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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(6): 1816-1823, dic. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528777

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: To evaluate the anti-cancer effects of yeast extract on resistant cells, autophagy and necroptosis were investigated in 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-resistant colorectal cancer cells. Further underlying characteristics on drug resistance were evaluated, focused on ERK-RSK-ABCG2 linkage. SNU-C5 and 5-FU resistant SNU-C5 (SNU-C5/5-FUR) colorectal cancer cells were adopted for cell viability assay and Western blotting to examine the anti-cancer effects of yeast extract. Yeast extract induced autophagy in SNU-C5 cells with increased Atg7, Atg12-5 complex, Atg16L1, and LC3 activation (LC3-II/LC3-I), but little effects in SNU-C5/5-FUR cells with increased Atg12-5 complex and Atg16L1. Both colorectal cancer cells did not show necroptosis after yeast extract treatment. Based on increased ABCG2 and RSK expression after yeast extract treatment, drug resistance mechanisms were further evaluated. As compared to wild type, SNU-C5/5-FUR cells showed more ABCG2 expression, less RSK expression, and less phosphorylation of ERK. ABCG2 inhibitor, Ko143, treatment induces following changes: 1) more sensitivity at 500 mM 5-FU, 2) augmented proliferation, and 3) less phosphorylation of ERK. These results suggest that protective autophagy in SNU-C5/5-FUR cells with increased ABCG2 expression might be candidate mechanisms for drug resistance. As the ERK responses were different from each stimulus, the feasible mechanisms among ERK-RSK-ABCG2 should be further investigated in 5-FU-resistant CRC cells.


Para evaluar los efectos anticancerígenos del extracto de levadura en células resistentes, se investigaron la autofagia y la necroptosis en células de cáncer colorrectal resistentes al 5-fluorouracilo (5-FU). Además se evaluaron otras características subyacentes de la resistencia a los medicamentos centrándose en el enlace ERK-RSK-ABCG2. Se usaron células de cáncer colorrectal SNU-C5 (SNU-C5/5-FUR) resistentes a SNU-C5 y 5- FU para el ensayo de viabilidad celular y la transferencia Western para examinar los efectos anticancerígenos del extracto de levadura. El extracto de levadura indujo autofagia en células SNU-C5 con mayor activación de Atg7, complejo Atg12-5, Atg16L1 y LC3 (LC3-II/LC3-I), pero pocos efectos en células SNU-C5/5-FUR con aumento de Atg12-5 complejo y Atg16L1. Ambas células de cáncer colorrectal no mostraron necroptosis después del tratamiento con extracto de levadura. Se evaluaron los mecanismos de resistencia a los medicamentos. en base al aumento de la expresión de ABCG2 y RSK después del tratamiento con extracto de levadura.En comparación con las de tipo salvaje, las células SNU-C5/5-FUR mostraron más expresión de ABCG2, menos expresión de RSK y menos fosforilación de ERK. El tratamiento con inhibidor de ABCG2, Ko143, induce los siguientes cambios: 1) más sensibilidad a 5-FU 500 mM, 2) proliferación aumentada y 3) menos fosforilación de ERK. Estos resultados sugieren que la autofagia protectora en células SNU-C5/5-FUR con mayor expresión de ABCG2 podría ser un mecanismo candidato para la resistencia a los medicamentos. Como las respuestas de ERK fueron diferentes de cada estímulo, los mecanismos factibles entre ERK-RSK- ABCG2 deberían investigarse más a fondo en células CCR resistentes a 5-FU.


Subject(s)
Autophagy , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Colorectal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Yeasts , Tumor Cells, Cultured , Cell Survival/drug effects , Blotting, Western , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 90-kDa , Electrophoresis , Fluorouracil , ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Subfamily G, Member 2 , Necroptosis
2.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 830-839, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980880

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The effect of intra-operative chemotherapy (IOC) on the long-term survival of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated the independent effect of intra-operative infusion of 5-fluorouracil in combination with calcium folinate on the survival of CRC patients following radical resection.@*METHODS@#1820 patients were recruited, and 1263 received IOC and 557 did not. Clinical and demographic data were collected, including overall survival (OS), clinicopathological features, and treatment strategies. Risk factors for IOC-related deaths were identified using multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. A regression model was developed to analyze the independent effects of IOC.@*RESULTS@#Proportional hazard regression analysis showed that IOC (hazard ratio [HR]=0.53, 95% confidence intervals [CI] [0.43, 0.65], P  < 0.001) was a protective factor for the survival of patients. The mean overall survival time in IOC group was 82.50 (95% CI [80.52, 84.49]) months, and 71.21 (95% CI [67.92, 74.50]) months in non-IOC group. The OS in IOC-treated patients were significantly higher than non-IOC-treated patients ( P  < 0.001, log-rank test). Further analysis revealed that IOC decreased the risk of death in patients with CRC in a non-adjusted model (HR=0.53, 95% CI [0.43, 0.65], P  < 0.001), model 2 (adjusted for age and gender, HR=0.52, 95% CI [0.43, 0.64], P  < 0.001), and model 3 (adjusted for all factors, 95% CI 0.71 [0.55, 0.90], P  = 0.006). The subgroup analysis showed that the HR for the effect of IOC on survival was lower in patients with stage II (HR = 0.46, 95% CI [0.31, 0.67]) or III disease (HR=0.59, 95% CI [0.45, 0.76]), regardless of pre-operative radiotherapy (HR=0.55, 95% CI [0.45, 0.68]) or pre-operative chemotherapy (HR=0.54, 95% CI [0.44, 0.66]).@*CONCLUSIONS@#IOC is an independent factor that influences the survival of CRC patients. It improved the OS of patients with stages II and III CRC after radical surgery.@*TRIAL REGISTRATION@#chictr.org.cn, ChiCTR 2100043775.


Subject(s)
Humans , Fluorouracil/therapeutic use , Leucovorin/therapeutic use , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Proportional Hazards Models , Prognosis
3.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 138-145, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969816

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effect of rigosertib (RGS) combined with classic chemotherapy drugs including 5-fluorouracil, oxaliplatin, and irinotecan in colorectal cancer. Methods: Explore the synergy effects of RGS and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), oxaliplatin (OXA), and irinotecan (IRI) on colorectal cancer by subcutaneously transplanted tumor models of mice. The mice were randomly divided into control group, RGS group, 5-FU group, OXA group, IRI group, 5-FU+ RGS group, OXA+ RGS group and IRI+ RGS group. The synergy effects of RGS and OXA on KRAS mutant colorectal cancer cell lines in vitro was detected by CCK-8. Ki-67 immunohistochemistry and TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining were performed on the mouse tumor tissue sections, and the extracted tumor tissue was analyzed by western blot. The blood samples of mice after chemotherapy and RGS treatment were collected, blood routine and liver and kidney function analysis were conducted, and H&E staining on liver sections was performed to observe the side effects of chemotherapy and RGS. Results: The subcutaneously transplanted tumor models were established successfully in all groups. 55 days after administration, the fold change of tumor size of OXA+ RGS group was 37.019±8.634, which is significantly smaller than 77.571±15.387 of RGS group (P=0.029) and 92.500±13.279 of OXA group (P=0.008). Immunohistochemical staining showed that the Ki-67 index of tumor tissue in control group, OXA group, RGS group and OXA+ RGS group were (100.0±16.8)%, (35.6±11.3)%, (54.5±18.1)% and (15.4±3.9)%, respectively. The Ki-67 index of OXA+ RGS group was significantly lower than that in control group (P=0.014), but there was no significant difference compared to OXA group and RGS group (OXA: P=0.549; RGS: P=0.218). TUNEL fluorescence staining showed that the apoptotic level of OXA+ RGS group was 3.878±0.547, which was significantly higher than 1.515±0.442 of OXA group (P=0.005) and 1.966±0.261 of RGS group (P=0.008). Western blot showed that the expressions of apoptosis related proteins such as cleaved-PARP, cleaved-caspase 3 and cleaved-caspase 8 in the tumor tissues of mice in the OXA+ RGS group were higher than those in control group, OXA group and RGS group. After the mice received RGS combined with chemotherapy drugs, there was no significant effect on liver and kidney function indexes, but the combined use of oxaliplatin and RGS significantly reduced the white blood cells [(0.385±0.215)×10(9)/L vs (5.598±0.605)×10(9)/L, P<0.001] and hemoglobin[(56.000±24.000)g/L vs (153.333±2.231)g/L, P=0.001] of the mice. RGS, chemotherapy combined with RGS and chemotherapy alone did not significantly increase the damage to liver cells. Conclusions: The combination of RGS and oxaliplatin has a stronger anti-tumor effect on KRAS mutant colorectal cancer. RGS single agent will not cause significant bone marrow suppression and hepatorenal injury in mice, but its side effects may increase correspondingly after combined with chemotherapy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins , Colorectal Neoplasms/genetics , Fluorouracil/pharmacology , Irinotecan/therapeutic use , Ki-67 Antigen , Oxaliplatin , Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras)/therapeutic use
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986994

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the spectrum-effect relationship between the total anthraquinone extract of Cassia seeds and fluorouracil (5-Fu)-induced liver injury in mice and identify the effective components in the extract.@*METHODS@#A mouse model of liver injury was established by intraperitoneal injection of 5-Fu, with bifendate as the positive control. The serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and myeloperoxidase (MPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) in the liver tissue were detected to investigate the effect of the total anthraquinone extract of Cassia seeds (0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 g/kg) on liver injury induced by 5-Fu. HPLC fingerprints of 10 batches of the total anthraquinone extracts were established to analyze the spectrum- effectiveness of the extract against 5- Fu- induced liver injury in mice and screen the effective components using the grey correlation method.@*RESULTS@#The 5- Fu- treated mice showed significant differences in liver function parameters from the normal control mice (P < 0.05), suggesting successful modelling. Compared with those in the model group, serum ALT and AST activities were decreased, SOD and T- AOC activities significantly increased, and MPO level was significantly lowered in the mice treated with the total anthraquinone extract (all P < 0.05). HPLC fingerprints of the 31 components in the total anthraquinone extract of Cassia seeds showed good correlations with the potency index of 5-Fu-induced liver injury but with varying correlation strengths. The top 15 components with known correlations included aurantio-obtusina (peak 6), rhein (peak 11), emodin (peak 22), chrysophanol (peak 29) and physcion (peak 30).@*CONCLUSION@#The effective components in the total anthraquinone extract of Cassia seeds, including aurantio-obtusina, rhein, emodin, chrysophanol, and physcion, are coordinated to produce protective effects against 5-Fu-induced liver injury in mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Emodin , Cassia , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury, Chronic , Anthraquinones , Antioxidants , Fluorouracil/adverse effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology
5.
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 575-581, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985811

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the outcome of different treatment strategies in patients with pancreatic cancer with synchronous liver metastasis (sLMPC). Methods: A retrospective analysis of the clinical data and treatment results of 37 patients with sLMPC treated in China-Japan Friendship Hospital was performed from April 2017 to December 2022. A total of 23 males and 14 females were included,with an age(M(IQR)) of 61 (10) years (range: 45 to 74 years). Systemic chemotherapy was carried out after pathological diagnosis. The initial chemotherapy strategy included modified-Folfirinox, albumin paclitaxel combined with Gemcitabine, and Docetaxel+Cisplatin+Fluorouracil or Gemcitabine with S1. The possibility of surgical resection (reaching the standards of surgical intervention) was determined after systemic treatment,and the chemotherapy strategy was changed in the cases of failed initial chemotherapy plans. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the overall survival time and rate,while Log-rank and Gehan-Breslow-Wilcoxon tests were used to compare the differences of survival curves. Results: The median follow-up time for the 37 sLMPC patients was 39 months,and the median overall survival time was 13 months (range:2 to 64 months) with overall survival rates of 1-,3-,and 5-year of 59.5%,14.7%,and 14.7%,respectively. Of the 37 patients,97.3%(36/37) initially received systemic chemotherapy, 29 completed more than four cycles,resulting in a disease control rate of 69.4% (partial response in 15 cases,stable disease in 10 cases,and progressive disease in 4 cases). In the 24 patients initially planned for conversion surgery,the successful conversion rate was 54.2% (13/24). Among the 13 successfully converted patients,9 underwent surgery and their treatment outcomes were significantly better than those (4 patients) of those who did not undergo surgery (median survival time not reached vs. 13 months,P<0.05). Regarding the 9 patients whose conversion was unsuccessful, no significant differences were observed in median survival time between the surgical group (4 cases) and the non-surgical group (5 cases) (P>0.05). In the allowed-surgery group(n=13),the decreased in pre-surgical CA19-9 levels and the regression of liver metastases were more significant in the successful conversion sub-group than in the ineffective conversion sub-group;however, no significant differences were observed in the changes in primary lesion between the two groups. Conclusion: For highly selective patients with sLMPC who achieve partial response after receiving effective systemic treatment,the adoption of an aggressive surgical treatment strategy can significantly improve survival time;however, surgery dose not provide such survival benefits in patients who do not achieve partial response after systemic chemotherapy.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Pancreatic Neoplasms/surgery , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Docetaxel/therapeutic use , Liver Neoplasms/secondary , Fluorouracil , Leucovorin/therapeutic use
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971510

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#The prepare decellularized extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffold materials derived from human cervical carcinoma tissues for 3D culture of cervical carcinoma cells.@*METHODS@#Fresh human cervical carcinoma tissues were treated with sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES) solution to prepare decellularized ECM scaffolds. The scaffolds were examined for ECM microstructure and residual contents of key ECM components (collagen, glycosaminoglycan, and elastin) and genetic materials by pathological staining and biochemical content analysis. In vitro 3D culture models were established by injecting cultured cervical cancer cells into the prepared ECM scaffolds. The cells in the recellularized scaffolds were compared with those in a conventional 2D culture system for cell behaviors including migration, proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) wsing HE staining, immunohistochemical staining and molecular biological technology analysis. Resistance to 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) of the cells in the two culture systems was tested by analyzing the cell apoptosis rates via flow cytometry.@*RESULTS@#SLES treatment effectively removed cells and genetic materials from human cervical carcinoma tissues but well preserved the microenvironment structure and biological activity of ECM. Compared with the 2D culture system, the 3D culture models significantly promoted proliferation, migration, EMT and 5-Fu resistance of human cervical cancer cells.@*CONCLUSION@#The decellularized ECM scaffolds prepared using human cervical carcinoma tissues provide the basis for construction of in vitro 3D culture models for human cervical cancer cells.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Decellularized Extracellular Matrix , Extracellular Matrix , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Tissue Scaffolds/chemistry , Carcinoma , Fluorouracil/pharmacology , Tissue Engineering , Tumor Microenvironment
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970488

ABSTRACT

In recent years, the clinical treatment of colorectal cancer(CRC) has made great progress, but chemoresistance is still one of the main reasons for reducing the survival rate of patients with colorectal cancer. Therefore, ameliorating chemotherapy resis-tance is an urgent problem to be solved. The purpose of this study was to investigate the regulatory role and related molecular mechanisms of hydroxysafflor yellow A(HSYA) in colorectal cancer cell proliferation, migration, and 5-fluorouracil(5-FU) chemoresistance. In this study, HCT116 and HT-29 cells were used as research subjects. Firstly, methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium(MTT) assay and colony formation assay were used to detect and analyze the effect of HSYA on the proliferation of CRC cells. Secondly, the effect of HSYA on the cell cycle in CRC cells was analyzed by cell cycle assay. Furthermore, the effect of HSYA on the migration of CRC cells was analyzed by wound-healing assay and Transwell assay. Based on the above, the influences of HSYA on 5-FU chemoresistance of CRC cells and related molecular mechanisms were explored and analyzed. The results showed that HSYA significantly inhibited the proliferation and migration of CRC cells, and arrested the cell cycle in G_0/G_1 phase. In addition, HSYA significantly ameliorated the chemoresistance of CRC cells to 5-FU. The results of acridine orange staining and Western blot showed that the autophagy activity of CRC cells in the HSYA and 5-FU combined treatment group was significantly higher than that in the 5-FU single drug treatment group. As compared with the 5-FU single drug treatment group, the phosphorylation levels of protein kinase B(Akt) and mammalian target of rapamycin(mTOR) in the HSYA and 5-FU combined treatment group were significantly reduced, indicating that the Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in the combined treatment group was down-regulated in CRC cells. In conclusion, HSYA may upregulate autophagy activity through the Akt/mTOR signaling pathway, thereby inhibiting the proliferation and migration of CRC cells and ameliorating the chemoresistance to 5-FU.


Subject(s)
Humans , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , Cell Line, Tumor , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Fluorouracil/pharmacology , Cell Proliferation , Autophagy , Colorectal Neoplasms/drug therapy
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981492

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to analyze the effect of Bletilla striata polysaccharide(BSP) on endogenous metabolites in serum of tumor-bearing mice treated with 5-fluorouracil(5-FU) by untargeted metabolomics techniques and explore the mechanism of BSP in alleviating the toxic and side effects induced by 5-FU. Male BALB/C mice were randomly divided into a normal group, a model group, a 5-FU group, and a 5-FU + BSP group, with eight mice in each group. Mouse colon cancer cells(CT26) were transplanted into the mice except for those in the normal group to construct the tumor-bearing mouse model by subcutaneous injection, and 5-FU chemotherapy and BSP treatment were carried out from the second day of modeling. The changes in body weight, diarrhea, and white blood cell count in the peripheral blood were recorded. The mice were sacrificed and sampled when the tumor weight of mice in the model group reached approximately 1 g. TUNEL staining was used to detect the cell apoptosis in the small intestine of each group. The proportions of hematopoietic stem cells and myeloid progenitor cells in bone marrow were measured by flow cytometry. Five serum samples were selected randomly from each group for untargeted metabolomics analysis. The results showed that BSP was not effective in inhibiting colon cancer in mice, but diarrhea, leukopenia, and weight loss caused by 5-FU chemotherapy were significantly improved after BSP intervention. In addition, apoptotic cells decreased in the small intestinal tissues and the percentages of hematopoietic stem cells and myeloid progenitor cells in bone marrow were significantly higher after BSP treatment. Metabolomics results showed that the toxic and side effects of 5-FU resulted in significant decrease in 29 metabolites and significant increase in 22 metabolites in mouse serum. Among them, 19 disordered metabolites showed a return to normal levels in the 5-FU+BSP group. The results of pathway enrichment indicated that metabolic pathways mainly involved pyrimidine metabolism, arachidonic acid metabolism, and steroid hormone biosynthesis. Therefore, BSP may ameliorate the toxic and side effects of 5-FU in the intestinal tract and bone marrow presumably by regulating nucleotide synthesis, inflammatory damage, and hormone production.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Colonic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Diarrhea , Fluorouracil/adverse effects , Hormones , Metabolomics , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Polysaccharides/pharmacology
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1011032

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the risk factors that affect the prognosis of patients with hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma(HPSCC) and to compare the efficacy of surgical resection followed by adjuvant radiotherapy(SR) with that of neoadjuvant therapy consisting of platinum-based chemotherapy and fluorouracil combined with either cetuximab or nimotuzumab, followed by SR. The study also aimed to evaluate the overall survival(OS) of patients, their postoperative eating function, tracheostomy decannulation rate, and tumor response to the two neoadjuvant chemotherapies. Methods:A retrospective analysis was performed on the medical records of HPSCC patients who received SR or neoadjuvant therapy followed by SR treatment at the Shanghai General Hospital from 2012 to 2019 and had not undergone any prior treatment. The prognostic factors were analyzed, and the survival analysis of patients who underwent SR treatment with two neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimens was performed. Results:A total of 108 patients were included in the study. The results of the univariate analysis showed that gender(P=0.850) had no significant correlation with the survival rate of HPSCC patients who underwent SR. However, age, smoking history, alcohol consumption history, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio(PLR), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio(NLR), T stage, N stage, neoadjuvant therapy with either cetuximab or nimotuzumab combined with platinum-based chemotherapy and fluorouracil, and histological grade were significantly associated with prognosis(P<0.05). The multivariate analysis revealed that smoking history, histological grade, and neoadjuvant therapy with either cetuximab or nimotuzumab combined with platinum-based chemotherapy and fluorouracil were independent risk factors affecting the prognosis of HPSCC(P<0.05). Patients who received neoadjuvant therapy had longer OS than those who underwent SR only(P<0.001). There was no significant difference in tumor response to the two neoadjuvant therapies and in OS(P>0.05), and there was no significant difference in the rate of oral feeding and tracheostomy decannulation among the three treatment groups(P>0.05). Conclusion:Univariate analysis showed that age at tumor onset, smoking history, alcohol consumption history, NLR, PLR, T stage, N stage, whether receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and pathological grade were associated with the prognosis of HPSCC patients receiving SR treatment. Multivariate analysis showed that smoking history, pathological grade, and neoadjuvant chemotherapy were independent risk factors affecting the prognosis. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy with cetuximab or nimotuzumab can prolong the OS of patients, providing a certain basis and reference for the treatment of HPSCC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck , Cetuximab/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , China , Prognosis , Fluorouracil , Head and Neck Neoplasms
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008639

ABSTRACT

This study aims to investigate the regulatory effects of Astragalus polysaccharide(APS) and APS combined with 5-fluorouracil(5-FU) on indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase(IDO1) in the colon tumor microenvironment. Sixty Balb/c mice were randomized into a blank group, a model group, an APS group, an APS + 5-FU group, an APS + low-dose 5-FU group, and a 5-FU group. A tumor model was established by subcutaneous transplantation with CT-26 mouse colon cancer cells in other groups except the blank group. After successful modeling, each group was treated with corresponding drugs for 7 days. The general condition, body weight, and tumor volume of the mice were observed and measured daily during the treatment period. The mice were sacrificed at the end of treatment, and the tumor suppression rate and spleen index of the mice were calculated. Western blot and fluorescence quantitative PCR were employed to determine the protein and mRNA levels, respectively, of IDO1 in the tumor tissue of mice. High performance liquid chromatography was employed to measure the levels of tryptophan(Trp) and kynurenine(Kyn) in the tumor tissue of mice. Hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining was performed to observe the histological changes of the tumor tissue, and immunohistochemistry to detect the changes of CD4 and CD8 expression in the tumor tissue. Compared with that in the model group, the tumor volume of mice in each treatment group significantly reduced. The body weights of mice in APS + 5-FU group and 5-FU group significantly reduced from day 4 to day 7 of treatment. In addition, the APS + 5-FU group and 5-FU group showed significantly decreased spleen index. The protein and mRNA levels of IDO1 were significantly down-regulated in the APS, APS + 5-FU, and APS + low-dose 5-FU groups. The drug interventions significantly increased the Trp content and decreased the Kyn content. The APS + 5-FU group showed significantly reduced infiltration of CD4~+ T lymphocytes and increased infiltration of CD8~+ T lymphocytes. APS inhibited the expression of IDO1 in the colon tumor microenvironment to increase CD8~+ T lymphocyte infiltration, and the combination of APS with 5-FU demonstrated better effect.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Tumor Microenvironment , Colonic Neoplasms/genetics , Fluorouracil/pharmacology , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism
11.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 35(2)jun. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1441729

ABSTRACT

Las neoplasias intraepiteliales córneo-conjuntival son lesiones premalignas, mal delimitadas, de crecimiento lento y escaso potencial de malignización. Solo el 9 por ciento progresa a carcinoma invasor de células escamosas. Posee varias formas de presentación y tiene múltiples dilataciones vasculares. La displasia epitelial corneal primaria es una forma poco frecuente de neoplasia intraepitelial córnea-epitelial. Se presenta un caso clínico confirmado por estudios anatomopatológicos. En el presente estudio se observó respuesta satisfactoria luego de un mes de tratamiento tópico con 5FU, sin efectos colaterales. El seguimiento durante tres años no ha mostrado signos de recidiva(AU)


Corneal-conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasms are premalignant, poorly demarcated, slow-growing lesions with low malignant potential. Only the 9 percent progresses to invasive squamous cell carcinoma. It appears in several forms and presents multiple vascular dilatations. Primary corneal epithelial dysplasia is a rare form of corneal-epithelial intraepithelial neoplasia. We present a clinical case, confirmed by anatomopathologic studies. In the present study we observed a satisfactory response after one month of topical treatment with 5FU, with no side effects. Follow-up for three years has shown no signs of recurrence(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Carcinoma in Situ/etiology , Microscopy, Confocal/methods , Fluorouracil/therapeutic use
12.
Acta cir. bras ; 37(2): e370204, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1374066

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To evaluate the protective effect of Cuscuta chinensis Lam. polysaccharides (PCCL) on 5-fluorouracil-(5-FU)-induced intestinal mucositis (IM) in mice. Methods: PCCL was orally administered at a dose of 20 mg·kg­1 for 7 days and its protective effect on 5-FU-induced IM (5-FU, 50 mg·kg­1 for 5 days) was evaluated by monitoring changes in body weight, degree of diarrhea, levels of tissue inflammatory factors (tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 6, and interleukin 1ß levels), apoptosis rates, and the expression levels of caspase-3, Bax and Bcl-2. Results: The severity of mucosal injury (as reflected by body weight changes, degree of diarrhea, height of villi, and damage to crypts) was significantly attenuated by PCCL administration. PCCL also reduced the levels of tissue inflammatory factors, the apoptosis rate, and the expression of caspase-3 and Bax, and increased Bcl-2 expression. Conclusions: PCCL administration may be significantly protective against 5-FU-induced IM by inhibiting apoptosis and regulating the abnormal inflammation associated with it.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Polysaccharides/therapeutic use , Cuscuta/chemistry , Mucositis/drug therapy , Fluorouracil/adverse effects , Protective Agents/analysis
13.
Acta cir. bras ; 37(9): e370901, 2022. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1402981

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To evaluate the effect of preoperative intravenous chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil on liver regeneration in an experimental model of major hepatectomy in rats. Methods: Wistar rats were divided into two groups of 20 animals each and submitted to 70% hepatectomy 24 h after intravenous injection of 5-fluorouracil 20 mg/kg (fluorouracil group, FG) or 0.9% saline (control group, CG). After hepatectomy, each group was subdivided into two subgroups of 10 animals each according to the day of sacrifice (24 h or 7 days). Liver weight during regeneration, liver regeneration rate using Kwon formula, and the immunohistochemical markers proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Ki-67 were used to assess liver regeneration. Results: At early phase (24 h after hepatectomy) it was demonstrated the negative effect of 5-fluorouracil on liver regeneration when assessed by Kwon formula (p < 0.0001), PCNA analysis (p = 0.02). With regeneration process complete (7 days), it was possible to demonstrate the sustained impairment of chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil on hepatocytes regeneration phenomenon when measured by Kwon formula (p = 0.009), PCNA analysis (p = 0.0001) and Ki-67 analysis (0.001). Conclusions: Preoperative chemotherapy with intravenous 5-fluorouracil negatively affected the mechanisms of liver regeneration after major hepatectomy in rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Chemoprevention/methods , Fluorouracil/therapeutic use , Hepatectomy/rehabilitation , Liver Regeneration/drug effects
14.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e20114, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403742

ABSTRACT

Abstract Curcumin, contained at Turmeric (Curcumalonga), can exert many beneficial pleiotropic activities in the gastrointestinal tract. This study evaluated the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of C. longa on 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-induced oral mucositis (OM) in hamsters. Phytochemical analysis of crude C. longa extract (CLE) was performed to detect the presence of curcumin by TLC and HPLC. Golden Syrian hamsters were orally pre-treated with CLE (5, 50, or 100mg/kg). Cheek pouch samples were subjected to macroscopic and histopathological evaluation. ELISA was performed to quantify the inflammatory cytokines IL-1ß and TNF-α. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were assessed by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy analysis. Behavior analysis was conducted by the open field test. Curcumin content in the CLE was 0.55%m/m ± 0.0161 (2.84%). The group treated with 5mg/kg CLE showed healing evidence with macroscopic absence of ulceration (p<0.05) and microscopic aspect of re-epithelialization, discrete inflammatory infiltrate and absence of edema. Treatment with 5mg/kg CLE significantly increased GSH levels, and reduced MDA levels and SOD activity (p˂0.05), and decreased IL-1ß (p˂0.05) and TNF-α (p˂0.01) levels. A significant reduction in walking distance, ambulation, speed, and rearing was observed for motor activity. Curcumin reduced oxidative stress, inflammation, and motor activity in hamsters with 5-FU-induced OM.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Stomatitis/pathology , Curcumin/analysis , Curcuma/classification , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Phytochemicals/agonists , Fluorouracil/administration & dosage , Inflammation/complications , Antioxidants/classification
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936191

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the roles of G Protein-Coupled Receptor 68 (GPR68) and tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) in TPF-(paclitaxel, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil) induced chemotherapy for middle-advanced hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas. Methods: A total of 31 patients with middle-advanced hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma before TPF-inducted chemotherapy were enrolled from September 2012 to November 2017 in Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, including 28 males and 3 females, aged 43 to 71 years old. The expression of GPR68 and tumor infiltrating CD4+and CD8+T cells before chemotherapy was detected by immunohistochemical staining, and the relationships between GPR68 expression and clinical features, chemotherapy efficacy and overall survival (OS) were analyzed using t-test. Results: After 3 cycles of chemotherapy, there were 4, 14, 10 and 3 patients respectively with complete response (CR), partial response (PR), stable disease (SD) and progressive disease (PD). The positive rates of GPR68 and CD8 were 25% and 40% respectively in the effective group (CR+PR), while 50% and 15% in the ineffective group (SD+PD), with statistically significant differences between two groups (t=5.17 and 12.86,P<0.001). Linear regression analysis showed that GPR68 was negatively correlated with CD8+T cells (r=-0.64,P<0.001). There was no significant correlation between the CD4 expression and TPF efficacy (P>0.05). The mean OS was 12.5 months in patients with high-expressed GPR68 and 25.0 months in patients with low-expressed GPR68, with a statistically significant difference (P=0.005). And mean OS was 25.0 months in patients with high-expressed CD8 and 14.5 months in low-expressed CD8, with a statistically significant difference (HR=2.58, P=0.019). Cox regression analysis showed that GPR68 and CD8+T cells were significant prognostic factors (OR(95%CI)=3.27(2.46-5.97) and 1.53(0.78-1.82), all P<0.05), while CD4 had no significant effect on prognosis (P>0.05). Conclusion: GPR68 and CD8+T cells are expected to be biomarkers for evaluating the efficacy and prognosis of TPF-induced chemotherapy in patients with middle-advanced hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Cisplatin , Fluorouracil , Head and Neck Neoplasms/drug therapy , Induction Chemotherapy , Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating , Prognosis , Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936046

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the factors affecting the success of conversion therapy in patients with initially unresectable colorectal cancer liver metastases (CRLM) in order to provide evidence-based medical evidence for formulating individualized treatment strategies for patients. Methods: A retrospective case-control study was used in this study. Clinical data of 232 patients with initially unresectable CRLM receiving first-line systemic treatment in Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center from January 2013 to January 2020 were collected, including 98 patients of successful conversion and 134 patients of failed conversion as control. Conversion therapy scheme: 38 patients received FOLFOXIRI regimen chemotherapy (irinotecan, oxaliplatin, calcium folinate and fluorouracil), 152 patients received FOLFOX regimen (oxaliplatin, calcium folinate and fluorouracil), 19 patients received FOLRIRI regimen (irinotecan, calcium folinate and fluorouracil), 23 patients received systemic chemotherapy combined with fluorouridine hepatic artery infusion chemotherapy; 168 patients received targeted therapy, including 68 of bevacizumab and 100 of cetuximab. Logistics analysis was used to compare the factors affecting the success of conversion therapy. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate progression-free survival (PFS), and the Log-rank test was used for survival comparison. Results: Among 232 patients, 98 patients had successful conversions and 134 patients had failed conversions with a successful conversion rate of 42.2%, meanwhile 30 patients underwent simple hepatectomy and 68 underwent hepatectomy combined with intraoperative radiofrequency ablation. After first-line chemotherapy, 111 patients (47.8%) were partial remission, 57 patients (24.6%) were stable disease, and 64 patients (27.6%) were progression disease. During the median follow-up of 18.8 (1.0-87.9) months, 148 patients were dead or with tumor progression. The median PFS time of patients with successful conversion was longer than that of patients with failed conversion (31.0 months vs. 9.9 months, P<0.001). Univariate analysis found that the bilobar distribution of liver tumors (P=0.003), elevated baseline carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels (P=0.024), tumor invasion of the portal vein (P=0.001), number of metastatic tumor>8 (P<0.001), non-FOLFOXIRI (P=0.005), and no targeted therapy (P=0.038) were high risk factors for the failed conversion therapy. The results of multivariate logistics analysis indicated that the number of metastatic tumor >8 (OR=2.422, 95%CI: 1.291-4.544, P=0.006), portal vein invasion (OR=2.727, 95%CI: 1.237-4.170, P=0.008) were the independent risk factors for failed conversion therapy, while FOLFOXIRI regimen (OR=0.300, 95%CI: 0.135-0.666, P=0.003) and targeted drugs (OR=0.411, 95%CI: 0.209-0.809, P=0.010) were independent protective factors for successful conversion therapy. Conclusions: The number of metastatic tumor and portal vein invasion are key factors that affect the outcomes of conversion therapy for initially unresectable CRLM. If a patient can tolerate chemotherapy, a combination program of three-drug and targeted therapy is preferred for the active conversion therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Camptothecin/therapeutic use , Case-Control Studies , Colorectal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Fluorouracil/therapeutic use , Leucovorin/therapeutic use , Liver Neoplasms/drug therapy , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929266

ABSTRACT

Currently, chemoresistance seriously attenuates the curative outcome of liver cancer. The purpose of our work was to investigate the influence of 6-shogaol on the inhibition of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in liver cancer. The cell viability of cancer cells was determined by MTT assay. Liver cancer cell apoptosis and the cell cycle were examined utilizing flow cytometry. Moreover, qRT-PCR and western blotting was used to analyse the mRNA and protein expression levels, respectively. Immunohistochemistry assays were used to examine multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1) expression in tumour tissues. In liver cancer cells, we found that 6-shogaol-5-FU combination treatment inhibited cell viability, facilitated G0/G1 cell cycle arrest, and accelerated apoptosis compared with 6-shogaol or 5-FU treatment alone. In cancer cells cotreated with 6-shogaol and 5-FU, AKT/mTOR pathway- and cell cycle-related protein expression levels were inhibited, and MRP1 expression was downregulated. AKT activation or MRP1 increase reversed the influence of combination treatment on liver cancer cell viability, apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. The inhibition of AKT activation to the anticancer effect of 6-shogaol-5-FU could be reversed by MRP1 silencing. Moreover, our results showed that 6-shogaol-5-FU combination treatment notably inhibited tumour growth in vivo. In summary, our data demonstrated that 6-shogaol contributed to the curative outcome of 5-FU in liver cancer by inhibiting the AKT/mTOR/MRP1 signalling pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Subfamily B, Member 1 , Apoptosis , Catechols , Cell Cycle , Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , Fluorouracil/pharmacology , Liver Neoplasms/genetics , Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971345

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Fluorouracil chemotherapeutic drugs are the classic treatment drugs of gastric cancer. But the problem of drug resistance severely limits their clinical application. This study aims to investigate whether hypoxia microenvironment affects gastric cancer resistance to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and discuss the changes of gene and proteins directly related to drug resistance under hypoxia condition.@*METHODS@#Gastric cancer cells were treated with 5-FU in hypoxia/normoxic environment, and were divided into a Normoxic+5-FU group and a Hypoxia+5-FU group. The apoptosis assay was conducted by flow cytometry Annexin V/PI double staining. The real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting were used to detect the expression level of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), multidrug resistance (MDR1) gene, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) which were related to 5-FU drug-resistance. We analyzed the effect of hypoxia on the treatment of gastric cancer with 5-FU.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the Normoxic+5-FU group, the apoptosis of gastric cancer cells treated with 5-FU in the Hypoxia+5-FU group was significantly reduced (P<0.05), and the expression of apoptosis promoter protein caspase 8 was also decreased. Compared with the the Normoxic+5-FU group, HIF-1α mRNA expression in the Hypoxia+5-FU group was significantly increased (P<0.05), and the mRNA and protein expression levels of MDR1, P-gp and VEGF were also significantly increased (all P<0.05). The increased expression of MDR1, P-gp and VEGF had the same trend with the expression of HIF-1α.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Hypoxia is a direct influencing factor in gastric cancer resistance to 5-FU chemotherapy. Improvement of the local hypoxia microenvironment of gastric cancer may be a new idea for overcoming the resistance to 5-FU in gastric cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Fluorouracil/therapeutic use , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism , Stomach Neoplasms/drug therapy , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors/metabolism , Hypoxia , ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Subfamily B/genetics , ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Subfamily B, Member 1/genetics , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Hypoxia , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/genetics , Tumor Microenvironment
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927924

ABSTRACT

Astragali Radix-Curcumae Rhizoma(AR-CR) is a combination commonly used in the clinical treatment of tumors. Based on the T helper 17(Th17)/regulatory T cell(Treg) balance, the present study explored the possible mechanism of AR-CR combined with 5-fluorouracil(5-FU) on the tumor growth of orthotopic xenograft model mice of colorectal carcinoma. Ninety male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into nine groups, i.e., a blank group, a model group, a 5-FU group, high-, medium-, and low-dose AR-CR(2∶1) groups, and high-, medium-, and low-dose AR-CR+5-FU groups, with 10 mice in each group. The orthotopic xenograft model of CT26.WT colorectal carcinoma was induced in mice except those in the blank group. Twenty-four hours after the ope-ration, mice in the blank group and the model group received normal saline by gavage(10 mL·kg~(-1), once per day), and those in the 5-FU group received 5-FU by intraperitoneal injection(25 mg·kg~(-1), once every other day). Mice in the AR-CR groups received AR and CR decoctions by gavage(12, 6, and 3 g·kg~(-1), once a day) and those in the combination groups received AR and CR decoctions and 5-FU(doses and administration methods were the same as above). After intervention for three weeks, all mice were sacrificed and tumor tissues were collected. The tumor mass was weighed and the average tumor weight was calculated. The changing trend of Th17/Treg(%) in the CD4~+T lymphocytes of the spleen tissues of the mice in each group was detected. The mRNA expression in the blood and protein expression in the tumor tissues of transforming growth factor-β(TGF-β), tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), interferon-γ(IFN-γ), Smad4, N-cadherin, matrix metalloproteinase-7(MMP-7) were detected. The experimental results revealed that compared with the model group, the groups with drug intervention showed reduced tumor mass(P<0.01), decreased CD4~+IL-17~+ in the spleen tissues to varying degrees(P<0.001), and increased proportion of CD4~+Foxp3~+(P<0.001 or P<0.05), indicating that Th17/Treg maintained dynamic balance, and the effect of the combination groups was predominant. Additionally, the mRNA expression in the blood and protein expression in the tumor tissues of TGF-β, TNF-α, IFN-γ, Smad4, N-cadherin, and MMP-7 declined to varying degrees in a dose-dependent manner(P<0.01 or P<0.001). The AR-CR combined with 5-FU can inhibit the tumor growth of orthotopic xenograft model mice of CT26.WT colorectal carcinoma. The mechanism may be related to maintenance of Th17/Treg dynamic balance in the body and down-regulation of TGF-β, TNF-α, IFN-γ, Smad4, N-cadherin, and MMP-7 expression.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Male , Mice , Colorectal Neoplasms/genetics , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Fluorouracil/pharmacology , Heterografts , Mice, Inbred BALB C , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory , Th17 Cells
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