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1.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 171-181, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010653

ABSTRACT

Even though retinal images of objects change their locations following each eye movement, we perceive a stable and continuous world. One possible mechanism by which the brain achieves such visual stability is to construct a craniotopic coordinate by integrating retinal and extraretinal information. There have been several proposals on how this may be done, including eye-position modulation (gain fields) of retinotopic receptive fields (RFs) and craniotopic RFs. In the present study, we investigated coordinate systems used by RFs in the lateral intraparietal (LIP) cortex and frontal eye fields (FEF) and compared the two areas. We mapped the two-dimensional RFs of neurons in detail under two eye fixations and analyzed how the RF of a given neuron changes with eye position to determine its coordinate representation. The same recording and analysis procedures were applied to the two brain areas. We found that, in both areas, RFs were distributed from retinotopic to craniotopic representations. There was no significant difference between the distributions in the LIP and FEF. Only a small fraction of neurons was fully craniotopic, whereas most neurons were between the retinotopic and craniotopic representations. The distributions were strongly biased toward the retinotopic side but with significant craniotopic shifts. These results suggest that there is only weak evidence for craniotopic RFs in the LIP and FEF, and that transformation from retinotopic to craniotopic coordinates in these areas must rely on other factors such as gain fields.


Subject(s)
Animals , Macaca , Visual Fields , Frontal Lobe/physiology , Eye Movements , Brain
2.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 575-586, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007773

ABSTRACT

Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), a prevalent sleep disorder in children, is characterized by recurring upper airway obstruction during sleep. OSAS in children can cause intermittent hypoxia and sleep fragmentation, ultimately affect brain development and further lead to cognitive impairment if lack of timely effective intervention. In recent years, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and electroencephalogram (EEG) have been employed to investigate brain structure and function abnormalities in children with OSAS. Previous studies have indicated that children with OSAS showed extensive gray and white matter damage, abnormal brain function in regions such as the frontal lobe and hippocampus, as well as a significant decline in general cognitive function and executive function. However, the existing studies mainly focused on the regional activity, and the mechanism of pediatric OSAS affecting brain networks remains unknown. Moreover, it's unclear whether the alterations in brain structure and function are associated with their cognitive impairment. In this review article, we proposed two future research directions: 1) future studies should utilize the multimodal neuroimaging techniques to reveal the alterations of brain networks organization underlying pediatric OSAS; 2) further investigation is necessary to explore the relationship between brain network alteration and cognitive dysfunction in children with OSAS. With these efforts, it will be promising to identify the neuroimaging biomarkers for monitoring the brain development of children with OSAS as well as aiding its clinical diagnosis, and ultimately develop more effective strategies for intervention, diagnosis, and treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/complications , Cognition , Hypoxia/complications , Hippocampus , Frontal Lobe
3.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2824-2833, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007679

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) and major depressive disorder (MDD) share significant clinical overlap, although it remains unknown to what extent this overlap reflects shared neural profiles. To identify the shared and specific abnormalities in SCZ and MDD, we performed a whole-brain voxel-based meta-analysis using magnetization transfer imaging, a technique that characterizes the macromolecular structural integrity of brain tissue in terms of the magnetization transfer ratio (MTR).@*METHODS@#A systematic search based on Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, International Scientific Index (ISI) Web of Science, and MEDLINE for relevant studies up to March 2022. Two researchers independently screened the articles. Rigorous scrutiny and data extraction were performed for the studies that met the inclusion criteria. Voxel-wise meta-analyses were conducted using anisotropic effect size-signed differential mapping with a unified template. Meta-regression was used to explore the potential effects of demographic and clinical characteristics.@*RESULTS@#A total of 15 studies with 17 datasets describing 365 SCZ patients, 224 MDD patients, and 550 healthy controls (HCs) were identified. The conjunction analysis showed that both disorders shared higher MTR than HC in the left cerebellum ( P =0.0006) and left fusiform gyrus ( P =0.0004). Additionally, SCZ patients showed disorder-specific lower MTR in the anterior cingulate/paracingulate gyrus, right superior temporal gyrus, and right superior frontal gyrus, and higher MTR in the left thalamus, precuneus/cuneus, posterior cingulate gyrus, and paracentral lobule; and MDD patients showed higher MTR in the left middle occipital region. Meta-regression showed no statistical significance in either group.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The results revealed a structural neural basis shared between SCZ and MDD patients, emphasizing the importance of shared neural substrates across psychopathology. Meanwhile, distinct disease-specific characteristics could have implications for future differential diagnosis and targeted treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Depressive Disorder, Major/drug therapy , Schizophrenia/pathology , Brain/pathology , Prefrontal Cortex , Frontal Lobe , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-987020

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the changes in gray matter volume in depressive-like mice and explore the possible mechanism.@*METHODS@#Twenty-four 6-week-old C57 mice were randomized equally into control group and model group, and the mice in the model group were subjected to chronic unpredictable mild stimulation (CUMS) for 35 days. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed to examine structural changes of the grey matter volume in depressive-like mice. The expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the grey matter of the mice was detected using Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control mice, the mice with CUMS showed significantly decreased central walking distance in the open field test (P < 0.05) and increased immobile time in forced swimming test (P < 0.05). Magnetic resonance imaging showed that the volume of the frontal cortex was significantly decreased in CUMS mice (P < 0.001, when the mass level was greater than or equal to 10 756, the FDRc was corrected with P=0.05). Western blotting showed that the expression of mature BDNF in the frontal cortex was significantly decreased in CUMS mice (P < 0.05), and its expression began to decrease after the exposure to CUMS as shown by immunofluorescence staining. The volume of different clusters obtained by voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis was correlated with the expression level of mature BDNF detected by Western blotting (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#The decrease of frontal cortex volume after CUMS is related with the reduction of mature BDNF expression in the frontal cortex.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Blotting, Western , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Cerebral Cortex , Depression/physiopathology , Frontal Lobe/pathology
5.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e246224, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1431120

ABSTRACT

O isolamento social provocado pela pandemia de covid-19 exigiu uma intensificação no estabelecimento de parâmetros para o trabalho do neuropsicólogo com suas especificidades. Assim, o objetivo deste artigo é levantar reflexões sobre a prática neuropsicológica infantil via internet baseada na nossa experiência prática vivenciada no período, relacionando com as referências teóricas da abordagem histórico-cutural e outros trabalhos que discorrem sobre as particularidades dessa modalidade de atendimento. Para isso, foi realizada uma pesquisa bibliográfica em fontes reconhecidas, como SciELO e Google Acadêmico, utilizando-se marcadores como "neuropsicologia on-line" e "teleneuropsicologia", entre outros, em português, inglês e espanhol. Os trabalhos encontrados foram utilizados como fundamento para discutir as ideias aqui apresentadas, a partir da experiência dos autores durante esse período. Considera-se que os neuropsicólogos precisam enfrentar a possível necessidade do trabalho on-line, considerando que as situações vividas durante a pandemia tendem a aumentar a necessidade de avaliações e intervenções neuropsicológicas. Ao mesmo tempo, se prevê que essa via de trabalho deve se intensificar após o isolamento, dentro do que se tem denominado como "o novo normal". Para isso, é essencial que haja esforço por parte da comunidade neuropsicológica para mostrar como essa área de trabalho pode ser útil para crianças, seus pais e professores. Conclui-se que é preciso ter a noção de que nenhuma via ou metodologia de trabalho é absolutamente completa, sendo essencial a instrumentalização das vantagens e desvantagens de todas elas.(AU)


The social isolation caused by the COVID-19 pandemic demanded intensification in the establishment of parameters for the neuropsychologist's work with its specificities. Thus, the aim of this article is to raise reflections on child neuropsychological practice via the internet, based on our practical experience in this period, relating to the theoretical references of the cultural-historical approach and other works that discuss the particularities of this type of care. For this, a bibliographic research was carried out in recognized sources such as SciELO and Google Scholar, using markers such as "online neuropsychology" and teleneuropsychology, among others, in Portuguese, English and Spanish. The works found were used as a basis for discussing the ideas presented here which are based on the authors' experience during this period. It is considered that neuropsychologists need to face the possible need for online work, considering that situations experienced during the pandemic tend to increase the need for neuropsychological assessments and interventions. At the same time, it is expected that this work path should intensify after isolation, within of what has been called "the new normal". For this, an effort by the neuropsychological community is essential to show how this area of work can be useful for children, their parents and teachers. It is concluded that it is necessary to have the notion that no way or work methodology is absolutely complete, being essential the instrumentalization of the advantages and disadvantages of all of them.(AU)


El aislamiento social provocado por la pandemia de Covid-19 exigió una intensificación en el establecimiento de parámetros para el trabajo del neuropsicólogo con sus especificidades. Así, el objetivo de este artículo es plantear reflexiones sobre la práctica neuropsicológica infantil a través de internet, a partir de nuestra experiencia práctica en este período, en relación con los referentes teóricos del enfoque histórico-cultural y otros trabajos que discuten las particularidades de este tipo de cuidado. Para esto, se realizó una investigación bibliográfica en fuentes reconocidas como SciELO y Google Académico, utilizando marcadores como "neuropsicología en línea" y teleneuropsicología, entre otros, en portugués, inglés y español. Los trabajos encontrados sirvieron de base para discutir las ideas aquí presentadas a partir de la experiencia de los autores durante este período. Se considera que los neuropsicólogos necesitan enfrentar la posible necesidad de trabajo en línea, considerando que las situaciones vividas durante la pandemia tienden a incrementar la necesidad de evaluaciones e intervenciones neuropsicológicas. Al mismo tiempo, se espera que esta vía de trabajo se intensifique después del aislamiento, dentro de lo que se ha denominado "la nueva normalidad". Para esto, un esfuerzo de la comunidad neuropsicológica es fundamental para mostrar cómo esta área de trabajo puede ser útil para los niños, sus padres y profesores. Se concluye que es necesario tener la noción de que ninguna vía o metodología de trabajo es absolutamente completa, siendo imprescindible la instrumentalización de las ventajas y desventajas de todas ellas.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Social Isolation , Online Systems , Remote Consultation , Culture , Internet-Based Intervention , History , Neuropsychology , Parent-Child Relations , Aptitude Tests , Practice, Psychological , Problem Solving , Psychological Tests , Psychology , Quality of Life , Attention , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Wechsler Scales , Behavior , Mainstreaming, Education , Adaptation, Psychological , Family , Child , Child Development , Child Language , Child, Preschool , Parenting , Cognition , Coronavirus Infections , Communication , Competency-Based Education , Compliance , Early Intervention, Educational , Neurobehavioral Manifestations , Recognition, Psychology , Dementia , Growth and Development , Videoconferencing , Evaluation of Research Programs and Tools , Cerebrum , Interdisciplinary Studies , Spatial Memory , Neurodevelopmental Disorders , Behavior Rating Scale , Patient Health Questionnaire , Memory and Learning Tests , Mental Status and Dementia Tests , Frontal Lobe , Egocentrism , Clinical Reasoning , COVID-19 , Cognitive Training , Family Support , Human Development , Information Services , Intelligence Tests , Language Development , Memory , Memory, Short-Term , Mental Processes , Neurologic Examination , Neuronal Plasticity , Neuropsychological Tests
6.
Rev. chil. neuropsicol. (En línea) ; 16(1): 1-10, ene. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362080

ABSTRACT

Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo determinar la influencia de la práctica deportiva sobre el desempeño de las funciones ejecutivas y, a su vez, indagar si la ejecución individual y/o grupal del deporte establece diferencias en el desarrollo de estas habilidades cognitivas y las posibles relaciones asociadas a los tiempos de entrenamiento. Para esto, se estableció una metodología cuantitativa, de diseño comparativo-correlacional. La muestra estuvo conformada por 100 participantes entre 18 y 25 años de edad de ambos géneros, distribuidos en tres grupos, uno de deportes de ejecución individual, otro de deportistas de actividad grupal y un grupo control con personas sin participación en actividades deportivas. Se encontraron, por ejemplo, mayores desempeños en funciones de planeación, memoria de trabajo, control inhibitorio y subtipos de atención por parte de quienes practicaban algún tipo de deporte, independiente de la modalidad de ejecución; pese a que, para algunas funciones cognitivas el participar de un deporte grupal generaba mayores puntuaciones en las tareas propuestas y, en otras, la ventaja la presentaron los integrantes de deportes individuales. Asimismo, se pudo establecer que existe una relación entre el tiempo semanal de entrenamiento y el funcionamiento de la actividad ejecutiva; esto, permitió corroborar la influencia de la actividad deportiva sobre el funcionamiento cognitivo subyacente en los lóbulos frontales.


This research aimed to determine the influence of sports practice on the performance of executive functions and, in turn, to inquire whether the individual and/or group performance of sports establishes differences in the development of these cognitive skills and the possible associated relationships to training times. To do this, a quantitative, comparative-correlational design methodology was established. The sample consisted of 100 participants between 18 and 25 years of age of both genders, divided into three groups, one for individual sports, another for athletes with group activity, and a control group with people without participation in sports activities. For example, greater performance was found in planning functions, working memory, inhibitory control and attention subtypes by those who practiced some type of sport, independent of the execution modality; Despite the fact that, for some cognitive functions, participating in a group sport generated higher scores in the proposed tasks and, in others, the advantage was presented by the members of individual sports. Likewise, it was established that there is a relationship between weekly training time and the performance of executive activity; This allowed to corroborate the influence of sports activity on underlying cognitive functioning on the frontal lobes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Sports , Exercise/physiology , Cognition/physiology , Executive Function/physiology , Frontal Lobe/physiology , Cross-Sectional Studies
7.
Rev. chil. neuropsicol. (En línea) ; 16(1): 11-16, ene. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362017

ABSTRACT

Las cardiopatías congénitas se consideran una de las anomalías que alteran la irrigación y el intercambio de oxigenación adecuado a las principales venas y arterias. Esto puede generar consecuencias en el desarrollo neurológico que se puede traducir en retraso psicomotor, déficits de aprendizaje, dificultades académicas y problemas de integración social. Para mejorar los trastornos cognitivos, se propone la habilitación cognitiva basada en los principios de mecánica y robótica de LEGO® Education. El objetivo de este estudio fue medir el efecto de un programa de intervención, basado en el uso de ensamblado y programación robótica con LEGO® Education, sobre las funciones frontales básicas como primera aproximación a un modelo propuesto en pacientes cardiópatas congénitos que han sido sometidos a cirugía cardiovascular. Se trató de un estudio de serie de casos, en el que finalizaron el tratamiento una niña y dos niños con cardiopatías congénitas con RACHS 2 y 3. Se aplicaron sub-escalas BANFE-2 y el cuestionario neuropsicológico de daño frontal antes y después del tratamiento; así como una escala para medir el nivel de ejecución por intervención, durante las ocho sesiones. Los resultados muestran en la escala BANFE2, cambios en las medias de las funciones frontales básicas, de daño leve-moderado y normal a normal alto, principalmente en memoria de trabajo y fluidez verbal. En esta primera aproximación, el método LEGO® Education mostró ser una buena herramienta para la habilitación neuropsicológica de estos pacientes.


Congenital heart diseases are considered to be an anomaly which alter the irrigation and the adequate exchange of oxygenation to the main veins and arteries. They can have neurodevelopmental consequences that could translate into psychomotor retardation, learning deficits, academic difficulties, and social integration problems. Cognitive empowerment based on the mechanics and robotics principles of LEGO® Education is proposed to improve cognitive disorders. In this study, the objective was to measure the effect of an intervention program, based on the use of assembly and robotic programming with LEGO® Education, upon basic frontal functions as a first approach to a proposed model in congenital heart disease patients who have undergone cardiovascular surgery. This was a case-series study, in which a girl and two boys with congenital heart disease with RACHS 2 and 3, completed the treatment. BANFE-2 subscales and the neuropsychological questionnaire of frontal damage were applied before and after the treatment; as well as a scale to measure the level of performance per intervention, through all the eight sessions. The BANFE-2 scale showed changes in the means of frontal functions, from mild-moderate damage and normal to high normal, mainly in working memory and verbal fluency. In this first approach, LEGO® Education method proved to be a useful tool for the neuropsychological empowerment of these patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Robotics , Cognition Disorders/rehabilitation , Heart Defects, Congenital/rehabilitation , Mechanics , Frontal Lobe/physiology , Learning
8.
Acta sci., Health sci ; 43: e49846, Feb.11, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368509

ABSTRACT

Fibromyalgia is a disorder of the central nervous system, with the presence of chronic generalized pain, fatigue, morning stiffness, anxiety and depression symptoms. Higher amplitudes of the frequency band alpha2 have been associated with higher relaxationin this population. In the present study, we analysed the association between pain, anxiety, and the spectral power of alpha2 frontal in women with fibromyalgia. Thirty-one women diagnosed with fibromyalgia, for at least three months, took part in the study. Results revealed a statistically significant positive relationship between pain and anxiety levels. However, we found no association between the spectral power of alpha2 in the frontal cortex and the measures between anxiety and pain in the patients. Present findings emphasize the importance of understanding the cortical activity and the central control mechanisms in fibromyalgia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Pain/diagnosis , Women/psychology , Fibromyalgia/diagnosis , Frontal Lobe/pathology , Anxiety/psychology , Spectrum Analysis/instrumentation , Depression/psychology , Electroencephalography/instrumentation
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888226

ABSTRACT

Mental fatigue is the subjective state of people after excessive consumption of information resources. Its impact on cognitive activities is mainly manifested as decreased alertness, poor memory and inattention, which is highly related to the performance after impaired working memory. In this paper, the partial directional coherence method was used to calculate the coherence coefficient of scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) of each electrode. The analysis of brain network and its attribute parameters was used to explore the changes of information resource allocation of working memory under mental fatigue. Mental fatigue was quickly induced by the experimental paradigm of adaptive N-back working memory. Twenty-five healthy college students were randomly recruited as subjects, including 14 males and 11 females, aged from 20 to 27 years old, all right-handed. The behavioral data and resting scalp EEG data were collected simultaneously. The results showed that the main information transmission pathway of the brain changed under mental fatigue, mainly in the frontal lobe and parietal lobe. The significant changes in brain network parameters indicated that the information transmission path of the brain decreased and the efficiency of information transmission decreased significantly. In the causal flow of each electrode and the information flow of each brain region, the inflow of information resources in the frontal lobe decreased under mental fatigue. Although the parietal lobe region and occipital lobe region became the main functional connection areas in the fatigue state, the inflow of information resources in these two regions was still reduced as a whole. These results indicated that mental fatigue affected the information resources allocation of working memory, especially in the frontal and parietal regions which were closely related to working memory.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Brain , Frontal Lobe , Memory, Short-Term , Mental Fatigue , Resource Allocation
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888221

ABSTRACT

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive low-current brain stimulation technique, which is mainly based on the different polarity of electrode stimulation to make the activation threshold of neurons different, thereby regulating the excitability of the cerebral cortex. In this paper, healthy subjects were randomly divided into three groups: anodal stimulation group, cathodal stimulation group and sham stimulation group, with 5 subjects in each group. Then, the performance data of the three groups of subjects were recorded before and after stimulation to test their mental rotation ability, and resting state and task state electroencephalogram (EEG) data were collected. Finally, through comparative analysis of the behavioral data and EEG data of the three groups of subjects, the effect of electrical stimulation of different polarities on the three-dimensional mental rotation ability was explored. The results of the study found that the correct response time/accuracy rate and the accuracy rate performance of the anodal stimulation group were higher than those of the cathodal stimulation and sham stimulation groups, and there was a significant difference (


Subject(s)
Humans , Electric Stimulation , Electroencephalography , Frontal Lobe , Reaction Time , Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation
11.
Rev. colomb. psiquiatr ; 49(2): 116-120, abr.-jun. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1115652

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: El síndrome de Otelo, epónimo del personaje de Shakespeare, es un término diagnóstico transnosológico que designa un cuadro caracterizado por delirios de infidelidad respecto a la pareja que, por consiguiente, puede acarrear actitudes celotípicas y conductas violentas hacia ella. En su forma pura, corresponde al trastorno delirante de infidelidad, pero también puede ser secundario a organicidad cerebral y a consumo de drogas. Métodos: Reporte de caso y revisión no sistemática de la literatura relevante. Presentación del caso: Varón de 26 arios con antecedente de consumo de drogas y víctima de maltrato infantil, 3 años antes había sufrido crisis convulsivas tónico-clónicas e hipertensión intracraneal, por lo que se sometió a una craneotomía, en la que se halló un tuberculoma cerebral frontal derecho. Tras un lapso, comenzó con delirios de infidelidad y conductas violentas hacia su pareja. Revisión de la literatura: Los celos delirantes se asocian, como otros delirios, a lesiones del lóbulo frontal derecho. Pese a la elevada y creciente prevalencia mundial de tuberculosis, no se han publicado casos de síndrome de Otelo secundario a tuberculoma cerebral. Conclusiones: El síndrome de Otelo, aunque no es la principal causa de violencia doméstica, puede asociarse con manifestaciones particularmente violentas y ser secundario a tuberculoma cerebral. Este es el primer caso de tal índole que se publica.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Othello syndrome, an eponym of Shakespeare's character, is a transnosological diagnostic term that designates a clinical picture characterised by the presence of delusions of infidelity with respect to a partner and that, consequently, can lead to typical jealousy attitudes and violent behaviour towards the partner. In its pure form, it corresponds to delusional disorder of infidelity, but it may also be secondary to brain organicity and drug use. Methods: Case report and non-systematic review of the relevant literature. Case presentation: A 26-year-old man, with a history of drug abuse and a victim of domestic violence as a child, presented with tonic-clonic seizures and intracranial hypertension three years ago, for which he underwent a craniotomy with the finding of a right frontal cerebral tuberculoma. After a lapse, he developed a clinical picture of delusions of infidelity regarding his partner and violent behaviour towards her. Literature review: Delusional jealousy is associated, like other delusions, with lesions of the right frontal lobe. Despite the high and growing prevalence of tuberculosis worldwide, there are no reported cases of Othello syndrome secondary to cerebral tuberculoma in the literature. Conclusion: Othello syndrome, although not the main cause of domestic violence, can be associated with particularly violent manifestations and be secondary to cerebral tuberculoma. This is the first published case of its kind.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Syndrome , Substance-Related Disorders , Jealousy , Schizophrenia, Paranoid , Seizures , Attitude , Prevalence , Domestic Violence , Intracranial Hypertension , Craniotomy , Diagnosis , Eponyms , Frontal Lobe
12.
Rev. chil. neuropsicol. (En línea) ; 15(2): 37-42, 2020. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361898

ABSTRACT

El desarrollo tecnológico y científico en salud de los últimos años ha permitido mejoras en el diagnóstico y mayor eficacia en el tratamiento de pacientes con tumores cerebrales, generado un aumento no solo en la supervivencia, sino también una mayor demanda de los servicios de neuropsicología y rehabilitación, debido a las alteraciones cognitivas asociadas y dificultades en cuanto a la funcionalidad e independencia, disminuyendo significativamente la calidad de vida de estos pacientes. La presente investigación documenta el caso de un paciente masculino de 43 años, remitido al servicio de neuropsicología tras la resección de oligoastrocitoma frontal derecho, en la evaluación neuropsicológica se evidenció alteraciones en funciones ejecutivas, fluidez de lenguaje discursivo y dificultad en habilidades instrumentales. La investigación se realizó bajo el diseño cuasi experimental de caso único, donde se aplicó en repetidas ocasiones a lo largo del tratamiento el Inventario de Adaptabilidad Mayo-Portland (MPAI-4) para determinar las dificultades funcionales del paciente. El objetivo de la rehabilitación neuropsicológica se centró en implementar estrategias de autoinstrucciones y automonitoreo, que pudieran ser aplicadas en contextos cotidianos y en intereses específicos del paciente. Los resultados indican que el proceso de rehabilitación neuropsicológica demostró tener un efecto positivo en la funcionalidad del paciente y las estrategias aprendidas pueden ser trasladadas a su vida cotidiana


The technological and scientific development on health in recent years has allowed improvements in diagnosis and treatment on brain tumor patients, have increase not only their survivor rate but also their need of neuropsychology and rehabilitation services due to cognitive alterations associated and the subsequent struggling with independence and functionality that reduces significantly their life quality. The present research documents the case of a male patient, 43 years old, referred to the service after resection of right frontal oligoastrocytoma, in the neuropsychologic evaluation evidenced executive functions, discursive language fluency alterations and difficulties in instrumental skills. The research was carried out under the quasi experimental design of a single case where there will be applied repeatedly during the course of treatment the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory (MPAI-4) to identify functional difficulties on the patient. The objective of the neuropsychological rehabilitation focuses on implementing self-instruction and self-observance strategies in order to apply them on an ordinary context and the patient's specific areas of interest. The results indicate that the neuropsychological rehabilitation treatment has shown a positive effect on the patient's functionality and an improvement on his ability to apply the learned strategies to his day to day life.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Oligodendroglioma/rehabilitation , Astrocytoma/rehabilitation , Brain Neoplasms/rehabilitation , Executive Function/physiology , Neurological Rehabilitation/methods , Frontal Lobe
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826380

ABSTRACT

To investigate the association between chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-induced depressive-like behavior in rats and expressions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and S100β in the hippocampal and prefrontal cortex. Rats were randomly assigned to three groups:saline control group,saline+CUMS group,and citalopram +CUMS group. CUMS was used for depression modeling in rats. Depressive-like behavior in rats were evaluated by open-field test,sucrose preference test,and novel object recognition test. S100β and BDNF expressions were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Rats in the saline+CUMS group had significantly lower score in sucrose preference [(52.48±13.14)%],basic motor tasks [(845.8±371.4)s],fine motor tasks [(565.6±211.9)s],and longer resting time [(282.6±11.8)s] compared to the control group [(84.30±6.15)% (=7.49,=0.000),(1239.1±281.6)s (=2.83,=0.008),(801.8±150.9)s (=3.05,=0.003),(268.2±12.8)s (=2.72,=0.001)]. Compared with the citalopram+CUMS group,rats from the saline+CUMS group also showed significantly lower results in sucrose preference [(80.55±11.31)%,=5.39,=0.000],basic motor tasks [(1156.4±314.7)s,=2.13,=0.031],and fine motor tasks [(736.1±150.0)s,=2.21,=0.008]. There were no significant differences in the expression of hippocampal and prefrontal BDNF between these two groups,but rats from the saline+CUMS group expressed significantly higher levels of S100β compared to rats from the citalopram+CUMS group [(13.22±2.23) ng/g (10.55±2.72) ng/g,=2.67,=0.014]. Pearson correlation analysis revealed that the expression of S100β was positively correlated with the expression of BDNF in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus (=0.35,=0.034;=0.36,=0.034).The novel object recognition index was positively correlated with the expression of BDNF in the hippocampus(=0.38,=0.021),and the duration of fine-motor activities was negatively correlated with S100β in the prefrontal cortex (=-0.36,=0.037). Different types of depressive behaviors in rats induced by CUMS are associated with the selective expression of S100β and BDNF in two different brain cortex. S100β protein and BDNF may independently participate in the pathogenesis of depression.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Antidepressive Agents , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Metabolism , Citalopram , Depression , Metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Frontal Lobe , Metabolism , Hippocampus , Metabolism , Random Allocation , S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit , Metabolism , Stress, Psychological
14.
Ter. psicol ; 37(2): 141-153, ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1059113

ABSTRACT

Resumen El estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar el funcionamiento ejecutivo y el ajuste clínico en una muestra de adolescentes colombianos policonsumidores. Se efectuó un estudio ex post facto con 204 participantes entre 12 y 17 años (M = 14,50, DT = 1,71). Se aplicó la Batería Neuropsicológica de Funciones Ejecutivas y Lóbulos Frontales BANFE-2 y para la evaluación clínica se utilizó la Escala de Autoestima de Rosenberg, Cuestionario de Afrontamiento COPE, Escala de Impulsividad de Dickman y Cuestionario de 90 Síntomas SCL-90-R. Se identificó un rendimiento significativamente inferior del grupo policonsumidor en las funciones ejecutivas, bajos niveles de autoestima, altos niveles de impulsividad disfuncional y de diversidad psicopatológica, así como estilo de afrontamiento a través del consumo de sustancias. Así mismo, se detectó un efecto predictor de la interacción edad x tiempo de consumo en el funcionamiento ejecutivo, observándose un menor rendimiento de los policonsumidores más jóvenes a medida que se incrementaba el tiempo de consumo.


Abstract The research aim was to analyze the executive functioning and the clinical adjustment in a sample of Colombian teen polydrug users. An ex post facto study was carried out with 204 participants, 12-17 years old (M= 14,50, SD = 1,71). The neuropsychological test BANFE-2 was applied for analyzing frontal lobes and executive functioning and the Rosenberg self esteem scale, a COPE questionnaire, the Dickman impulsivity scale and the SCL-90-R questionnaire were used for clinical adjustment respectively. A lower executive functioning throughput were observed in polydrug users. Low self-esteem, high dysfunctional impulsivity, high diverse psychopathologies and coping strategies for drug use were also observed. A predictor effect between age and consumption time on the executive functioning were also determined. A lower throughput in younger polydrug users increase through consumption time.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Adolescent , Polypharmacy , Substance-Related Disorders/physiopathology , Executive Function/physiology , Impulsive Behavior/physiology , Self Concept , Surveys and Questionnaires , Colombia , Frontal Lobe/physiology
15.
Cambios rev. méd ; 18(1): 11-17, 28/06/2019. tabs
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1015085

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN. La enfermedad de Alzheimer, supone la primera causa de demencia y produce múltiples alteraciones cognitivas como la afectación de las funciones ejecutivas. Esos pacientes presentan síntomas disejecutivos y alteración en los reflejos de liberación frontal, aunque se desconoce si están afectados en función del grado de severidad de la demencia. OBJETIVO. Determinar si existe una relación entre los Síntomas Disejecutivos y los Reflejos de Liberación Frontal en pacientes con enfermedad de Alzheimer. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo; se analizaron 23 pacientes con demencia tipo Alzheimer del Centro de Referencia Estatal de Atención a Personas con Enfermedad de Alzheimer, durante el periodo 2013-2014. Los datos fueron obtenidos mediante el cuestionario disejecutivo, y analizados mediante la prueba X2 y la U de Mann-Whitney. RESULTADOS. Las edades de los participantes oscilaron entre 55 y 90 años. La media de puntuaciones según el cuestionario disejecutivo, arrojó un valor de 21,69. En la planificación se observó diferencias significativas entre los pacientes con Alzheimer leve y moderado (p=0,020); así como, entre la fase leve y la moderadamente grave (p=0,014). En la conciencia social resultó similar entre la etapa leve y la moderada (p=0,036). CONCLUSIÓN. Los reflejos de liberación frontal y los síntomas disejecutivos estuvieron afectados, pero no se evidenció relación entre estos y el grado de severidad de enfermedad de Alzheimer. Se refutó la hipótesis que, a mayor grado de severidad, mayor afectación disejecutiva y de los reflejos de liberación frontal.


INTRODUCTION. Alzheimer's disease is the leading cause of dementia and produces multiple cognitive disorders such as the involvement of executive functions. These patients present with dysexecutive symptoms and impaired frontal release reflexes, although it is unknown whether they are affected depending on the severity of the dementia. OBJECTIVE. To determine if there is a relationship between the Dissecutive Symptoms and the Frontal Release Reflexes in patients with Alzheimer's disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS. A descriptive, retrospective study was carried out; 23 patients with Alzheimer's dementia from the State Reference Center for Care for People with Alzheimer's Disease were analyzed during the 2013-2014 period. The data were obtained through the dissertation questionnaire, and analyzed using the X2 test and the Mann-Whitney U test. RESULTS. The ages of the participants ranged from 55 to 90 years. The average of scores according to the executive questionnaire showed a value of 21,69. In the planning, significant differences were observed between patients with mild and moderate Alzheimer's disease (p = 0.020); as well as between the mild and moderately severe phase (p = 0.014). In social consciousness it was similar between the mild and moderate stages (p = 0.036). CONCLUSION. Frontal release reflexes and dissecting symptoms were affected, but no relationship between them and the severity of Alzheimer's disease was evident. The hypothesis was refuted that, to a greater degree of severity, greater disejecutiva involvement and frontal release reflexes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Severity of Illness Index , Dementia , Executive Function , Alzheimer Disease , Observational Study , Frontal Lobe , Depression , Diabetes Mellitus , Hypertension , Neuropsychological Tests
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741399

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Alternate ascending/descending directional navigation (ALADDIN) is a novel arterial spin labeling technique that does not require a separate spin preparation pulse. We sought to compare the normalized cerebral blood flow (nCBF) values obtained by ALADDIN and dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with primary brain tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen patients with primary brain tumors underwent MRI scans including contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imaging, DSC perfusion MRI, and ALADDIN. The nCBF values of normal gray matter (GM) and tumor areas were measured by both DSC perfusion MRI and ALADDIN, which were compared by the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Subgroup analyses according to pathology were performed with the Wilcoxon signed rank test. RESULTS: Higher mean nCBF values of GM regions in the bilateral frontal lobe, temporal lobe, and caudate were detected by ALADDIN than by DSC perfusion MRI (p <0.05). In terms of the mean or median nCBF values and the mean of the top 10% nCBF values from tumors, DSC perfusion MRI and ALADDIN did not statistically significantly differ either overall or in each tumor group. CONCLUSION: ALADDIN tended to detect higher nCBF values in normal GM, as well as higher perfusion portions of primary brain tumors, than did DSC perfusion MRI. We believe that the high perfusion signal on ALADDIN can be beneficial in lesion detection and characterization.


Subject(s)
Humans , Brain Neoplasms , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Frontal Lobe , Glioma , Gray Matter , Magnetic Resonance Angiography , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Pathology , Perfusion , Temporal Lobe
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741922

ABSTRACT

The core concept for pathophysiology in panic disorder (PD) is the fear network model (FNM). The alterations in FNM might be linked with disturbances in the autonomic nervous system (ANS), which is a common phenomenon in PD. The traditional FNM included the frontal and limbic regions, which were dysregulated in the feedback mechanism for cognitive control of frontal lobe over the primitive response of limbic system. The exaggerated responses of limbic system are also associated with dysregulation in the neurotransmitter system. The neuroimaging studies also corresponded to FNM concept. However, more extended areas of FNM have been discovered in recent imaging studies, such as sensory regions of occipital, parietal cortex and temporal cortex and insula. The insula might integrate the filtered sensory information via thalamus from the visuospatial and other sensory modalities related to occipital, parietal and temporal lobes. In this review article, the traditional and advanced FNM would be discussed. I would also focus on the current evidences of insula, temporal, parietal and occipital lobes in the pathophysiology. In addition, the white matter and functional connectome studies would be reviewed to support the concept of advanced FNM. An emerging dysregulation model of fronto-limbic-insula and temporooccipito-parietal areas might be revealed according to the combined results of recent neuroimaging studies. The future delineation of advanced FNM model can be beneficial from more extensive and advanced studies focusing on the additional sensory regions of occipital, parietal and temporal cortex to confirm the role of advanced FNM in the pathophysiology of PD.


Subject(s)
Autonomic Nervous System , Connectome , Frontal Lobe , Limbic System , Neuroimaging , Neurotransmitter Agents , Occipital Lobe , Panic Disorder , Panic , Parietal Lobe , Rabeprazole , Temporal Lobe , Thalamus , White Matter
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741915

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Accumulated evidence collected via functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) has been reported with regard to mental disorders. A previous finding revealed that emotional words evoke left frontal cortex activity in patients with depression. The primary aim of the current study was to replicate this finding using an independent dataset and evaluate the brain region associated with the severity of depression using an emotional Stroop task. METHODS: Oxygenized and deoxygenized hemoglobin recording in the brain by fNIRS on 14 MDD patients and 20 normal controls. RESULTS: Hyperactivated oxygenized hemoglobin was observed in the left frontal cortex on exposure to unfavorable stimuli, but no significant difference was found among patients with depression compared with healthy controls on exposure to favorable stimuli. This result is consistent with previous findings. Moreover, an evoked wave associated with the left upper frontal cortex on favorable stimuli was inversely correlated with the severity of depression. CONCLUSION: Our current work using fNIRS provides a potential clue regarding the location of depression symptom severity in the left upper frontal cortex. Future studies should verify our findings and expand them into a precise etiology of depression.


Subject(s)
Humans , Brain , Dataset , Depression , Frontal Lobe , Mental Disorders , Oxygen , Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758485

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study examined the efficacy of the white matter (WM) to gray matter (GM) signal intensity ratio (SIR) in predicting the clinical prognosis of cardiac arrest patients. METHODS: Thirty-one patients who were resuscitated from cardiac arrest and underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were investigated retrospectively. Thirty one subjects with normal brain MRI findings served as the controls. The signal intensities (SI) were measured on T2-weighted image (T2WI). The circular regions of measurement (2–10 mm²) were placed over the regions of interest, and the average signals in GM and WM were recorded in the caudate nucleus (CN), putamen, anterior limb of the internal capsule, corpus callosum (CC), and in the cortex and WM of the frontal lobe. Cerebral performance category (CPC) 1–2 were classified as a good prognosis, and CPC 3–5 were classified as a poor prognosis. RESULTS: Most combinations of the SIR of WM to GM and most SIs of GM, except the frontal cortex, were significantly different between the two groups. On the other hand, the SI of WM was insignificant between both groups. In receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, the SIR of the CC to CN had an area under the ROC curve (AUROC) of 1.00 for a cut-off value of 1.59 (sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 100%), the SIR of the CC to putamen had also an AUROC of 1.00 for a cut-off value of 1.43 (sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 100%). CONCLUSION: The SIR of WM to GM measured on a T2WI is related to the neurological outcome after a cardiac arrest.


Subject(s)
Humans , Brain , Caudate Nucleus , Coma , Corpus Callosum , Extremities , Frontal Lobe , Gray Matter , Hand , Heart Arrest , Internal Capsule , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Prognosis , Putamen , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , White Matter
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739666

ABSTRACT

Supratentorial extraventricular anaplastic ependymoma (SEAE) in adults is a relatively rare intracranial tumor. Because of the very low prevalence, only a few cases have been reported. According to a recent study, SEAE is associated with a poor prognosis and there is no definite consensus on optimal treatment. We report a case of an adult SEAE patient who had no recurrence until seven years after a gross total resection (GTR) followed by conventional radiotherapy. A 42-year-old male had a persistent mild headache, left facial palsy, dysarthria, and left hemiparesis. Preoperative neuroimaging revealed an anaplastic astrocytoma or supratentorial ependymoma in the right frontal lobe. A GTR was performed, followed by adjuvant radiotherapy. Histologic and immunohistochemical results revealed anaplastic ependymoma. After seven years of initial therapy, a regular follow-up MRI showed a 3-cm-sized partially cystic mass in the same area as the initial tumor. The patient underwent a craniotomy, and a GTR was performed. Histopathologic examination revealed recurrence of the SEAE. External radiotherapy was performed. The patient has been stable without any disease progression or complications for 12 months since the surgery for recurrent SEAE.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Astrocytoma , Consensus , Craniotomy , Disease Progression , Dysarthria , Ependymoma , Facial Paralysis , Follow-Up Studies , Frontal Lobe , Headache , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neuroimaging , Paresis , Prevalence , Prognosis , Radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant , Recurrence , Supratentorial Neoplasms
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