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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246889, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285639

ABSTRACT

Abstract The intertidal rocky shores in continental Chile have high species diversity mainly in northern Chile (18-27° S), and one of the most widespread species is the gastropod Echinolittorina peruviana (Lamarck, 1822). The aim of the present study is do a first characterization of spatial distribution of E. peruviana in along rocky shore in Antofagasta town in northern Chile. Individuals were counted in nine different sites that also were determined their spectral properties using remote sensing techniques (LANDSAT ETM+). The results revealed that sites without marked human intervention have more abundant in comparison to sites located in the town, also in all studied sites was found an aggregated pattern, and in six of these sites were found a negative binomial distribution. The low density related to sites with human intervention is supported when spectral properties for sites were included. These results would agree with other similar results for rocky shore in northern and southern Chile.


Resumo As costas rochosas entremarés no Chile continental apresentam alta diversidade de espécies, principalmente no norte do país (18-27 ° S), e uma das espécies mais difundidas é o gastrópode Echinolittorina peruviana (Lamarck, 1822). O objetivo do presente estudo é fazer uma primeira caracterização da distribuição espacial de E. peruviana no costão rochoso da cidade de Antofagasta no norte do Chile. Os indivíduos foram contados em nove locais diferentes onde também foram determinadas suas propriedades espectrais usando técnicas de sensoriamento remoto (LANDSAT ETM +). Os resultados revelaram que os locais sem intervenção humana marcada apresentam maior abundância em comparação aos locais localizados no município. Também em todos os locais estudados foi encontrado um padrão agregado, sendo que em seis desses locais foi encontrada uma distribuição binomial negativa. A baixa densidade relacionada a sites com intervenção humana é suportada quando as propriedades espectrais para sites foram incluídas. Esses resultados concordariam com outros resultados semelhantes para costões rochosos no norte e no sul do Chile.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Ecosystem , Gastropoda , Chile
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246984, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285632

ABSTRACT

Abstract Physids belong to Class Gastropoda; belong to Phylum Mollusca and being bioindicators, intermediate hosts of parasites and pests hold a key position in the ecosystem. There are three species of Genus Physa i.e. P. fontinalis, Physa acuta and P. gyrina water bodies of Central Punjab and were characterized on the basis of molecular markers High level of genetic diversity was revealed by polymorphic RAPD, however SSR markers were not amplified. The multivariate analysis revealed polymorphism ranging from 9.09 percent to 50 percent among the three Physid species. Total number of 79 loci were observed for the three species under study and 24 loci were observed to be polymorphic. These RAPD fragment(s) can be developed into co dominant markers (SCAR) by cloning and can be further sequenced for the development of the Physa species specific markers to identify the introduced and native species in Pakistan.


Resumo Os físidos pertencem à classe Gastropoda; pertencem ao filo Mollusca e, sendo bioindicadores, hospedeiros intermediários de parasitas e pragas, ocupam uma posição-chave no ecossistema. Existem três espécies do gênero Physa, ou seja, P. fontinalis, Physa acuta e P. gyrina em corpos d'água do Punjab Central e foram caracterizadas com base em marcadores moleculares. Alto nível de diversidade genética foi revelado por RAPD polimórfico, no entanto os marcadores SSR não foram amplificados. A análise multivariada revelou polimorfismo variando de 9,09% a 50% entre as três espécies de Physid. Um número total de 79 loci foi observado para as três espécies em estudo e 24 loci foram observados como polimórficos. Esses fragmentos RAPD podem ser desenvolvidos em marcadores codominantes (SCAR) por clonagem e podem ser posteriormente sequenciados para o desenvolvimento de marcadores específicos da espécie Physa para identificar as espécies introduzidas e nativas no Paquistão.


Subject(s)
Animals , Gastropoda , Introduced Species , Pakistan , Phylogeny , Ecosystem , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e225092, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249256

ABSTRACT

Abstract A new species of the genus Lutziella (Rohde, 1966) Yamaguti, 1971 is described here and named Lutziella swatensis sp.nov. from the liver of rat (Rattus rattus L.). The new species is characterized by having body flat, smooth, longer than broad with maximum width at the level of the ovary, oral sucker with weak musculature, pharynx small; eosophagus long; caeca of irregular shape which bifurcate on the anterior border of the ovary in to unequal portions, acetabulum weakly muscular, post-testicular, testes lobed, cirrus pouch somewhat median, small in size containing winding seminal vesicle, prostatic complex and short ejaculatory duct. Genital pore median. Ovary post testicular, submedian; seminal receptacle overlapping ovary, laurer's canal present. Vitellaria follicular extending on each side from almost the level of testes to anterior portion of posterior half of the body. Uterus filled with eggs occupying most of the body, eggs oval rather small, numerous, brownish in colour, excretory vesicle tubular with terminal pore. Lutziella swatensis n. sp. is the second species of the genus known from Pakistan as well as the second species described from murid rodents in the world.


Resumo Uma nova espécie do gênero Lutziella (Rohde, 1966) Yamaguti, 1971 é descrita aqui e denominada Lutziella swatensis sp.nov. do fígado do rato (Rattus rattus L.). A nova espécie é caracterizada por ter corpo liso, liso, mais longo que largo com largura máxima ao nível do ovário, otário oral com musculatura débil, faringe pequena; eosôfago longo; ceco de forma irregular que se bifurca na borda anterior do ovário em porções desiguais, acetábulo fracamente muscular, pós-testicular, testículos lobados, bolsa cirrus um pouco mediana, pequeno em tamanho contendo vesícula seminal sinuosa, complexo prostático e ducto ejaculatório curto. Mediana dos poros genitais. Ovário pós testicular, submediano; ovário sobreposto do receptáculo seminal, canal de laurer presente. Vitellaria folicular que se estende de cada lado de quase o nível dos testículos para a porção anterior da metade posterior do corpo. Útero cheio de ovos que ocupam a maior parte do corpo, oval ovos bastante pequenos, numerosos, de cor acastanhada, vesícula excretor tubular com poro terminal. Lutziella swatensis n. sp. é a segunda espécie do gênero conhecida do Paquistão, bem como a segunda espécie descrita de roedores do mundo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Trematoda , Trematode Infections , Gastropoda , Pakistan , Environment
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e236182, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153485

ABSTRACT

Abstract The oyster culture has the incrusting organism as problem for production, in this context, it evaluated as biological control against incrusting organism and sediments the introduction of gastropod Tegula atra (Lesson, 1830) in Chilean oysters (Triostrea chilensis Phillippi, 1844) cultures in conditions of starvation presence and absence located in floating cages and bottom cultures. The predation and mechanic effect on T. atra grazing generated a decreasing in seven days of 19.8% and 13.7% of incrusting organisms in cage culture and bottom sediments by effects of gastropods without starvation respectively. Whereas it had a decrease of 12.6% and 11.4% of incrusting organisms in cage culture and bottom sediments by effects of gastropods with starvation respectively. The incrusting organism removed were mainly algae, colonial ascidia, polychaeta, bryozoan and small crustaceans.


Resumo A cultura da ostra tem como problema de produção o organismo incrustante, neste contexto, avaliou como controle biológico contra organismos incrustantes e sedimentos a introdução do gastrópode Tegula atra (Lesson, 1830) em culturas de ostras chilenas (Triostrea chilensis Phillippi, 1844) em condições de presença e ausência de fome, localizadas em gaiolas flutuantes e culturas de fundo. A predação e o efeito mecânico no pastejo de T. atra geraram uma diminuição em sete dias de 19,8% e 13,7% dos organismos incrustantes na cultura em gaiola e nos sedimentos de fundo, por efeito de gastrópodes sem fome, respectivamente. Considerando que houve decréscimo de 12,6% e 11,4% dos organismos incrustantes na cultura em gaiola e nos sedimentos de fundo pelos efeitos dos gastrópodes com fome respectivamente. Os organismos incrustantes removidos eram principalmente algas, ascídias coloniais, poliquetas, briozoários e pequenos crustáceos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ostreidae , Gastropoda , Predatory Behavior , Chile , Geologic Sediments , Crustacea
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940945

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the spatial-temporal distribution characteristics of Oncomelania hupensis snails in Anhui Province from 2011 to 2020, to provide insights into precision control of O. hupensis snails in Anhui Province.@*METHODS@#O. hupensis snail distribution data were collected in Anhui Province from 2011 to 2020 and descriptively analyzed, including actual area of snail habitats, area of emerging snail habitats and area of Schistosoma japonicum-infected snails. The actual area of snail habitats and area of emerging snail habitats were subjected to spatial autocorrelation analysis, hotspot analysis, standard deviation ellipse analysis and space-time scanning analysis, and the clusters of snail distribution and settings at high risk of snail spread were identified in Anhui Province from 2011 to 2020.@*RESULTS@#The actual area of snail habitats gradually decreased in Anhui Province from 2011 to 2020. The actual area of snail habitats were 26 238.85 hm2 in Anhui Province in 2020, which were mainly distributed in marshland and lake regions. There was a large fluctuation in the area of emerging snail habitats in Anhui Province during the period from 2011 to 2020, with the largest area seen in 2016 (1 287.65 hm2), and 1.96 hm2 emerging infected snail habitats were detected in Guichi District, Chizhou City in 2020. Spatial autocorrelation and hotspot analyses showed spatial clusters in the distribution of actual areas of snail habitats in Anhui Province from 2011 to 2020 (Z = 3.00 to 3.43, all P values < 0.01), and the hotspots were mainly concentrated in the marshland and lake regions and distributed along the south side of the Yangtze River, while the cold spots were mainly concentrated in the mountainous regions of southern Anhui Province. There were no overall spatial clusters in the distribution of areas of emerging snail habitats (Z = -2.20 to 1.71, all P values > 0.05), and a scattered distribution was found in local regions. Standard deviation ellipse analysis showed relatively stable distributions of the actual areas of snail habitats in Anhui Province from 2011 to 2020, which was consistent with the flow direction of the Yangtze River, and the focus of the distribution of areas of emerging snail habitats shifted from the lower reaches to upper reaches of Anhui section of the Yangtze River. Space-time scanning analysis identified two high-value clusters in the distribution of actual areas of snail habitats in lower and middle reaches of Anhui section of the Yangtze River from 2011 to 2020, and two high-value clusters in the distribution of areas of emerging snail habitats were identified in mountainous and hilly regions.@*CONCLUSIONS@#There were spatial clusters in the distribution of O. hupensis snails in Anhui Province from 2011 to 2020, which appeared a tendency of aggregation towards the south side and upper reaches of the Yangtze River; however, the spread of O. hupensis snails could not be neglected in mountainous and hilly regions. Monitoring of emerging snail habitats should be reinforced in mountainous and hilly regions and along the Yangtze River basin.


Subject(s)
Animals , China/epidemiology , Ecosystem , Gastropoda , Lakes , Rivers , Schistosoma japonicum
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940944

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To predict the trends for fine-scale spread of Oncomelania hupensis based on supervised machine learning models in Shanghai Municipality, so as to provide insights into precision O. hupensis snail control.@*METHODS@#Based on 2016 O. hupensis snail survey data in Shanghai Municipality and climatic, geographical, vegetation and socioeconomic data relating to O. hupensis snail distribution, seven supervised machine learning models were created to predict the risk of snail spread in Shanghai, including decision tree, random forest, generalized boosted model, support vector machine, naive Bayes, k-nearest neighbor and C5.0. The performance of seven models for predicting snail spread was evaluated with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), F1-score and accuracy, and optimal models were selected to identify the environmental variables affecting snail spread and predict the areas at risk of snail spread in Shanghai Municipality.@*RESULTS@#Seven supervised machine learning models were successfully created to predict the risk of snail spread in Shanghai Municipality, and random forest (AUC = 0.901, F1-score = 0.840, ACC = 0.797) and generalized boosted model (AUC= 0.889, F1-score = 0.869, ACC = 0.835) showed higher predictive performance than other models. Random forest analysis showed that the three most important climatic variables contributing to snail spread in Shanghai included aridity (11.87%), ≥ 0 °C annual accumulated temperature (10.19%), moisture index (10.18%) and average annual precipitation (9.86%), the two most important vegetation variables included the vegetation index of the first quarter (8.30%) and vegetation index of the second quarter (7.69%). Snails were more likely to spread at aridity of < 0.87, ≥ 0 °C annual accumulated temperature of 5 550 to 5 675 °C, moisture index of > 39% and average annual precipitation of > 1 180 mm, and with the vegetation index of the first quarter of > 0.4 and the vegetation index of the first quarter of > 0.6. According to the water resource developments and township administrative maps, the areas at risk of snail spread were mainly predicted in 10 townships/subdistricts, covering the Xipian, Dongpian and Tainan sections of southern Shanghai.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Supervised machine learning models are effective to predict the risk of fine-scale O. hupensis snail spread and identify the environmental determinants relating to snail spread. The areas at risk of O. hupensis snail spread are mainly located in southwestern Songjiang District, northwestern Jinshan District and southeastern Qingpu District of Shanghai Municipality.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bayes Theorem , China/epidemiology , Ecosystem , Gastropoda , Supervised Machine Learning
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928179

ABSTRACT

In recent years, the MYB-related gene family has been found pivotal in plant growth and development. MYB-related gene family in Angelica dahurica var. formosana was systematically investigated based on "Chuanzhi No. 2" through transcriptome database search and bioinformatics and the temporal and spatial expression patterns were analyzed through real-time fluorescence-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction(PCR). The results showed that 122 MYB-related proteins family were identified, mainly including the unstable hydrophilic proteins with good thermal stability. Most of the proteins were located in nuclei. The majority of the proteins had the structures of random coil and α-helix. Five MYB-related proteins family of A. dahurica var. formosana had membrane-binding domains. The conserved domain analysis of MYB-related proteins family of A. dahurica var. formosana showed that the MYB domains of genes in five subgroups, similar to 2 R-, 3 R-, and 4 R-MYB proteins, contained three evenly distributed Trp(W) residues in the MYB repeat sequence. The phylogenetic analysis of MYB-related proteins family in A. dahurica var. formosana and Arabidopsis thaliana showed that the MYB-related members were unevenly distributed in five subgroups, and A. thaliana and A. dahurica var. formosana had almost the same number of genes in the CCA1-like subgroup. There were differences in the number, type, and distribution of motifs contained in 122 encoded proteins. Transcription factors with similar branches had similar domains and motifs. The expression pattern analysis showed that the transcription factors AdMYB53, AdMYB83, and AdMYB89 responded to hormones to varying degrees, and they were highly expressed in leaves and responded quickly in roots. This study lays a foundation for further investigating the function of MYB-related transcription factors of A. dahurica var. formosana and solving the corresponding biological problems such as bolting early.


Subject(s)
Angelica/chemistry , Animals , Computational Biology , Gastropoda , Phylogeny , Plant Leaves , Plant Proteins/genetics , Transcription Factors/genetics
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928088

ABSTRACT

In this study, we analyzed the composition and content of 25 free amino acids in 32 batches of different forms of Cervi Cornu Pantotrichum(CCP; one-branched, two-branched, and three-branched) from 15 producing areas. The clustering analysis and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis(OPLS-DA) were performed based on the content of 25 free amino acids. Potential differential metabolites were identified based on VIP value. The results showed that there were 25 free amino acids in CCP, and the average content of essential, non-essential, and total amino acids was 6.13, 32.99, and 39.12 mg·g~(-1), respectively. The clustering analysis and OPLS-DA demonstrated that 25 free amino acids had different content among the three forms of CCP, of which two-branched CCP samples were separately gathered into a group. Five differential components, including glutamic acid, tryptophan, ornithine, γ-aminobutyric acid, and hydroxylysine, were screened out as potential quality markers for the identification of different forms of CCP. This study provides a theoretical basis for the quality evaluation, processing, and utilization of different forms of CCP.


Subject(s)
Amino Acids/analysis , Animals , Cornus , Deer , Gastropoda , Glutamic Acid
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e243114, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278478

ABSTRACT

Abstract Littoraria angulifera (Lamarck, 1822) is an estuarine gastropod of tropical occurrence, which lives mainly on trunks of mangrove tree species. This study aimed to evaluate the population attributes of this species, such as abundance, space-time distribution, sex ratio and recruitment in mangroves in Bahia State, northeastern Brazil. The specimens were collected monthly throughout 2018, on trunks of the red mangrove Rhizophora mangle L. at two heights and on two horizontal levels. Specimens that were on the marine grass Spartina alterniflora Loisel were also collected. After counting, biometrics and sexing, the specimens were returned alive to the environment. The average size and weight of L. angulifera was higher (p<0.05) in places with taller and less sparse trees and the vertical distribution on the trunks showed a preference for strata close to the soil. Both results are related to shading and protection against desiccation. Females were more abundant than males, at an approximate sex ratio F: M of 1.4: 1. Recruits were observed throughout the period, showing continuous reproduction of the species with a recruitment peak in spring (September to November). The study revealed the importance of keep the mangroves intact to allow the maintenance of the natural stocks of the species.


Resumo Littoraria angulifera (Lamarck, 1822) é um gastrópode estuarino, de ocorrência tropical, que vive principalmente sobre troncos de espécies arbóreas de mangue. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar os atributos populacionais dessa espécie, como abundância, distribuição espaço-temporal, razão sexual e recrutamento em manguezais do estado da Bahia, nordeste do Brasil. Os espécimes foram coletados mensalmente ao longo de 2018, em troncos do mangue vermelho Rhizophora mangle L. em duas alturas e em dois níveis horizontais. Também foram coletados espécimes que estavam na grama marinha Spartina alterniflora Loisel. Após contagem, biometria e sexagem, os espécimes foram devolvidos vivos ao ambiente. O tamanho e peso médios de L. angulifera foram maiores (p<0,05) em locais com árvores mais altas e menos esparsas e a distribuição vertical nos troncos mostrou preferência por estratos próximos ao solo. Ambos os resultados estão relacionados ao sombreamento e proteção contra a dessecação. As fêmeas foram mais abundantes que os machos, em uma proporção sexual aproximada F: M de 1,4: 1. Recrutas foram observados ao longo do período, mostrando reprodução contínua da espécie, com um pico de recrutamento na primavera (setembro a novembro). O estudo revelou a importância de manter os manguezais intactos para permitir a manutenção dos estoques naturais da espécie.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Rhizophoraceae , Gastropoda , Trees , Brazil , Population Density
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878954

ABSTRACT

The color characteristic information of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma powder was obtained by spectrophotometer, the feasibility of rapid identification of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma origin based on chromaticity value was studied by statistical analysis. The results of rank correlation analysis showed that a~*(P<0.01), b~*(P<0.01) had significantly correlation with the origin of medicinal herbs, which could be used as two important parameters to distinguish the origin of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma, the larger the a~* value, the more red the powder color,and the greater the b~* value, the more yellow the powder color. Meanwhile, through Fisher discriminant analysis, the linear discriminant functions of different genus Rhei Radix et Rhizoma were established, which was Rheum tanguticum=40.666a~*+0.019b~*-213.303, Rh. palmatum=34.121a~*+0.061b~*-151.770, Rh. officinale=28.071a~*+0.113b~*-104.604 3, the coincidence rate of cross-validation was over 95%, among them, the discriminant rate of Rh. tanguticum and Rh. officinale reached 100%;In addition, using the percentile method to analyze the 90% reference value range of three different origin of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma, as a result, Rh. tanguticum a~*(10.236 5-10.604 7), b~*(32.294 8-34.841 7); Rh. palmatum a~*(8.602 7-8.770 0), b~*(27.534 8-28.968 6), and Rh. officinale a~*(6.825 7-7.464 3),b~*(21.001 6-27.716 4). According to this study, rank correlation analysis and Fisher discriminant analysis are feasible to distinguish the base of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma in a certain range, and provide some theoretical basis for the identification of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma. It also provides a new method and idea for the identification of other multi-base Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Animals , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Gastropoda , Plant Roots , Rheum , Rhizome
11.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 335-342, 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153364

ABSTRACT

The species of Pugilina cochlidium (Linnaeus, 1758) and P. erecta (Vermeij & Raben, 2009) has been studied in the present study. The female can be differentiated from the male by the absence of the cephalic penis and a complicated genital aparatus visible through the mantle skirt in both the sexes. In other aspects of the external features of female are quite to males. In both species the digestive system was similar with few differences in structure between each other. It consists of buccal mass, proboscis, salivary glands, accessory salivary glands, oesophagus, stomach, intestine, rectum and anus. The nervous system in both P. cochlidium and P. erecta is constituted by six ganglia which forms the circumoesophgeal ganglionic ring. Among the neogastropods there is a similarity in the organization of the reproductive systems. The female reproductive system is more complicated than that of male. The sexes are separated in these two species. The gross morphology of the reproductive system of P. cochlidium and P. erecta was almost similar. The present study aims to describe the digestive system, nervous system and reproductive system of two gastropods species P. cochlidium and P. erecta.


As espécies de Pugilina cochlidium (Linnaeus, 1758) e P. erecta (Vermeij & Raben, 2009) foram tomadas no presente estudo. A fêmea pode ser diferenciada do macho pela ausência do pênis cefálico e um complicado complexo genital visível através da saia do manto em ambos os sexos. Em outros aspectos das características externas da fêmea são bastante semelhantes aos dos machos. Em ambas as espécies, o sistema digestivo era semelhante, com poucas diferenças de estrutura entre si. Consiste em massa bucal, probóscide, glândulas salivares, glândulas salivares acessórias, esôfago, estômago, intestino, reto e ânus. O sistema nervoso em P. cochlidium e P. erecta é constituído por seis gânglios que formam um anel ganglionar circunoesofágico. Entre os neogastrópodes, há uma semelhança na organização dos sistemas reprodutivos. O sistema reprodutivo feminino é mais complicado que o masculino. Os sexos são separados nessas duas espécies. A morfologia macroscópica do sistema reprodutivo de P. cochlidium e P. erecta foi quase similar. O presente estudo tem como objetivo descrever o sistema digestivo, sistema nervoso e sistema reprodutivo de duas espécies, P. cochlidium e P. erecta.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Digestive System/anatomy & histology , Gastropoda/anatomy & histology , Genitalia/anatomy & histology , Nervous System/anatomy & histology , Salivary Glands , Bays , India
12.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(1): e025020, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156216

ABSTRACT

Abstract Gurltia paralysans is the causal agent of gurltiosis in domestic cats in South America. Although the life cycle of G. paralysans is unknown, it is thought that gastropods could act as intermediate hosts (IHs), as is the case for several nematodes in the Angiostrongylidae family. The aim of this study was to search for G. paralysans larvae in terrestrial gastropods and determine their role in the life cycle of this nematode species. Terrestrial gastropod samples (n=835) were collected in Punucapa, Valdivia, southern Chile, where cases of gurltiosis had been reported before. The samples included species from the families Arionidae, Limacidae, Helicidae and Milacidae. All gastropods were subjected to enzymatic digestion to isolate G. paralysans larvae. Ten percent of the gastropod samples were analyzed using seminested PCR targeting the 28S rRNA gene, while 2.6% were analyzed by histopathological examination. The results indicated the absence of G. paralysans when using any of the three methods. In conclusion, further studies are needed to evaluate specific species of aquatic or native gastropods acting as possible IHs (in this geographic location).


Resumo Gurltia paralysans é o agente etiológico da gurltiose em gatos domésticos na América do Sul. Embora o ciclo biologico de G. paralysans seja desconhecido, provavelmente é indireto com gastrópodes atuando como hospedeiros intermediários (HIs), como no caso de vários nematoides da família Angiostrongylidae. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a presença de larvas de G. paralysans em gastrópodes terrestres para avaliar seu papel no ciclo de vida do parasito. Amostras de gastrópodes terrestres (n = 835) foram coletadas em Punucapa, Valdivia, sul do Chile, onde casos de gurltiose foram relatados anteriormente. As amostras incluíram espécies das famílias Arionidae, Limacidae, Helicidae e Milacidae. Todos os gastrópodes foram submetidos à digestão enzimática para isolar as larvas de G. paralysans. 10% das amostras foram analisadas, utilizando-se seminested PCR para o gen 28S RNAr de G. paralysans, enquanto 2,6% foram analisados ​​por exame histopatológico. Os resultados indicaram ausência de G. paralysans em todos os três métodos. Os dados permitem concluir que são necessários mais estudos para avaliar espécies específicas de gastrópodes aquáticos ou nativos, que atuam como possíveis hospedeiros intermediários nessa localização geográfica.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Cat Diseases/parasitology , Cat Diseases/transmission , Strongylida Infections/transmission , Strongylida Infections/veterinary , Gastropoda/parasitology , Metastrongyloidea/physiology , Chile , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Host Specificity , Life Cycle Stages
13.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(4): 783-789, Oct.-Dec. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142539

ABSTRACT

Abstract Radula in all melongeninae species is rather uniform and characterized by bicuspid lateral teeth with strongly curved cusps and sub rectangular rachidians, bearing usually 3 cusps. The aim of the present study was to describe the radula of 2 Pugilina cochlidium populations using SEM. The radula in 2 species proves itself as a rachiglossate type showing the radular formula of 1 + R + 1. The first population hasthe central tooth wide with sharp cusps equal in length, emanate from posterior margin of tooth base. The lateral teeth have 2 cusps and are long, sharp, pointed and bent towards the rachidian tooth. Whereas the second population, the central tooth is narrow with sharp cusps equal in length, emanate from posterior margin of tooth base. The lateral teeth have 2 cusps and are broad, longer, sharp, pointed and bent towards the rachidian tooth. They are typically sickle shaped with broad strong base. In both populations the rachidian tooth is subquadrate with 3 big cusps in the middle, but in the second population the base of the rachidian is concave while in the first population it is straight. In the present study the median rachidian of the second population, has a broad basal region when compared to first. This similar observation has been made in Chicoreus virgineus ponderosus and Siratus virgineus ponderosus. In the present study, since 2 populations exhibit the same generalized rachiglossate pattern it does not offer much scope for systematic diagnosis below generic level.


Resumo A rádula em todas as espécies de melongeninae é bastante uniforme e caracterizada por dentes laterais bicúspides com cúspides fortemente curvas e raquidianas sub-retangulares, portando geralmente 3 cúspides. O objetivo do presente estudo foi descrever a rádula de 2 populações de Pugilina cochlidium usando SEM. A rádula em 2 espécies mostra-se como um tipo rachiglossate mostrando a fórmula radular de 1 + R + 1. A primeira população tem o dente central largo com cúspides afiadas igual em comprimento, emana da margem posterior da base do dente. Os dentes laterais possuem 2 cúspides longas, pontiagudas, pontiagudas e dobradas em direção ao dente raquidiano. Enquanto a segunda população, o dente central estreito com cúspides afiadas igual em comprimento, emana da margem posterior da base do dente. Os dentes laterais têm 2 cúspides largas, longas, pontiagudas, pontiagudas e dobradas em direção ao dente raquidiano. Eles são tipicamente em forma de foice com ampla base forte. Em ambas as populações, o dente raquidiano é subquadrado com 3 grandes cúspides no meio, mas na segunda população a base do ráquidiano é côncava enquanto na primeira população é reta. No presente estudo, a mediana da raquidiana da segunda população apresenta uma ampla região basal quando comparada à primeira. Esta observação semelhante foi feita em Chicoreus virgineus ponderosus e Siratus virgineus ponderosus. No presente estudo, uma vez que 2 populações exibem o mesmo padrão de rachiglossato generalizado, ele não oferece muito espaço para o diagnóstico sistemático abaixo do nível genérico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Tooth , Gastropoda , Population , Bays , India
14.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(2): 424-430, Apr.-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132364

ABSTRACT

Abstract The gastropod Littoraria angulifera (Littorinidae) is an exclusively estuarine mollusk with Neotropical anfiatlantic distribution. Recent studies indicate a possible use of the species as bioindicator. The aim of this study was to analyze the shell height, as well as to perform a morphometric analysis of the reproductive apparatus of L. angulifera collected in 22 sampling points located between latitudes 13º54'S and 15º44'S in the South Atlantic, State of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. The specimens were obtained in different estuarine environments including mangroves, as well as on rocks and concrete walls in places close to ports, shipyards and berths during January and February 2014. All specimens (n = 880) were analyzed regarding the sex and shell height/morphology, 440 were analyzed about the reproductive apparatus morphometry and 15 in histological description. The average shell height of animals from artificial substrates in nautical areas was lower (p<0.05) than the animals from mangroves, mainly in preserved areas, evidencing relation with human impacts and desiccation. The morphometric analysis of L. angulifera reproductive tract allowed us to conclude that the length of prostate in males and of palial oviduct in females may be useful in the reproductive evaluation of the species.


Resumo O gastrópode Littoraria angulifera (Littorinidae) é um molusco exclusivamente estuarino com distribuição anfiatlântica neotropical. Estudos recentes indicam um possível uso dessa espécie como bioindicadora. No presente estudo teve-se por objetivos analisar a altura da concha, assim como realizar uma análise morfométrica do aparato reprodutor de L. angulifera coletada em 22 pontos amostrais localizados entre as latitudes 13º54'S e 15º44'S no Atlântico Sul, Estado da Bahia, Nordeste do Brasil. Os exemplares foram obtidos em diferentes ambientes estuarinos, incluindo manguezais, assim como sobre rochas e paredes de concreto em lugares próximos a portos, estaleiros e atracadouros, durante janeiro e fevereiro de 2014. Todos os espécimes (n = 880) foram analisados quanto à morfologia/ altura da concha e sexo, 440 quanto à morfometria do aparelho reprodutor e 15 em descrição histológica. A média de altura da concha de animais de substratos artificiais em áreas náuticas foi menor (p<0,05) do que de animais de manguezais, principalmente de áreas preservadas, evidenciando relação com o impacto antrópico e a dessecação. A análise morfométrica do trato reprodutivo de L. angulifera levou à conclusão que o comprimento da próstata em machos e do oviduto palial em fêmeas pode ser útil na avaliação reprodutiva da espécie.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Gastropoda , Reproduction , Brazil
15.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(2): 362-367, Apr.-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132389

ABSTRACT

Abstract The rocky shores in Chile have a wide invertebrate species diversity, that include species with marked abundances in determined regions. The aim of the present study is to analyse the spatial distribution pattern in different marine invertebrate species in rocky shore of Araucania region, considering if these species have random, uniform or associated patterns, and extrapolate if these patterns have Poisson, binomial or negative binomial distribution respectively. The results revealed the presence mainly of gastropods molluscs that would graze on benthic algae, these species have mainly aggregated pattern that has a robust negative binomial distribution pattern. The obtained results agree with observations for marine benthic fauna that mentioned the presence of aggregated pattern, has negative binomial distribution. Other ecological topics about spatial distribution were discussed.


Resumo As costas rochosas no Chile têm uma ampla diversidade de espécies de invertebrados, que incluem espécies com abundância marcada em determinadas regiões. O objetivo do presente estudo é analisar o padrão de distribuição espacial em diferentes espécies de invertebrados marinhos na costa rochosa da região de Araucanía, considerando se essas espécies possuem padrões aleatórios, uniformes ou associados, e extrapolar se esses padrões possuem distribuição binomial de Poisson, binomial ou negativa. respectivamente. Os resultados revelaram a presença principalmente de moluscos gastrópodes que pastam em algas bentônicas, estas espécies têm principalmente agregado padrão que tem um padrão robusto de distribuição binomial negativa, padrão agregado de grupos, e a fauna de água doce que apresenta distribuição binomial negativa. Outros tópicos ecológicos sobre distribuição espacial foram discutidos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Gastropoda , Invertebrates , Chile , Ecosystem , Aquatic Organisms
16.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(2): 368-372, Apr.-June 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132376

ABSTRACT

Abstract Melanoides tuberculata is a freshwater gastropod native to Africa and Asia, and currently presents distributed worldwide. The first record of Melanoides tuberculata in South America occurred in Brazil, in the city of Santos, state of São Paulo, in 1967. Therefore, the objective of the present study is to report the occurrence of Melanoides tuberculata for Banana Lagoon and to characterize the current population situation. The gastropods were collected through direct visualization of shells, morphometric measurements of Melanoides tuberculata shells were determined using a digital caliper. After identifying the gastropod and its first distribution in the area, a preliminary descriptive analysis of the population was carried out. The gastropods were classified by grouping the individuals into four classes according to the shell width (mm). This is the first record of the occurrence of Melanoides tuberculata, in Banana Lagoon, Caucaia municipality, Ceará state, Northeast Brazil, being the largest specimen cited in the literature (33.77 mm) and 92.65% of the gastropods present in sizes above the first reproduction stages.


Resumo Melanoides tuberculata é um gastrópode de água doce nativo da África e da Ásia e atualmente apresenta-se distribuído mundialmente. O primeiro registro de Melanoides tuberculata na América do Sul ocorreu no Brasil, na cidade de Santos, estado de São Paulo, em 1967. Portanto, o objetivo do presente estudo é relatar a ocorrência de Melanoides tuberculata para Lagoa do Banana, caracterizando a situação atual da população no local. Os gastrópodes foram coletados através da visualização direta de conchas, e as medidas morfométricas das conchas de Melanoides tuberculata foram determinadas por meio de um paquímetro digital. Após identificar o gastrópode e constando sua primeira distribuição na área, realizou-se uma análise preliminar descritiva da população. Os gastrópodes foram classificados agrupando os indivíduos em quatro classes de acordo com a largura da concha (mm). Este é o primeiro registro da ocorrência de Melanoides tuberculata, na Lagoa da Banana, município de Caucaia, estado do Ceará, Nordeste do Brasil, sendo o maior exemplar citado na literatura (33,77 mm) já registrado e 92,65% dos gastrópodes apresentam-se em tamanhos acima do primeiro estágios de reprodução.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Gastropoda , Snails , Brazil , Fresh Water
17.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(2): 245-254, Apr.-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132370

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective of this study was to identify the occurrence of Achatina fulica in the Great Aracaju-SE Territory. This research was developed during the months of June 2016 to May 2017. The plots methodology was used for the monthly collections, following the collection time of 20 minutes per area. The mollusks were measured and soon afterwards the parasitological analysis of the mucus and faeces was performed. Molecular identification was performed to evaluate the possible presence of Angiostrongylus sp. We observed that the occurrence of A. fulica was more representative in urban areas, especially in vacant lots with the presence of litter and decomposing materials. In the specimens of A. fulica examined were male and female nematodes of the genus Rhabditis, in the research municipalities, except in Barra dos Coqueiros. No parasites of the genus Angiostrongylus were found in the mollusks examined. The influence of the presence of litter on the plots associated with the frequency of A. fulica was statistically significant. There was a correlation between the influence of rainfall and the frequency of A. fulica. A significant relationship between moisture and frequency and nematode positivity was identified. It was also observed that the larger the mollusk, the greater the chances of being infected by nematodes. Scientific knowledge about the biology of the A. fulica species associated with human intervention such as the maintenance of land and adequate sanitary measures may be important factors for a better control of this invasive mollusk.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a ocorrência de A. fulica no território da Grande Aracaju, Sergipe, avaliando a infecção destes moluscos por nematódeos, a influência das condições climáticas e das características do ambiente. Esta pesquisa foi desenvolvida durante os meses de junho de 2016 a maio de 2017. Foi utilizada a metodologia de parcelas para as coletas mensais de 20 min por área, um total de 15 parcelas distribuídas em 5 municípios. Os moluscos foram mensurados e logo em seguida realizada a análise parasitológica do muco e fezes. Foi realizada a identificação molecular para avaliar a possível presença de Angiostrongylus sp. Observamos que a ocorrência de A. fulica foi mais representativa em áreas urbanas, sobretudo em terrenos baldios com a presença de lixo e materiais em decomposição. Nos exemplares de A. fulica examinados foram encontrados nematódeos do gênero Rhabditis, nos municípios da pesquisa, exceto em Barra dos Coqueiros. Não foram encontrados parasitos do gênero Angiostrongylus nos moluscos examinados. A influência da presença de lixo nas parcelas associado à frequência da A. fulica mostrou-se estatisticamente significativa. Houve correlação entre a influência da chuva e a frequência de A. fulica. Foi identificada uma relação significativa entre a umidade e a frequência e a positividade para nematódeos. Foi também observado que quanto maior o molusco, maiores são as chances deste apresentar nematódeos. O conhecimento científico a respeito da biologia da espécie A. fulica associado à intervenção humana como, a manutenção de terrenos e medidas sanitárias adequadas podem ser fatores importantes para um controle malacológico mais adequado para esta espécie invasora.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Gastropoda , Angiostrongylus , Snails , Brazil , Feces , Mollusca
18.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(1): 158-166, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089281

ABSTRACT

Abstract Age and growth of two populations of Pugilina cochlidium were studied. to address the lack of basic information on the growth rates and the size at sexual maturity of organism in a commercially harvested area, which will be important in considering the size limits to conserve this resources in future. In the present study the results showed more or less similar growth patterns in the males and females of two populations of Pugilina cochlidium. The age and growth estimation of these two populations of Pugilina cochlidium were completed using several methods and the outcome of one method will act as a check and control over the other using the FISAT 1 software. The values of asymptotic length (Lα) values obtained in the present study using various methods did not vary greatly. Lα values obtained for the first population of Pugilina cochlidium was 95.55 mm for males and 106.05 mm for females and the growth rate (K) for males (0.588 yr-1) and females (0.620 yr-1) was given by k-scan routine in ELEFAN. Similarly, the values of asymptotic length (Lα), obtained for second population of Pugilina cochlidium, was 96.15 mm for males and 106.05 mm for females and the growth rate (K) for males (0.540 yr-1) and females (0.950 yr-1) was given by k-scan routine in ELEFAN.


Resumo A idade e o crescimento de duas populações de Pugilina cochlidium foram estudados. abordar a falta de informações básicas sobre as taxas de crescimento e o tamanho na maturidade sexual do organismo em uma área comercialmente colhida, o que será importante considerando os limites de tamanho para conservar esses recursos no futuro. No presente estudo os resultados mostraram padrões de crescimento mais ou menos semelhantes nos machos e fêmeas de duas populações de Pugilina cochlidium. A idade e a estimativa de crescimento destas duas populações de Pugilina cochlidium foram completadas usando vários métodos e o resultado de um método funcionará como uma verificação e controle sobre o outro usando o software FISAT 1. Os valores de comprimento assintótico (Lα) obtidos no presente estudo usando vários métodos não variaram muito. Os valores de Lα obtidos para a primeira população de Pugilina cochlidium foram de 95,55 mm para machos e 106,05 mm para fêmeas e a taxa de crescimento (K) para machos (0,588 yr-1) e fêmeas (0,620 yr-1) foi dada pela rotina k-scan na ELEFAN. Similarmente, os valores de comprimento assintótico (Lα), obtidos para a segunda população de Pugilina cochlidium, foram 96,15 mm para machos e 106,05 mm para fêmeas e a taxa de crescimento (K) para machos (0,540 anos) e fêmeas (0,950 anos). 1) foi dado pela rotina de k-scan na ELEFAN.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Gastropoda , Bays , India
19.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200236, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143304

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Intermediate hosts are key organisms in maintaining parasite life cycles, because they can act as amplifiers in the transmission from natural reservoirs to humans. One of the most important groups of intermediate hosts for zoonotic nematode infections are gastropods,slugs and snails. These are essential organisms in the larval development of Angiostrongylus species. OBJECTIVES The objective of this paper is to review reports of Angiostrongylus spp. in naturally infected gastropods from the Americas, taking into account the diagnostic methods used in their identification, to be able to provide more accurate list of their intermediate hosts. We also discuss the factors that aid the dispersion of Angiostrongylus spp. in the Americas. METHODS This study reviews scientific publications and book sections on Angiostrongylus spp. in the Americas, including original works assessing larvae of Angiostrongylus in intermediate hosts. The eligible reports were classified accordingly to their geographical location, year of first record, and the larvae identification methodologies used. Digital repositories were used for the search. The bioecological characteristics of the main intermediate hosts are summarised. FINDINGS A total of 29 gastropod species that are naturally infected with Angiostrongylus spp. have been reported as intermediate hosts, 16 of which are land snails, two are freshwater snails, and 11 land slugs. MAIN CONCLUSIONS This study highlights the importance of integrative studies, analysing both the etiological agent and its transmission dynamic in the environment, the biological and ecological characteristics of the hosts, and the impact on host populations. It is necessary to increase interdisciplinary studies to determine the potential epidemiological health risk of angiostrongyliasis in the Americas, and thus be able to establish prevention, monitoring and contingency strategies in the region.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Snails/parasitology , Strongylida Infections/diagnosis , Gastropoda/parasitology , Angiostrongylus/isolation & purification , Americas , Zoonoses , Angiostrongylus cantonensis , Disease Vectors , Gastropoda/physiology
20.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 7(1): 62-77, 2020. ^c27 cmilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1120437

ABSTRACT

Los moluscos son uno de los grupos faunísticos dominantes en ambientes estuarinos con bosque de manglar como el humedal Las Lisas-La Barrona. Forman parte de la transferencia de energía a través de las redes tróficas y contribuyen a la estructuración de los hábitats bénticos. El humedal Las Lisas-La Barrona se ubica en el litoral Pacífico de Guatemala. Se determinó la diversidad de la comunidad de moluscos, así como su relación con los parámetros fisicoquímicos del agua. Se realizaron ocho muestreos (enero a agosto) en 2017, utilizando parcelas con un área de 16 m2 en seis sitios de bosque de manglar y cuatro sitios en el canal estuarino, distribuidos en el humedal. La riqueza de moluscos del humedal está comprendida por 26 especies correspondientes a 18 familias y 22 géneros. Las especies más abundantes de gasterópodos fueron Cerithideopsis californica (Adams, 1852) y Littoraria fasciata (Gray, 1839) y de bivalvos Iliochione subrugosa (Wood, 1828) y Larkinia grandis (Broderip & Sowerby, 1829). Los sitios correspondientes a bosque de manglar presentaron una mayor cantidad de moluscos, principalmente gasterópodos. La distribución de las especies dominantes, no está dada por los factores fisicoquímicos del agua, pudiendo ser otros factores como la disponibilidad de hábitat y alimento los que rijan su distribución dentro del humedal. Algunos factores como la influencia de agua marina dentro del humedal, las altas concentraciones de oxígeno disuelto y pH ligeramente básicos, así como la calidad del agua en general, hacen del humedal Las Lisas-La Barrona un área muy diversa en cuanto a especies de moluscos.


Molluscs are one of the dominant faunistic groups in estuarine environments with mangrove forests such as the Las Lisas-La Barrona wetland. They are part of the transfer of energy through trophic networks and contribute to the structuring of the benthic habitats. The Las Lisas-La Barrona wetland is located on the Pacific coast of Guatemala. The diversity of the mollusk community, as well as its relationship with the physicochemical parameters of the water was determined. Eight samplings were carried out (January to August) in 2017, using parcels with an area of 16 m2 in six mangrove forest sites and four sites in the estuarine channel, distributed along the wetland. The mollusk richness of the wetland is comprised of 26 species corresponding to 18 families and 22 genera. The most abundant species of gastropods were Cerithideopsis californica (Adams, 1852) and Littoraria fasciata (Gray, 1839) and bivalves Iliochione subrugosa (Wood, 1828) and Larkinia grandis (Broderip & Sowerby, 1829). The sites corresponding to mangrove forest, presented a greater amount of mollusks, mainly gastropods. The distribution of dominant species is not given by the physicochemical factors of the water, being able to be other factors such as the availability of habitat and food that govern their distribution within the wetland. Some factors such as the influence of seawater in the wetland, the high concentrations of dissolved oxygen and the slightly basic levels of pH, as well as water quality in general, make the Las Lisas-La Barrona wetland a very diverse area in terms of mollusk species


Subject(s)
Animals , Coasts , Benthic Fauna/analysis , Wetlands , Water Quality , Bivalvia , Estuaries , Gastropoda , Mollusca/classification
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