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1.
Prensa méd. argent ; 109(3): 77-82, 20230000. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1443143

ABSTRACT

La dermatitis herpetiforme, también denominada Enfermedad de Dühring-Brocq, es una dermatosis autoinmune crónica que evoluciona por brotes, caracterizada por la presencia de ampollas pequeñas que tienden a agruparse, en codos, rodillas y glúteos, con disposición simétrica, intensamente pruriginosas. Es considerada una manifestación cutánea de la enfermedad celíaca. Afecta a adultos jóvenes (20 a 50 años). El estudio histopatológico evidencia ampollas subepidérmicas. La inmunofluorescencia directa es característica: depósitos granulares de IgA en las puntas de las papilas dérmicas. Aún ante falta de sintomatología digestiva debe investigarse enfermedad celíaca en todos los pacientes. La dieta libre de gluten es la clave del tratamiento. En aquellos pacientes con intenso prurito o con una dermatosis muy extensa se puede utilizar dapsona vía oral, que alivia rápidamente las manifestaciones cutáneas, pero no modifica el curso de la enfermedad digestiva. Se presenta un paciente en quien a partir de las lesiones cutáneas se realizó diagnóstico de dermatitis herpetiforme primero y de enfermedad celíaca luego


Dermatitis herpetiformis, also known as Dühring-Brocq disease, is a chronic autoimmune dermatosis that evolves in outbreaks. It is characterized by the presence of small blisters that tend to cluster on the elbows, knees, and buttocks, with a symmetrical distribution and intense itching. It is considered a cutaneous manifestation of celiac disease. It affects young adults (20 to 50 years old). Histopathological examination reveals subepidermal blisters. Direct immunofluorescence is characteristic, showing granular deposits of IgA at the tips of the dermal papillae. Even in the absence of digestive symptoms, celiac disease should be investigated in all patients. A gluten-free diet is the key to treatment. In patients with intense itching or extensive dermatosis, oral dapsone can be used to quickly relieve cutaneous manifestations, but it does not alter the course of the digestive disease. We present a patient in whom the diagnosis of dermatitis herpetiformis was made initially, followed by a diagnosis of celiac disease based on the skin lesions


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Celiac Disease/pathology , Dermatitis Herpetiformis/pathology , Gastrointestinal Tract/pathology , Glutens
2.
Actual. SIDA. infectol ; 31(111): 49-53, 20230000. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1427113

ABSTRACT

El sarcoma de Kaposi (SK) es una neoplasia maligna angioproliferativa de bajo grado, causada por la infección por virus herpes humano tipo 8 (HHV-8). El tracto gastrointestinal está involucrado en el 40% de los casos y constituye la neoplasia maligna gastrointestinal más común en pacientes con sida. Se presenta el caso de un paciente 32 años con antecedente de VIH de larga data, sin tratamiento, que relató episodios de proctorragia intermitente y pérdida de peso en los últimos dos meses. Presentaba lesiones cutáneas elevadas en forma de placas violáceas que predominaban en tronco y miembros superiores. Se realizó videocolonoscopía, la que evidenció en el área próxima a la válvula ileocecal y en el colon ascendente, lesiones sobreelevadas, eritematosas, friables y sangrantes, las cuales se biopsiaron. El estudio anatomopatológico reportó un perfil inmunohistoquímico compatible con SK. Al momento de la escritura de este artículo el paciente se encontraba bajo tratamiento quimioterápico (doxorrubicina liposomal, seis ciclos) e iniciando tratamiento antirretroviral (lamivudina ­ tenofovir ­ dolutegravir). Se presenta el siguiente caso para destacar la importancia del enfoque multidisciplinario del paciente con VIH/sida y fundamentalmente el rol de la endoscopía digestiva tanto alta como baja en pacientes con dolor abdominal, sangrado digestivo u otros síntomas abdominales, con el fin de descartar patologías del tracto gastrointestinal y, particularmente, el SK


Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a low-grade angioproliferative malignancy caused by infection with human herpes virus -8. The gastrointestinal tract is involved in 40% of cases, being the most common gastrointestinal malignancy in patients with AIDS. We present the case of a 32-year-old patient with a long-standing history of HIV without treatment, who reported episodes of intermittent proctorrhagia and weight loss in the last two months. He presented raised skin lesions in the form of violaceous plaques that predominate on the trunk and upper limbs. A videocolonoscopy was performed, revealing raised, erythematous, friable, bleeding lesions near the ileocecal valve and in the ascending colon, which were biopsied. The anatomopathological study shows an immunohistochemical profile compatible with KS. At the time of writing this article, the patient was under chemotherapy treatment (liposomal doxorubicin, 6 cycles) and starting antiretroviral treatment (lamivudine - tenofovir - dolutegravir). The following case is presented to highlight the importance of the multidisciplinary approach of the patient with HIV / AIDS and fundamentally the role of both upper and lower digestive endoscopy in those cases that present with abdominal pain, digestive bleeding and other abdominal symptoms, in order to rule out gastrointestinal tract pathologies and particularly KS


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Sarcoma, Kaposi/diagnosis , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/immunology , HIV/immunology , Gastrointestinal Tract/pathology
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(2): 654-659, abr. 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440321

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Cadmium (Cd) is the industrial and environmental toxic heavy metal which is found in air, water and soil. Cd, adversely affects many organs in humans such as kidney, intestine, liver, testis and lungs. L-carnitine (LC) is an important agent that plays essential role in energy metabolism. In our study, we aimed to work out whether LC application has any protective effect on intestinal contractility and morphologic damage of prepubertal rat duodenum on Cd-induced toxicity. Twenty eight prepubertal female Wistar rats were divided into four groups. The first group is control (C), second group; Cd group; Cadmium chloride was given 2 mg/kg 28 days with a one-day break by i.p. The third group; Cd+LC, which cadmium chloride was given 2 mg/kg i.p. and LC was given orally by gastric lavage. The LC dose was given as 75 mg/kg. The fourth group; LC, which only LC was given orally. The intestinal segments were isolated and suspended in tissue bath. Contractile responses were induced by acetylcholine (ACh) and relaxation was achieved with phenylephrine. Also the segments were examined for histological changes by light microscopy. Ach-induced contractions were higher in Cd+LC, LC, and control group compared to the Cd group in duodenal segments. The phenylephrine-induced relaxations were lower in Cd groups as compared with Control, Cd+LC and LC group in duodenal segments. In Cd group intestinal morphology was observed to be severely damaged whereas in Cd+LC group the damage was noticeably lower. Cd administration caused severe cellular damage and decreased gastrointestinal motility. Treatment with the LC has affected the gastrointestinal contractility and reduced the damage in intestinal morphology, which occured after Cd application.


El cadmio (Cd) es el metal pesado tóxico industrial y ambiental que se encuentra en el aire, el agua y el suelo. El Cd afecta negativamente a muchos órganos humanos, como los riñones, los intestinos, el hígado, los testículos y los pulmones. La L-carnitina (LC) es un agente importante que juega un rol esencial en el metabolismo energético. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar si la aplicación de LC tiene algún efecto protector sobre la contractilidad intestinal y el daño morfológico del duodeno de rata prepuberal sobre la toxicidad inducida por Cd. Veintiocho ratas Wistar hembras prepúberes se dividieron en cuatro grupos. El primer grupo control (C), segundo grupo; grupo cd; Se administró cloruro de cadmio 2 mg/kg durante 28 días con un descanso de un día por vía i.p. El tercer grupo; Cd+LC, al que se administró cloruro de cadmio 2 mg/kg i.p. y LC se administró por vía oral mediante lavado gástrico. La dosis de LC se administró como 75 mg/kg. El cuarto grupo; LC, al cual solo LC se administraba por vía oral. Los segmentos intestinales fueron aislados y suspendieron en baño de tejido. Las respuestas contráctiles fueron inducidas por acetilcolina (ACh) y la relajación se logró con fenilefrina. También se examinaron los segmentos en busca de cambios histológicos mediante microscopía óptica. Las contracciones inducidas por Ach fueron mayores en Cd+LC, LC y el grupo control en comparación con el grupo Cd en los segmentos duodenales. Las relajaciones inducidas por fenilefrina fueron menores en los grupos Cd en comparación con el grupo Control, Cd+LC y LC en los segmentos duodenales. En el grupo Cd se observó que la morfología intestinal estaba severamente dañada mientras que en el grupo Cd+LC el daño fue notablemente menor. La administración de Cd causó daño celular severo y disminución de la motilidad gastrointestinal. El tratamiento con LC afectó la contractilidad gastrointestinal y redujo el daño en la morfología intestinal, que ocurría después de la aplicación de Cd.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Cadmium/toxicity , Carnitine/administration & dosage , Gastrointestinal Diseases/chemically induced , Gastrointestinal Diseases/prevention & control , Gastrointestinal Motility/drug effects , Rats, Wistar , Gastrointestinal Tract/drug effects , Gastrointestinal Tract/pathology , Muscle Contraction/drug effects
4.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 785-790, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1012308

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinicpathological characteristics of ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) of the gastrointestinal tract, and to discuss its diagnosis and differential diagnosis. Methods: Five cases of gastrointestinal ALK-positive ALCL diagnosed and treated in Xijing Hospital of the Fourth Military Medical University, between 2011 and 2019 were collected. There were three male and two female patients, aged 5-42 years (mean 25 years). These patients clinically presented with fever and night sweats, weight loss, abdominal pain, abdominal mass, ulcers, bleeding, or intestinal obstruction, and underwent surgical resection of the tumors or endoscopic biopsy. The clinical manifestations, auxiliary examinations, histopathological characteristics, immunophenotypes and genetic alterations were analyzed. Results: In this cohort, one case was common type, two cases were monomorphic variant of common type, and two cases were small cell variant. The tumor cells in all cases expressed ALK, CD30, and one or more T lymphocyte markers, while all the markers of B lymphocyte and plasmacyte were negative. Clonality analysis showed that two cases had clonal T cell receptor (TCR) and immunoglobulin (Ig) gene rearrangement, one case had no clonal TCR but Ig gene rearrangement, and one case had no clonal TCR and Ig gene rearrangements. During the 4 to 67 months' follow-up, two patients died of the disease, two were alive with free of disease and one had a relapse. Conclusions: ALK-positive ALCL of the gastrointestinal tract is extremely rare, and has poor prognosis. Lymphoma originating from this site with CD30 and ALK-positive phenotypes may be considered to be ALCL; however differentiation from other tumors that had anaplastic features, expressed CD30 and or ALK, in particular, ALK positive large B-cell lymphoma is necessary.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Lymphoma, Large-Cell, Anaplastic/pathology , Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/genetics , Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase , Gastrointestinal Tract/pathology , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse/genetics
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1011070

ABSTRACT

Extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma, nasal type(ENKTL) is a highly aggressive malignant tumor derived from NK cells. This article reports a case of ENKTL invading the larynx and digestive tract. The clinical clinical manifestations include hoarseness and intranasal masses.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lymphoma, Extranodal NK-T-Cell/pathology , Nose/pathology , Nose Neoplasms/pathology , Larynx/pathology , Gastrointestinal Tract/pathology
7.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 42: e06961, 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1356551

ABSTRACT

Baccharis vulneraria Backer is a sub-shrub frequently found in southern Brazil, which leads to gastrointestinal tract intoxication. The objective of this study is to describe epidemiological, clinical and anatomopathological aspects of two cases of B. vulneraria poisoning in cattle. Two bovines from two different municipalities in the Itajaí Valley, Santa Catarina, Brazil were necropsied and performed the histopathological evaluation and botanical classification of the plant found in the pasture. Bovine 1 had dehydration, ruminal atony, diarrhea, congested mucous membranes and hypothermia for 20 hours, and died during clinical care. At necropsy, there was moderate multifocal detachment and reddening of the forestomachs mucosa. Bovine 2 presented anorexia, dry feces, ruminal atony, vocalization and muscle tremors for ten days, unresponsive to treatments, evolving to death. At necropsy were seen loosening of the mucosa with marked diffuse reddening and transmural edema. The microscopic exam revealed degeneration, necrosis, vesiculation, and detachment of the forestomachs' mucosa, associated with moderate multifocal neutrophilic infiltrate (Bovine 1); marked diffuse transmural necrosis, edema, hemorrhage, and marked fibrinous exudation (Bovine 2). A large amount of B. vulneraria was found in the pastures, with signs of consumption. In this report, a case of subacute evolution of B. vulneraria poisoning was observed, since the poisoning by this plant is usually acute. More knowledge about poisoning by this plant is necessary for the prevention and control, avoiding new mortality cases.(AU)


Baccharis vulneraria Backer é um subarbusto frequentemente encontrado no sul do Brasil, que leva a um quadro de intoxicação nocivo ao trato gastrointestinal. O objetivo deste trabalho é descrever aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e anatomopatológicos de dois casos de intoxicação por B. vulneraria em bovinos. Foram necropsiados dois bovinos de dois municípios do Vale do Itajaí, Santa Catarina, Brasil, com avaliação histopatológica dos órgãos e classificação botânica dos exemplares da planta localizada nos piquetes. No exame clínico do Bovino 1 foram constatados desidratação, atonia ruminal, diarreia, mucosas congestas e hipotermia durante 20 horas, com morte durante atendimento clínico. Na necropsia, havia desprendimento e avermelhamento multifocais moderados na mucosa dos proventrículos. Já o Bovino 2 teve manifestações clínicas de anorexia, fezes secas, atonia ruminal, vocalização e tremores musculares por 10 dias, não responsivas a tratamento, evoluindo para óbito. Na necropsia, havia desprendimento da mucosa dos proventrículos, com avermelhamento e edema transmural difusos acentuados. No exame histológico havia degeneração e necrose da mucosa proventricular, vacuolização e desprendimento do epitélio, infiltrado neutrofílico multifocal moderado (Bovino 1), e necrose transmural difusa acentuada, edema, hemorragia e exsudação fibrinosa acentuados (Bovino 2). Grande quantidade de B. vulneraria foi encontrada nas pastagens dos bovinos, com sinais de consumo. É relatado um caso de evolução subaguda de intoxicação por B. vulneraria, visto que a intoxicação por essa planta geralmente tem curso agudo. Conhecimentos acerca desta planta são necessários para prevenção e controle da intoxicação, evitando novos casos de mortalidade.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Plant Poisoning/pathology , Plant Poisoning/veterinary , Cattle Diseases/pathology , Baccharis/poisoning , Gastrointestinal Tract/pathology , Plants, Toxic , Fatal Outcome
8.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 42: e06961, 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1487683

ABSTRACT

Baccharis vulneraria Backer is a sub-shrub frequently found in southern Brazil, which leads to gastrointestinal tract intoxication. The objective of this study is to describe epidemiological, clinical and anatomopathological aspects of two cases of B. vulneraria poisoning in cattle. Two bovines from two different municipalities in the Itajaí Valley, Santa Catarina, Brazil were necropsied and performed the histopathological evaluation and botanical classification of the plant found in the pasture. Bovine 1 had dehydration, ruminal atony, diarrhea, congested mucous membranes and hypothermia for 20 hours, and died during clinical care. At necropsy, there was moderate multifocal detachment and reddening of the forestomachs mucosa. Bovine 2 presented anorexia, dry feces, ruminal atony, vocalization and muscle tremors for ten days, unresponsive to treatments, evolving to death. At necropsy were seen loosening of the mucosa with marked diffuse reddening and transmural edema. The microscopic exam revealed degeneration, necrosis, vesiculation, and detachment of the forestomachs' mucosa, associated with moderate multifocal neutrophilic infiltrate (Bovine 1); marked diffuse transmural necrosis, edema, hemorrhage, and marked fibrinous exudation (Bovine 2). A large amount of B. vulneraria was found in the pastures, with signs of consumption. In this report, a case of subacute evolution of B. vulneraria poisoning was observed, since the poisoning by this plant is usually acute. More knowledge about poisoning by this plant is necessary for the prevention and control, avoiding new mortality cases.


Baccharis vulneraria Backer é um subarbusto frequentemente encontrado no sul do Brasil, que leva a um quadro de intoxicação nocivo ao trato gastrointestinal. O objetivo deste trabalho é descrever aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e anatomopatológicos de dois casos de intoxicação por B. vulneraria em bovinos. Foram necropsiados dois bovinos de dois municípios do Vale do Itajaí, Santa Catarina, Brasil, com avaliação histopatológica dos órgãos e classificação botânica dos exemplares da planta localizada nos piquetes. No exame clínico do Bovino 1 foram constatados desidratação, atonia ruminal, diarreia, mucosas congestas e hipotermia durante 20 horas, com morte durante atendimento clínico. Na necropsia, havia desprendimento e avermelhamento multifocais moderados na mucosa dos proventrículos. Já o Bovino 2 teve manifestações clínicas de anorexia, fezes secas, atonia ruminal, vocalização e tremores musculares por 10 dias, não responsivas a tratamento, evoluindo para óbito. Na necropsia, havia desprendimento da mucosa dos proventrículos, com avermelhamento e edema transmural difusos acentuados. No exame histológico havia degeneração e necrose da mucosa proventricular, vacuolização e desprendimento do epitélio, infiltrado neutrofílico multifocal moderado (Bovino 1), e necrose transmural difusa acentuada, edema, hemorragia e exsudação fibrinosa acentuados (Bovino 2). Grande quantidade de B. vulneraria foi encontrada nas pastagens dos bovinos, com sinais de consumo. É relatado um caso de evolução subaguda de intoxicação por B. vulneraria, visto que a intoxicação por essa planta geralmente tem curso agudo. Conhecimentos acerca desta planta são necessários para prevenção e controle da intoxicação, evitando novos casos de mortalidade.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Baccharis/poisoning , Cattle Diseases/pathology , Plant Poisoning/pathology , Plant Poisoning/veterinary , Gastrointestinal Tract/pathology , Fatal Outcome , Plants, Toxic
9.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 28(4): 176-180, out./dez. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1363173

ABSTRACT

A doença gastrintestinal relacionada à areia, também conhecida como enteropatia arenosa, é uma enfermidade gastrintestinal comum nos equinos mantidos a campo em regiões com solo arenoso frouxo resultando em sinais clínicos variáveis incluindo dor abdominal aguda, perda de peso, diarréia intermitente e baixa performance. Este artigo tem por objetivo relatar três casos de diarreia crônica em equinos associada à enteropatia arenosa. Três equinos da raça Quarto de Milha, dois garanhões e uma égua, com idades variando de 3 a oito anos, e peso médio de 433,33 + 41,66 kg foram examinados para diagnóstico de diarreia crônica. Nenhum dos animais apresentou sinais clínicos de dor abdominal aguda ou cólica recorrente que necessitasse de atendimento emergencial nesse período. Os animais foram manejados clinicamente por meio da utilização de Psyllium em pó na dose de 1g/kg de peso vivo por via oral a cada 24 horas durante 21 dias, além do fornecimento de 8 gramas de probiótico comercial. O tratamento foi eficaz na resolução do quadro clínico dos três animais.


Sand related gastrointestinal disease, also known as sandy enteropathy, is a common gastrointestinal disease in horses kept in regions with loose sandy soil resulting in variable clinical signs including acute abdominal pain, weight loss, intermittent diarrhea and poor performance. This article aims to report three cases of chronic diarrhea in horses associated with sandy enteropathy. Three Quarter Horses, two stallions and one mare, with ages ranging from 3 to eight years, and a mean weight of 433.33 ± 41.66 kg were examined for diagnosis of chronic diarrhea. None of the animals showed clinical signs of acute abdominal pain or recurrent colic that required emergency care during this period. The animals were clinically managed using Psyllium powder at a dose of 1g/kg bodyweight orally every 24 hours for 21 days, in addition to providing 8 grams of commercial probiotic. The treatment was effective in resolving the clinical status of the three animals.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diarrhea/veterinary , Horse Diseases , Gastrointestinal Tract/pathology , Horses , Intestinal Diseases/veterinary
10.
Acta méd. costarric ; 63(3)sept. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1383377

ABSTRACT

Resumen El coristoma pancreático, o páncreas heterotópico, es una condición rara en gastroenterología. Esta entidad consiste en el hallazgo de tejido pancreático aberrante, en alguna zona del tracto gastrointestinal, sin continuidad vascular o anatómica con el páncreas normal, es poco reportado y presenta sintomatología variable. Presentamos el caso de un individuo de 46 años con dolor abdominal a quien se le encontró mediante exámenes invasivos un divertículo duodenal, el cual al examen histopatológico e inmunohistoquímico mostró un coristoma pancreático.


Abstract Pancreatic choristoma, also called heterotopic pancreas is a rare condition in gastroenterology. This entity consists of the presence of aberrant pancreatic tissue in some other area of the gastrointestinal tract without vascular or anatomical continuity with the normal pancreas; it has been seldomly reported and it could exhibit variable symptomathology. We herein report the case of a 46-year-old male, who presented with abdominal pain and was found, through invasive examinations to have a pancreatic choristoma within a duodenal diverticulum. The diagnosis was made using histopathology and immune-histochemistry testing.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Choristoma/diagnostic imaging , Gastrointestinal Tract/pathology , Peru , Diverticulum/diagnosis
11.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 40(1): e989, ene.-mar. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289447

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los ácidos biliares en condiciones no fisiológicas se consideran agentes inflamatorio-carcinógenos endógenos que originan alteraciones en membranas plasmáticas, mitocondrias, el ADN, los genes y, la apoptosis de las células epiteliales. Objetivo: Describir la asociación entre los niveles elevados de ácidos biliares en la luz intestinal y la secuencia inflamación-cáncer, expresados como lesiones inflamatorias, premalignas y malignas del tracto digestivo. Métodos: Revisión sistemática y crítica de las evidencias sobre los mecanismos biomoleculares asociados a niveles altos de ácidos biliares en la luz intestinal y la secuencia inflamación-carcinogénesis, en bases de datos como PubMed, Medline, SciELO, LILACS y Elsevier, publicados entre 2015-2020, que establecen el fundamento teórico y metabolómico de dicha secuencia. Resultados: Los ácidos biliares tienen una acción tóxica en la secuencia inflamación-cáncer del tracto digestivo, al perderse el control de su homeostasis o la integridad anatomo-funcional del sistema hepato-vesículo-bilio-intestinal. Conclusiones: Los mecanismos celulares y biomoleculares desencadenados por los niveles altos de ácidos biliares contextualizan la génesis del proceso secuencial inflamación-cáncer y su interacción con los factores de riesgo clásicos, genéticos y epigenéticos reconocidos como un nuevo paradigma fisiopatológico del cáncer digestivo(AU)


Introduction: In non-physiological conditions, bile acids (BA) are considered to be endogenous inflammatory-carcinogenic agents causing alterations in plasma membranes, mitochondria, DNA, genes and epithelial cell apoptosis. Objective: Describe the association between high bile acid levels in the intestinal lumen and the inflammation-cancer sequence, expressed as inflammatory premalignant and malignant lesions of the digestive tract. Methods: A systematic critical review was conducted of the evidence about biomolecular mechanisms associated to high bile acid levels in the intestinal lumen and the inflammation-carcinogenesis sequence published in the databases PubMed, Medline, SciELO, LILACS and Elsevier in the period 2015-2020, laying the theoretical and metabolomic foundations of that sequence. Results: Bile acids display toxic activity in the inflammation-cancer sequence of the digestive tract, since control is lost of its homeostasis or the anatomical-functional integrity of the hepato-vesicular-biliary-intestinal system. Conclusions: The cellular and biomolecular mechanisms triggered by high bile acid levels provide a context for the genesis of the inflammation-cancer sequential process and its interaction with the classic, genetic and epigenetic risk factors recognized as a new pathophysiological paradigm of digestive cancer(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Bile Acids and Salts/toxicity , Gastrointestinal Tract/pathology , Carcinogenesis/pathology , Inflammation , Risk Factors
12.
Ciencia Tecnología y Salud ; 8(2): 166-183, 2021. il 27 c
Article in Spanish | LILACS, DIGIUSAC, LIGCSA | ID: biblio-1353093

ABSTRACT

El cáncer gástrico (CG) es la neoplasia del tubo digestivo más prevalente en el mundo, asociada a factores genéticos del hospedero y externos, como infección por Helicobacter pylori. La patogénesis incluye inflamación crónica mediada por citocinas del microambiente tumoral, detectables sistémicamente. Estudios previos reportan niveles séricos de citocinas y su contribución al diagnóstico de CG. El presente estudio analiza el perfil de citocinas del tipo de Th1(IFNγ), Th2(IL-4 e IL-10), Th17(Th-17A) y otras pro inflamatorias: IL-1ß, IL-6 y TNF-α, en plasma de 70 casos de pacientes con CG comparándolos con 132 sujetos sanos equiparables en edad y sexo. Los casos provinieron del Hospital Roosevelt e Instituto Nacional de Cancerología de Guatemala (Incan) y formaron parte de un estudio previo. Se analizó la base de datos clínicos, patológicos y epidemiológicos. Se midieron los niveles de citocinas utilizando el sistema "MSD MULTI-SPOT Assay System". La edad promedio de los casos fue 59.5 años, (DE 13.0), 51%, eran positivos para IgG anti H. pylori. Un 71% presentó adenocarcinoma grado III (Borrman), según clasificación de Lauren 55% tenían tipo intestinal. Las siete citocinas cuantificadas se encontraron significativamente elevadas (p < .05) en el plasma de los casos respecto a sus controles. Los casos de CG tipo difuso presentaron niveles de IFNγ significativa-mente elevados. Por regresión logística, las citocinas IL-6 e IL-10, están asociadas significativamente a CG (p < .05) independientemente del estatus de infección por H. pylori. Se destacan la IL-6 e IL-10 como las principales citocinas asociadas a la presencia de CG.


Gastric cancer (GC) is the most prevalent gastrointestinal neoplasm in the world, associated with host and external genetic factors, such as Helicobacter pylori infection. The pathogenesis includes chronic inflammation mediated by cytokines of the tumor microenvironment, systemically detectable. Previous studies report serum levels of cyto-kines and their contribution to the diagnosis of GC. The present study analyzes the profile of cytokines of the type Th1 (IFNγ), Th2 (IL-4 and IL-10), Th17 (Th-17A) and other pro-inflammatory: IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNF-α, in plasma of 70 cases of patients with GC compared with 132 healthy subjects comparable in age and sex. The cases came from the Roosevelt Hospital and the National Cancer Institute of Guatemala -Incan- and were part of a previous study. The clinical, pathological and epidemiological databases were analyzed. Cytokine levels were measured using the "MSD MULTI-SPOT Assay System". The average age of the cases was 59.5 years, (SD 13.0), 51% were positive for IgG anti H. pylori, 71% had grade III adenocarcinoma (Borrman), according to Laurenís classification, 55% had intestinal type. The seven cytokines quantified were found to be significantly elevated (p < .05) in the plasma of the cases compared to their controls. The diffuse GC cases presented significantly elevated IFNγ levels. By logistic regression, the cytokines IL-6 and IL-10 are significantly associated with GC (p < .05) regardless of the H. pylori infection status. IL-6 and IL-10 stand out as the main cytokines associated with the presence of GC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Plasma/chemistry , Stomach Neoplasms/complications , Cytokines/analysis , Interleukin-6/analysis , Interleukin-1/analysis , Interleukin-10/analysis , Th2 Cells , Th17 Cells , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Adenocarcinoma/complications , Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis , Helicobacter Infections/complications , Th1 Cells , Gastrointestinal Tract/pathology , Tumor Microenvironment , Neoplasms/complications
13.
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2021279, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285427

ABSTRACT

Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) is a rare autosomal dominant polyposis entity that often remains undiagnosed. The major problems associated with PJS are acute complications due to (i) polyp-related intestinal obstruction, (ii) intussusception, and (iii) the risk of cancer in the long-term. We report the case of a 32-year-old female who presented at the emergency room with signs of acute abdomen and died during the clinical workup. She had a one-month history of nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea and was pregnant at about 30 weeks. There was no contributing past history except for undergoing small bowel resection in infancy. The postmortem examination revealed multiple arborizing polyps throughout the gastrointestinal tract, chiefly in the small bowel. Intestinal obstruction was found at the proximal jejunum with necrosis, perforation, and peritonitis. Histologically, the polyps were composed of tree branch-like bundles of smooth muscle covered by normal-appearing glandular epithelium, confirming the diagnosis of hamartomatous polyps. No malignant or premalignant lesions were detected in the gastrointestinal tract or other organs. This case was an opportunity to analyze the natural history and the pathological features of the Peutz-Jeghers syndrome in an adult and to investigate the presence of neoplastic lesions associated with this condition.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome , Gastrointestinal Tract/pathology , Intestinal Obstruction/pathology , Autopsy , Fatal Outcome
14.
Rev. medica electron ; 42(3): 1920-1927, mayo.-jun. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1127052

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La colitis ulcerativa es una enfermedad crónica recidivante del tracto gastrointestinal, que evoluciona por recaídas formando parte de las enfermedades inflamatorias intestinales (EII). Afecta la mucosa y submucosa del colon, caracterizada por un proceso ulcerativo y supurado de la mucosa. La diarrea crónica con sangre es el síntoma más importante. En su curso alternan periodos de remisión y de crisis. No existe un criterio patognomónico para su definición, su diagnóstico se basa en una serie de criterios clínicos, endoscópicos e histológicos. Esta entidad infrecuente en su forma extensa severa. Aparece en un paciente, que llega a la institución de salud refiriendo que hace aproximadamente dos años, presenta cuadros de diarreas intermitentes con sangre, tratadas en el área de salud. Se le realizó Rx y colonoscopia constatando presencia de eritema, granularidad mucosa, friabilidad, pérdida de la vascularización submucosa, erosiones y ulceraciones extensas, profundas, signos de edema, pseudopólipos, pérdida de haustras, rigidez, sangrado, tractos fibrosos y presencia de exudado luminal. Se diagnosticó colitis extensa ulcerativa severa y se orientó tratamiento médico endovenoso y se continuó por via oral, obteniendo la remisión del cuadro clínico desde el punto de vista clínico y endoscópico (AU).


ABSTRACT Ulcerative colitis is a chronic recidivist disease of the gastrointestinal tract, evolving by relapses and is one of the intestinal inflammatory diseases. It affects the colon mucosa and sub-mucosa, characterized for an ulcerative process and mucosa exudation. Chronic diarrhea with blood is the most important symptom. Periods of crisis and remission alternated in its course; there is not a pathognomonic criteria for its definition and its diagnosis is based in a series of clinical, endoscopic and histological criteria. This entity, infrequent in extensive severe form, appears in a patient arriving to the hospital referring having intermittent diarrheas with blood for two years, treated in the health area. He undergone a radiography and colonoscopy, showing the presence of an erythema, mucosa granularity, friability, lost of submucosa vascularization, deep extensive erosions and ulcerations, edema signs, pseudo polyps, haustras lost, stiffness, bleeding, fibrous tracts and presence of luminal exudates. Severe ulcerative extensive colitis was diagnosed and was prescribed an endovenous medical treatment, continued orally, achieving the disease remission from the clinical and endoscopic point of view (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Colitis, Ulcerative/etiology , Chronic Disease , Colonoscopy , Gastrointestinal Tract/pathology , Urology , Colitis, Ulcerative/diagnosis , Colitis, Ulcerative/epidemiology , Colitis, Ulcerative/diagnostic imaging , Gastrointestinal Tract/diagnostic imaging , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Gastroenterology
15.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(4): 242-253, Apr. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | VETINDEX, LILACS | ID: biblio-1135616

ABSTRACT

Equine colic is one of the most common cause of death in horses, but few studies have investigated specifically the conditions at the necropsy. This study aimed to describe the epidemiological and pathological features of noninfectious diseases of the gastrointestinal tract in horses. A retrospective study was conducted in search of cases of these diseases affecting horses from 2005 to 2017. During this period, 114 horses died of noninfectious diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, and the main causes were: primary gastric dilation (27/114), volvulus (27/114), enterolithiasis (20/114), rectal (colonic) perforation (15/114), gastric or cecocolonic impaction (10/114), incarcerations (6/114), intussusception (4/114), and others (5/114). Mixed breeds horses (56/114) and males (69/114) were mostly affected. The horses had a median and mean age of 10 and 10.9-years old, respectively. Primary gastric dilation was characterized by distension of the stomach by moderate to large amounts of content, which in 21 cases caused tearing of the stomach wall at the greater curvature (peritonitis), and the main predisposing factor was alimentary overload (17/27). Intestinal volvulus occurred within the small intestine (14 cases) and within the large intestines (13 cases). Grossly, there was intestinal ischemia with reddened to deep-black serosa and diffusely red mucosae. Enterolithiasis caused partial or complete obstruction of the right dorsal colon (9/20), transverse colon (4/20), small colon and right dorsal colon (3/20), rectum and right dorsal colon (2/20), and small colon (2/20). Viscera perforation and peritonitis occurred in 11 cases. Rectal (colonic) perforation involved the rectum (10/15), rectum/small colon (4/15), and the small colon (1/15). It was characterized by a focally extensive transmural tearing, associated with reddened borders, and retroperitoneal to diffuse peritonitis. Palpation related iatrogenic injuries (11/15) were the main cause. Impactions affected the large colon (7/10), the cecum (2/10), and the stomach (1/10). Incarcerations consisted of inguinoscrotal hernias (2/6), small intestine entrapment by a mesenteric failure (2/6), diaphragmatic hernia, and umbilical eventration. Grossly, the organs were constricted by a hernial ring, with intestinal ischemia and reddened to dark-red serosa. Predisposing factors included previous surgeries (2/6) and patent inguinal ring (1/6). Intussusception involved the small intestine (3/4) and ileocecum (1/4). Foals with lack of colostrum intake and concomitant pneumonia was a characteristic presentation (3/4). Grossly, the intussusceptum slipped into intussuscipiens, with diffuse deep black-red discoloration. Other causes included large colon displacement (2/5), extrinsic and intrinsic obstruction of the small intestine (2/5), and an intestinal adenocarcinoma. Noninfectious gastrointestinal diseases are major causes of death in horses. Epidemiological and gross features of the conditions should be accounted to obtain a final diagnosis of the cause of the colic.(AU)


A cólica em equinos é considerada como a principal causa de morte de cavalos, porém poucos estudos têm investigado especificamente as condições envolvidas através da necropsia. O objetivo desse estudo foi descrever os aspectos epidemiológicos e patológicos de doenças não infecciosas do trato gastrointestinal de equinos. Foi conduzido um estudo retrospectivo em busca de casos dessas doenças envolvendo cavalos de 2005 a 2017. Durante esse período, 114 equinos morreram devido a doenças não infecciosas do trato gastrointestinal, e as principais causas foram: dilatação gástrica (27/114), vólvulos (27/114), enterolitíase (20/114), ruptura retal (colônica) (15/114), compactação gástrica ou cecocolônica (10/114), encarceramentos (6/114), intussuscepções (4/114), e outros (5/114). Animais sem raça definida (56/114) e machos (69/114) foram mais afetados. Os equinos apresentavam uma média e mediana de idade de 10 e 10,9 anos, respectivamente. A dilatação gástrica primária era caracterizada por distensão do estômago por moderada a grande quantidade de conteúdo, que em 21 casos provocava ruptura da parede gástrica na curvatura maior (peritonite), e o principal fator predisponente foi sobrecarga alimentar (17/27). Vólvulo intestinal ocorreu no intestino delgado e no intestino grosso (14 e 13 casos, respectivamente). Macroscopicamente, havia isquemia intestinal com serosa avermelhada a enegrecida e mucosa difusamente avermelhada. A enterolitíase causou obstrução parcial ou completa do cólon dorsal direito (9/20), cólon transverso (4/20), cólon menor e cólon dorsal direito (3/20), cólon menor (2/20), e reto e cólon maior direito (2/20). Perfuração de vísceras e peritonite foram observadas em 11 casos. A ruptura retal (colônica) envolveu o reto (10/15), reto/cólon menor (4/15) e cólon menor (1/15). Essa era caracterizada por ruptura transmural focalmente extensa, com bordos avermelhados e peritonite retroperitoneal a difusa. Traumas relacionados à palpação (11/15) foram a principal causa. Compactações afetaram o cólon maior (7/10), ceco (2/10) e estômago (1/10). Encarceramentos consistiram em hérnias inguinoescrotais (2/6), encarceramento de alças intestinais por falha no mesentério (2/6), hérnia diafragmática e eventração umbilical. Macroscopicamente, os órgãos estavam constritos por um anel hernial, com isquemia intestinal e serosa avermelhada a vermelho-escura. Fatores predisponentes incluíram cirurgias prévias (2/6) e anel inguinal patente (1/6). Intussuscepções envolveram o intestino delgado (3/4) e íleoceco (1/4). A apresentação característica foi em potros com falta de colostro e concomitante pneumonia. Macroscopicamente, o intussuscepto deslizava em direção ao intussuscepiente, exibindo coloração vermelho-enegrecida difusa. Outras causas incluíram deslocamento de cólon maior (2/5), obstrução extrínseca e intrínseca do intestino delgado (2/5), e um caso de adenocarcinoma intestinal. Doenças não infecciosas são importantes causas de morte em equinos. Os aspectos epidemiológicos e macroscópicos das condições devem ser considerados para o que o diagnóstico final da causa da cólica seja obtido.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Gastric Dilatation , Colic , Gastrointestinal Tract/pathology , Intestinal Volvulus , Horse Diseases/pathology , Horse Diseases/epidemiology , Intussusception , Horses
16.
Rev. méd. Panamá ; 40(1): 36-40, ene.2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1099765

ABSTRACT

El divertículo de Meckel complicado es poco frecuente en el adulto. Presentamos un paciente de 19 años de edad, con dolor abdominal de 11 horas de evolución, encon­ trando al realizar la laparotomía exploradora un divertículo de Meckel gigante, necrosa­ do y volvulado. Las presentaciones más frecuentes del divertículo de Meckel son la obstrucción intestinal y la diverticulitis, esta última da una sintomatología similar a la apendicitis aguda, por lo que al realizar la exploración quirúrgica y encontrar el apéndi­ ce cecal normal, se debe visualizar los últimos 180 cm de íleo terminal.


Meckel's diverticulum is rare in adults. We present a 19­year­old patient with abdominal pain of 11 hours of evolution, finding a giant Meckel diverticulum, necrotic and volvula­ ted, when performing the exploratory laparotomy. The most frequent presentations of Meckel's diverticulum are intestinal obstruction and diverticulitis, the latter being a symptomatology similar to acute appendicitis, surgical surgery and the normal cecal ap­ pendix, the last 180 cm of terminal ileum should be visualiz


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Meckel Diverticulum/surgery , Meckel Diverticulum/diagnosis , Meckel Diverticulum/history , Gastrointestinal Tract/pathology , Diverticulitis
17.
Autops. Case Rep ; 9(2): e2018082, Abr.-Jun. 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-994676

ABSTRACT

Cholesterol crystal embolism is a rare and easily overlooked cause of colonic ischemia. The gastrointestinal tract is the third most common organ system affected by cholesterol emboli, second only to kidney and skin. Here we present a catastrophic case of gastrointestinal cholesterol crystal embolism leading to extensive post-operative bowel infarction and ultimately death. For a practicing pathologist, careful attention to the vessels of any ischemic bowel and recognition of the subtle but distinct angular imprint of cholesterol crystals facilitates prompt identification of the atheroemboli. In some cases, early identification may help mitigate further tissue damage. In more acute and severe cases, identification of the cholesterol crystal emboli may be important primarily for documentation of procedural complications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Embolism, Cholesterol/etiology , Gastrointestinal Tract/pathology , Ischemia/complications , Autopsy , Fatal Outcome , Embolism, Cholesterol/pathology
18.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(1): 341-353, Jan,-Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886641

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Four soybean meal-based diets containing increasing levels of an enzyme complex (E50, E100, E150 and E200 at 50, 100, 150 and 200 g ton-1, respectively) and one soybean meal-based diet without the enzyme complex (E0) were fed in triplicate to M. liza juveniles in a semi-static flow system with 20 fish per tank for 75 days. There were no differences between the treatments for animal performance parameters, but fish fed the enzyme complex treatment exhibited significantly (P<0.05) higher values of calcium bone retention compared with control fish. Although there was no relationship between bacterial counts in different sections of the gastrointestinal tract or enzyme levels, filamentous bacteria were increased in E50 compared with E150. All of the treatments resulted in higher bacterial counts in the stomach than in intestinal segments. Histological screening showed serious to moderate infiltration of inflammatory cells, modification in villus morphology and necrosis in some cases in fish fed the E0 diet. In addition, fish from the E0 treatment exhibited significantly (P<0.05) lower lipid deposition in the peritoneal cavity. Therefore, the use of low levels of exogenous enzyme is recommended in diets for M. liza when soybean meal is used as the main source of protein.


Subject(s)
Animals , Glycine max , Smegmamorpha/growth & development , Diet/veterinary , Enteritis/veterinary , Enzymes/administration & dosage , Fish Diseases/prevention & control , Reference Values , Time Factors , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Smegmamorpha/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Tract/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Tract/pathology , Enteritis/microbiology , Enteritis/pathology , Enteritis/prevention & control , Bacterial Load , Animal Feed/analysis
20.
Gastroenterol. latinoam ; 27(3): 169-172, 2016. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-907631

ABSTRACT

A case report of a 67 year old female presenting upper gastrointestinal symptoms characterized by epigastric pain and nausea. Her endoscopic examination reveals the presence of a polypoid submucosal lesion measuring 5 mm in diameter. Biopsies were reported as inflammatory fibroid polyp. Clinical pathological aspects, immunohistochemical findings, differential diagnosis and described new genetic alterations associated with this lesion are discussed.


Se presenta caso de paciente mujer de 67 años con sintomatología digestiva alta caracterizada por epigastralgia y náuseas. Su examen endoscópico muestra la presencia de lesión solevantada submucosa de 5 mm de diámetro. Las biopsias revelan la presencia de pólipo fibroide inflamatorio. Se discuten los aspectos clínico-patológicos, inmunohistoquímicos, diagnóstico diferencial y nuevas alteraciones genéticas descritas, asociadas a esta lesión.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Aged , Intestinal Polyps/diagnosis , Intestinal Polyps/pathology , Stomach/pathology , Diagnosis, Differential , Gastrointestinal Tract/pathology , Immunohistochemistry
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