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Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 56-82, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929195


Contributing to organ formation and tissue regeneration, extracellular matrix (ECM) constituents provide tissue with three-dimensional (3D) structural integrity and cellular-function regulation. Containing the crucial traits of the cellular microenvironment, ECM substitutes mediate cell-matrix interactions to prompt stem-cell proliferation and differentiation for 3D organoid construction in vitro or tissue regeneration in vivo. However, these ECMs are often applied generically and have yet to be extensively developed for specific cell types in 3D cultures. Cultured cells also produce rich ECM, particularly stromal cells. Cellular ECM improves 3D culture development in vitro and tissue remodeling during wound healing after implantation into the host as well. Gaining better insight into ECM derived from either tissue or cells that regulate 3D tissue reconstruction or organ regeneration helps us to select, produce, and implant the most suitable ECM and thus promote 3D organoid culture and tissue remodeling for in vivo regeneration. Overall, the decellularization methodologies and tissue/cell-derived ECM as scaffolds or cellular-growth supplements used in cell propagation and differentiation for 3D tissue culture in vitro are discussed. Moreover, current preclinical applications by which ECM components modulate the wound-healing process are reviewed.

Cell Differentiation , Cell Proliferation , Decellularized Extracellular Matrix , Extracellular Matrix/metabolism , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Tissue Engineering/methods , Tissue Scaffolds/chemistry
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 691-696, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940976


Wound repair is a highly coordinated and mutually regulated complex process involving various kinds of cells, extracellular matrices and cytokines. A variety of growth factors play an important regulatory role in wound healing, and it is critical to achieve effective delivery and sustained function of growth factors. In recent years, the application of biomaterials in tissue engineering has shown great potential, and the effective delivery of growth factors by biomaterials has attracted increasing attention. Based on this, this paper introduces the mechanism of related growth factors in the process of wound healing, focusing on the recent progress of biomaterial delivery of growth factors to accelerate wound healing, in order to provide new enlightenment for clinical wound treatment.

Biocompatible Materials/metabolism , Extracellular Matrix/metabolism , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/therapeutic use , Tissue Engineering , Wound Healing
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927874


Objective To explore the effect of overwork (OW) on extracellular matrix of arterial vessel wall in rats. Methods Random number grouping method was employed to assign 18 Sprague-Dawley rats into three groups(n=6):the control group(no special treatment),group OW(forced swimming twice a day for 15 days),and sleep deficiency(SD)+OW group(in addition to forced swimming twice a day,the rats were put on the platforms in water to limit sleep for 15 days).On the 16th day,the abdominal aorta and common carotid artery were collected after blood sampling from heart under deep anesthesia.A part of the abdominal aorta sample was taken for Masson staining of collagen fiber,and Verhoeff-Van Gieson staining was carried out for the elastic fiber of common carotid artery.Image J was employed for the quantitative analysis of collagen fiber and elastic fiber content.The expression of collagen 1(Col-1) protein was quantified by immunohistochemistry and the ultrastructure of vascular matrix was examined by transmission electron microscopy.The other part of the abdominal aorta sample was used to determine the mRNA levels of matrix metalloproteinase(MMP)-1,MMP-2,MMP-9,tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1(TIMP-1),and Col-1 by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results Compared with that in control group,the content of collagen fiber in groups OW and SD+OW had no significant change(all P>0.05);the content of elastic fiber in groups OW and SD+OW decreased(all P<0.001) and had no significant difference between each other(P>0.05).The vascular vessel wall of group OW showed slight fiber breakage,while that of group SD+OW presented wormhole-like or spongy fiber fragmentation.The mRNA levels of MMP-1 and MMP-2 in groups OW and SD+OW had no significant difference between each other(P>0.05) but were higher than that in control group(all P<0.001).The mRNA levels of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 had no significant difference among the three groups(all P>0.05).Groups OW and SD+OW had lower mRNA level(all P<0.001) and protein level(all P<0.001) of Col-1 than control group,while the mRNA and protein levels of Col-1 had no significant difference between groups OW and SD+OW(P>0.05). Conclusion OW can reduce the content of Col-1 and elastic fibers in the extracellular matrix of arterial vessels,destroy the elastic lamina of vascular wall,up-regulate the expression of MMP-1 and MMP-2,thereby injuring arterial vessels.

Animals , Collagen Type I , Extracellular Matrix/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 1/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1/metabolism
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 41(1): 63-69, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286971


Abstract Objective Type-I collagen (Col-I) is one of the main macromolecules of the extracellular matrix, and it is involved in the desmoplastic stromal reaction, an indicator of worse prognosis in cases of colorectal cancer (CRC). The purpose of the present study was to investigate Col-I expression in cases of CRC and adenoma and to correlate with the clinical data and the data regarding the lifestyle of the patients. Methods A retrospective study including 22 patients with adenoma and 15 with CRC treated at a coloproctology service. The clinical and lifestyle data were obtained through medical records, and Col-I expression was investigated by immunohistochemistry. Results Women represented most cases of adenoma (63.64%), whereas CRC was found mainly in men (73.33%) (p=0.0448). Immunoexpression of Col-I showed a basement membrane thickening in areas of lining of epithelium and around the glands in both lesions. The cases of CRC had a quite evident fibrosis process in the stroma. The quantitative analysis demonstrated a higher protein expression in CRCs compared to adenomas (p=0.0109), as well as in female patients (p=0.0214), patients aged ≥ 50 years (p=0.0400), and in those with a positive family history of colorectal disease (p=0.0292). These results suggested a remodeling of the microenvironment of the Worked developed at the Department of Morphology, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, ES, Brazil. Conclusion The immunohistochemical analysis encourages the performance of more comprehensive studies to ascertain if our results could be a tool for the diagnosis and monitoring of the patients.

Resumo Objetivo O colágeno tipo I (Col-I) é uma das principais macromoléculas da matriz extracelular, e está envolvido na reação desmoplástica estromal, um indicador de pior prognóstico em casos de câncer colorretal (CCR). O objetivo foi investigar a expressão do Col-I emcasos de CCR e adenoma, e correlacioná-la comdados clínicos e de estilo de vida dos pacientes. Metodologia Foi realizado umestudoretrospectivo com22pacientes comadenoma e 15 comCCR tratadosemumserviço de coloproctologia.Os dados dos pacientes foramobtidos dos prontuários médicos, e a expressão do Col-I foi investigada por imunohistoquímica. Resultados As mulheres representaram a maioria dos casos de adenomas (63,64%), enquanto o CCR (73,33%) (p=0,0448) foi mais comum entre os homens. A imunoexpressão de Col-I mostrou espessamento da membrana basal em áreas de revestimento do epitélio e em volta de glândulas em ambas as lesões. O CCR apresentou fibrose no estroma. As análises quantitativas demonstraram maior expressão proteica no CCR (p=0,0109), assim como em mulheres (p=0,0214), pacientes com idade ≥ 50 anos (p=0,0400), e em pacientes com histórico positivo de doença colorretal na família (p=0,0292). Estes resultados sugerem a remodelação do microambiente tumoral na carcinogênese do CCR. As correlações clínico-patológicas positivas mostram uma ligação plausível entre o perfil do paciente e os achados imunohistoquímcos, o que indica uma possível forma de estratificação dos pacientes. Conclusão As análises imunohistoquímicas estimulam a execução de estudos mais abrangentes para confirmar se nossos resultados poderão ser uma ferramenta para o diagnóstico e o monitoramento dos pacientes.

Humans , Male , Female , Colorectal Neoplasms/metabolism , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Adenocarcinoma/diagnosis , Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Collagen Type I/genetics , Extracellular Matrix/metabolism , Tumor Microenvironment/immunology
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 79(1): 71-80, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092653


Resumo Atualmente a membra amniótica (MA) tem obtido importância devido à comprovada capacidade de reduzir inflamação, auxiliar a cicatrização e epitelização, possuindo propriedades antimicrobianas e antivirais, além de baixa imunogenicidade. As indicações de seu uso na oftalmologia têm aumentado muito nas duas últimas décadas. Objetivo: Descrever a estrutura básica e as propriedades biológicas da MA em relação aos componentes da sua matriz extracelular e fatores de crescimento, as consequências de diferentes técnicas empregadas na sua preservação e esterilização, métodos para remoção do epitélio e a comparação dos custos dos diferentes meios de conservação atualmente empregados. Métodos: Pesquisa nas bases de dados do Portal da Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS), Pubmed, Cochrane, Scielo e Lilacs com as palavras-chave: membrana amniótica, transplante, reconstrução da córnea, doenças da conjuntiva. Resultados: A literatura é vasta na descrição dos efeitos de diversos agentes e técnicas na preparação da MA, dentre elas sua preservação, esterilização e desepitelização. A membrana desnuda tem sido a escolha para a reconstrução da superfície ocular, pois facilita a cicatrização. Em relação aos agentes conservantes, o glicerol é o meio mais utilizado mundialmente pelo baixo custo e facilidade de manuseio. Conclusão: A comparação das diversas técnicas nos guia na elaboração de protocolos de preparo da MA para uso oftalmológico. A membrana desnuda facilita a cicatrização em relação a com células epiteliais. O glicerol é o meio de conservação mais utilizado pelo baixo custo e facilidade de manuseio.

Abstract Currently, the amniotic membrane (AM) has obtained importance due to its ability to reduce inflammation, helping in the healing and epithelialization processes, having antimicrobial and antiviral properties and low immunogenicity. Its indications in ophthalmology have increased considerably in the past two decades. Objective: To describe the basic structure and biological properties of the AM, the components of the extracellular matrix and growth factors, the consequences of different techniques used in its preservation, and sterilization methods for the epithelium removal. To compare the costs of the different preservation solutions currently employed. Study design: literature review. Methods: Research in BVS databases, PubMed, Cochrane, Scielo and Lilacs with keywords: amniotic membrane transplantation, corneal reconstruction, conjunctival diseases. Results: The literature is vast in describing the effects of different agents and techniques used in the preparation of MA, including its preservation, sterilization and desepithelization. The naked membrane is the choice to reconstruct the ocular surface, as it facilitates the healing course. Regarding the preservatives, glycerol is the most used worldwide due its low cost and easy handling. Conclusion: Comparing different techniques guides us in developing a MA preparation protocol for ophthalmic use. The naked membrane facilitates the healing process compared with the presence of epithelial cells. The glycerol is the most used preservation method because of its low cost and easy handling.

Humans , Tissue Preservation/methods , Conjunctival Diseases/surgery , Corneal Diseases/surgery , Tissue and Organ Harvesting/methods , Eye Diseases/surgery , Amnion/transplantation , Tissue Banks/standards , Tissue Donors/supply & distribution , Wound Healing , Biological Dressings/standards , Biological Products/standards , Tissue and Organ Procurement/standards , Cryopreservation/methods , Sterilization/methods , Collagen/metabolism , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/metabolism , Extracellular Matrix/metabolism , Amnion/cytology , Amnion/microbiology , Amnion/ultrastructure
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881038


Due to the poor repair ability of cartilage tissue, regenerative medicine still faces great challenges in the repair of large articular cartilage defects. Quercetin is widely applied as a traditional Chinese medicine in tissue regeneration including liver, bone and skin tissues. However, the evidence for its effects and internal mechanisms for cartilage regeneration are limited. In the present study, the effects of quercetin on chondrocyte function were systematically evaluated by CCK8 assay, PCR assay, cartilaginous matrix staining assays, immunofluorescence assay, and western blotting. The results showed that quercetin significantly up-regulated the expression of chondrogenesis genes and stimulated the secretion of GAG (glycosaminoglycan) through activating the ERK, P38 and AKT signalling pathways in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, in vivo experiments revealed that quercetin-loaded silk protein scaffolds dramatically stimulated the formation of new cartilage-like tissue with higher histological scores in rat femoral cartilage defects. These data suggest that quercetin can effectively stimulate chondrogenesis in vitro and in vivo, demonstrating the potential application of quercetin in the regeneration of cartilage defects.

Animals , Cartilage/cytology , Chondrocytes/drug effects , Chondrogenesis/drug effects , Extracellular Matrix/metabolism , Quercetin/pharmacology , Rats , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Tissue Scaffolds
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200007, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135242


BACKGROUND Behavioral and neurochemical alterations associated with toxoplasmosis may be influenced by the persistence of tissue cysts and activation of an immune response in the brain of Toxoplasma gondii-infected hosts. The cerebral extracellular matrix is organised as perineuronal nets (PNNs) that are both released and ensheath by some neurons and glial cells. There is evidences to suggest that PNNs impairment is a pathophysiological mechanism associated with neuropsychiatric conditions. However, there is a lack of information regarding the impact of parasitic infections on the PNNs integrity and how this could affect the host's behavior. OBJECTIVES In this context, we aimed to analyse the impact of T. gondii infection on cyst burden, PNNs integrity, and possible effects in the locomotor activity of chronically infected mice. METHODS We infected mice with T. gondii ME-49 strain. After thirty days, we assessed locomotor performance of animals using the open field test, followed by evaluation of cysts burden and PNNs integrity in four brain regions (primary and secondary motor cortices, prefrontal and somesthetic cortex) to assess the PNNs integrity using Wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA) labeling by immunohistochemical analyses. FINDINGS AND MAIN CONCLUSIONS Our findings revealed a random distribution of cysts in the brain, the disruption of PNNs surrounding neurons in four areas of the cerebral cortex and hyperlocomotor behavior in T. gondii-infected mice. These results can contribute to elucidate the link toxoplasmosis with the establishment of neuroinflammatory response in neuropsychiatric disorders and to raise a discussion about the mechanisms related to changes in brain connectivity, with possible behavioral repercussions during chronic T. gondii infection.

Animals , Mice , Cerebellum/metabolism , Toxoplasmosis/pathology , Toxoplasmosis, Animal , Extracellular Matrix/metabolism , Motor Neurons/cytology , Neurons/pathology , Toxoplasma , Cerebellum/cytology , Toxoplasmosis/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Motor Neurons/metabolism , Neurons/metabolism
Biol. Res ; 52: 23, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011425


BACKGROUND: Conjunctival filtering bleb scar formation is the main reason for the failure of glaucoma filtration surgery. Cytoglobin (Cygb) has been reported to play an important role in extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, fibrosis and tissue damage repairing. This study aimed to investigate the role of Cygb in anti-scarring during excessive conjunctival wound healing after glaucoma filtration surgery. METHODS: Cygb was overexpressed in human tenon fibroblasts (hTFs) by transfecting hTFs with lentiviral particles encoding pLenti6.2-FLAG-Cygb. Changes in the mRNA and protein levels of fibronectin, collagen I, collagen III, TGF-ß1, and HIF1α were determined by RT-PCR and western blotting respectively. RESULTS: After Cygb overexpression, hTFs displayed no significant changes in visual appearance and cell counts compared to controls. Whereas, Cygb overexpression significantly decreased the mRNA and protein expression levels of collagen I, collagen III and fibronectin compared with control (p < 0.01). There was also a statistically significant decrease in the mRNA and protein levels of TGF-ß1 and HIF-1α in hTFs with overexpressed Cygb compared with control group (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our study provided evidence that overexpression of Cygb decreased the expression levels of fibronectin, collagen I, collagen III, TGF-ß1 and HIF-1α in hTFs. Therefore, therapies targeting Cygb expression in hTFs may pave a new way for clinicians to solve the problem of post-glaucoma surgery scarring.

Humans , Extracellular Matrix/metabolism , Tenon Capsule/metabolism , Fibroblasts/metabolism , Cytoglobin/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/analysis , Collagen/analysis , Fibronectins/analysis , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism , Extracellular Matrix/drug effects , Cytoglobin/pharmacology
Int. j. morphol ; 37(1): 111-117, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990014


SUMMARY: Arterial obstruction in small diameter (<6 mm) vessels are many times treated with grafts, however autologous aren't always available and synthetic have a high rate of complications. Decellularization of umbilical arteries may provide a solution, but the ideal method is debatable. We compare effectiveness between SDS and Triton X-100. Umbilical cords obtained from full term pregnancies with normal development and no evident complications in the newborn, were micro-dissected within 12 h and stored in phosphate buffered saline without freezing. Arteries were then processed for decellularization using 0.1 % and 1 % SDS, and 1 % Triton X100 protocols. Evaluation of cellular and nuclear material, collagen fibers, elastic fibers, and glycosoaminoglycans of the extracellular matrix (ECM) were evaluated as well as morphometric analysis under histological and immunohistochemical techniques. Triton X-100 was ineffective, preserving nuclear remains identified by immunofluorescence, had the most notable damage to elastic fibers, and decrease in collagen. SDS effectively eliminated the nuclei and had a less decrease in elastic fibers and collagen. Laminin was preserved in all groups. No significant differences were identified in luminal diameters; however the middle layer decreased due to decellularization of muscle cells. In conclusion, 0.1 % SDS decellularization was the most effective in eliminating cells and preserving the main components of the ECM.

RESUMEN: La obstrucción arterial en vasos de pequeño diámetro (<6 mm) se trata muchas veces con injertos, sin embargo, los autólogos no siempre están disponibles y los sintéticos tienen una alta tasa de complicaciones. La descelularización de las arterias umbilicales puede proporcionar una solución, pero el método ideal es discutible. Comparamos la efectividad entre los métodos SDS y Triton X-100. Cordones umbilicales obtenidos a partir de embarazos a término con evolución normal y sin complicaciones evidentes del recién nacido, se microdiseccionaron en 12 horas y se almacenaron en solución salina con fosfato sin congelación. Las arterias se procesaron luego para la descelularización usando los protocolos de SDS al 0,1 % y 1 %, y Triton X-100 al 1 %. Se realizó la evaluación de material celular y nuclear, fibras de colágeno, fibras elásticas y glucosoaminoglicanos de la matriz extracelular (MEC), así como el análisis morfométrico bajo técnicas histológicas e inmunohistoquímicas. Triton X-100 fue ineficaz, conservando los restos nucleares identificados por inmunofluorescencia, tuvo el daño más notable a las fibras elásticas y la disminución del colágeno. SDS efectivamente eliminó los núcleos y tuvo una disminución menor en las fibras elásticas y el colágeno. Laminina fue preservado en todos los grupos. No se identificaron diferencias significativas en los diámetros luminales; sin embargo, la capa media disminuyó debido a la descelularización de las células musculares. la descelularización con SDS al 0,1 % fue la más efectiva para eliminar células y preservar los principales componentes de la MEC.

Humans , Umbilical Arteries/cytology , Umbilical Arteries/metabolism , Tissue Engineering/methods , Extracellular Matrix/metabolism , Umbilical Arteries/transplantation , Umbilical Cord , Immunohistochemistry , Cell Separation , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Collagen , Vascular Grafting
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(3): 675-682, July-Sept. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951801


Abstract Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic saprobe fungus that accounts for 90% of cases of pulmonary aspergillosis in immunosuppressed patients and is known for its angiotropism. When it reaches the respiratory tract, A. fumigatus interacts with structural components and blood vessels of the lungs, such as elastin. To understand the effect of this structural component, we examined the effect of elastin on the production and development of the biofilm of A. fumigatus. In RPMI containing 10 mg/mL of elastin, a significant increase (absorbance p < 0.0001; dry weight p < 0.0001) in the production of biofilm was observed in comparison to when RPMI was used alone, reaching a maximum growth of 18.8 mg (dry weight) of biofilm in 72 h. In addition, elastin stimulates the production (p = 0.0042) of extracellular matrix (ECM) and decreases (p = 0.005) the hydrophobicity during the development of the biofilm. These results suggest that elastin plays an important role in the growth of A. fumigatus and that it participates in the formation of thick biofilm.

Humans , Aspergillosis/metabolism , Aspergillosis/microbiology , Aspergillus fumigatus/physiology , Elastin/metabolism , Biofilms , Extracellular Matrix/metabolism , Aspergillus fumigatus/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions
Rev. Asoc. Méd. Argent ; 131(2): 7-26, jun. 2018. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-973098


Se revisan los nuevos conocimientos sobre la matriz extracelular (MEC), que han permitido descubrir su importante rol en la cicatrización de las heridas cutáneas. Se describen sus características morfofisiológicas y cómo interviene en la curación de las heridas cutáneas. Se presentan cuatro casos clínicos en los que se aplicó este enfoque terapéutico: los sustitutos de piel y la “cura húmeda”.

We review the new knowledge about the extracellular matrix (ECM) that has allowed us to discover its important role in the healing of cutaneous wounds. The morphophysiological characteristics of ECM and its role in the healing of cutaneous wounds are described. Four clinical cases are presented where this therapeutic approach was applied: the skin substitutes and the “moist wound healing”.

Male , Female , Humans , Adolescent , Middle Aged , Aged , Extracellular Matrix/metabolism , Extracellular Matrix/genetics , Skin/injuries , Wound Healing/physiology , Cell Differentiation , Electromagnetic Radiation , Regenerative Medicine
Clinics ; 73(supl.1): e551s, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-952836


Infection with human papillomaviruses is associated with a series of benign and malignant hyperproliferative diseases that impose a heavy burden on human populations. A subgroup of mucosal human papillomavirus types are associated with the majority of cervical cancers and a relevant fraction of vulvar, vaginal, anal, penile and head and neck carcinomas. Human papillomaviruses mediate cell transformation by the expression of two pleiotropic oncoproteins that alter major cellular regulatory pathways. However, these viruses are not complete carcinogens, and further alterations within the infected cells and in their microenvironment are necessary for tumor establishment and progression. Alterations in components of the extracellular matrix for instance, matrix metalloproteinases and some of their regulators such as tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases, have been consistently reported in human papillomaviruses-associated diseases. Matrix metalloproteinases function by remodeling the extracellular matrix and alterations in their expression levels and/or activity are associated with pathological processes and clinical variables including local tumor invasion, metastasis, tumor relapse and overall patient prognosis and survival. In this review we present a summarized discussion on the current data concerning the impact of human papillomavirus infection on the activity and expression of extracellular matrix components. We further comment on the possibility of targeting extracellular matrix molecules in experimental treatment protocols.

Humans , Male , Female , Cell Transformation, Neoplastic/metabolism , Papillomavirus Infections/metabolism , Extracellular Matrix/metabolism , Papillomavirus Infections/virology , Genital Neoplasms, Female/virology , Genital Neoplasms, Male/virology , Head and Neck Neoplasms/virology
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 18(supl.2): 45-56, Out.-Dez. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-776703


RESUMO: Objetivo: Comparar a prevalência de fumantes atuais de tabaco na população brasileira e nas unidades federativas, em adultos (≥ 18 anos), considerando dois inquéritos populacionais realizados em 2008 e 2013. Métodos: São comparadas as prevalências de fumantes atuais de tabaco no Brasil e nas unidades federativas analisando dados da Pesquisa Nacional de Amostra de Domicílios, de 2008, e da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde, de 2013. Foram calculados a variação percentual no período e o valor de p. Resultados: A prevalência de fumantes atual de tabaco reduziu -19% no período, saindo de 18,2% (2008) para 14,7% (2013). O declínio ocorreu em todas as regiões, área urbana e rural e na maioria dos estados. A redução foi de -17,5% para os homens e -20,7% para as mulheres, reduziu em todas as faixas de idade, sendo a maior redução entre 25 e 39 anos; também reduziu para todas as categorias de raça/cor, sendo as prevalências mais altas entre pretos e pardos. Declinou também em todas as faixas de escolaridade, sendo maior a redução nas faixas de menor escolaridade. Em 2013, as prevalências para população com menor escolaridade foram de 19,7% e de 8,7% para quem tem nível superior completo. Conclusão: Ocorreu uma redução média de cerca de 19% no consumo do tabaco no Brasil e nos estados brasileiros, em ambos o sexos, todas faixas de idade e raça/cor. O consumo do tabaco no país é um dos mais baixos do mundo e declinou de forma significativa, o que pode ser atribuído a políticas de controle, regulação e prevenção.

ABSTRACT: Objective: To compare current tobacco smoking prevalence in the Brazilian population and the federal states in adults (aged ≥ 18 years), using the National Household Survey 2008 and National Health Survey, 2013. Methods: Using data from two national surveys conducted in 2008 and 2013, the paper examines the current tobacco smoking prevalence in Brazil at the national level and at the federal state level. We calculated the percentage change for the period. Results: Overall, results show -19% reduction in current tobacco smoking prevalence from 18.5% (2008) to 14.7% (2013). Results also show a significant percentage decline in smoking prevalence across geographic regions and demographic characteristics including gender, race, age and education levels. The decline occurred in all regions, urban and rural areas, and in most states. The reduction was -17.5% for men and -20.7% for women, having occurred in all age groups, with the greatest reduction in the group from 25 to 39 years of age; in all categories of race/color, a higher prevalence was found among the blacks and browns. It also declined in all the levels of schooling, with a higher reduction in lower education levels. In 2013, the prevalence for people with less education was 19.7% and 8.7% for those with college degrees. Conclusion: There was an average reduction of about 19% in tobacco consumption in Brazil and the Brazilian states in both sexes, all ages, and race color. Tobacco consumption in the country is one of the lowest in the world and has declined significantly, which can be attributed to the control policies, regulation, and prevention.

Humans , Collagen/administration & dosage , Drug Compounding , Extracellular Matrix/metabolism , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Cells, Cultured , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Signal Transduction , /metabolism
Rev. bras. enferm ; 68(4): 579-585, jul.-ago. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-761092


RESUMOObjetivo:conhecer concepções de idosos sobre vulnerabilidade ao HIV/Aids e identificar diagnósticos de enfermagem.Método:pesquisa de campo desenvolvida em Unidades de Saúde da Família, João Pessoa. A amostra compreendeu 250 idosos de ambos os sexos com coleta de dados de abril a julho, 2011. Aplicou-se um Teste da Associação Livre de Palavras utilizando o termo: HIV/Aids. Realizou-se análise de conteúdo e mapeamento cruzado dos termos mais frequentes com os da Classificação Internacional para a Prática de Enfermagem, 2011.Resultados:identificaram-se 202 termos, numa frequência total de 1156. Dos 202 termos, 16 foram mais frequentes e utilizados para a construção de diagnósticos de enfermagem. Identificaram-se os diagnósticos conhecimento sobre comportamento sexual adequado, capacidade para proteção parcial, medo da morte e desesperança.Conclusão:compreender essas concepções trouxe conhecimentos acerca de fatores de vulnerabilidades ao HIV/Aids tendo em vista o planejamento de ações de saúde para esse segmento populacional.

RESUMENObjetivo:conocer concepciones de ancianos sobre vulnerabilidad a HIV/Sida y identificar de diagnósticos de enfermería.Método:investigación de campo desarrollado en Unidades de Salud de Familia, João Pessoa. La muestra incluyó 250 ancianos de ambos sexos con recogida de datos de abril a julio, 2011. Se aplicó prueba de asociación de palabras el uso del término: HIV/Sida. Tenido análisis de contenido de proceder cruzar términos más frecuentes con la Clasificación Internacional para la Práctica de Enfermería, 2011.Resultados:202 términos fueron identificados en frecuencia 1156. De los 202 términos, 16 fueron más frecuentes y utilizados para construcción de diagnósticos de enfermería. Se identificaron conocimiento sobre comportamiento sexual apropiado, capacidad de protección parcial, miedo a la muerte y desesperanza.Conclusión:La comprensión de conceptos trajo reflexiones sobre factores de vulnerabilidad ante el HIV/Sida en vista de planificación de acciones la salud para este segmento de población.

ABSTRACTObjective:to know the beliefs of older adults about their vulnerability to HIV/Aids, and to identify nursing diagnoses.Method:a field research implemented in Family Health Units, in João Pessoa, Brazil. The sample included 250 older adults of both genders with data collected from April to July of 2011. A Test of Free Word Association was applied using the term HIV/Aids. A content analysis and cross-mapping of the most frequent terms with the International Classification for Nursing Practice, 2011 were performed.Results:202 terms were identified in terms, with an overall frequency of 1156. Of the 202 terms, 16 were more frequent and were used to construct the nursing diagnoses. The diagnoses identified were knowledge about appropriate sexual behavior, ability for partial protection, fear of death and hopelessness.Conclusion:understanding these beliefs drew from knowledge about factors related to, vulnerability to HIV/Aids aimed at planning health care actions for this population segment.

Humans , Extracellular Matrix/metabolism , Focal Adhesions , Neoplasms/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Cell Adhesion , Disease Progression , Integrins/metabolism , Models, Biological , Neoplasm Metastasis , Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasms/therapy
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 65(3): 217-221, May-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748919


RATIONALE: The changes in body position can cause changes in lung function, and it is necessary to understand them, especially in the postoperative upper abdominal surgery, since these patients are susceptible to postoperative pulmonary complications. OBJECTIVE: To assess the vital capacity in the supine position (head at 0° and 45°), sitting and standing positions in patients in the postoperative upper abdominal surgery. METHODS: A cross-sectional study conducted between August 2008 and January 2009 in a hospital in Salvador/BA. The instrument used to measure vital capacity was analogic spirometer, the choice of the sequence of positions followed a random order obtained from the draw of the four positions. Secondary data were collected from the medical records of each patient. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 30 subjects with a mean age of 45.2 ± 11.2 years, BMI 20.2 ± 1.0 kg/m2. The position on orthostasis showed higher values of vital capacity regarding standing (mean change: 0.15 ± 0.03 L; p = 0.001), the supine to 45 (average difference: 0.32 ± 0.04 L; p = 0.001) and 0° (0.50 ± 0.05 L; p = 0.001). There was a positive trend between the values of forced vital capacity supine to upright posture (1.68 ± 0.47; 1.86 ± 0.48; 2.02 ± 0.48 and 2.18 ± 0.52 L; respectively). CONCLUSION: Body position affects the values of vital capacity in patients in the postoperative upper abdominal surgery, increasing in postures where the chest is vertical. .

JUSTIFICATIVA: As alterações no posicionamento corporal podem ocasionar mudanças na função respiratória e é necessário compreendê-las, principalmente no pós-operatório abdominal superior, já que os pacientes estão suscetíveis a complicações pulmonares pós-operatórias. OBJETIVO: Verificar a capacidade vital nas posições de decúbito dorsal (cabeceira a 0° e 45°), sentado e em ortostase em pacientes no pós-operatório de cirurgia abdominal superior. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, feito entre agosto de 2008 e janeiro de 2009, em um hospital na cidade de Salvador (BA). O instrumento usado para mensuração da capacidade vital (CV) foi o ventilômetro analógico e a escolha da sequência das posições seguiu uma ordem aleatória obtida a partir de sorteio das quatro posições. Os dados secundários foram colhidos nos prontuários de cada paciente. RESULTADOS: A amostra foi composta por 30 indivíduos com idade média de 45,2 ± 11,2 anos e IMC 20,2 ± 1,0 kg/m2. A posição em ortostase apresentou valores maiores da CV em relação à sedestração (média das diferenças: 0,15 ± 0,03 litros; p = 0,001), ao decúbito dorsal a 45° (média das diferenças: 0,32 ± 0,04 litros; p = 0,001) e 0° (0,50 ± 0,05 litros; p = 0,001). Houve um aumento positivo entre os valores de CVF do decúbito dorsal para a postura ortostática (1,68 ± 0,47; 1,86 ± 0,48; 2,02 ± 0,48 e 2,18 ± 0,52 litros; respectivamente). CONCLUSÃO: A posição do corpo afeta os valores da CV em pacientes no pós-operatório de cirurgia abdominal superior, com aumento nas posturas em que o tórax encontra-se verticalizado. .

JUSTIFICACIÓN: Las alteraciones en el posicionamiento corporal pueden ocasionar cambios en la función respiratoria y es necesario comprenderlas, principalmente en el postoperatorio abdominal superior, ya que los pacientes son susceptibles a complicaciones pulmonares postoperatorias. OBJETIVO: Verificar la capacidad vital en las posiciones de decúbito dorsal (cabeza a 0° y 45°), sentado y en ortostasis en pacientes en el postoperatorio de cirugía abdominal superior. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal realizado entre agosto de 2008 y enero de 2009, en un hospital en la ciudad de Salvador (BA). El instrumento usado para la medición de la capacidad vital (CV) fue el espirómetro analógico y la elección de la secuencia de las posiciones siguió un orden aleatorio que se obtuvo a partir de un sorteo de las 4 posiciones. Los datos secundarios fueron extraídos de las historias clínicas de cada paciente. RESULTADOS: La muestra se compuso de 30 individuos con edades medias de 45,2 ± 11,2 años e IMC de 20,2 ± 1 kg/m2. La posición en ortostasis presentó valores mayores de CV con relación a la posición sedente (media de las diferencias: 0,15 ± 0,03 L; p = 0,001), al decúbito dorsal a 45° (media de las diferencias: 0,32 ± 0,04 L; p = 0,001) y a 0° (0,50 ± 0,05 L; p = 0,001). Hubo un aumento positivo entre los valores de CV forzada del decúbito dorsal para la postura ortostática (1,68 ± 0,47; 1,86 ± 0,48; 2,02 ± 0,48 y 2,18 ± 0,52 L, respectivamente). CONCLUSIÓN: La posición del cuerpo afecta los valores de la CV en pacientes durante el postoperatorio de cirugía abdominal superior, con aumento en las posturas en las que el tórax está verticalizado. .

Humans , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Computer Simulation , Cartilage, Articular/drug effects , Extracellular Matrix/drug effects , Models, Biological , Osteoarthritis/drug therapy , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/metabolism , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/pathology , Cartilage, Articular/metabolism , Cartilage, Articular/pathology , Extracellular Matrix/metabolism , Extracellular Matrix/pathology , Interleukin-1/pharmacology , Interleukin-1/therapeutic use , Oncostatin M/pharmacology , Oncostatin M/therapeutic use , Osteoarthritis/metabolism , Osteoarthritis/pathology , Signal Transduction
Rev. latinoam. enferm ; 23(1): 162-168, Jan-Feb/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-742020


OBJECTIVE: to analyse the Redness, Oedema, Ecchymosis, Discharge, Approximation (REEDA) scale reliability when evaluating perineal healing after a normal delivery with a right mediolateral episiotomy. METHOD: observational study based on data from a clinical trial conducted with 54 randomly selected women, who had their perineal healing assessed at four time points, from 6 hours to 10 days after delivery, by nurses trained in the use of this scale. The kappa coefficient was used in the reliability analysis of the REEDA scale. RESULTS: the results indicate good agreement in the evaluation of the discharge item (0.75< Kappa ≥0.88), marginal and good agreement in the first three assessments of oedema (0.16< Kappa ≥0.46), marginal agreement in the evaluation of ecchymosis (0.25< Kappa ≥0.42) and good agreement regarding redness (0.46< Kappa ≥0.66). For the item coaptation, the agreement decreased from excellent in the first assessment to good in the last assessment. In the fourth evaluation, the assessment of all items displayed excellent or good agreement among the evaluators. CONCLUSION: the difference in the scores among the evaluators when applying the scale indicates that this tool must be improved to allow an accurate assessment of the episiotomy healing process. .

OBJETIVO: analisar a confiabilidade da escala REEDA (Redness, Oedema, Ecchymosis, Discharge, Approximation) para avaliar a cicatrização do períneo após parto vaginal com episiotomia médio-lateral direita. MÉTODO: estudo observacional, baseado em dados coletados em ensaio clínico, conduzido com 54 mulheres, selecionadas aleatoriamente. As mesmas tiveram o processo de cicatrização perineal avaliado em quatro momentos (de 6 horas a 10 dias após o parto), por enfermeiras treinadas para o uso da escala. O coeficiente kappa foi usado para análise de confiabilidade da escala REEDA. RESULTADOS: os resultados indicam bom nível de concordância na avaliação do item secreção (0,75< Kappa ≥0,88), concordância boa e marginal em relação ao item equimose (0,25< Kappa ≥0,42), e bom nível de concordância em relação à hiperemia (0,46< Kappa ≥0,66). O nível de concordância referente à avaliação do item coaptação diminuiu de excelente, na primeira avaliação, para bom, na última avaliação. CONCLUSÃO: a diferença entre as pontuações atribuídas pelas avaliadoras na aplicação da escala indica que o instrumento precisa ser melhorado, para permitir avaliações mais precisas do processo de cicatrização da episiotomia. .

OBJETIVO: analizar la confiabilidad de la escala de Enrojecimiento, Edema, Equimosis, Drenaje, Aproximación (REEDA) en la evaluación de la curación perineal tras parto normal con episiotomía mediolateral derecha. MÉTODO: estudio observacional con base en datos de un ensayo clínico conducido con 54 mujeres elegidas de forma aleatoria, con evaluación de su curación perineal en cuatro momentos, entre 6 horas y 10 días después del parto, por enfermeras capacitadas en el uso de esta escala. El coeficiente de kappa fue utilizado en el análisis de confiabilidad de la escala REEDA. RESULTADOS: los resultados indican buena concordancia en la evaluación del ítem drenaje (0,75< Kappa ≥0,88), concordancia marginal y buena en las primeras tres evaluaciones de edema (0,16< Kappa ≥0,46), concordancia marginal en la evaluación de equimosis (0,25< Kappa ≥0,42) y buena concordancia sobre enrojecimiento (0,46< Kappa ≥0,66). Para el ítem coaptación, la concordancia disminuyó de excelente en la primera evaluación hasta buena en la última. En el cuarto momento, la evaluación de todos los ítems mostró concordancia excelente o buena entre los evaluadores. CONCLUSIÓN: la diferencia en las notas entre los evaluadores en la aplicación de la escala indica que esta herramienta debe ser mejorada para permitir una evaluación correcta del proceso de curación de la episiotomía. .

Animals , Male , Guinea Pigs , Cricetinae , Rabbits , Collagen/toxicity , Tilapia/metabolism , Body Temperature/drug effects , Cricetulus , Cell Shape/drug effects , Extracellular Matrix/drug effects , Extracellular Matrix/metabolism , Sterilization , Skin/drug effects , Toxicity Tests
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1572-1581, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-177067


PURPOSE: The degradation of the extracellular matrix has been shown to play an important role in the treatment of hepatic cirrhosis. In this study, the effect of thalidomide on the degradation of extracellular matrix was evaluated in a rat model of hepatic cirrhosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cirrhosis was induced in Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) three times weekly for 8 weeks. Then CCl4 was discontinued and thalidomide (100 mg/kg) or its vehicle was administered daily by gavage for 6 weeks. Serum hyaluronic acid, laminin, procollagen type III, and collagen type IV were examined by using a radioimmunoassay. Matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), and alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) protein in the liver, transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) protein in cytoplasm by using immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis, and MMP-13, TIMP-1, and TGF-beta1 mRNA levels in the liver were studied using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Liver histopathology was significantly better in rats given thalidomide than in the untreated model group. The levels of TIMP-1 and TGF-beta1 mRNA and protein expressions were decreased significantly and MMP-13 mRNA and protein in the liver were significantly elevated in the thalidomide-treated group. CONCLUSION: Thalidomide may exert its effects on the regulation of MMP-13 and TIMP-1 via inhibition of the TGF-beta1 signaling pathway, which enhances the degradation of extracellular matrix and accelerates the regression of hepatic cirrhosis in rats.

Actins , Animals , Carbon Tetrachloride/toxicity , Collagen Type III/metabolism , Down-Regulation , Extracellular Matrix/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Immunosuppressive Agents/pharmacology , Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental/chemically induced , Male , RNA, Messenger/analysis , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Thalidomide/pharmacology , Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1/biosynthesis , Transcription Factor RelA/biosynthesis , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/biosynthesis , Transforming Growth Factors/metabolism
J. bras. nefrol ; 36(4): 545-548, Oct-Dec/2014. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-731147


O fruto biri-biri pertence à família das Oxalidacae, espécie Averrhoa bilimbi. Este fruto tem um alto conteúdo de oxalato solúvel e é utilizado na culinária, na produção de picles, geleias, e como tratamento para algumas doenças como hipertensão, diabetes e hiperlipidemia. Assim como outros frutos ricos em oxalato, pode provocar lesão renal aguda. Relatamos o caso de um paciente de 50 anos, hipertenso, com função renal normal, que ingeriu uma grande quantidade de suco em jejum para tratamento de hipertensão. O paciente desenvolveu quadro de lesão renal aguda associado a dores lombares, soluços e diarreia. A lesão renal aguda era não oligúrica e teve uma evolução favorável em 10 dias sem necessidade de tratamento dialítico. A função renal retornou ao normal após esses 10 dias de seguimento.

Humans , Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/chemistry , Liver Neoplasms/chemistry , Apoptosis , Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , Carcinogens , Cell Adhesion , Cell Division , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/blood supply , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/genetics , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , Cell Nucleus/pathology , Extracellular Matrix/metabolism , Liver Neoplasms/blood supply , Liver Neoplasms/genetics , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Neovascularization, Pathologic , Ploidies , Prognosis , Proteome/genetics , Telomerase/metabolism
Salud pública Méx ; 56(5): 502-510, sep.-oct. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-733323


Objective. To estimate the annual cost of the National Cervical Cancer Screening Program (CCSP) of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS). Materials and methods. This cost analysis examined regional coverage rates reported by IMSS. We estimated the number of cytology, colposcopy, biopsy and pathology evaluations, as well as the diagnostic test and treatment costs for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade II and III (CIN 2/3) and cervical cancer. Diagnostic test costs were estimated using a micro-costing technique. Sensitivity analyses were performed. Results. The cost to perform 2.7 million cytology tests was nearly 38 million dollars, which represents 26.1% of the total program cost (145.4 million). False negatives account for nearly 43% of the program costs. Conclusion. The low sensitivity of the cytology test generates high rates of false negatives, which results in high institutional costs from the treatment of undetected cervical cancer cases.

Objetivo. Estimar el costo anual del Programa Nacional de Detección Oportuna de Cáncer Cervical en el Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS). Material y métodos. Este análisis de costos examinó las distintas coberturas por región reportadas por el IMSS. Se estimó el número de citologías, colposcopías, biopsias y evaluaciones de patología y los costos de pruebas de diagnóstico y de tratamientos por neoplasia cervical intraepitelial de grado II y III (NIC 2/3) y cáncer cervical. Los costos de las pruebas de diagnóstico se estimaron utilizando una técnica de microcosteo. Se llevó a cabo un análisis de sensibilidad. Resultados. El costo de realizar 2.7 millones de citologías fue de 38 millones de dólares, lo que representa 26.1% del costo total del programa (145.4 millones). Los falsos negativos corresponden a casi 43% de los costos del programa. Conclusiones. La baja sensibilidad de la citología genera un alto número de falsos negativos que resultan en costos elevados para la institución por el tratamiento de estos casos no detectados.

Animals , Female , Rats , Collagen/metabolism , Fibronectins/metabolism , Laminin/metabolism , Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental/metabolism , Malonates/pharmacology , Antibody Specificity , Dimethylnitrosamine , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Extracellular Matrix/metabolism , Immunoenzyme Techniques , Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental/chemically induced , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 47(6): 483-491, 06/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-709445


Extracellular matrix and costamere proteins transmit the concentric, isometric, and eccentric forces produced by active muscle contraction. The expression of these proteins after application of passive tension stimuli to muscle remains unknown. This study investigated the expression of laminin and dystrophin in the soleus muscle of rats immobilized with the right ankle in plantar flexion for 10 days and subsequent remobilization, either by isolated free movement in a cage or associated with passive stretching for up to 10 days. The intensity of the macrophage response was also evaluated. One hundred and twenty-eight female Wistar rats were divided into 8 groups: free for 10 days; immobilized for 10 days; immobilized/free for 1, 3, or 10 days; or immobilized/stretched/free for 1, 3, or 10 days. After the experimental procedures, muscle tissue was processed for immunofluorescence (dystrophin/laminin/CD68) and Western blot analysis (dystrophin/laminin). Immobilization increased the expression of dystrophin and laminin but did not alter the number of macrophages in the muscle. In the stretched muscle groups, there was an increase in dystrophin and the number of macrophages after 3 days compared with the other groups; dystrophin showed a discontinuous labeling pattern, and laminin was found in the intracellular space. The amount of laminin was increased in the muscles treated by immobilization followed by free movement for 10 days. In the initial stages of postimmobilization (1 and 3 days), an exacerbated macrophage response and an increase of dystrophin suggested that the therapeutic stretching technique induced additional stress in the muscle fibers and costameres.

Animals , Female , Dystrophin/metabolism , Immobilization/methods , Laminin/metabolism , Macrophages/metabolism , Muscle Stretching Exercises/methods , Muscle, Skeletal/physiology , Blotting, Western , Dystrophin/isolation & purification , Extracellular Matrix/metabolism , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Intracellular Space/metabolism , Laminin/isolation & purification , Mechanotransduction, Cellular/physiology , Muscle, Skeletal/injuries , Rats, Wistar