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1.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(4): 438-444, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019366

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Pubertal timing in humans is determined by complex interactions including hormonal, metabolic, environmental, ethnic, and genetic factors. Central precocious puberty (CPP) is defined as the premature reactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, starting before the ages of 8 and 9 years in girls and boys, respectively; familial CPP is defined by the occurrence of CPP in two or more family members. Pioneering studies have evidenced the participation of genetic factors in pubertal timing, mainly identifying genetic causes of CPP in sporadic and familial cases. In this context, rare activating mutations were identified in genes of the kisspeptin excitatory pathway (KISS1R and KISS1 mutations). More recently, loss-of-function mutations in two imprinted genes (MKRN3 and DLK1) have been identified as important causes of familial CPP, describing novel players in the modulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in physiological and pathological conditions. MKRN3 mutations are the most common cause of familial CPP, and patients with MKRN3 mutations present clinical features indistinguishable from idiopathic CPP. Meanwhile, adult patients with DLK1 mutations present high frequency of metabolic alterations (overweight/obesity, early onset type 2 diabetes and hyperlipidemia), indicating that DLK1 may be a novel link between reproduction and metabolism. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2019;63(4):438-44


Subject(s)
Humans , Puberty, Precocious/genetics , Phenotype , Puberty, Precocious/etiology , Ribonucleoproteins/genetics , Calcium-Binding Proteins , Gene Silencing , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/genetics , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/metabolism , Kisspeptins/genetics , Receptors, Kisspeptin-1/genetics , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Methylation , Mutation
2.
Rev. bras. anal. clin ; 51(1): 17-24, 30/03/2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008145

ABSTRACT

Retinoblastoma is a childhood ocular tumor often caused by the biallelic inactivation of the RB1 gene affecting children up to 5 years of age. A retinoblastoma protein (pRB), encoded by the tumor suppressor gene RB1, is responsible for the regular progression of the G1 phase to the phase S of the cell cycle. This protein forms a complex with the transcriptional factor E2F causing the cell cycle to remain in the G0/G1 stage. With a phosphorylation of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK), the phosphorylation of the RB protein is activated and the complex formed with E2F is disrupted, with the advancement of the cell cycle to an S phase and cell proliferation. All the control of cell proliferation is regulated not only by the complex formed by RB and E2F proteins, but also by other proteins that participate in and/or interfere in this cell division control mechanism, such as mdm2, mdm4 and p21 proteins.


O retinoblastoma é um tumor ocular infantil ocasionado, frequentemente, pela inativação bialélica do gene RB1 acometendo crianças até os 5 anos de idade. A proteína retinoblastoma (pRB), codificada pelo gene supressor tumoral RB1, é responsável por regular a progressão da fase G1 para a fase S do ciclo celular. Essa proteína forma um complexo com o fator transcricional E2F fazendo com que o ciclo celular permaneça no estágio G0/G1. Com a fosforilação de quinases dependentes de ciclinas, a fosforilação da proteína RB é ativada e o complexo formado com o E2F é desfeito, havendo o avanço do ciclo celular para a fase S e a proliferação celular. Todo esse controle da proliferação celular é regulado não só pelo complexo formado pela proteína RB e E2F, mas também por outras proteínas que participam e/ou interferem neste mecanismo de controle da divisão celular, como, por exemplo, as proteínas mdm2, mdm4, p21


Subject(s)
Retinoblastoma , Retinoblastoma Protein , Cell Cycle Proteins , Gene Silencing
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776516

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of myeloid differentiation-2 (MD2) gene silencing on high glucose-induced proliferation inhibition, apoptosis and inflammation in rat cardiomyocytes.@*METHODS@#The immortalized rat cardiomyocyte cell line H9C2 were transfected with MD2 small interfering RNA (si-MD2) and negative control for 24 h, then stimulated with high glucose (HG) for 48 h. RT-qPCR was performed to detect the mRNA levels of MD2 and inflammatory factors TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6. MTS and flow cytometry were used to evaluate cell proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis rate. Western blot was used to detect protein expression levels and phosphorylation levels.@*RESULTS@#The mRNA and protein levels of MD2 in H9C2 cells were dramatically decreased after transfected with si-MD2 (P<0.01). After stimulation of high glucose, the mRNA levels of inflammatory factors, the cells in G0/G1 phase , the cell apoptosis rate and the protein level of cleaved Caspase-3 were significantly increased, while the cell proliferation ability was decreased (P<0.01). MD2 gene silencing antagonized the effects of high glucose on cell proliferation, cell cycle, cell apoptosis and the mRNA levels of TNF-α, IL-1β , IL-6(P<0.05). Western blot analysis showed that the phosphorylation levels of extracellular signal-regulated kinase(ERK1/2), P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase(P38 MAPK) and C-Jun N-terminal kinase(JNK) protein were increased significantly in H9C2 cells treated with high glucose, which could be reversed by silencing of MD2 (P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#This study demonstrates that MD2 gene silencing reverses high glucose-induced myocardial inflammation, apoptosis and proliferation inhibition via the mechanisms involving suppression of ERK, P38 MAPK, JNK signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Cell Proliferation , Cells, Cultured , Cytokines , Metabolism , Gene Silencing , Glucose , Inflammation , JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Metabolism , Lymphocyte Antigen 96 , Genetics , Myocytes, Cardiac , Cell Biology , Rats , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Metabolism
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772069

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of ribonucleotide reductase catalytic subunit M1 (RRM1) gene silencing on drug resistance of human breast cancer cell line MCF-7/R.@*METHODS@#We established a paclitaxel-resistant breast cancer MCF-7 cell line (MCF-7/R) by exposing the cells to high-concentration paclitaxel in a short time. Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting RRM1 were designed to silence RRM1 expression in human breast cancer MCF-7/R cells. MTT assay was used to detect the IC values and the sensitivity to paclitaxel in the cells with or without siRNA transfection. The changes in the proliferative activity of MCF7 and MCF-7/R cells following RRM1 gene silencing were evaluated using EdU assay. Flow cytometry was used to analyze the cell apoptosis and cell cycle changes. We assessed the effect of RRM1 gene silencing and paclitaxel on the tumor growth in a nude mouse model bearing subcutaneous xenografts with or without siRNA transfection.@*RESULTS@#We detected significantly higher expressions of RRM1 at both the mRNA and protein levels in the drug-resistant MCF- 7/R cells than in the parental MCF-7 cells ( < 0.01). Transfection with the specific siRNAs significantly reduced the expression of RRM1 in MCF-7/R cells ( < 0.05), which showed a significantly lower IC value of paclitaxel than the cells transfected with the negative control siRNA ( < 0.05). RRM1 silencing significantly inhibited the proliferation ( < 0.01) and enhanced the apoptosis-inducing effect of paclitaxel in MCF-7/R cells ( < 0.001); RRM1 silencing also resulted in obviously reduced Akt phosphorylation, suppressed Bcl-2 expression and promoted the expression of p53 protein in MCF-7/R cells. In the tumor-bearing nude mice, the volume of subcutaneously transplanted tumors was significantly smaller in MCF-7/R/siRNA+ PTX group than in the other groups ( < 0.001).@*CONCLUSIONS@#RRM1 gene silencing can reverse paclitaxel resistance in human breast cancer cell line MCF-7/R by promoting cell apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Breast Neoplasms , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , Gene Silencing , Humans , MCF-7 Cells , Mice , Mice, Nude , Paclitaxel , RNA, Small Interfering , Ribonucleotide Reductases , Tumor Suppressor Proteins
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772044

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of sputum ubiquitin ligase (Cbl-b) gene known-down on the cytotoxicity of H9 T lymphocytes against human laryngeal squamous cancer Hep-2 cells and explore the underlying mechanism.@*METHODS@#CD4 T lymphocytes isolated from 12 patients with laryngeal squamous carcinoma and 12 healthy individuals were examined for Cbl-b mRNA expressions using RT-PCR. H9 T lymphocytes cultured in 96-well plates were transfected with Cbl-b siRNA via liposomes followed by treatment with an anti-IL-2 monoclonal antibody, with H9 T lymphocytes transfected with a scrambled sequence as the negative control. The expressions of Cbl-b mRNA and protein in the cells were detected using real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR and Western blotting, respectively. The killing effect of the treated T lymphocytes against Hep-2 cells was assessed using the cell counting kit (CCK-8). The positive expression rates of CD69 and CD25 on the surface of H9 T lymphocytes were determined using flow cytometry, and the levels of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-gamma (INF-γ) in the culture supernatants of H9 T lymphocytes were detected with ELISA.@*RESULTS@#The CD4 T lymphocytes from patients with laryngeal squamous carcinoma showed significantly increased Cbl-b mRNA level compared with those from healthy individuals ( < 0.05). Transfection of H9 T lymphocytes with Cbl-b siRNA significantly reduced the expression levels of Cbl-b mRNA and protein ( < 0.05), which were not significantly affected by subsequent treatment of the cells with the anti-IL-2 antibody (>0.05). At different target-effector ratios, the Cbl-b siRNA-transfected cells showed significantly higher Hep-2 cell killing rates and higher positivity rates of CD69 and CD25 expressions than the blank and negative control cells and the cells with both Cbl-b siRNA transfection and anti-IL-2 treatment ( < 0.05). Cbl-b silencing in H9 T lymphocytes resulted in significantly increased levels of IL-2 and INF-γ in the supernatant as compared with those in the blank and negative control groups ( < 0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Cbl-b gene silencing effectively enhances the killing effect of H9 T lymphocytes against Hep-2 cells probably as the result of enhanced IL-2 secretion and T lymphocyte activation.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Genetics , Therapeutics , Gene Silencing , Humans , Laryngeal Neoplasms , Genetics , Therapeutics , Lymphocyte Activation , RNA, Small Interfering , T-Lymphocytes
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772042

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the inhibitory effects of silencing migration-inducing gene-7 (Mig-7) on vasculogenic mimicry formation, migration and invasion of human glioma cells and whether MEK/ERK signaling pathway mediates these effects.@*METHODS@#Human glioma U251 cells were infected by lentiviral vectors carrying a small interfering RNA targeting Mig-7 gene (sh-Mig-) or a negative control shRNA (sh-NC), and real-time quantitative PCR was used to detect the expression level of Mig- mRNA in the cells. Three-dimensional culture and Transwell chamber invasion assay were used to observe the effect of Mig- gene silencing on vasculogenic mimicry formation and invasion ability of the U251 cells. Western blotting was performed to detect the changes in the protein expression levels of MEK/ERK in the infected cells.@*RESULTS@#We successfully obtained a U251 cell line with stable low expression of Mig- gene using RNA interference technique. Compared with the cells infected with sh-NC lentivirus and the non- infected cells, U251 cells infected with the lentiviral vector carrying sh-Mig- showed significantly decreased expression level of Mig- ( < 0.01) with obviously lowered vasculogenic mimicry formation and invasion abilities ( < 0.05). Mig- silencing also significantly lowered the expressions of MEK and ERK proteins in U251 cells ( < 0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Silencing of Mig-7 gene inhibits vasculogenic mimicry formation and invasion of U251 cells possibly by suppressing MEK/ERK signaling, suggesting the important role of Mig-7 gene in vasculogenic mimicry formation and invasion of human glioma cells.


Subject(s)
Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement , Cell Proliferation , Gene Silencing , Glioma , Genetics , Pathology , Humans , Neoplasm Proteins , Metabolism , RNA, Small Interfering , Signal Transduction
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764064

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Embryonic stem (ES) cells have pluripotent ability to differentiate into multiple tissue lineages. SIRT1 is a class III histone deacetylase which modulates chromatin remodeling, gene silencing, cell survival, metabolism, and development. In this study, we examined the effects of SIRT1 inhibitors on the hematopoietic differentiation of mouse ES cells. METHODS AND RESULTS: Treatment with the SIRT1 inhibitors, nicotinamide and splitomicin, during the hematopoietic differentiation of ES cells enhanced the production of hematopoietic progenitors and slightly up-regulated erythroid and myeloid specific gene expression. Furthermore, treatment with splitomicin increased the percentage of erythroid and myeloid lineage cells. CONCLUSIONS: Application of the SIRT1 inhibitor splitomicin during ES cell differentiation to hematopoietic cells enhanced the yield of specific hematopoietic lineage cells from ES cells. This result suggests that SIRT1 is involved in the regulation of hematopoietic differentiation of specific lineages and that the modulation of the SIRT1 activity can be a strategy to enhance the efficiency of hematopoietic differentiation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Differentiation , Cell Survival , Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly , Gene Expression , Gene Silencing , Histone Deacetylases , Metabolism , Mice , Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells , Niacinamide
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773493

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the effect of small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated CEP55 gene silencing on the proliferation of mouse spermatogonia.@*METHODS@#Six patients with azoospermia diagnosed to have maturation arrest (3 cases) or normal spermatogenesis (3 cases) based on testicular biopsy between January 1 and December 31, 2017 in our center were examined for differential proteins in the testicular tissue using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ), and CEP55 was found to differentially expressed between the two groups of patients. We constructed a CEP55 siRNA for transfection in mouse spermatogonia and examined the inhibitory effects on CEP55 expressions using Western blotting and qPCR. The effect of CEP55 gene silencing on the proliferation of mouse spermatogonia was evaluated with CCK8 assay.@*RESULTS@#In the testicular tissues from the 6 patients with azoospermia, iTRAQ combined with LC/MS/MS analysis identified over two hundred differentially expressed proteins, among which CEP55 showed the most significant differential expression between the patients with maturation arrest and those with normal spermatogenesis. The cell transfection experiment showed that compared with the cells transfected with the vehicle or the negative control sequence, the mouse spermatogonia transfected with CEP55 siRNA showed significantly lowered expressions of CEP55 mRNA and protein ( < 0.05) and significantly decreased proliferation rate as shown by CCK8 assay ( < 0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#CEP55 may play a key role in spermatogenesis and may serve as a potential therapeutic target for non-obstructive azoospermia with maturation arrest.


Subject(s)
Animals , Azoospermia , Genetics , Cell Cycle Proteins , Genetics , Gene Silencing , Humans , Male , Mice , Nuclear Proteins , Genetics , Spermatogenesis , Spermatogonia , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Transfection
9.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1013-1019, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771846

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of silencing LNK gene on the expression of EPO and EPOR in acute myeloid leukemia cells (THP-1).@*METHODS@#THP-1 cells were cultured. The lentivirus was used as a vector to silence the LNK gene stably. After 72 hours of infection, GFP expression level was detected by the fluorescent inverted microscopy. The lentiviral Infection efficiencies were monitored by flow cytometry. The LNK silencing effect was confirmed. The mRNA expressions of EPO and EPOR were detected by RT-PCR. The protein levels of LNK, EPO and EPOR were detected by Western blot.@*RESULTS@#At the time-point of 72 hours after lentivirus infection, the expression level of GFP was above 85% detected by fluorescent inverted microscopy. The infection efficiency was above 99% by flow cytometry. mRNA expressions of LNK, EPO and EPOR in LNK silencing group were signifycantly lower than those in control group (P<0.05). The protein levels of LNK, EPO and EPOR in LNK silencing group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#THP-1 cell line of LNK gene silencing has been successfully established,the LNK gene has been silenced, the expression of EPO and EPOR decrease, indicating that LNK may participate in the regulation of EPO and EPOR.


Subject(s)
Blotting, Western , Erythropoietin , Gene Silencing , Humans , Proteins , Genetics , Receptors, Erythropoietin , THP-1 Cells
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771508

ABSTRACT

To explore the mechanism of β-carboline alkaloids inhibiting the migration and invasion of SGC-7901 cells and its correlation with FAK gene expression,CCK-8 method was used to determine the inhibitory rate of β-carboline alkaloids on the proliferation of gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells under different concentrations.The effect of β-carboline alkaloids on the migration and invasion of SGC-7901 cells was used by Transwell compartment.Detection of mRNA and protein expression of FAK genes were used by qRT-PCR and Western blot.Then si-FAK-1051 recombinant plasmid was transfected into SGC-7901 cells.FAK gene silencing effect was identified by qRT-PCR and Western blot technique again.Finally,the effects of FAK gene silencing on proliferation and migration of gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells were detected by CCK-8 kit and Transwell chamber assay respectively.With the increase of the concentration ofβ-carboline alkaloids,the inhibitory rate of SGC-7901 cells in human gastric cancer cells increased gradually,with IC5013.364 mg·L-1.The number of SGC-7901 cells of Transwell compartment in the positive experimental group(5-FU,5 mg·L-1) and the β-carboline alkaloids group decreased significantly(P<0.01) and the number of SGC-7901 cells in the β-carboline alkaloids group was significantly lower than that in the positive experimental group(P<0.01).Compared with the blank control group,the mRNA and protein expression level of FAK genes in the positive experimental group was significantly lower than that in the experimental group of β-carboline alkaloids(P<0.05).After transfection of si-FAK-1051 into gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells,the expression of mRNA and protein of FAK gene was significantly down regulated(P<0.05).SGC-7901 cell proliferation and cell migration ability also decreased significantly(P<0.05).β-carboline alkaloids are more effective than 5-FU in inhibiting migration and invasion of gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells,and the mechanism may be related to the inhibition of mRNA and protein expression of FAK gene by β-carboline alkaloids.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , Pharmacology , Carbolines , Pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement , Cell Proliferation , Focal Adhesion Kinase 1 , Genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Gene Silencing , Humans , Neoplasm Invasiveness , Stomach Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Pathology
11.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 415-423, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777172

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Wnt5a on the vincristine (VCR) resistance in human ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cells and its possible mechanism. The drug-resistant SKOV3/VCR cells were established by stepwise exposure to VCR, and then the SKOV3/VCR cells were stably transfected with specific shRNA interference plasmid vector targeting for Wnt5a. The mRNA expression level of Wnt5a was measured by RT-PCR. CCK-8 assay was used to detect the cell viability of SKOV3/VCR cells. The apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry. The protein expression levels of Wnt5a, MDR1, Survivin, β-catenin, Akt, p-Akt(S473), GSK3β and p-GSK3β(Ser9) were detected by Western blot. The result showed that SKOV3/VCR cells had significantly higher protein expression levels of Wnt5a, MDR1, Survivin and β-catenin, phosphorylation levels of Akt and GSK3β, and mRNA expression level of Wnt5a, compared with SKOV3 cells (P < 0.05). WNT5A gene silencing significantly increased the sensitivity of SKOV3/VCR cells to VCR, the IC of VCR being decreased from 38.412 to 9.283 mg/L (P < 0.05), synergistically enhanced VCR-induced apoptosis of SKOV3/VCR cells (P < 0.05), down-regulated the protein expression levels of MDR1, β-catenin and Survivin (P < 0.05), and inhibited phosphorylation of Akt and GSK3β (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, LY294002 (PI3K inhibitor) decreased the protein expression levels of MDR1, β-catenin and Survivin, as well as the phosphorylation levels of Akt and GSK3β in SKOV3/VCR cells (P < 0.05). These results suggest that WNT5A gene silencing reverses VCR resistance in SKOV3/VCR cells possibly through blocking the PI3K/Akt/GSK3β/β-catenin signaling pathway, and thus down-regulating the protein expression levels of MDR1 and Survivin.


Subject(s)
ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Subfamily B , Metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , Female , Gene Silencing , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta , Metabolism , Humans , Ovarian Neoplasms , Pathology , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Metabolism , Signal Transduction , Survivin , Metabolism , Vincristine , Pharmacology , Wnt-5a Protein , Metabolism
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776048

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the effects of cathepsin B(CTSB)on the activation of nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich-repeat-containing family and pyrin domain-containing 3(NLRP3)inflammasome via transient receptor potential mucolipin-1(TRPML1)in cell oxidative stress model and specific gene silencing cell model. Methods BV2 cells cultured in vivo were treated separately or simultaneously with hydrogen peroxide(HO),calcium-sensitive receptor agonist gadolinium trichloride(GdCl),and CTSB inhibitor CA-074Me,and interleukin-1(IL-1)beta and caspase-1 protein were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.The growth activity of BV2 cells in each group was measured by MTT.BV2 cells were treated with different concentrations of HO.Cystatin C mRNA and TRPML1 mRNA in BV2 cells were detected by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and the proteins of TRPML1,CTSB,cathepsin D(CTSD),cathepsin L(CTSL)and cathepsin V(CTSV)were detected by Western blot.Specific small interfering RNA was designed for TRPML1 gene target sequence.TRPML1 gene silencing cell lines(named Tr-si-Bv2 cells)were established in BV2 cells and treated with or without HO.TRPML1,CTSB and transcription factor EB(TFEB)proteins in Tr-si-Bv2 cells or control cells were detected by Western blot. Results After treatment with HO,the expression of caspase-1 protein and NLRP3 mRNA in BV2 cells was increased,and IL-1beta protein in BV2 cells was significantly increased after treatment with GdCl(P=0.0036).After treatment with CA-074Me,the doses of NLRP3 mRNA(P=0.037),caspase-1(P=0.021),and IL-1β(P= 0.036)were significantly reduced.Cells in the HO group and HO+GdCl group grew more slowly.The expressions of CTSB mRNA and TRPML1 mRNA,or CTSB and TRPML1 proteins in BV2 cells in the treatment group with 200 μmol/L of HO concentration were similar.HO-induced CTSB protein expression was inhibited after silencing TRPML1 gene.The changes of other cathepsins were not affected for the different concentration of HO.In the BV2 cells treated with TRPML1 gene silencing,the expression of CTSB protein was significantly reduced and the difference was statistically significant(P=0.021)between the HO +siRNA treatment group and the HO treatment group.Conclusion CTSB regulates the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in the oxidative stress model of microglia cells,probably mediated by calcium channel protein TRPML1.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cathepsin B , Metabolism , Cell Line , Gene Silencing , Hydrogen Peroxide , Inflammasomes , Metabolism , Interleukin-1beta , Mice , Microglia , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein , Metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Pyrin Domain , Transient Receptor Potential Channels , Metabolism
13.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1469-1475, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775697

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of LNK gene silencing and overexpression on the expression of STAT3 gene in human monocytic leukemia cells (THP-1).@*METHODS@#THP-1 cells were cultured, and the lentivirus was used as a vector to silence and overexpres the LNK gene stably. After transfection for 72 hours, the GFP expression levels were observed by inverted fluorescence microscopy. The lentiviral transfection efficiencies were detected by flow cytometry. The effects of LNK silencing and overexpression were confirmed, and the expression of STAT3 mRNA was detected by RT-PCR. The protein levels of LNK and STAT3 were detected by Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#The GFP expression level of THP-1 cells reached more than 85% after transfection with lentivirus for 72 hours, and the transfection efficiency of cells was above 99%. mRNA expressions levels of LNK and STAT3 in LNK silencing group were signifycantly lower than those in control group, while LNK and STAT3 mRNA levels in the LNK overexpression group was significantly higher than those in control group (P<0.05). The protein expression levels of LNK and STAT3 in LNK silencing group were significantly lower than those in control group, while that in LNK overexpression group was significantly higher than that in control group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#The THP-1 cell line with LNK gene silencing and overexpression has been successfully established. The LNK gene silencing resulted in decrease of STAT3 expression; LNK gene overexpression and leads to inereases of STAT3 expression indicating that LNK participates in the regulation of STAT3.


Subject(s)
Cell Line, Tumor , Gene Silencing , Genetic Vectors , Humans , Lentivirus , Proteins , RNA, Small Interfering , STAT3 Transcription Factor , Metabolism , THP-1 Cells , Transfection
14.
Biol. Res ; 52: 14, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011416

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Drought is a major abiotic stress affecting global wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production. Exploration of drought-tolerant genes is essential for the genetic improvement of drought tolerance in wheat. Previous studies have shown that some histone encoding genes are involved in plant drought tolerance. However, whether the H2B family genes are involved in drought stress response remains unclear. METHODS: Here, we identified a wheat histone H2B family gene, TaH2B-7D, which was significantly up-regulated under drought stress conditions. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) technology was used to further verify the function of TaH2B-7D in wheat drought tolerance. The phenotypic and physiological changes were examined in the TaH2B-7D knock-down plants. RESULTS: In the TaH2B-7D knock-down plants, relative electrolyte leakage rate and malonaldehyde (MDA) content significantly increased, while relative water content (RWC) and proline content significantly decreased compared with those in the non-knocked-down plants under drought stress conditions. TaH2B-7D knock-down plants exhibited severe sagging, wilting and dwarf phenotypes under drought stress conditions, but not in the non-knocked-down plants, suggesting that the former were more sensitive to drought stress. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that TaH2B-7D potentially plays a vital role in conferring drought tolerance in wheat.


Subject(s)
Plant Proteins/genetics , Stress, Physiological/genetics , Triticum/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant/genetics , Gene Silencing , Droughts , Phenotype , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Stress, Physiological/physiology , Triticum/metabolism , Plants, Genetically Modified/genetics , Plant Physiological Phenomena/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
15.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(3): 601-606, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951806

ABSTRACT

Abstract Salmonella Gallinarum is a host-restrict pathogen that causes fowl typhoid, a severe systemic disease that is one of the major concerns to the poultry industry worldwide. When infecting the bird, SG makes use of evasion mechanisms to survive and to replicate within macrophages. In this context, phoPQ genes encode a two-component regulatory system (PhoPQ) that regulates virulence genes responsible for adaptation of Salmonella spp. to antimicrobial factors such as low pH, antimicrobial peptides and deprivation of bivalent cations. The role of the mentioned genes to SG remains to be investigated. In the present study a phoPQ-depleted SG strain (SG ΔphoPQ) was constructed and its virulence assessed in twenty-day-old laying hens susceptible to fowl typhoid. SG ΔphoPQ did cause neither clinical signs nor mortality in birds orally challenged, being non-pathogenic. Furthermore, this strain was not recovered from livers or spleens. On the other hand, chickens challenged subcutaneously with the mutant strain had discreet to moderate pathological changes and also low bacterial counts in liver and spleen tissues. These findings show that SG ΔphoPQ is attenuated to susceptible chickens and suggest that these genes are important during chicken infection by SG.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Poultry Diseases/microbiology , Salmonella Infections, Animal/microbiology , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Salmonella enterica/metabolism , Salmonella enterica/pathogenicity , Gene Silencing , Poultry Diseases/pathology , Salmonella Infections, Animal/pathology , Spleen/microbiology , Spleen/pathology , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Virulence , Chickens , Salmonella enterica/genetics
16.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(1): 200-206, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889189

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Bacteroides fragilis is the strict anaerobic bacteria most commonly found in human infections, and has a high mortality rate. Among other virulence factors, the remarkable ability to acquire resistance to a variety of antimicrobial agents and to tolerate nanomolar concentrations of oxygen explains in part their success in causing infection and colonizing the mucosa. Much attention has been given to genes related to multiple drug resistance derived from plasmids, integrons or transposon, but such genes are also detected in chromosomal systems, like the mar (multiple antibiotic resistance) locus, that confer resistance to a range of drugs. Regulators like MarR, that control expression of the locus mar, also regulate resistance to organic solvents, disinfectants and oxygen reactive species are important players in these events. Strains derived from the parental strain 638R, with mutations in the genes hereby known as marRI (BF638R_3159) and marRII (BF638R_3706) were constructed by gene disruption using a suicide plasmid. Phenotypic response of the mutant strains to hydrogen peroxide, cell survival assay against exposure to oxygen, biofilm formation, resistance to bile salts and resistance to antibiotics was evaluated. The results showed that the mutant strains exhibit statistically significant differences in their response to oxygen stress, but no changes were observed in survival when exposed to bile salts. Biofilm formation was not affected by either gene disruption. Both mutant strains however, became more sensitive to multiple antimicrobial drugs tested. This indicates that as observed in other bacterial species, MarR are an important resistance mechanism in B. fragilis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacteroides fragilis/drug effects , Bacteroides fragilis/genetics , Bacteroides Infections/microbiology , Repressor Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Bacteroides fragilis/isolation & purification , Bacteroides fragilis/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial/drug effects , Gene Silencing , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Repressor Proteins/metabolism
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740105

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cancer invasion is a critical factor for survival and prognosis of patients with cancer. Identifying and targeting factors that influence cancer invasion are an important strategy to overcome cancer. In this study, we investigated the role of fascin known to be associated with cancer invasion. METHODS: Fascin depletion was performed with lentiviral short hairpin RNA against fascin mRNA and stable cell line (Fascin(dep)) was established. Matrigel-Transwell invasion and three-dimensional (3D) culture system were used to observe fascin depletion effects. In order to observe the changes of protease secretion by fascin depleted cancer cells, protease antibody array was performed. RESULTS: Fascin was highly expressed in invasive cancer cells. Fascin-depleted cells showed decreased cancer invasion in Matrigel-Transwell invasion and 3D culture system. In addition, inhibition of proteases secreation and decrease of intracellular proteases mRNA expression were observed in fascin deplete cells. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicates that fascin is closely involved in proteases activity and cancer invasion. Therefore, fascin is a strategically important factor for controlling cancer invasion.


Subject(s)
Cell Line , Gene Silencing , Head and Neck Neoplasms , Humans , Metalloproteases , Mouth Neoplasms , Peptide Hydrolases , Prognosis , RNA, Messenger , RNA, Small Interfering , Tumor Microenvironment
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727939

ABSTRACT

Although cisplatin is one of the most effective antitumor drugs for ovarian cancer, the emergence of chemoresistance to cisplatin in over 80% of initially responsive patients is a major barrier to successful therapy. The precise mechanisms underlying the development of cisplatin resistance are not fully understood, but alteration of DNA methylation associated with aberrant gene silencing may play a role. To identify epigenetically regulated genes directly associated with ovarian cancer cisplatin resistance, we compared the expression and methylation profiles of cisplatin-sensitive and -resistant human ovarian cancer cell lines. We identified α-Nacetylgalactosaminidase (NAGA) as one of the key candidate genes for cisplatin drug response. Interestingly, in cisplatin-resistant cell lines, NAGA was significantly downregulated and hypermethylated at a promoter CpG site at position +251 relative to the transcriptional start site. Low NAGA expression in cisplatin-resistant cell lines was restored by treatment with a DNA demethylation agent, indicating transcriptional silencing by hyper-DNA methylation. Furthermore, overexpression of NAGA in cisplatin-resistant lines induced cytotoxicity in response to cisplatin, whereas depletion of NAGA expression increased cisplatin chemoresistance, suggesting an essential role of NAGA in sensitizing ovarian cells to cisplatin. These findings indicate that NAGA acts as a cisplatin sensitizer and its gene silencing by hypermethylation confers resistance to cisplatin in ovarian cancer. Therefore, we suggest NAGA may be a promising potential therapeutic target for improvement of sensitivity to cisplatin in ovarian cancer.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , Cell Line , Cisplatin , DNA , DNA Methylation , Epigenomics , Gene Silencing , Humans , Methylation , Ovarian Neoplasms
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727872

ABSTRACT

The tumor microenvironment greatly influences cancer cell characteristics, and acidic extracellular pH has been implicated as an essential factor in tumor malignancy and the induction of drug resistance. Here, we examined the characteristics of gastric carcinoma (GC) cells under conditions of extracellular acidity and attempted to identify a means of enhancing treatment efficacy. Acidic conditions caused several changes in GC cells adversely affecting chemotherapeutic treatment. Extracellular acidity did inhibit GC cell growth by inducing cell cycle arrest, but did not induce cell death at pH values down to 6.2, which was consistent with down-regulated cyclin D1 and up-regulated p21 mRNA expression. Additionally, an acidic environment altered the expression of atg5, HSPA1B, collagen XIII, collagen XXAI, slug, snail, and zeb1 genes which are related to regulation of cell resistance to cytotoxicity and malignancy, and as expected, resulted in increased resistance of cells to multiple chemotherapeutic drugs including etoposide, doxorubicin, daunorubicin, cisplatin, oxaliplatin and 5-FU. Interestingly, however, acidic environment dramatically sensitized GC cells to apoptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). Consistently, the acidity at pH 6.5 increased mRNA levels of DR4 and DR5 genes, and also elevated protein expression of both death receptors as detected by immunoblotting. Gene silencing analysis showed that of these two receptors, the major role in this effect was played by DR5. Therefore, these results suggest that extracellular acidity can sensitize TRAIL-mediated apoptosis at least partially via DR5 in GCs while it confers resistance to various type of chemotherapeutic drugs.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Cell Death , Cisplatin , Collagen , Cyclin D1 , Daunorubicin , Doxorubicin , Drug Resistance , Etoposide , Fluorouracil , Gastropoda , Gene Silencing , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Immunoblotting , Necrosis , Receptors, Death Domain , RNA, Messenger , Snails , Stomach Neoplasms , Treatment Outcome , Tumor Microenvironment
20.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 51-56, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742505

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: 14-3-3ζ regulates cell signaling, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis, and its overexpression is associated with disease recurrence and poor clinical outcomes in some solid tumors. However, its clinicopathological role in ovarian cancer is unknown. Our goal was to investigate whether 14-3-3ζ is associated with ovarian cancer prognosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined 14-3-3ζ expression by immunohistochemistry in ovarian cancer tissues obtained from 88 ovarian cancer patients. The examined tissues were of various histologies and stages. 14-3-3ζ expression was also analyzed by western blot in seven ovarian cancer cell lines and a primary ovary epithelial cell line. Cell viability was measured using an MTS-based assay following cisplatin treatment. RESULTS: Among the ovarian cancer samples, 53.4% (47/88) showed high 14-3-3ζ expression, and 14-3-3ζ overexpression was positively correlated with more advanced pathologic stages and grades. 14-3-3ζ overexpression was also significantly associated with poor disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) of ovarian cancer patients. Median DFS and OS were 1088 and 3905 days, respectively, in the high 14-3-3ζ expression group, but not reached in the low 14-3-3ζ expression group (p=0.004 and p=0.033, log-rank test, respectively). Downregulating 14-3-3ζ by RNA interference in ovarian cancer cells led to enhanced sensitivity to cisplatin-induced cell death. CONCLUSION: 14-3-3ζ overexpression might be a potential prognostic biomarker for ovarian cancer, and the inhibition of 14-3-3ζ could be a therapeutic option that enhances the antitumor activity of cisplatin.


Subject(s)
14-3-3 Proteins/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Cell Line, Tumor , Cisplatin/therapeutic use , Disease-Free Survival , Down-Regulation , Female , Gene Knockdown Techniques , Gene Silencing , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Middle Aged , Ovarian Neoplasms/drug therapy , Ovarian Neoplasms/metabolism , Ovarian Neoplasms/pathology , Prognosis , Young Adult
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