinson é o segundo distúrbio neurodegenerativo mais comum na velhice. O processo de envelhecimento de idosos com doença de Parkinson pode levar a distúrbios de marcha com mais incapacidades funcionais do que para idosos sem a doença. O treinamento em esteira como terapia pode resultar em efeitos notáveis na marcha de pacientes com Parkinson e ser um recurso para a reabilitação neurológica geriátrica. Esta revisão teve como objetivo estudar os efeitos da marcha após o treinamento em esteira na doença de Parkinson em idosos. A pesquisa foi realizada nas bases de dados PubMed®, LILACS, PEDro e EMBASE, com os seguintes descritores: "doença de Parkinson", "idosos", "treinamento em esteira" e "avaliação da marcha". A qualidade dos estudos incluídos foi avaliada pela escala de PEDro. Atenderam aos critérios de inclusão e exclusão 11 estudos. Oito estudos foram randomizados, e apenas um fez follow-up . Foi possível observar que treinamento em esteira com ou sem suporte de peso (por pelo menos 20 minutos, duas a três vezes por semana, com aumento progressivo de cargas, por, no mínimo, 6 semanas) em idosos com doença de Parkinson foi efetivo para melhorar a marcha. Além disso, ambos os treinamentos foram considerados seguros (pois alguns estudos relataram o uso de cintos, mesmo no treinamento sem suporte de peso) e podem ser associados a terapias complementares à marcha, como estimulação magnética transcraniana repetitiva, estímulos visuais ou estimulação transcraniana direta anódica. O treinamento em esteira em pacientes idosos com doença de Parkinson é uma intervenção que melhora os resultados da marcha, mas requer mais estudos para melhor comprovação.

Humans , Aged , Parkinson Disease/therapy , Gait Disorders, Neurologic/therapy , Exercise Test/methods , Treatment Outcome , Gait Disorders, Neurologic/etiology , Exercise Therapy