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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250916, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345552

ABSTRACT

Abstract The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Moringa olifera on the growth and gut health of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The feed having 30% crude protein was prepared as an experimental diet with 4%, 8% and 10% M. olifera leaf supplementation, respectively. The control diet was devoid of M. olifera leaves. The 10 weeks feeding trial was carried out on 60 fish in aquaria. Fish was fed @ 3% of body weight twice a day. Diet with the high level of inclusion of M. olifera leaves significantly increased the growth rate, Survival Rate (SR), Specific Growth Rate (SGR) and Feed Conversion Efficiency (FCE) in all treatment groups compared to the control group. Similarly, Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) gradually decreased and found highly-significant. To check the gut health of the Tilapia, random samples were selected and dissected. Nutrient agar was used as culture media to check the growth of bacteria. Pour Plate Method was used for viable colonies count by colony counter. Through staining method, the different bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were identify abundantly in the intestine of control diet fish but less number present in treatment diets groups. These results showed that M. olifera leaves up to 10% of dietary protein can be used for Nile tilapia for significant growth and healthy gut microbiota of fish.


Resumo O estudo foi conduzido para avaliar o efeito da Moringa olifera no crescimento e saúde intestinal da tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus). A ração com 30% de proteína bruta foi preparada como dieta experimental com 4%, 8% e 10% de suplementação de folhas de M. olifera, respectivamente. A dieta controle foi desprovida de folhas de M. olifera. O ensaio de alimentação de 10 semanas foi realizado em 60 peixes em aquários. O peixe pesava 3% do peso corporal duas vezes ao dia. A dieta com alto nível de inclusão de folhas de M. olifera aumentou significativamente a taxa de crescimento, taxa de sobrevivência (SR), taxa de crescimento de sobrevivência (SGR) e eficiência de conversão alimentar (FCE) em todos os grupos de tratamento em comparação com o grupo de controle. Da mesma forma, a taxa de conversão de alimentação (FCR) diminuiu gradualmente e foi considerada altamente significativa. Para verificar a saúde intestinal da tilápia, amostras aleatórias foram selecionadas e dissecadas. O ágar nutriente foi usado como meio de cultura para verificar o crescimento das bactérias. O método da placa de Verter foi usado para a contagem de colônias viáveis ​​por contador de colônias. Através do método de coloração, diferentes como Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella e Pseudomonas aeruginosa foram identificados abundantemente no intestino de peixes da dieta controle, mas em menor número nos grupos de dieta de tratamento. Esses resultados mostraram que M. olifera deixa até 10% da proteína dietética e pode ser usado para tilápia do Nilo para um crescimento significativo e microbiota intestinal saudável de peixes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cichlids , Moringa , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Plant Leaves , Dietary Supplements/analysis , Diet/veterinary , Animal Feed/analysis
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242818, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285628

ABSTRACT

Abstract The study was aimed to assess impact of high fat diet (HFD) and synthetic human gut microbiota (GM) combined with HFD and chow diet (CD) in inducing type-2 diabetes (T2D) using mice model. To our knowledge, this is the first study using selected human GM transplantation via culture based method coupled dietary modulation in mice for in vivo establishment of inflammation leading to T2D and gut dysbiosis. Twenty bacteria (T2D1-T2D20) from stool samples of confirmed T2D subjects were found to be morphologically different and subjected to purification on different media both aerobically and anerobically, which revealed seven bacteria more common among 20 isolates on the basis of biochemical characterization. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing, these seven isolates were identified as Bacteroides stercoris (MT152636), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152637), Lactobacillus salivarius (MT152638), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152639), Klebsiella aerogenes (MT152640), Bacteroides fragilis (MT152909), Clostridium botulinum (MT152910). The seven isolates were subsequently used as synthetic gut microbiome (GM) for their role in inducing T2D in mice. Inbred strains of albino mice were divided into four groups and were fed with CD, HFD, GM+HFD and GM+CD. Mice receiving HFD and GM+modified diet (CD/HFD) showed highly significant (P<0.05) increase in weight and blood glucose concentration as well as elevated level of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, and MCP-1) compared to mice receiving CD only. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing of 11 fecal bacteria obtained from three randomly selected animals from each group revealed gut dysbiosis in animals receiving GM. Bacterial strains including Bacteroides gallinarum (MT152630), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152631), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152632), Parabacteroides gordonii (MT152633), Prevotella copri (MT152634) and Lactobacillus gasseri (MT152635) were isolated from mice treated with GM+modified diet (HFD/CD) compared to strains Akkermansia muciniphila (MT152625), Bacteriodes sp. (MT152626), Bacteroides faecis (MT152627), Bacteroides vulgatus (MT152628), Lactobacillus plantarum (MT152629) which were isolated from mice receiving CD/HFD. In conclusion, these findings suggest that constitution of GM and diet plays significant role in inflammation leading to onset or/and possibly progression of T2D. .


Resumo O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o impacto da dieta rica em gordura (HFD) e da microbiota intestinal humana sintética (GM) combinada com HFD e dieta alimentar (CD) na indução de diabetes tipo 2 (T2D) usando modelo de camundongos. Para nosso conhecimento, este é o primeiro estudo usando transplante de GM humano selecionado através do método baseado em cultura acoplada à modulação dietética em camundongos para o estabelecimento in vivo de inflamação que leva a T2D e disbiose intestinal. Vinte bactérias (T2D1-T2D20) de amostras de fezes de indivíduos T2D confirmados verificaram ser morfologicamente diferentes e foram submetidas à purificação em meios diferentes aerobicamente e anaerobicamente, o que revelou sete bactérias mais comuns entre 20 isolados com base na caracterização bioquímica. Com base no sequenciamento do gene 16S rRNA, esses sete isolados foram identificados como Bacteroides stercoris (MT152636), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152637), Lactobacillus salivarius (MT152638), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152639), Klebsiella aerogenides (MT152640), Bacteroides fragilis (MT152909), Clostridium botulinum (MT152910). Esses sete isolados foram, posteriormente, usados ​​como microbioma intestinal sintético (GM) por seu papel na indução de T2D em camundongos. Linhagens consanguíneas de camundongos albinos foram divididas em quatro grupos e foram alimentadas com CD, HFD, GM + HFD e GM + CD. Camundongos que receberam a dieta modificada com HFD e GM + (CD / HFD) mostraram um aumento altamente significativo (P < 0,05) no peso e na concentração de glicose no sangue, bem como um nível elevado de citocinas inflamatórias (TNF-α, IL-6 e MCP-1) em comparação com os ratos que receberam apenas CD. O sequenciamento do gene 16S rRNA de 11 bactérias fecais obtidas de três animais selecionados aleatoriamente de cada grupo revelou disbiose intestinal em animais que receberam GM. Cepas bacterianas, incluindo Bacteroides gallinarum (MT152630), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152631), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152632), Parabacteroides gordonii (MT152633), Prevotella copri (MT152634) e Lactobacillus Gasseri (MT152635D), foram tratadas com dieta modificada / CD) em comparação com as linhagens Akkermansia muciniphila (MT152625), Bacteriodes sp. (MT152626), Bacteroides faecis (MT152627), Bacteroides vulgatus (MT152628), Lactobacillus plantarum (MT152629), que foram isoladas de camundongos recebendo CD / HFD. Em conclusão, esses resultados sugerem que a constituição de GM e dieta desempenham papel significativo na inflamação levando ao início ou/e possivelmente à progressão de T2D.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Rabbits , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Bacteroides , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Prevotella , Bacteroidetes , Ruminococcus , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Dysbiosis , Inflammation , Mice, Inbred C57BL
3.
Alerta (San Salvador) ; 5(1): 43-49, ene. 28, 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1354457

ABSTRACT

La incidencia de enfermedades alérgicas en la infancia va en aumento, y se ha convertido en una de las principales consultas. Una posible causa es la disbiosis del microbioma intestinal, relacionada con estados inflamatorios aumentados. Debido a la necesidad de mejorar la calidad de vida, y el impacto en lo económico y en lo educativo, surgen los probióticos como tratamiento adyuvante, por lo que se pretende determinar la asociación del uso de Bifidobacterium en menores de 5 años con la modulación de la respuesta inmune en enfermedades alérgicas. El microbioma intestinal inicia su desarrollo y maduración desde la gestación, continúa en el nacimiento y termina hasta los 3 años, influenciado por factores maternos, neonatales y ambientales. La disbiosis intestinal generada por estos factores reduce la proporción de bifidobacterias, lo cual se relaciona con estados proinflamatorios. En consecuencia, estudios del uso de Bifidobacterium en niños con enfermedades alérgicas ha evidenciado mejora de síntomas y calidad de vida. Los probióticos favorecen un microbioma intestinal saludable, asociado a un estado antiinflamatorio, debido a la regulación en el balance celular Th1/Th2/T reguladoras y células asesinas naturales. Esta modulación en la respuesta inmune permite mejor control de síntomas, calidad de vida y menor incidencia de enfermedades alérgicas en la infancia


The incidence of allergic diseases in childhood is increasing, and has become one of the main queries. One possible cause is dysbiosis of the gut microbiome, related to increased inflammatory states. Due to the need to improve the quality of life, and the economic and educational impact, probiotics emerge as adjuvant treatment, so it is intended to determine the association of the use of Bifidobacterium in children under 5 years with the modulation of the immune response in allergic diseases. The intestinal microbiome begins its development and maturation from gestation, continues at birth and ends up to 3 years, influenced by maternal, neonatal and environmental factors. The intestinal dysbiosis generated by these factors reduces the proportion of bifidobacteria, which is related to proinflammatory states. Consequently, studies of the use of Bifidobacterium in children with allergic diseases have shown improvement in symptoms and quality of life. Probiotics favor a healthy intestinal microbiome, associated with an anti-inflammatory state, due to the regulation of the regulatory Th1/Th2/T cell balance and natural killer cells. This modulation in the immune response allows better control of symptoms, quality of life and lower incidence of allergic diseases in childhood


Subject(s)
Bifidobacterium , Disease , Probiotics , Dysbiosis , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Child , Immunity
4.
Femina ; 49(10): 631-635, 20211031. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1358197

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Revisar a implicação e a relação existente entre a microbiota intestinal e a síndrome do ovário policístico (SOP). Métodos: Trata-se de uma revisão sistemática de artigos das bases de dados PubMed, Cochrane e Science Direct dos últimos cinco anos, nos idiomas inglês, português e espanhol. Resultados: A disbiose da microbiota intestinal ativa o sistema imunológico do hospedeiro. Tal ativação interfere na função do receptor de insulina, causando hiperinsulinemia, o que aumenta a produção de androgênio ovariano e dificulta o desenvolvimento de um folículo saudável. Além disso, pacientes com SOP apresentam o perfil taxonômico alterado, o qual se associou inversamente com excesso de andrógenos e inflamação da SOP. Foi evidenciado que o uso de probióticos pode regular a resposta inflamatória, diminuir os níveis totais de testosterona e contribuir para que a SOP não prejudique uma possível gravidez. Conclusão: Essa revisão sugere que há íntima associação entre a disbiose microbiana e as alterações patológicas que ocorrem na SOP. Assim, a suplementação de probióticos em tais pacientes pode ter grandes benefícios, como melhora dos sintomas e redução das repercussões da doença.(AU)


Objective: To review the implication and the relationship between the intestinal microbiota and polycystic ovary syndrome. Methods: This is a systematic review of articles from the PubMed, Cochrane and Science Direct databases, from the last five years, in English, Portuguese and Spanish. Results: Dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota activates the host's immune system. Such activation interferes with the function of the insulin receptor, causing hyperinsulinemia, which increases the production of ovarian androgens and hinders the development of a healthy follicle. In addition, patients with PCOS have an altered taxonomic profile, which is inversely associated with excess androgens and PCOS inflammation. It was evidenced that the use of probiotics can regulate the inflammatory response, decrease the total testosterone levels and contribute so that PCOS does not harm a possible pregnancy. Conclusion: This review suggests that there is a close association between microbial dysbiosis and pathological changes that occur in PCOS. Thus, supplementation of probiotics in such patients can have great benefits, such as improving symptoms and reducing the repercussions of the disease.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Gonadal Steroid Hormones , Insulin Resistance , Databases, Bibliographic , Dysbiosis
5.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(5): 1217-1224, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345258

ABSTRACT

This work aimed to assess the effect of the probiotic strain, Lactobacillus plantarum, on the levels of leptin, IGF-1 and their receptors on the hepatopancreatic tissues of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and then correlate fish growth performance and gut microbiological parameters. Fish juveniles (±23g) were reared in a recirculation system with constant aeration and temperature (25°C). They were distributed into six polyethylene tanks (45L) and fed twice a day at 5% of the tank biomass with the respective diets: control (commercial diet without probiotic) and supplemented with L. plantarum inoculum (1 x 108 CFU mL-1), both in triplicate. After 30 days of feeding, L. plantarum-fed fishes showed greater weekly growth rate, final weight, and feed conversion rate, in addition to higher count of lactic-acid bacteria and lower count of pathogenic bacteria in the intestinal tract, when compared to the control group. The immunostaining intensity for IGF-1 and leptin hormones was lower after L. plantarum supplementation than in the control group, with no change in the level for receptors. This reduction could implicate important changes in fish metabolism and homeostasis.(AU)


O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da cepa probiótica Lactobacillus plantarum sobre os níveis de leptina, IGF-1 e seus receptores no tecido hepatopancreático de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) e correlacionar com o desempenho zootécnico e os parâmetros microbiológicos intestinais dos peixes. Juvenis de tilápia-do-nilo (±23g) foram distribuídos em seis tanques de polietileno (45L) conectados a um sistema de recirculação, com aeração e temperatura constantes (25°C). Os peixes foram alimentados duas vezes ao dia, a 5% da biomassa do tanque, com as respectivas dietas: controle (dieta comercial sem probiótico) e suplementada com L. plantarum (1 x 108 UFC mL-1), ambas em triplicata. Após 30 dias de cultivo, os peixes alimentados com L. plantarum apresentaram maiores ganho de peso semanal, peso final e conversão alimentar, bem como maior contagem de bactérias ácido-láticas e menor contagem de bactérias patogênicas no trato intestinal das tilápias alimentadas com dieta probiótica, em comparação ao grupo controle. A intensidade da imunomarcação para os hormônios IGF-1 e leptina foi menor com a suplementação de L. plantarum do que no grupo controle, sem alterar os níveis de seus receptores. Essa redução pode implicar mudanças importantes no metabolismo e na homeostase dos peixes.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cichlids/growth & development , Hepatopancreas/chemistry , Lactobacillus plantarum , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Animal Feed , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I , Dietary Supplements , Leptin
6.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(3): 504-530, jul.-set. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345400

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción. Los edulcorantes son aditivos que se consumen en los alimentos. Pueden ser naturales (sacarosa y estevia) o artificiales (sucralosa). Actualmente, se consumen rutinariamente en múltiples productos, y sus efectos en la mucosa y la microbiota del intestino delgado aún son controversiales. Objetivo. Relacionar el consumo de edulcorantes y su efecto en el sistema inmunitario y la microbiota del intestino delgado en ratones CD1. Materiales y métodos. Se utilizaron 54 ratones CD1 de tres semanas de edad divididos en tres grupos: un grupo de tres semanas sin tratamiento, un grupo tratado durante seis semanas y un grupo tratado durante 12 semanas. Se les administró sacarosa, sucralosa y estevia. A partir del intestino delgado, se obtuvieron linfocitos B CD19+ y células IgA+, TGF-ß (Transforming Growth Factor-beta) o el factor de crecimiento transformador beta (TGF-beta), IL-12 e IL-17 de las placas de Peyer y de la lámina propia. De los sólidos intestinales se obtuvo el ADN para identificar las especies bacterianas. Resultados. Después del consumo de sacarosa y sucralosa durante 12 semanas, se redujeron las comunidades bacterianas, la IgA+ y el TGF-beta, se aumentó el CD19+, y además, se incrementaron la IL-12 y la IL-17 en las placas de Peyer; en la lámina propia, aumentaron todos estos valores. En cambio, con la estevia mejoraron la diversidad bacteriana y el porcentaje de linfocitos CD19+, y hubo poco incremento de IgA+, TGF-ß e IL-17, pero con disminución de la IL-17. Conclusión. La sacarosa y la sucralosa alteraron negativamente la diversidad bacteriana y los parámetros inmunitarios después de 12 semanas, en contraste con la estevia que resultó benéfica para la mucosa intestinal.


Abstract Introduction: Sweeteners are additives used in different foods. They can be natural (sucrose and stevia) or artificial (sucralose). Currently, they are routinely consumed in multiple products and their effects on the mucosa of the small intestine and its microbiota are still controversial. Objective: To relate the consumption of sweeteners and their effect on the immune system and the microbiota of the small intestine in CD1 mice. Materials and methods: We used 54 three-week-old CD1 mice divided into three groups in the experiments: 1) A group of three weeks without treatment, 2) a group treated for six weeks, and 3) a group treated for 12 weeks using sucrose, sucralose, and stevia. We obtained CD19+ B lymphocytes, IgA+ antibodies, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-b), and interleukins 12 and 17 (IL-12 and -17) from Peyer's patches and lamina propria cells while DNA was obtained from intestinal solids to identify bacterial species. Results: After 12 weeks, sucrose and sucralose consumption caused a reduction in bacterial communities with an increase in CD19+, a decrease in IgA+ and TGF-b, and an increase in IL-12 and -17 in the Peyer's patches while in the lamina propria there was an increase in all parameters. In contrast, stevia led to an improvement in bacterial diversity and percentage of CD19+ lymphocytes with minimal increase in IgA+, TGF-b, and IL-12, and a decrease in IL-17. Conclusion: Sucrose and sucralose caused negative alterations in bacterial diversity and immune parameters after 12 weeks; in contrast, stevia was beneficial for the intestinal mucosa.


Subject(s)
Sweetening Agents , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Sucrose , Stevia , Intestine, Small
7.
Revagog ; 3(3): 104-110, Jul-Sept. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIGCSA | ID: biblio-1344331

ABSTRACT

El climaterio es una etapa fisiológica que permite al médico reconocer tempranamente los riesgos de patologías y la gran oportunidad de revertirlas. Este trabajo examinará la evidencia actual de la terapia hormonal en la prevención primaria de la enfermedad cardiovascular en mujeres, así como la importancia que igualmente tienen la indemnidad de los ovarios, el peso normal, el uso correcto de antibióticos, la preservación de la microbiota intestinal, las dietas antioxidantes, los estilos de vida saludables y el obligatorio abandono del hábito de fumar.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Climacteric/physiology , Menopause/physiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Hormone Replacement Therapy , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Smoking/adverse effects , Andropause/physiology , Estradiol/therapeutic use , Atherosclerosis/prevention & control , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/drug effects , Healthy Lifestyle
8.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 93(3): e1382, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1347538

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El proceso de colonización del microbioma intestinal en los primeros 1000 días de vida tiene repercusión en la salud y enfermedades del niño dependientes de factores de riesgo. Objetivos: Revisar evidencias importantes sobre el significado de la relación entre la microbiota Intestinal y los primeros 1000 días de vida, y repercusión de los principales factores de riesgo. Métodos: Se revisaron publicaciones en idiomas español e inglés en PubMed, Google Scholar y SciELO: enero 2005-febrero 2020 usando los términos microbiota intestinal, microbiomas, primeros 1000 días de vida, factores de riesgo, enterocolitis necrosante, probióticos y prebióticos. Análisis e integración de la información: Hay demostrados argumentos que vinculan la microbiota intestinal y primeros 1000 días de vida del niño, según modo de parto, tiempo de gestación y lactancia. Se examina los beneficios del parto vaginal, lactancia materna y la aparición de enfermedades a mediano y largo plazo, relacionadas con factores de riesgo, como cesárea, prematuridad, lactancia artificial y exposición antibiótica prenatal y posnatal. Se describe resultados favorables con el uso de bioterapia con probióticos y prebióticos en la enterocolitis necrosante. Conclusiones: Se expone el valor de la microbiota intestinal en los primeros 1000 días de vida para la salud del niño, influenciada por condiciones de normalidad como el parto vaginal y la lactancia materna e implicaciones clínicas relacionadas con factores de riesgo mencionado. Es importante el tratamiento con probióticos multicepas y prebióticos para la recuperación de la microbiota en el niño en enfermedades como la enterocolitis necrosante y estados de sepsis grave(AU)


Introduction: The process of colonizing the gut microbiome in the first 1000 days of life has an impact on the health and diseases dependent on risk factors of the child. Objectives: Review important evidence on the meaning of the relation between the gut microbiota and the first 1000 days of life and the impact of the main risk factors. Methods: Spanish and English language publications were reviewed on PubMed, Google Scholar and SciELO, from January 2005 to February 2020 using the terms: gut microbiota, microbiomes, first 1000 days of life, risk factors, necrotizing enterocolitis, probiotics and prebiotics. Analysis and information integration: Arguments linking the gut microbiota and the child's first 1000 days of life are demonstrated, depending on the child's mode of delivery, gestation time and lactation. It is conducted an assessment of benefits of vaginal delivery, breastfeeding and the onset of medium- and long-term diseases related to risk factors, such as C-section, prematurity, artificial lactation, and prenatal and postnatal antibiotic exposure. Favorable results with the use of biotherapy with probiotics and prebiotics in necrotizing enterocolitis are described. Conclusions: It is presented the value of the gut microbiota in the first 1000 days of life for the health of the child, influenced by normal conditions such as vaginal delivery and breastfeeding, and clinical implications related to the mentioned risk factors. Treatment with multi-strain probiotics and prebiotics for microbiota recovery in the child is important in diseases such as necrotizing enterocolitis and states of severe sepsis(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Biological Therapy/methods , Child Health , Risk Factors , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Publications , Review Literature as Topic , Probiotics/adverse effects , Enterocolitis, Necrotizing
10.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(2): 168-174, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285319

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The intestinal microbiota influences the appropriate function of the gastrointestinal tract. Intestinal dysbiosis may be associated with a higher risk of esophageal lesions, mainly due to changes in gastroesophageal motility patterns, elevation of intra-abdominal pressure, and increased frequency of transient relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the intestinal microbiota in individuals with erosive esophagitis and in healthy individuals using metagenomics. METHODS: A total of 22 fecal samples from adults aged between 18 and 60 years were included. Eleven individuals had esophagitis (eight men and three women) and 11 were healthy controls (10 men and one woman). The individuals were instructed to collect and store fecal material into a tube containing guanidine solution. The DNA of the microbiota was extracted from each fecal samples and PCR amplification was performed using primers for the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. The amplicons were sequenced using the Ion Torrent PGM platform and the data were analyzed using the QIIME™ software version 1.8. Statistical analyses were performed using the Mann-Whitney non-parametric test and the ANOSIM non-parametric method based on distance matrix. RESULTS: The alpha-diversity and beta-diversity indices were similar between the two groups, without statistically significant differences. There was no statistically significant difference in the phylum level. However, a statistically significant difference was observed in the abundance of the family Clostridiaceae (0.3% vs 2.0%, P=0.032) and in the genus Faecaliumbacterium (10.5% vs 4.5%, P=0.045) between healthy controls and esophagitis patients. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that reduced abundance of the genus Faecaliumbacterium and greater abundance of the family Clostridiaceae may be risk factors for the development of erosive esophagitis. Intervention in the composition of the intestinal microbiota should be considered as an adjunct to current therapeutic strategies for this clinical condition.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A doença do refluxo gastroesofágico (DRGE) é uma das enfermidades mais comuns na prática clínica e possui fisiopatologia multifatorial. Disbiose da microbiota intestinal pode ter influência em mecanismos envolvidos nesta doença, como mudanças nos padrões motores gastrointestinais, elevação da pressão intra-abdominal e aumento da frequência de relaxamentos transitórios do esfíncter esofágico inferior. Contudo, a avaliação da microbiota intestinal, neste contexto, ainda é pouco documentada. OBJETIVO: Este estudo avaliou a microbiota bacteriana intestinal, em indivíduos com doença do refluxo gastroesofágico erosivo e em indivíduos saudáveis, utilizando técnicas de metagenômica. MÉTODOS: Estudo incluiu amostras fecais de 22 adultos, com idades entre 18 e 60 anos: 11 com esofagite erosiva (oito homens e três mulheres) e 11 controles saudáveis (dez homens e uma mulher). Os pacientes foram orientados a coletar e armazenar o material fecal em tubo contendo solução de guanidina. O DNA da microbiota foi extraído das amostras de fezes e amplificação por PCR foi realizada usando iniciadores para a região V4 do gene 16S rRNA. Os amplicons foram seqüenciados usando a plataforma Ion PGM Torrent e os dados foram analisados usando o software QIIME™ versão 1.8 (Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology). Análise de estatística foi realizada utilizando-se o teste não paramétrico de Mann-Whitney e o teste ANOSIM, método não paramétrico baseado em matriz de distância. RESULTADOS: Os índices de alfa-diversidade e beta-diversidade foram semelhantes entre os dois grupos, sem diferença estatisticamente significante. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante no nível de filo, classe e ordem. Entretanto, observou-se diferença estatisticamente significante na abundância da família Clostridiaceae (0,3% vs 2,0%, P=0,032) e no gênero Faecaliumbacterium (10,5% vs 4,5%, P=0,045) entre controles saudáveis e pacientes com DRGE erosiva, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: Os achados sugerem que menor abundância do gênero Faecaliumbacterium e maior abundância da família Clostridiaceae, nos pacientes com DRGE, podem influenciar na fisiopatologia desta doença.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Esophagitis , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Dysbiosis , Middle Aged
11.
Prensa méd. argent ; 107(2): 66-79, 20210000.
Article in English | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1361343

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Se han analizado terapias ayurvédicas y prácticas médicas para un grupo de pacientes en Japón. La característica del tratamiento ayurvédico es una desintoxicación con una gran cantidad de tratamiento con aceite mediante un masaje con aceite en la superficie del cuerpo y una terapia de purificación con ghee o aceite de hierbas especialmente preparado. Los cambios de la microbiota intestinal durante estos tratamientos no han sido bien estudiados. Mé- LA PRENSA MÉDICA ARGENTINA Ayurveda Treatment (Virechana and Basti) and Changes of Intestinal Microbiota at Phyla and Species Level 79 V.107/Nº 2 todo: Los participantes fueron reclutados de la Clínica Hatai Ayurveda en Tokio. La terapia de Virechana, una terapia de purificación o la terapia de Basti (decocción y enema de aceite) se llevó a cabo en 13 pacientes con diversas manifestaciones. Todos los participantes proporcionaron el detalle de su estilo de vida, hábitos dietéticos, enfermedades pasadas y presentes mediante el cuestionario, y se registró la condición precisa durante la admisión al final del campamento. Se tomaron muestras fecales a la entrada, durante el tratamiento, al alta y tres semanas después para analizar la microbiota intestinal por el gen seqyebcubg 16srRNA. Resultados: el peso corporal disminuyó aproximadamente un 5% con la terapia de Virechana, mientras que no ocurrió con Basti, pero la grasa corporal aumentó un 4% (2,2 kg) en promedio en ambos grupos. Varias manifestaciones clínicas de los participantes mejoraron, especialmente en una erupción cutánea y un cambio atópico. El paciente deprimido también remitió mejoras en sus ganas de vivir. En su mayoría son vegetarianos y tenían más Bacteroides (48.09 ± 7.51%), Firmicutes (38.27 ± 10.82%) y Actinobacteria (3.30 ± 3.58%) que los omnívoros que tenían más Proteobacteria (10.73 ± 4.75%), Fusobacteria (2.40 ± 6.25%) y cianobacterias (0,09 ± 0,24%). Cuando los grupos se dividieron por el consumo de aceite, los usuarios de ghee mostraron más Fusobacterium y menos Firmicutes y Actinobacteria. La terapia con Virechana provocó cambios notables en la microbiota después del pretratamiento, como la disminución de Firmicutes y el aumento de Proteobacterias. A nivel género-especie, destacan el aumento de Enterobacteriaceae y la pérdida de Akkermansia municiphila. Niruha Basti y Matra Basti disminuyeron Firmicutes y aumentaron Proteobacteria (p = 0.096). Fusobacterium también aumentó. Después del alta, la Proteobateria se mantuvo alta, pero Firmicutes regresó al 30% en promedio, oscilando entre el 25% y el 50%. Tres semanas después, la variedad aumentó con Fusobacterium, Verrucomicrobia, Tenericutes y Lentisphaerae. La variedad de especies también aumentó tres semanas después. Conclusión: Varias quejas de los participantes mejoraron por el tratamiento ayurvédico con una gran cantidad de tratamiento de aceite por masaje de aceite de superficie corporal y terapia de purga. Causó cambios en la microbiota intestinal y los metabolitos bacterianos pueden afectar las lesiones cutáneas y la salud mental como la sensación depresiva


Subject(s)
Humans , Therapeutics/methods , Body Weight Changes , Herbal Medicine , Feces/microbiology , Ghee , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Massage/methods , Medicine, Ayurvedic
12.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 157(2): 201-208, mar.-abr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279102

ABSTRACT

Resumen La pandemia de enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) ha afectado a todas las dimensiones de la atención en salud, entre ellas el aseguramiento de la lactancia materna exclusiva y su promoción. El riesgo de contagio y las consecuencias de la pandemia han provocado preocupación entre las futuras madres o las que se ya encuentran lactando debido al riesgo de una posible transmisión del virus a través de la leche materna. Aunque aún no se ha detectado el coronavirus 2 del síndrome respiratorio agudo grave (SARS-CoV-2) activo en la leche materna. El miedo al contagio ha favorecido las políticas de aislamiento madre-hijo. Hasta el momento no existe evidencia de transmisión vertical y el riesgo de transmisión horizontal en el lactante es similar al de la población general. En lactantes con COVID-19 la lactancia materna incluso puede cambiar favorablemente el curso clínico de la enfermedad.


Abstract The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the health attention in all dimensions, one of them, the exclusive breastfeeding assurance and her promotion. The high risk of contagion and the pandemic consequences have raised a number of concerns in future mothers or those who are breastfeeding because of the risk of a possible transmission of the virus through breast milk. Although SARS-CoV2 has no evidence of being active on breast milk, the fear of contagion has favored mother-child isolation policies. At this point, there are no evidence of vertical transmission and the risk of horizontal transmission in the infant is similar to the general population. Breastfeeding in newborn with COVID-19, can even favorably change the clinical course of the disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant, Newborn , Breast Feeding/psychology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/epidemiology , Milk, Human/cytology , Milk, Human/metabolism , Milk, Human/chemistry , Time Factors , Colostrum/metabolism , Colostrum/chemistry , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Pandemics , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Milk, Human/virology
13.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 40(1): e842, ene.-mar. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289454

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La etiología de las enfermedades autoinmunes aún se desconoce, aunque se plantean diferentes causas. Objetivo: Describir el rol de factores como las hormonas, alimentación, estrés, enfermedades infecciosas y cáncer en las enfermedades autoinmunes. Métodos: Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica empleando Google Académico y artículos de libre acceso en la base de datos PubMed y SciELO, publicados entre enero del 2014 y junio del 2020. Se consultó la bibliografía nacional e internacional relevante y actualizada, con un total de 51 referencias, de estas, tres libros básicos de la especialidad de Inmunología y 48 artículos (12 en idioma español y 36 en inglés). Se utilizaron los términos de búsqueda según los descriptores del DeCS y MeSH. Resultados: Las hormonas femeninas incrementan el riesgo de las enfermedades autoinmunes. Un desbalance en la neurohormona melatonina puede generar linfocitos autorreactivos. El estrés puede mantener respuestas inflamatorias crónicas que causen daño tisular. Una adecuada alimentación permite que los comensales de la microbiota intestinal mantengan la homeostasis del sistema inmune. Las infecciones en ocasiones desarrollan respuestas autoinmunitarias. La causalidad entre el cáncer y la autoinmunidad es bidireccional producto de procesos inflamatorios. Conclusiones: Las enfermedades autoinmunes son más frecuentes en las mujeres. Una alimentación adecuada permite que la microbiota intestinal no se altere y que mantenga la homeostasis inmunológica. Situaciones de estrés e infecciones pueden iniciar respuestas autoinmunes. El cáncer puede favorecer el desarrollo de manifestaciones autoinmunes, y estas últimas por el predominio inflamatorio, favorecen la tumorogénesis(AU)


Introduction: The etiology of autoimmune diseases is still unknown, though several causes have been suggested. Objective: Describe the role of hormones, eating, stress, infectious diseases and cancer in immune diseases. Methods: A bibliographic review was conducted using Google Scholar and open access papers published in the databases Pubmed and SciELO from January 2014 to June 2020. Relevant updated national and international bibliography was consulted, for a total 51 references: three basic books from the specialty of immunology and 48 papers (12 in Spanish and 36 in English). The search terms used were obtained from the descriptors DeCS and MeSH. Results: Feminine hormones increase the risk of autoimmune diseases. Imbalance in the neurohormone melatonin may generate autoreactive lymphocytes. Stress may maintain chronic inflammatory responses causing tissue damage. Appropriate eating habits allow gut microbiota commensals to maintain the homeostasis of the immune system. Infections occasionally develop autoimmune responses. Causality between cancer and autoimmunity is bidirectional, due to the presence of inflammatory processes. Conclusions: Autoimmune diseases are more common among women. Appropriate eating habits prevent alterations of the gut microbiota, allowing it to maintain immune homeostasis. Stress situations and infections may trigger autoimmune responses. Cancer may foster the development of autoimmune manifestations, and these, due to the inflammatory predominance, may foster tumorigenesis(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Autoimmune Diseases , Autoimmunity , Eating , Allergy and Immunology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Immune System , Immune System Diseases , Neurotransmitter Agents
14.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 50: 29-36, Mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292313

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lignocellulose is considered a renewable organic material, but the industrial production of biofuel from lignocellulose is challenging because of the lack of highly active hydrolytic enzymes. The guts of herbivores contain many symbiotic microorganisms that have evolved to hydrolyze plant lignocellulose. Chinese bamboo rats mainly consume high-fiber foods, indicating that some members of the intestinal tract microbiota digest lignocellulose, providing these rats with the energy required for growth. RESULTS: Here, we used metagenomics to analyze the diversity and functions of the gut microbiota in Chinese bamboo rats. We identified abundant populations of lignocellulose-degrading bacteria, whose main functions involved carbohydrate, amino acid, and nucleic acid metabolism. We also found 587 carbohydrate-active enzyme genes belonging to different families, including 7 carbohydrate esterase families and 21 glycoside hydrolase families. The glycoside hydrolase 3, glycoside hydrolase 1, glycoside hydrolase 43, carbohydrate esterase 4, carbohydrate esterase 1, and carbohydrate esterase 3 families demonstrated outstanding performance. CONCLUSIONS: The microbes and enzymes identified in our study expand the existing arsenal of proficient degraders and enzymes for lignocellulosic biofuel production. This study also describes a powerful approach for targeting gut microbes and enzymes in numerous industries.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Cecum/enzymology , Enzymes/metabolism , Lignin/metabolism , Cecum/microbiology , Cellulose/metabolism , Bacteroidetes , Biofuels , Metagenomics , Firmicutes , Gastrointestinal Microbiome
15.
Electron J Biotechnol ; 49: 22-28, Jan. 2021. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291938

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vibrio species display variable and plastic fitness strategies to survive and interact with multiple hosts, including marine aquaculture species that are severely affected by pathogenic Vibrios. The culturable Vibrio sp. strain ArtGut-C1, the focus of this study, provides new evidence of such phenotypic plasticity as it accumulates polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), a biodegradable polymer with anti-pathogen activity, particularly in the marine larviculture phase. The strain was isolated from the gut of laboratory-reared Artemia individuals, the live diet and PHB carrier used in larviculture. Its main phenotypic properties, taxonomic status and genomic properties are reported based on the whole-genome sequencing. RESULTS: Vibrio sp. ArtGut-C1 yielded 72.6% PHB of cells' dry weight at 25 C. The genomic average nucleotide identity (ANI) shows it is closely related to V. diabolicus (ANI: 88.6%). Its genome contains 5,236,997- bp with 44.8% GC content, 3,710 protein-coding sequences, 96 RNA, 9 PHB genes functionally related to PHB metabolic pathways, and several genes linked to competing and colonizing abilities. CONCLUSIONS: This culturable PHB-accumulating Vibrio strain shows high genomic and phenotypic variability. It may be used as a natural pathogen biocontrol in the marine hatchery and as a potential cell factory for PHB production.


Subject(s)
Animals , Artemia/microbiology , Vibrio/metabolism , Polyhydroxyalkanoates/metabolism , Hydroxybutyrates/metabolism , Genetic Variation , Vibrio/isolation & purification , Vibrio/classification , Aquaculture , Probiotics , Crustacea/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Biological Variation, Population
16.
Repert. med. cir ; 30(2): 109-117, 2021. ilus.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1361827

ABSTRACT

La microbiota intestinal es el conjunto de millones de microrganismos vivos ubicados en el tracto gastrointestinal. Es indispensable en múltiples funciones del organismo, regulación de la inmunidad, en aspectos nutricionales y procesos de inflamación sistémica entre otros. La disbiosis es la alteración del equilibrio de la microbiota normal, debido a cambios en la composición, funcionamiento, orden o su distribución; esto puede predisponer al individuo a la adquisición de enfermedades gastrointestinales, alérgicas y metabólicas, entre otras. El objetivo del presente artículo es realizar una revisión narrativa de la literatura sobre los conceptos claves de la microbiota intestinal, sus asociaciones fisiopatológicas con desórdenes gastrointestinales, alérgicos y metabólicos en pediatría.


ntestinal microbiota are the millions of living microbial communities that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract. It is essential for multiple functions of the human organism, such as, immune-regulation, in nutritional aspects, and systemic inflammatory processes, among others. Dysbiosis refers to the alteration of the equilibrium of normal microbiota due to shifts in its composition, functioning, order or distribution; this can predispose the individual to develop gastrointestinal, allergic and metabolic diseases among others. The aim of this article was to conduct a narrative review of the literature on the key concepts of intestinal microbiota, and its pathophysiological associations with gastrointestinal, allergic and metabolic disorders in pediatrics.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Gastrointestinal Tract , Dysbiosis , Microbiota , Allergy and Immunology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Gastrointestinal Diseases
17.
Rev. méd. Minas Gerais ; 31: 31105, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291252

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A cesárea é realizada em condições maternas e/ou fetais que impeçam o nascimento via vaginal. Devido ao risco de complicações infecciosas, o procedimento é precedido de antibioticoprofilaxia, o que pode provocar a seleção de cepas multirresistentes e alterar a flora nativa do indivíduo. O colostro é um fator determinante para a colonização do trato digestivo por ser fonte probiótica, além de apresentar papel importante na modulação do sistema imunológico e desenvolvimento do neonato. Objetivo: Este estudo visa avaliar possíveis interferências da antibioticoprofilaxia realizada previamente à cesárea na flora materna. Métodos: Selecionou-se 140 lactantes após aplicação dos critérios de exclusão, divididas em grupos estudo (realizaram parto cesáreo com antibioticoprofilaxia) e controle (realizaram parto vaginal sem antibioticoprofilaxia) para coleta das amostras ­ colostro e esfregaço areolar ­ com intuito de realizar a análise microbiológica das mesmas no Laboratório de Microbiologia da Faculdade de Medicina de Barbacena. Resultados: 94 lactantes pertencem ao grupo estudo e 46 ao controle. O microrganismo mais prevalente em todas as amostras foi a Candida sp. Ao se discriminar os grupos, a mesma também apresentou maior prevalência, seguida de Enterococcus sp. Em relação à detecção de Staphylococcus aureus pelo esfregaço mamilar, ele foi encontrado em 24 amostras do grupo controle e em 34 do grupo estudo. Na análise comparativa da prevalência de microrganismos entre os grupos, não se observou diferença estatisticamente relevante. Conclusão: A antibioticoprofilaxia peri-operatória mostrou-se segura em não alterar a composição da flora materna. Entretanto, mais estudos sobre o tema devem ser realizados.


Introduction: The C-section is performed under maternal and / or fetal conditions that prevent vaginal birth. Because of the infectious complications, the procedure is preceded by antibiotic prophylaxis, which can cause the selection of multidrug-resistant strains and shift the individual's native flora. Colostrum is a determining factor for colonization of the digestive tract being a probiotic source, along with playing an important role in the modulation of the immune system and development of the newborn. Objective: This study aims to assess possible interferences of antibiotic prophylaxis performed prior to cesarean section on maternal flora. Methods: 140 lactating women were selected after applying the exclusion criteria, divided into study groups (94 lactating women who underwent cesarean delivery with antibiotic prophylaxis) and control groups (46 lactating women who underwent vaginal delivery without antibiotic prophylaxis) for sample collection - colostrum and areolar swab - therefore perform the microbiological analysis at the Laboratório de Microbiologia da Faculdade de Medicina de Barbacena. Results: The most prevalent microorganism in all samples was Candida sp. Discriminating the groups, it also had the highest prevalence, followed by Enterococcus sp. Regarding the detection of Staphylococcus aureus by the areolar swab, it was found in 24 samples from the control group and 34 from the study group. In the comparative analysis of prevalence of microorganisms, between the groups, there was no statistically significant difference. Conclusion: Perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis proved to be safe not changing the composition of the maternal flora. However, further studies on the subject should be carried out.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pregnancy , Microbiological Techniques , Colostrum , Infant , Staphylococcus aureus , Candida , Cesarean Section , Flora , Antibiotic Prophylaxis , Parturition , Postpartum Period , Enterobacteriaceae , Gastrointestinal Microbiome
18.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 34(2): e1601, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345007

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Studies suggest that bariatric surgery, use of probiotic supplements and the dietary pattern can change enterotypes, as well as the entire microbial population. Objective: To verify the influence of bariatric surgery, the use of probiotic supplements and eating habits on enterotypes in obese patients. Methods: Articles published between the 2015 and 2020 were searched in Lilacs and PubMed with the headings: probiotics, eating behavior, food consumption, food, diet, microbiota, gastrointestinal microbiome, bariatric surgery, gastric bypass and the keyword enterotype in Portuguese, English and Spanish. Results: Of the 260 articles found, only studies carried out in obese adults relating changes in the enterotype after bariatric surgery or use of probiotics or dietary patterns and original articles were selected. In the end, eight papers on enterotype change and bariatric surgery were selected and categorized, four on the relationship between food consumption and microbiota and one on the effects of probiotics on enterotypes. Conclusion: The microbial structure is widely modified after bariatric surgery, since the use of probiotic supplement does not bring lasting changes. Enterotypes appear to be shaped by long-term dietary patterns, can modulate how nutrients are metabolized and can be a useful biomarker to improve clinical management.


RESUMO Introdução: Estudos sugerem que a cirurgia bariátrica, uso de suplementos probióticos e o padrão alimentar podem mudar enterótipos, assim como toda a população microbiana. Objetivo: Verificar a influência da cirurgia bariátrica, do uso de suplementos probióticos e de hábitos alimentares nos enterótipos de pacientes obesos. Métodos: Foi realizada a busca de artigos publicados entre os anos de 2015 e 2020 nas bases de dados Lilacs e PubMed com os descritores: probióticos, comportamento alimentar, consumo alimentar, alimentação, dieta, microbiota, microbioma gastrointestinal, cirurgia bariátrica, bypass gástrico e a palavra-chave enterótipo em português, inglês e espanhol. Resultados: Dos 260 artigos encontrados, foram selecionados os estudos originais realizados em adultos obesos relacionando mudanças de enterótipo após cirurgia bariátrica, a padrões alimentares ou ao uso de probiótico. Ao final, foram selecionados e categorizados oito estudos sobre mudança de enterótipo e cirurgia bariátrica, quatro sobre relação entre consumo alimentar e microbiota e somente um sobre efeitos dos probióticos nos enterótipos. Conclusão: A estrutura microbiana é amplamente modificada após a cirurgia bariátrica. O uso de suplemento probiótico não parece trazer mudanças duradouras. Os enterótipos parecem ser moldados por padrões alimentares em longo prazo e podem modular como os nutrientes são metabolizados, podendo vir a ser um biomarcador útil para melhorar o manejo clínico de pacientes obesos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Probiotics , Bariatric Surgery , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Feeding Behavior , Obesity/surgery
19.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 29: e3446, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1289770

ABSTRACT

Objective: to analyze scientific evidence regarding the relationship between the type of birth and the microbiota acquired by newborns. Method: this integrative review addresses the role of the type of delivery on newborns' microbial colonization. A search was conducted in the Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online/PubMed and Virtual Health Library databases using the descriptors provided by Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and Health Science Descriptors (DeCS). Results: infants born vaginally presented a greater concentration of Bacteroides, Bifidobacteria, and Lactobacillus in the first days of life and more significant microbial variability in the following weeks. The microbiome of infants born via C-section is similar to the maternal skin and the hospital setting and less diverse, mainly composed of Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Clostridium. Conclusion: the maternal vaginal microbiota provides newborns with a greater variety of colonizing microorganisms responsible for boosting and preparing the immune system. Vaginal birth is the ideal birth route, and C-sections should only be performed when there are medical indications.


Objective: analisar as evidências científicas existentes na literatura sobre a relação da via de nascimento com a microbiota adquirida pelo recém-nascido. Método: trata-se de uma revisão integrativa sobre a influência da via de nascimento na colonização microbiótica no recém-nascido. Foi realizada uma busca na literatura por meio das bases de dados Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online/ PubMed e Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, tendo como estratégia de busca a seleção de artigos baseados nos descritores desenvolvidos com Medical Subject Headings (termos MeSH) ou Descritores em Ciência da Saúde (DeCS). Resultados: os recém-nascidos por via vaginal apresentam nos primeiros dias de vida maior concentração de Bacteroides, Bifidobacterias e Lactobacillus e, com o passar das semanas, mostram maior variabilidade microbiótica. Os recém-nascidos por cesárea apresentam microbioma semelhante ao da pele materna e do ambiente hospitalar e possuem menor diversidade, sendo, principalmente, constituído de Staphylococcus, Streptococcus e Clostridium. Conclusão: a microbiota vaginal materna dispõe de uma maior variedade de microrganismos colonizadores, os quais são responsáveis por auxiliar na capacitação e melhor adequação ao sistema imunológico do recém-nato. Evidencia-se que o parto vaginal é a via ideal, ou seja, a cesariana deve ser realizada apenas quando existem indicações reais.


Objetivo: analizar las evidencias científicas existentes en la literatura sobre la relación de la vía de nacimiento con la microbiota adquirida por el recién nacido. Método: se trata de una revisión integradora sobre la influencia de la vía de nacimiento en la colonización de la microbiota en el recién nacido. Fue realizada una búsqueda en la literatura en las bases de datos Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online/PubMed y Biblioteca Virtual en Salud, teniendo como estrategia de búsqueda la selección de artículos basados en los descriptores desarrollados en el Medical Subject Headings (términos MeSH) o Descriptores en Ciencia de la Salud (DeCS). Resultados: los recién nacidos por vía vaginal presentan, en los primeros días de vida, mayor concentración de Bacteroides, Bifidobacterias y Lactobacillus; y, con el pasar de las semanas muestran mayor variabilidad de la microbiota. Los recién nacidos por cesárea presentan microbioma semejante a la piel materna y al ambiente hospitalario, poseyendo menor diversidad y siendo principalmente constituida de Staphylococcus, Streptococcus y Clostridium. Conclusión: la microbiota vaginal materna proporciona al neonato una mayor variedad de microorganismos colonizadores que son responsables por auxiliar en la capacitación y mejor adecuación de su sistema inmunológico. Se evidencia que el parto vaginal es la vía ideal y que la cesárea debe ser realizada apenas cuando existen indicaciones reales.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Bacteroides , Cesarean Section , Delivery, Obstetric , Parturition , Microbiota , Gastrointestinal Microbiome
20.
Afr. J. Clin. Exp. Microbiol ; 22(4): 504-514, 2021.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1342267

ABSTRACT

Background: Over time, herbal plants and their various components have been major sources of therapeutic medicine for man. A comparative study was carried out to determine the phytochemical components and antibacterial activities of the different crude extracts of Euphorbia heterophylla and Vitellaria paradoxa roots on four enteric bacteria; Salmonella typhi, Shigella flexneri, Escherichia coli and Proteus vulgaris. Methodology: Root samples of E. heterophylla and V. paradoxa were collected, washed, air dried and processed to fine powder in the microbiology laboratory of Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria. Crude extract of the root samples was done by the cold maceration technique using four solvents (chloroform, methanol, petroleum ether and water). Phytochemical analysis of the extracts was done using previously described technique, and in vitro antibacterial activities of different concentrations of the extracts (50-200 mg/ml) and a standard antibiotic (ciprofloxacin) were tested on four enteric bacteria (S. typhi, S. flexneri, E. coli, P. vulgaris) by the agar diffusion test. In vivo antibacterial activities of the two plants were also tested by daily oral administration of 2000 mg/kg bodyweight (for 7 days) of each extract on inbred mice infected through intraperitoneal inoculation of an infective dose of each of the four enteric bacteria. Data were computed as mean ± standard error and analysed by the Statistical Analysis System (SAS) version 9.4. Associations between variables were determined using analysis of variance (ANOVA), with p < 0.05 considered as significant value. Results: Phytochemical analysis of the crude extracts of both plants revealed the presence of cardiac glycosides, saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids, and tannins but V. paradoxa contain more carbohydrates and starch, and less phlobatannins, compared to E. heterophylla. In vitro assay showed dose-dependent antibacterial activity of the methanol, aqueous and chloroform (but not petroleum ether) extracts of the two plant roots. The in vitro antibacterial activities of the different extracts of V. paradoxica extracts were significantly higher (higher mean diameters of inhibition zones) than those of E. heterophylla (p<0.05), and methanol extracts gave the highest antibacterial effects. However, the root extract of E. heterophylla gave a higher antibacterial activity with the in vivo assay on inbred mice than V. paradoxa, and methanol extracts of the two plant extracts gave the highest in vivo activity, followed by aqueous extract and least activity was obtained with the chloroform extract. Conclusion: Crude extracts of E. heterophylla and V. paradoxa roots produce antibacterial activity against enteric Gram-negative bacteria pathogens involved in diarrhoea illnesses. Further researches should be directed towards isolation and characterization of the active compounds in the crude extracts.


Subject(s)
Humans , Euphorbia heterodoxa , Phytochemicals , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Nigeria
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