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1.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(12): 1095-1102, Dec. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973485

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To investigate the gene expression related to inflammation on mice subjected to intestinal ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) and treated with ischemic preconditioning (IPC). Methods: Thirty rats (EPM-Wistar), distributed in five groups of six animals each, were underwent anesthesia and laparotomy. The ischemia time was standardized in 60 minutes and the reperfusion time 120 minutes. IPC was standardized in 5 minutes of ischemia followed by 10 minutes of reperfusion accomplished before I/R. The control group was submitted only to anesthesia and laparotomy. The other groups were submitted to ischemia, I/R, ischemia + IPC and I/R + IPC. It was collected a small intestine sample to analyses by Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction in real Time (RT-qPCR) and histological analyses. It was studied 27 genes. Results: The groups that received IPC presented downregulation of genes, observed in of genes in IPC+ischemia group and IPC+I/R group. Data analysis by clusters showed upregulation in I/R group, however in IPC groups occurred downregulation of genes related to inflammation. Conclusion: The ischemia/reperfusion promoted upregulation of genes related to inflammation, while ischemic preconditioning promoted downregulation of these genes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Gene Expression/physiology , Ischemic Preconditioning/methods , Inflammation/prevention & control , Intestine, Small/blood supply , Reference Values , Time Factors , Reperfusion Injury/genetics , Down-Regulation/physiology , Up-Regulation/physiology , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Mesenteric Ischemia/genetics , Mesenteric Ischemia/prevention & control , Inflammation/genetics
2.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 54(3): e17596, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974416

ABSTRACT

Citral is a small molecule present in various citrus species, with reported anti-hyperlipidemic and anti-inflammation effects. Here, the effect of intraperitoneal (IP) administration of citral is evaluated in a mouse model of non-alcoholic steatosis. Male NMRI mice were divided into the following groups (n = 12): normal control group (NC) receiving a normal diet; high-fat emulsion group (HF) receiving high fat diet for four weeks; positive control group (C+) receiving HF diet for four weeks and then shifted to normal diet with IP-administered silymarin (80 mg/kg) for four weeks; sham group receiving HF diet for four weeks and then shifted to normal diet for four weeks; and EC1, EC2, and EC3 groups receiving HF diet for four weeks and then shifted to normal diet with IP-administered citral doses of 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg, respectively. HF diet resulted in steatohepatitis with impaired lipid profile, high glucose levels and insulin resistance, impaired liver enzymes, antioxidants, adiponectin and leptin levels, decreased PPARα level, and fibrosis in the liver tissue. Upon treatment with citral, improvement in condition was observed in a dose-dependent manner-both at histological level and in the serum of treated animals. and the PPARα level was also increased.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Gene Expression/physiology , PPAR gamma/analysis , End Stage Liver Disease/diagnosis , Silymarin/pharmacology , Citrus , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/diagnosis
3.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(2): e5760, 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839255

ABSTRACT

Cardiomyocyte apoptosis plays key roles in the pathogenesis of heart diseases such as myocardial infarction. MicroRNAs are important regulators of gene expression, which are also involved in the regulation of cardiomyocyte apoptosis. However, cardiomyocyte apoptosis regulated by microRNA (miR)-122 is largely unexplored. The aim of this study focused on the role of miR-122 in cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Cardiomyocytes were isolated from neonatal mice and primarily cultured. MiR-122 mimic and inhibitor were transfected to cardiomyocytes and verified by qRT-PCR. Cell viability and apoptosis post-transfection were assessed by MTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Changes in expression of caspase-8 were quantified by qRT-PCR and western blot. Results showed that miR-122 mimic and inhibitor successfully induced changes in miR-122 levels in cultured cardiomyocytes (P<0.01). MiR-122 overexpression suppressed viability and promoted apoptosis of cardiomyocytes (P<0.05), and miR-122 knockdown promoted cell viability and inhibited apoptosis (P<0.05). The mRNA and protein levels of caspase-8 were elevated by miR-122 overexpression (P<0.01) and reduced by miR-122 knockdown (P<0.001). These results suggest an inductive role of miR-122 in cardiomyocyte apoptosis, which may be related to its regulation on caspase-8.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Apoptosis/genetics , Caspase 8/genetics , Gene Expression/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics , MicroRNAs/physiology , Myocytes, Cardiac/pathology , Animals, Newborn , Gene Expression/physiology , Mice, Inbred BALB C
4.
Biol. Res ; 49: 1-5, 2016. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950857

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: α-Farnesene is a volatile sesquiterpene synthesized by the plant mevalonate (MVA) pathway through the action of α-farnesene synthase. The α-farnesene synthase 1 (MdAFS1) gene was isolated from apple peel (var. white winterpearmain), and transformed into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum NC89). The transgenic plants had faster stem elongation during vegetative growth and earlier flowering than wild type (WT). Our studies focused on the transgenic tobacco phenotype. RESULTS: The levels of chlorophyll and soluble protein decreased and a lower seed biomass and reduced net photosynthetic rate (Pn) in transgenic plants. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide radicals (O2._) had higher levels in transgenics compared to controls. Transgenic plants also had enhanced sensitivity to oxidative stress. The transcriptome of 8-week-old plants was studied to detect molecular changes. Differentially expressed unigene analysis showed that ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, cell growth, and death unigenes were upregulated. Unigenes related to photosynthesis, antioxidant activity, and nitrogen metabolism were downregulated. Combined with the expression analysis of senescence marker genes, these results indicate that senescence started in the leaves of the transgenic plants at the vegetative growth stage. CONCLUSIONS: The antioxidative defense system was compromised and the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) played an important role in the premature aging of transgenic plants.


Subject(s)
Tobacco/physiology , Plants, Genetically Modified/physiology , Antioxidants/physiology , Photosynthesis/physiology , Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Sesquiterpenes/metabolism , Time Factors , Tobacco/genetics , Genetic Markers , Gene Expression/physiology , Plants, Genetically Modified/genetics , Reactive Oxygen Species/analysis , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Superoxides/analysis , Superoxides/metabolism , Plant Leaves/physiology , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant/physiology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Hydrogen Peroxide/analysis , Hydrogen Peroxide/metabolism
5.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 59(2): 148-153, 04/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-746465

ABSTRACT

Objective The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of exercise on the pattern of muscle myostatin (MSTN) protein expression in two important metabolic disorders, i.e., obesity and diabetes mellitus. Materials and methods MSTN, is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass. We evaluated the effect of exercise on MSTN protein expression in diabetes mellitus and high fat diet-induced obesity. MSTN protein expression in gastrocnemius muscle was analyzed by Western Blot. P < 0.05 was assumed. Exercise induced a significant decrease in glycemia in both diabetic and obese animals. Results The expression of precursor and processed protein forms of MSTN and the weight of gastrocnemius muscle did not vary in sedentary or exercised obese animals. Diabetes reduced gastrocnemius muscle weight in sedentary animals. However, gastrocnemius muscle weight increased in diabetic exercised animals. Both the precursor and processed forms of muscle MSTN protein were significantly higher in sedentary diabetic rats than in control rats. The precursor form was significantly lower in diabetic exercised animals than in diabetic sedentary animals. However, the processed form did not change. Conclusion These results demonstrate that exercise can modulate the muscle expression of MSTN protein in diabetic rats and suggest that MSTN may be involved in energy homeostasis. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Gene Expression/physiology , Muscle, Skeletal/metabolism , Myostatin/metabolism , Obesity/metabolism , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Analysis of Variance , Blotting, Western , Body Weight , Blood Glucose/analysis , Diet, High-Fat , Disease Models, Animal , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/chemically induced , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/therapeutic use , Rats, Wistar , Sedentary Behavior , Streptozocin , Swimming
6.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 47(11): 940-946, 11/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-723907

ABSTRACT

Stimulation by a number of conditions, including infection, cytokines, mechanical injury, and hypoxia, can upregulate inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in hepatocytes. We observed that exposure to hypergravity significantly upregulated the transcription of the hepatic iNOS gene. The aim of this study was to confirm our preliminary data, and to further investigate the distribution of the iNOS protein in the livers of mice exposed to hypergravity. ICR mice were exposed to +3 Gz for 1 h. We investigated the time course of change in the iNOS expression. Hepatic iNOS mRNA expression progressively increased in centrifuged mice from 0 to 12 h, and then decreased rapidly by 18 h. iNOS mRNA levels in the livers of centrifuged mice was significantly higher at 3, 6, and 12 h than in uncentrifuged control mice. The pattern of iNOS protein expression paralleled that of the mRNA expression. At 0 and 1 h, weak cytoplasmic iNOS immunoreactivity was found in some hepatocytes surrounding terminal hepatic venules. It was noted that at 6 h there was an increase in the number of perivenular hepatocytes with moderate to strong cytoplasmic immunoreactivity. The number of iNOS-positive hepatocytes was maximally increased at 12 h. The majority of positively stained cells showed a strong intensity of iNOS expression. The expression levels of iNOS mRNA and protein were significantly increased in the livers of mice exposed to hypergravity. These results suggest that exposure to hypergravity significantly upregulates iNOS at both transcriptional and translational levels.


Subject(s)
Animals , Gene Expression/physiology , Hypergravity , Liver/enzymology , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Hypergravity/adverse effects , Immunohistochemistry , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Interferon-gamma/analysis , Interleukin-1beta/analysis , /analysis , Liver/anatomy & histology , Liver/physiology , Mice, Inbred ICR , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/genetics , Protein Biosynthesis/physiology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Transcription, Genetic/physiology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , Up-Regulation/physiology
7.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 47(7): 540-547, 07/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-712968

ABSTRACT

Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is an important factor in the progression of inflammatory responses in vivo. To develop a new anti-inflammatory drug to block the biological activity of ICAM-1, we produced a monoclonal antibody (Ka=4.19×10−8 M) against human ICAM-1. The anti-ICAM-1 single-chain variable antibody fragment (scFv) was expressed at a high level as inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli. We refolded the scFv (Ka=2.35×10−7 M) by ion-exchange chromatography, dialysis, and dilution. The results showed that column chromatography refolding by high-performance Q Sepharose had remarkable advantages over conventional dilution and dialysis methods. Furthermore, the anti-ICAM-1 scFv yield of about 60 mg/L was higher with this method. The purity of the final product was greater than 90%, as shown by denaturing gel electrophoresis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, cell culture, and animal experiments were used to assess the immunological properties and biological activities of the renatured scFv.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Male , Mice , Gene Expression/physiology , Immunoglobulin Fragments/biosynthesis , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/immunology , Protein Refolding , Protein Renaturation , Single-Chain Antibodies/biosynthesis , Antigen-Antibody Complex , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/biosynthesis , Cell Adhesion , Chromatography , Dialysis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Ear Auricle/drug effects , Escherichia coli/genetics , Genetic Vectors , Immunoglobulin Fragments/pharmacology , Inclusion Bodies/metabolism , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/drug effects , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Plasmids , Protein Engineering/methods , Single-Chain Antibodies/pharmacology , Xylenes/pharmacology
8.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 46(8): 676-680, ago. 2013. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-684529

ABSTRACT

Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) were first isolated from bone marrow and then from various adult tissues including placenta, cord blood, deciduous teeth, and amniotic fluid. MSCs are defined or characterized by their ability to adhere to plastic, to express specific surface antigens, and to differentiate into osteogenic, chondrogenic, adipogenic, and myogenic lineages. Although the molecular mechanisms that control MSC proliferation and differentiation are not well understood, the involvement of microRNAs has been reported. In the present study, we investigated the role of miR-125b during osteoblastic differentiation in humans. We found that miR-125b increased during osteoblastic differentiation, as well as Runx2 and ALPL genes. To study whether the gain or loss of miR-125b function influenced osteoblastic differentiation, we transfected MSCs with pre-miR-125b or anti-miR-125b and cultured the transfected cells in an osteoblastic differentiation medium. After transfection, no change was observed in osteoblastic differentiation, and Runx2, OPN, and ALPL gene expression were not changed. These results suggest that the gain or loss of miR-125b function does not influence levels of Runx2, OPN, and ALPL during osteoblastic differentiation.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Alkaline Phosphatase/metabolism , Cell Differentiation/physiology , Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit/metabolism , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Osteoblasts/cytology , Osteopontin/metabolism , Alkaline Phosphatase/genetics , Antigens, Differentiation/isolation & purification , Bone Marrow Cells/cytology , Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit/genetics , Gene Expression/physiology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/cytology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , MicroRNAs/genetics , Osteoblasts/metabolism , Osteogenesis/physiology , Osteopontin/genetics , Primary Cell Culture , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Transfection
10.
São Paulo; s.n; 2011. 275 p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-639142

ABSTRACT

A demanda crescente de água doce de boa qualidade são problemas atuais e mundiais, além do descaso com os dejetos lançados nos ambientes aquáticos que comprometem a qualidade dos recursos hídricos. Um dos parâmetros que atesta a potabilidade da água é a presença de cianobactérias e cianotoxinas. Cianobactérias são microrganismos procariontes aeróbicos fotoautróficos que sintetizam as cianotoxinas. Estes compostos podem ser classificados de acordo com seus mecanismos de ação em hepatotóxicos, neurotóxicos e dermatotóxicos. Por sua diversidade, representam diferentes riscos não só ao ecossistema e a outros organismos dos ambientes aquáticos, como também aos seres humanos. Esse projeto visou o isolamento e cultivo de cepas de cianobactérias produtoras de toxinas para a investigação da biossíntese desses compostos. Com este intuito, foram realizadas coletas de água em três reservatórios no estado de São Paulo e um no Paraná. Cepas de cianobactérais foram isoladas, identificadas e analisadas quanto à produção de toxinas. Uma cepa de Microcystis aeruginosa (LTPNA 02) produtora de microcistinas (MC-LR, MC-RR, MC-YR, MC-LF, MC-LW e desm-MC-LR e desm- MC-RR) foi escolhida para ser estudada frente diferentes condições de cultivo e ter o seu crescimento, produção de toxinas e expressão gênica estudados. Foram utilizados os meios de cultura já referidos na literatura: ASM-1 (N:P=1, 10 e 20), MLA (N:P=10), Bold 3N (N:P=16) e BG-11 (N:P=10 e 100). Para acompanhar o crescimento, dois métodos foram utilizados: contagem de células e espectrofotometria. As toxinas foram quantificadas por LC-MS - QTrap. A análise da expressão gênica foi realizada por reação de PCR em tempo real pelo método de quantificação relativa ΔΔCt. Foi observada diferença no crescimento da cepa estudada nos diferentes meios de cultivo empregados. A contagem das células permitiu a identificação das fases logarítmica e total de crescimento. Durante a fase logarítmica, três experimentos demonstraram...


There is a great concern these days about potable and good quality water due to the increase of the population needs and also to the arising problems with contamination caused by anthropogenic sources. The presence of cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins are some parameters that attest water potability. Cyanobacteria are prokaryotic aerobic photoautotrophic microorganisms that may synthesize cyanotoxins. These compounds can be classified as hepatotoxic, neurotoxic and dermatotoxic according to their action mechanisms. Because of their diversity, they may represent different risks, not only to their ecosystem and other aquatic living organisms, but also to human beings. The aim of this project was the isolation and cultivation of cyanotoxin-producing cyanobacteria for further investigation on the biosynthesis of these compounds. Water samples from three different reservoirs in São Paulo state and one in Paraná state were collected in order to isolate cyanobacteria strains and accomplish their identification and to evaluate the toxin production. The Microcystis aeruginosa (LTPNA 02) microcystin producer strain (MCLR, MC-RR, MC-YR, MC-LF, MC-LW, desm-MC-LR and desm-MC-RR) was chosen to be grown in different cultivation conditions and later analyzed for its growth rate, toxin production and gene expression. All culture media used in this research were chosen according to the literature: ASM-1 (N:P=1, 10 and 20), MLA (N:P=10), Bold 3N (N:P=16) and BG-11 (N:P=10 and 100). To evaluate growth rate, two techniques were used: cell counting and absorbance determination in two different wavelengths (680 nm and 750 nm). Toxins were quantified by LC-MS in a hybrid triple-quadrupole instrument (Qtrap). Gene expression was assessed by real time PCR, using the ΔΔCt relative quantification method. Cell counting allowed total growth and logarithmic phase identification. During the last, three experiments showed statistical difference from control group (p<0,05). Four experiments...


Subject(s)
Cyanobacteria/ultrastructure , Biochemical Phenomena , Bacterial Toxins/analysis , Bacterial Toxins/biosynthesis , Gene Expression/physiology , Microcystins/biosynthesis , Microcystins/chemistry , Microcystins/toxicity
11.
São Paulo; s.n; 2011. 185 p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-691559

ABSTRACT

A causa de morte da maioria das pacientes com câncer de mama se deve à doença metastática desenvolvida a partir do tumor primário. A degradação dos componentes da matriz extracelular (MEC), um dos principais eventos do processo metastático, é regulada pelo balanço entre as atividades das metaloproteinases de matriz (MMPs) e dos seus inibidores, tanto os inibidores teciduais (TIMPs) como o inibidor associado à membrana (RECK). Contudo, ainda existe pouca informação sobre os mecanismos moleculares responsáveis pela manutenção deste balanço. No presente trabalho, foi investigado o envolvimento de TGF-β1 (Transforming Growth Factor-β1), uma citocina multifuncional é capaz tanto de inibir o crescimento celular, quanto de promover invasão e metástase, dependendo do estadiamento e do tipo de tumor, na regulação da expressão de MMPs, TIMPs e RECK, em modelo de câncer de mama. Primeiramente, examinou-se os níveis de expressão de mRNA das isoformas e receptores de TGF-β, em um painel de cinco linhagens de carcinoma mamário humano, com diferentes potenciais invasivos e metastáticos, por qRT-PCR. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram uma correlação positiva entre a expressão dessas moléculas, e a progressão do caráter invasivo e metastático celular. Em seguida, a linhagem altamente invasiva, MDA-MB-231, foi tratada com diferentes concentrações de TGF-β1 recombinante. Esta citocina foi capaz de modular a expressão gênica de MMPs (MMP-2 e MMP-9) e de seus inibidores (TIMP- 2 e RECK). Tanto ERK½, quanto p38MAPK mostraram-se envolvidas neste mecanismo. Foi demonstrado que a inibição da atividade de ERK½ alterou a expressão das proteínas MMP-9, TIMP-2 e RECK, enquanto o bloqueio de p38 MAPK afetou os níveis protéicos de MMP-2 e TIMP-2. O aumento do potencial migratório e invasivo da linhagem MDA-MB-231, induzido por TGF-β1, mostrou-se também dependente da atividade de MMPs, ERK½ e p38MAPK. Dada a ausência de informações sobre o papel de RECK em modelo...


The metastatic disease is the main mortality cause of breast cancer patients. The metastatic process involves a complex cascade of events, including the organized breakdown of the extracellular matrix (ECM) compounds. The degradation of ECM is tightly regulated by the balance between the activities of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors, the tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) and the membrane-associated inhibitor (RECK). Among the several molecules released and activated by ECM remodeling, TGF-β1 (Transforming Growth Factor-β1) is a multifunctional cytokine able to regulate both cell growth inhibition and invasion and metastasis promotion, depending on the tumor stage and type. Since the molecular mechanisms involved in the ECM remodeling control are still not completed understood, in this study, we investigated the involvement of TGF-β1 in regulating of MMPs, TIMPs and RECK expression, in the breast cancer model. By qRT-PCR, we first examined the gene expression levels of TGF-β isoforms and receptors, in a panel of five human breast cancer cell lines displaying different degrees of invasiveness and metastatic potential. Our results suggest a positive correlation between the mRNA expression of these molecules and the breast cancer progression. Moreover, the highly invasive breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 was treated with different concentrations of recombinant TGF-β1. We described that this cytokine was able to modulate the gene expression of MMPs (MMP-2 and MMP-9) and MMPs inhibitors (TIMP-2 and RECK) at both the mRNA and protein levels, with ERK½ and p38 MAPK being involved in this molecular mechanism. However, while ERK½ activity inhibition altered MMP-9, TIMP-2 and RECK expression, the p38 MAPK blockage affected the protein levels of MMP-2 and TIMP-2. Finally, we reposted that the TGF-β1-enhanced migration and invasion capacities of MDA-MB- 231 cells were blocked by MMPs, ERK½ and p38 MAPK inhibitors. Analysis of the RECK function in the breast...


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Matrix Metalloproteinases , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Breast Neoplasms/chemistry , Transforming Growth Factor beta1 , Gene Expression/physiology , Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis
12.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 70(5): 457-462, oct. 2010. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-633786

ABSTRACT

This review highlights the most recent findings on the molecular mechanisms of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Most effects of glucocorticoids are mediated by the intracellular GR which is present in almost every tissue and controls transcriptional activation via direct and indirect mechanisms. Nevertheless the glucocorticoid responses are tissue -and gene- specific. GR associates selectively with corticosteroid ligands produced in the adrenal gland in response to changes of humoral homeostasis. Ligand interaction with GR promotes either GR binding to genomic glucocorticoid response elements, in turn modulating gene transcription, or interaction of GR monomers with other transcription factors activated by other signalling pathways leading to transrepression. The GR regulates a broad spectrum of physiological functions, including cell differentiation, metabolism and inflammatory responses. Thus, disruption or dysregulation of GR function will result in severe impairments in the maintenance of homeostasis and the control of adaptation to stress.


Esta revisión destaca los más recientes hallazgos sobre los mecanismos moleculares del receptor de glucocorticoides (GR). La mayoría de los efectos de los glucocorticoides son mediados por los GR intracelulares presentes en casi todos los tejidos y controlan la activación transcripcional por mecanismos directos e indirectos. Las respuestas a los glucocorticoides son específicas para cada gen y tejido. Los GR se asocian en forma selectiva con ligandos producidos en la glándula adrenal, corticosteroides, en respuesta a cambios neuroendocrinos. La interacción del ligando con el GR promueve: a) la unión del GR a elementos genómicos de respuesta a glucocorticoides, modulando la transcripción; b) la interacción de monómeros del GR con otros factores de transcripción activados por otras vías, llevando a la transrepresión. El GR regula un amplio espectro de funciones fisiológicas, incluyendo la diferenciación celular y las respuestas metabólicas e inflamatorias. Así, la desregulación de la función del GR resulta en graves defectos en el mantenimiento de la homeostasis y el control de la adaptación al estrés.


Subject(s)
Humans , Glucocorticoids/metabolism , Receptors, Glucocorticoid/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Gene Expression/physiology , Glucocorticoids/genetics , Receptors, Glucocorticoid/genetics , Transcriptional Activation , Transcription Factors/metabolism
13.
São Paulo; s.n; 2010. 215 p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-601489

ABSTRACT

INTRODUÇÃO: A principal manifestação clínica da doença aterosclerótica é o infarto agudo do miocárdio, caracterizada como emergência médica, que necessita de diagnóstico correto, rápido, preciso e terapia eficaz. Os estudos de transcriptoma e proteoma possibilitam obter informações que nos permite compreender de forma mais abrangente a evolução fisiopatológica das doenças, sendo as cardiovasculares particularmente favorecidas por terem etiologia multifatorial e sem dúvida multigênica, portanto a utilização destas ferramentas num modelo de doença aguda pode auxiliar, de forma singular, na obtenção de novas informações, tais como novos marcadores precoces de injúria. OBJETIVO: Identificar novos biomarcadores de doenças cardiovasculares através da análise do perfil de expressão de RNAm de células do sangue periférico e proteínas plasmáticas de pacientes com SCA. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODOS: É um estudo caso-controle de pacientes com SCA recrutados no Pronto-Socorro do Instituto Dante Pazzanese de Cardiologia. Foram recrutados 84 indivíduos com Síndrome Coronariana Aguda (SCA), 47 indivíduos sem doença cardiovascular (grupo controle), de ambos os sexos com idade entre 30 a 65 anos, atendidos no Instituto Dante Pazzanese do Estado de São Paulo - Brasil. A avaliação de expressão gênica global de 10 pacientes e 6 controles (pareados) durante as primeiras 48 h após o IAM foi realizada através dos microarranjos de DNA (sistema Affymetrix) e a análise de plasma por separação em sistema de microarranjos (ProteinChip®), seguida da identificação e quantificação por espectrometria de massa, em sistema SELDI-TOF/MS. Os resultados de microarranjo de DNA foram validados tecnicamente (a partir das mesmas amostras processadas por microarranjo de DNA) e, posteriormente validados biologicamente (a partir das outras amostras não processadas por microarranjo de DNA) através da PCR em tempo real. RESULTADOS: Foram observados ao total 599 genes diferentemente expressos nas primeiras 48 h...


BACKGROUND: The main clinical manifestation of atherosclerosis is the acute myocardial infarction (AMI), which is a medical emergency that requires prompt diagnosis and efficient therapy. The transcriptomic and proteomic approaches are both powerful tools for the study of AMI and may be instrumental to identify news biomarkers involved in the inflammatory and apoptotic process of cardiovascular diseases. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to determine the gene expression of RNAm and protein in blood cells following an AMI to identify new biomarkers. PATIENTS AND METHODS: For this study eighty four patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and forty seven control individuals were selected among patients of the Instituto Dante Pazzanese, São Paulo state, Brazil. A global gene expression profile by GeneChip® Exon 1.0 ST Array (Affymetrix) and proteomic plasma profile by ProteinChip® Biomarker System and SELDI-TOF/MS were evaluated for ten patients from the ACS group and six from the control group. These patients were followed up for the first 48 h following the AMI. The genes differently expressed by microarray analysis were submitted to technical (same casuistic) and biologic (new casuistic) validation by PCR real time. RESULTS: 599 genes were differentially expressed at the first 48 h after AMI. Thirty-three genes were selected and submitted to the technical validation, and 20 were subjected to biological validation by real time PCR afterwards. The validated ones were: ALOX15, Areg, BCL2A1, BCL2L1, CA1, COX7B, ECDHC3, KCNE1, IL18R1, IRS2, MYL4, MMP9 and TREML4. At proteomic analysis, 479 peaks of plasma proteins differentially expressed were identified. 16 peaks were considered as high potentially biomarkers. Their molecular weight was between 6386.5 Da and 17807.7 Da. CONCLUSION: Results from this study were able to identify changes in gene and protein profiles in the plasma, and suggest new markers for evaluation of acute coronary syndrome and...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Blood , Gene Expression/physiology , Gene Expression/genetics , Genetic Markers , Myocardial Infarction , Proteome/physiology , Proteome , Affinity Labels , Blood Physiological Phenomena , Cardiovascular Diseases , Genome , Molecular Biology
14.
São Paulo; s.n; 2010. 123 p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-594522

ABSTRACT

Esquistossomose é uma doença crônica e debilitante. Schistosoma representa a única classe de trematódeos com vida dióica. Um contínuo pareamento com o macho é essencial para a maturação sexual do sexo feminino. Fêmeas adultas provenientes de infecções uni-sexuadas são subdesenvolvidas, apresentam atrofia do tamanho e um sistema reprodutivo imaturo. Para estudar os mecanismos envolvidos no pareamento de vermes adultos foram utilizadas duas plataformas de microarranjos distintas: uma composta por 4 mil sondas de cDNA dupla fita produzida pelo nosso grupo de pesquisas e outra composta por 44 mil sondas de oligonucleotideos desenhadas pelo nosso grupo e produzida pela empresa Agilent Technologies. Com a plataforma de 4 mil sondas detectamos 113 transcritos diferencialmente expressos em fêmeas adultas mantidas separadas de seus respectivos pares durante 24 horas de cultivo in vitro quando comparadas com fêmeas adultas pareadas; para 10 destes genes obtivemos uma confirmação adicional da expressão diferencial por transcrição reversa fita específica seguida de PCR em Tempo Real. Observamos também os efeitos do pareamento no perfil de expressão gênica de machos adultos mantidos separados de seus respectivos pares durante 24 horas de cultivo in vitro; foram encontrados 152 transcritos diferencialmente expressos. Com a plataforma de 44 mil sondas foi detectada a expressão de 5.798 genes transcricionalmente ativos em verme adulto, em um conjunto de 19.907 genes únicos representados nesta plataforma. A análise do conjunto de genes "no match" mostrou que em 156 genes ocorria expressão senso e anti-senso; para 6 destes transcritos obtivemos uma confirmação adicional da expressão nas duas fitas por transcrição reversa fita específica seguida de PCR em Tempo Real. Adicionalmente foram identificados 2717 transcritos diferencialmente expressos em fêmeas separadas de seus respectivos pares durante 13 dias de cultivo in vitro, quando comparadas com fêmeas mantidas pareadas...


Schistosomiasis is a chronic and debilitating disease. Schistosoma represents the only class of trematodes with a dioecious life. A continuous pairing with the male is essential for female sexual maturation. Adult females from uni-sexual infections are underdeveloped, have body atrophy and an immature reproductive system. To study the mechanisms involved in pairing of adult worms two microarray platforms were used: one comprised by 4000 cDNA probes and printed by our research group and another comprised by 44 000 oligonucleotide probes designed by our group and printed by Agilent Technologies Company. With the 4000-probes platform we detected 113 transcripts differentially expressed in adult females kept separated from their mates during 24 hours in vitro when compared with paired adult females; for 10 of these genes we obtained additional confirmation of differential expression by Real Time RT-PCR. We also observed the effects of pairing on the gene expression profile of adult males kept separate from their mates during 24 hours in vitro, where we found 152 differentially expressed transcripts. With the 44 000-probes platform we detected the expression of 5798 genes in adult worms, out of a set of 19 907 unique genes represented on this platform. Analysis of the "no match" genes showed that 156 have transcription from the sense and anti-sense strands; for 6 of them we obtained additional confirmation of expression by strand specific Real Time RT-PCR. Additionally, we identified 2717 differentially expressed transcripts in females separated from their mates during 13 days in vitro when compared to females that remained paired. In the analysis of males separated for 13 days we found 243 differentially expressed transcripts. Finally, we performed a study aimed at observing genes which might be correlated to physical contact pairing (male and female) and compared to genes that might be regulated by the possible diffusion of secreted proteins and hormones in...


Subject(s)
Animals , Young Adult , Mice , Gene Expression/physiology , Matched-Pair Analysis , Parasites/genetics , Schistosoma mansoni , Helminths/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA
15.
Braz. oral res ; 21(2): 127-133, 2007. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-453191

ABSTRACT

A comparative nonisotopic in situ hybridization (ISH) analysis was carried out for the detection of Bmp-4, Shh and Wnt-5a transcripts during mice odontogenesis from initiation to cap stage. Bmp-4 was expressed early in the epithelium and then in the underlying mesenchyme. Shh expression was seen in the odontogenic epithelial lining thickening, being stronger in the enamel knot area, during the cap stage. Wnt-5a transcripts were expressed only in the mesenchyme during the initiation, bud and cap stages, with strong expression in the dental mesenchyme during the bud stage. The present results showed that Bmp-4, Shh and Wnt-5a are expressed since the very early stages of tooth development, and they suggest that the Wnt-5a gene is expressed in different cell populations than Bmp-4 and Shh.


No presente trabalho, realizou-se uma análise comparativa não isotópica por hibridização in situ a fim de se detectar a presença de transcritos de Bmp-4, Shh e Wnt-5a durante as fases iniciais da odontogênese em camundongos, desde a iniciação até o estágio de capuz. No estágio de iniciação, observou-se expressão precoce de Bmp-4 no epitélio e no mesênquima subjacente, enquanto que a expressão de Shh ocorreu durante o estágio de capuz, na região de espessamento do revestimento epitelial odontogênico, tornando-se mais intensa na área de nó do esmalte. Os transcritos de Wnt-5a foram expressos somente no mesênquima durante os estágios de iniciação, botão e capuz, com intenso sinal na região no mesênquima na fase de botão. Estes resultados mostraram que Bmp-4, Shh e Wnt-5a são expressos desde os estágios mais precoces do desenvolvimento dentário, sugerindo que o gene Wnt-5a seja expresso em populações celulares distintas daquelas que expressam Bmp-4 e Shh.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Bone Morphogenetic Proteins/analysis , Hedgehog Proteins/analysis , Odontogenesis/physiology , Wnt Proteins/analysis , Bone Morphogenetic Proteins/genetics , Disease Models, Animal , Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental , Gene Expression/physiology , Hedgehog Proteins/genetics , In Situ Hybridization , Odontogenesis/genetics , Transcription, Genetic , Tooth Germ/cytology , Tooth Germ/embryology , Wnt Proteins/genetics
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-219746

ABSTRACT

Toxoplasma gondii GRA10 expressed as a GFP-GRA10 fusion protein in HeLa cells moved to the nucleoli within the nucleus rapidly and entirely. GRA10 was concentrated specifically in the dense fibrillar component of the nucleolus morphologically by the overlap of GFP-GRA10 transfection image with IFA images by monoclonal antibodies against GRA10 (Tg378), B23 (nucleophosmin) and C23 (nucleolin). The nucleolar translocalization of GRA10 was caused by a putative nucleolar localizing sequence (NoLS) of GRA10. Interaction of GRA10 with TATA-binding protein associated factor 1B (TAF1B) in the yeast two-hybrid technique was confirmed by GST pull-down assay and immunoprecipitation assay. GRA10 and TAF1B were also co-localized in the nucleolus after co-transfection. The nucleolar condensation of GRA10 was affected by actinomycin D. Expressed GFP-GRA10 was evenly distributed over the nucleoplasm and the nucleolar locations remained as hollows in the nucleoplasm under a low dose of actinomycin D. Nucleolar localizing and interacting of GRA10 with TAF1B suggested the participation of GRA10 in rRNA synthesis of host cells to favor the parasitism of T. gondii.


Subject(s)
Alpha-Amanitin/pharmacology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/analysis , Antibodies, Protozoan/analysis , Dactinomycin/pharmacology , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct , Gene Expression/physiology , Green Fluorescent Proteins/genetics , HeLa Cells , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors/pharmacology , Nucleolus Organizer Region/drug effects , Pol1 Transcription Initiation Complex Proteins/metabolism , Protein Sorting Signals/physiology , Protozoan Proteins/biosynthesis , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/genetics , Toxoplasma/physiology , Transfection
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-21106

ABSTRACT

A trans-splicing ribozyme which can specifically reprogram human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) RNA was previously suggested as a useful agent for tumor-targeted gene therapy. In this study, we evaluated in vivo function of the hTERT-targeting trans-splicing ribozymes by employing the molecular analysis of expression level of genes affected by the ribozyme delivery into peritoneal carcinomatosis mice model. To this effect, we constructed adenoviral vector encoding the specific ribozyme. Noticeably, more than four-fold reduction in the level of hTERT RNA was observed in tumor nodules by the systemic infection of the ribozyme-encoding virus. Such hTERT RNA knockdown in vivo induced changes in the global gene expression profile, including the suppression of specific genes associated with anti-apoptosis including bcl2, and genes for angiogenesis and metastasis. In addition, specific trans-splicing reaction with the targeted hTERT RNA took place in the tumors established as peritoneal carcinomatosis in mice by systemic delivery of the ribozyme. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that an hTERT-specific RNA replacement approach using trans-splicing ribozyme represents a potential modality to treat cancer.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Line , Gene Expression/physiology , Genetic Vectors , Humans , Mice , Neoplasm Metastasis , Neoplasms/genetics , RNA, Catalytic/genetics , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Neoplasm/genetics , Telomerase/antagonists & inhibitors , Trans-Splicing/genetics
18.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 39(2): 169-176, Feb. 2006. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-420267

ABSTRACT

We have studied the molecular mechanism and signal transduction of pim-1, an oncogene encoding a serine-threonine kinase. This is a true oncogene which prolongs survival and inhibits apoptosis of hematopoietic cells. In order to determine whether the effects of Pim-1 occur by regulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, we used a transcriptional reporter assay by transient co-transfection as a screening method. In this study, we found that Pim-1 inhibited the Elk-1 and NFkappaB transcriptional activities induced by activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade in reporter gene assays. However, Western blots showed that the induction of Elk-1-regulated expression of endogenous c-Fos was not affected by Pim-1. The phosphorylation and activation of neither Erk1/2 nor Elk-1 was influenced by Pim-1. Also, in the gel shift assay, the pattern of endogenous NFkappaB binding to its probe was not changed in any manner by Pim-1. These data indicate that Pim-1 does not regulate the activation of Erk1/2, Elk-1 or NFkappaB. These contrasting results suggest a pitfall of the transient co-transfection reporter assay in analyzing the regulation of transcription factors outside of the chromosome context. It ensures that results from reporter gene expression assay should be verified by study of endogenous gene expression.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Gene Expression/physiology , Genes, fos/physiology , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-pim-1/metabolism , Transcriptional Activation , ets-Domain Protein Elk-1/metabolism , Blotting, Western , Chlorocebus aethiops , COS Cells , Enzyme Induction , Gene Expression/genetics , Genes, Reporter/genetics , Genes, Reporter/physiology , Genes, fos/genetics , HeLa Cells , Jurkat Cells , Signal Transduction , Transcriptional Activation , Transfection , ets-Domain Protein Elk-1/genetics
19.
Rev. nutr ; 18(6): 733-742, nov.-dez. 2005. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-421961

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste trabalho foi otimizar as condições reacionais capazes de ocasionar variabilidade e de introduzir erros sistemáticos na reação em cadeia pela polimerase aplicada à análise da expressão gênica da isoforma testicular da enzima conversora de angiotensina. MÉTODOS: Avaliaram-se a concentração de cDNA, a concentração dos iniciadores, a temperatura de hibridização e o número de ciclos de desnaturação, hibridização e extensão. Para tanto, extraiu-se o RNA total por meio da reação com fenol-clorofórmio e isotiocianato de guanidina de amostras de testículos de ratos Wistar alimentados com uma ração contendo zinco. Em seguida, gerou-se o cDNA por transcrição reversa. Utilizando-se iniciadores específicos, amplificaram-se o gene de interesse (isoforma testicular da enzima conversora de angiotensina) e o gene controle Gliceraldeído-3-Fosfato-Desidrogenase. As amostras foram então aplicadas em gel de agarose e submetidas à eletroforese, coradas em brometo de etídio e visualizadas sob luz ultravioleta. RESULTADOS: Demonstrou-se que a melhor condição reacional para a reação em cadeia pela polimerase da isoforma testicular da enzima conversora de angiotensina e do Gliceraldeído-3-Fosfato-Desidrogenase foi: (1) concentração inicial de cDNA de 2µg, (2) concentração de iniciadores de 200nM, (3) temperatura de hibridização entre 57,5°C e 60,1°C e (4) 33 ciclos. CONCLUSÃO: Com essa otimização pôde-se minimizar as interferências sobre a técnica, contribuindo-se para a obtenção de dados comparativos a respeito da expressão gênica da enzima conversora de angiotensina testicular.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Gene Expression/physiology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Testis/physiology , Zinc , Rats, Wistar
20.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 38(7)July 2005. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-403855

ABSTRACT

Molecular oxygen (O2) is the premier biological electron acceptor that serves vital roles in fundamental cellular functions. However, with the beneficial properties of O2 comes the inadvertent formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide (O2À-), hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radical (OHÀ). If unabated, ROS pose a serious threat to or cause the death of aerobic cells. To minimize the damaging effects of ROS, aerobic organisms evolved non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidant defenses. The latter include catalases, peroxidases, superoxide dismutases, and glutathione S-transferases (GST). Cellular ROS-sensing mechanisms are not well understood, but a number of transcription factors that regulate the expression of antioxidant genes are well characterized in prokaryotes and in yeast. In higher eukaryotes, oxidative stress responses are more complex and modulated by several regulators. In mammalian systems, two classes of transcription factors, nuclear factor kB and activator protein-1, are involved in the oxidative stress response. Antioxidant-specific gene induction, involved in xenobiotic metabolism, is mediated by the "antioxidant responsive element" (ARE) commonly found in the promoter region of such genes. ARE is present in mammalian GST, metallothioneine-I and MnSod genes, but has not been found in plant Gst genes. However, ARE is present in the promoter region of the three maize catalase (Cat) genes. In plants, ROS have been implicated in the damaging effects of various environmental stress conditions. Many plant defense genes are activated in response to these conditions, including the three maize Cat and some of the superoxide dismutase (Sod) genes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antioxidants/physiology , Gene Expression/physiology , Oxidative Stress/genetics , Reactive Oxygen Species , Signal Transduction/genetics , Aging/genetics , Aging/metabolism , Genome , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Signal Transduction/physiology , Telomere/genetics
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