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1.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 655-662, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878590

ABSTRACT

The transposon vector containing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) was injected into early housefly (Musca domestica L.) eggs by microinjection method to realize stable gene expression in vivo for verification, and to study housefly gene function. A borosilicate glass micro injection needle suitable for microinjection of housefly eggs was made, the softening treatment conditions of housefly egg shells were explored, and a microinjection technology platform suitable for housefly was constructed with a high-precision microsyringe Nanoject Ⅲ as the main body. The recombinant plasmid PiggyBac-[3×P3]-EGFP containing the eye-specific 3×P3 promoter and EGFP and the stable genetic expression helper plasmid pHA3pig helper were microinjected into the treated housefly eggs. After emergence, the eye luminescence was observed, and the expression and transcription level of EGFP were detected. The results showed that the normal hatching rate of housefly eggs was 55% when rinsed in bleaching water for 35 s. The hardness of the egg shell treated for 35 s was suitable for injection and the injection needle was not easy to break. About 3% of the emerged housefly eyes had green fluorescence. Through further molecular detection, EGFP specific fragments with a size of 750 bp were amplified from DNA and RNA of housefly. Through the technical platform, the stable expression of reporter genes in housefly can be conveniently and effectively realized, and a bioreactor with housefly as the main body can be established, which provides certain reference value for subsequent research on housefly gene function.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Genetically Modified , Gene Expression , Genes, Reporter , Green Fluorescent Proteins/genetics , Houseflies/genetics , Microinjections
2.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 321-330, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878565

ABSTRACT

To construct a prokaryotic promoter report system with wide applicability, a series of pFGH reporter vectors based on lacZ gene and pUC replicon were constructed from plasmid pFLX107 through the replacement of multiple cloning sites and sequence modifications. The plasmid with the lowest background activity was selected as the final report system with the lacZ gene deletion strain MC4100 as the host bacterium, following by testing with inducible promoter araBAD and the constitutive promoter rpsM. The background activity of pFGH06 was significantly lower than that of other plasmids of the same series, and even lower than that of reference plasmid pRCL at 28 °C (P<0.01). Further evaluation tests show that the plasmid pFGH06 could be used to clone and determine the activity of inducible promoter or constitutive promoter, and the complete recognition of the target promoter could be achieved through blue-white selection in the simulation test of promoter screening. Compared with the reported prokaryotic promoter report systems, pFGH06 has the advantages of smaller size, more multiple clone sites, adjustable background activity, high efficiency of promoter screening and recognition, thus with a wide application prospect.


Subject(s)
Cloning, Molecular , Escherichia coli/genetics , Genes, Reporter/genetics , Genetic Vectors/genetics , Lac Operon/genetics , Plasmids/genetics , beta-Galactosidase/genetics
3.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 39-56, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880896

ABSTRACT

Gene expression labeling and conditional manipulation of gene function are important for elaborate dissection of gene function. However, contemporary generation of pairwise dual-function knockin alleles to achieve both conditional and geno-tagging effects with a single donor has not been reported. Here we first developed a strategy based on a flipping donor named FoRe to generate conditional knockout alleles coupled with fluorescent allele-labeling through NHEJ-mediated unidirectional targeted insertion in zebrafish facilitated by the CRISPR/Cas system. We demonstrated the feasibility of this strategy at sox10 and isl1 loci, and successfully achieved Cre-induced conditional knockout of target gene function and simultaneous switch of the fluorescent reporter, allowing generation of genetic mosaics for lineage tracing. We then improved the donor design enabling efficient one-step bidirectional knockin to generate paired positive and negative conditional alleles, both tagged with two different fluorescent reporters. By introducing Cre recombinase, these alleles could be used to achieve both conditional knockout and conditional gene restoration in parallel; furthermore, differential fluorescent labeling of the positive and negative alleles enables simple, early and efficient real-time discrimination of individual live embryos bearing different genotypes prior to the emergence of morphologically visible phenotypes. We named our improved donor as Bi-FoRe and demonstrated its feasibility at the sox10 locus. Furthermore, we eliminated the undesirable bacterial backbone in the donor using minicircle DNA technology. Our system could easily be expanded for other applications or to other organisms, and coupling fluorescent labeling of gene expression and conditional manipulation of gene function will provide unique opportunities to fully reveal the power of emerging single-cell sequencing technologies.


Subject(s)
Alleles , Animals , CRISPR-Cas Systems , DNA End-Joining Repair , DNA, Circular/metabolism , Embryo, Nonmammalian , Gene Editing/methods , Gene Knock-In Techniques , Gene Knockout Techniques , Genes, Reporter , Genetic Loci , Genotyping Techniques , Green Fluorescent Proteins/metabolism , Integrases/metabolism , Luminescent Proteins/metabolism , Mutagenesis, Insertional , Single-Cell Analysis , Zebrafish/metabolism
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761786

ABSTRACT

Pituitary tumors are usually benign but can occasionally exhibit hormonal and proliferative behaviors. Dysregulation of the G1/S restriction point largely contributes to the over-proliferation of pituitary tumor cells. F-box protein S-phase kinase-interacting protein-2 (SKP2) reportedly targets and inhibits the expression of p27(Kip1), a well-known negative regulator of G1 cell cycle progression. In this study, SKP2 expression was found to be upregulated while p27(Kip1) expression was determined to be downregulated in rat and human pituitary tumor cells. Furthermore, SKP2 knockdown induced upregulation of p27(Kip1) and cell growth inhibition in rat and human pituitary tumor cells, while SKP2overexpression elicited opposite effects on p27(Kip1) expression and cell growth. The expression of microRNA-186 (miR-186) was reported to be reduced in pituitary tumors. Online tools predicted SKP2 to be a direct downstream target of miR-186, which was further confirmed by luciferase reporter gene assays. Moreover, miR-186 could modulate the cell proliferation and p27(Kip1)-mediated cell cycle alternation of rat and human pituitary tumor cells through SKP2. As further confirmation of these findings, miR-186 and p27(Kip1) expression were downregulated, while SKP2 expression was upregulated in human pituitary tumor tissue samples; thus, SKP2 expression negatively correlated with miR-186 and p27(Kip1) expression. In contrast, miR-186 expression positively associated with p27(Kip1) expression. Taken together, we discovered a novel mechanism by which miR-186/SKP2 axis modulates pituitary tumor cell proliferation through p27(Kip1)-mediated cell cycle alternation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Cycle , Cell Proliferation , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27 , Genes, Reporter , Humans , Luciferases , Pituitary Neoplasms , Rats , Up-Regulation
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764935

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Increased expression of MDR1 gene is one of the major mechanisms responsible for multidrug resistance in cancer cells. Two alternative promoters, upstream and downstream, are responsible for transcription of MDR1 gene in the human. However, the molecular mechanism regarding the transactivation of MDR1 upstream promoter (USP) has not been determined. METHODS: Dual-luciferase reporter gene assays were used to assess the effect of Nkx-2.5 on MDR1 USP activity using reporter plasmids for human MDR1 USP and its mutants. MDR1 mRNA level was examined by quantitative real-time PCR. The direct binding of Nkx-2.5 to the USP of MDR1 was evaluated by promoter enzyme immunoassays and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Chromatin Immunoprecipitation , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Genes, Reporter , Humans , Immunoassay , Immunoenzyme Techniques , Phenotype , Plasmids , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger , Transcriptional Activation
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764304

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1) is a widely-distributed flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent flavoprotein that promotes obligatory 2-electron reductions of quinones, quinoneimines, nitroaromatics, and azo dyes. This reduces quinone levels and thereby minimizes generation of excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) formed by redox cycling, and concurrent depletion of intracellular thiol pools. Ajoene is derived from crushed garlic. It is formed by a reaction involving two allicin molecules, and is composed of allyl sulfide and vinyl disulfide. Ajoene is present in two isomers, E- and Z-form. METHODS: Expression of antioxidant enzymes and nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) was measured by Western blot analysis. NQO1 promoter activity was assessed by the luciferase reporter gene assay. ROS accumulation was monitored by using the fluorescence-generating probe 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate. The intracellular glutathione levels were measured by using a commercially available kit. RESULTS: Z-ajoene significantly up-regulated the expression of representative antioxidant enzyme NQO1 in non-tumorigenic breast epithelial MCF-10A cells at non-toxic concentrations. Z-ajoene enhanced up-regulation and nuclear translocation of Nrf2, which plays a pivotal role in the induction of many genes encoding antioxidant enzymes and other cytoprotective proteins. Z-ajoene treatment also increased the activity of nqo1-promoter harboring antioxidant response element consensus sequences in MCF-10A cells. Silencing of Nrf2 by small interfering RNA abrogated ajoene-induced expression of NQO1. Z-ajoene activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Inhibition of ERK activation by U0126 abrogated ability of Z-ajoene to activate Nrf2 and to induce NQO1 expression. Intracellular ROS accumulation was observed after treatment with Z-ajoene, whereas the E-isoform was not effective. The inhibition of ROS by treatment with N-acetylcysteine, a radical scavenger, abrogated Z-ajoene-induced expression of NQO1 as well as activation of ERK and Nrf2, suggesting that Z-ajoene augments the Nrf2-dependent antioxidant defense via ROS generation and ERK activation. CONCLUSIONS: Z-ajoene induces NQO1 expression in MCF-10A cells through ROS-mediated activation of Nrf2.


Subject(s)
Acetylcysteine , Adenine , Antioxidant Response Elements , Azo Compounds , Blotting, Western , Breast , Consensus Sequence , Epithelial Cells , Flavoproteins , Garlic , Genes, Reporter , Glutathione , Humans , Luciferases , NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , Oxidation-Reduction , Phosphotransferases , Quinones , Reactive Oxygen Species , RNA, Small Interfering , Up-Regulation
7.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 924-934, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762040

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Acute leukemia (AL) is classified as acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). This study aimed to investigate the effect of miR-146a on childhood AL and its underlying molecular mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bone marrow samples were obtained from 39 AL children and 10 non-cancer controls. The expressions of miR-146a and ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor (CNTFR) were detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in ALL and AML pediatric patients, as well as ALL (Jurkat) and AML (HL-60) cells. Correlations between miR-146a and clinical indicators were explored. A targeting relationship between miR-146a and CNTFR was detected by dual luciferase reporter gene assay. Cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion of Jurkat and HL-60 cells were measured by MTT assay, flow cytometry, and transwell assay, respectively. LIF expression was detected by qRT-PCR in Jurkat and HL-60 cells. The expression of p-JAK2, JAK2, p-STAT3, and STAT3 in HL-60 cells was measured by Western blot. RESULTS: miR-146a was increased in ALL and AML pediatric patients, while CNTFR was decreased. miR-146a expression was associated with immunophenotype, karyotype, fusion gene, and SIL-TAL1. CNTFR was a target gene of miR-146a. miR-146a could promote cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, as well as inhibit cell apoptosis in Jurkat and HL-60 cells by downregulating CNTFR. Meanwhile, miR-146a inhibited the expression of LIF and activated JAK2/STAT3 pathway by downregulating CNTFR. CONCLUSION: miR-146a could promote the proliferation, migration, and invasion and inhibit the apoptosis of AL Jurkat and HL-60 cells by downregulating CNTFR and activating the JAK2/STAT3 pathway.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Blotting, Western , Bone Marrow , Cell Proliferation , Child , Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor , Flow Cytometry , Genes, Reporter , HL-60 Cells , Humans , Karyotype , Leukemia , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Luciferases , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Receptor, Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771905

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To clone the promoter sequence of acute monocytic leukemia new antigen gene.MLAA-34 and identify its promoter core region.@*METHODS@#The full-length fragment of MLAA-34 gene promoter region was amplified by PCR, then was ligated into pGL3-Basic vector, and the recombinant plasmid was cloned. Constructed a series of MLAA-34 gene promoter 5' flanking region truncated plasmid. These recombinant plasmids were transfected into U937 and HEK293 cells, and the dual luciferase reporter gene was used to detect the promoter activity of each fragment to determine the minimum active region. Transcription factor binding sites were analyzed by bioinformatics methods.@*RESULTS@#The recombinant plasmid containing MLAA-34 promoter sequence and its truncated plasmid were successfully constructed, and the promoter activity was significantly increased as compared with the empty vector (P<0.001). The minimal active region of MLAA-34 located between 402 bp and 200 bp. It contained multiple transcription factor binding sites such as E2F1, MZF-1, SP1, USF2 and STAT3.@*CONCLUSION@#The promoter of luciferase reporter gene has been successfully constructed with different deletion fragments of MLAA-34, and its core promoter region may contain multiple transcription factor sequence.


Subject(s)
Adult , Antigens, Neoplasm , Genetics , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins , Genetics , Cloning, Molecular , Genes, Reporter , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Leukemia, Monocytic, Acute , Genetics , Luciferases , Promoter Regions, Genetic
9.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1557-1565, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771773

ABSTRACT

To construct a eukaryotic expression plasmid containing the luciferase reporter gene (Fluc) to quickly detect apoptosis. Four amino acids, Asp-Glu-Val-Asp (DEVD), the recognize motif of Caspase-3, were introduced into the middle of the Fluc-C and N fragment. Meanwhile, four amino acids, Asp-Glu-Val-Gly (DEVG), were selected as a negative control. Subsequently, the recombinant gene was cloned into the N and C terminal end of the split intein, and named as pFluc-DEVD and pFluc-DEVG. Then the plasmids were transfected into cells and renilla luciferase was co-transfected in each sample as an internal control for transfection efficiency. Then the apoptosis level was detected by the double luciferase reporter gene and the Western blotting analysis. The results showed that when apoptosis occurred, the content of firefly luciferase expressed in the pFluc-DEVD plasmid transfected group was about 3 times higher than pFluc-DEVG plasmid transfected group. Furthermore, Western blotting detection indicated that the Fluc level was significantly increased in pFluc-DEVD transfected group when pre-treated by apoptosis stimulants. The activation degree of Caspase-3 was closely related to the expression of Fluc, and had a significant statistical difference. These results confirmed that firefly luciferase protein expressed by pFluc-DEVD plasmid can be cleaved by the intracellular Caspase-3 enzyme, and this plasmid can accurately reflect the cell apoptosis level, which provides a useful method for quantitative detection of apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Genes, Reporter , Luciferases, Firefly , Transfection
10.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1463-1468, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775698

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the transcriptional regulation of transcription factor MZF-1 on acute monocytic leukemia-related gene MLAA-34.@*METHODS@#The effect of MZF-1 on the transcriptional activity of MLAA-34 gene promoter was analyzed by luciferase reporter gene detection system and site-directed mutation technique. The EMSA and ChIP assay were used to verify whether MZF-1 directly and specifically binds to the core region of MLAA-34 promoter. The over-expression vector and interference vector of MZF-1 were constructed to transfect U937 cells, and RT-PCR and Western blot were used to detect the transcription and expression changes of MLAA-34 gene.@*RESULTS@#The transcription factor MZF-1 had a regulatory effect on MLAA-34 gene expression, and the relative luciferase activity was decreased after MZF-1 binding point mutation (P<0.01). EMSA and ChIP experiments demonstrated that MZF-1 could directly bind to MLAA-34 promoter and play a regulatory role. In the over-expression test, the increase of MZF-1 could up-regulate the expression of MLAA-34 (P<0.05). In the interference test, the decrease of MZF-1 could down-regulate the expression of MLAA-34 (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Transcription factor MZF-1 can bind to the transcriptional regulatory region on the promoter of MLAA-34 gene and promote the transcription of MLAA-34 gene in acute monocytic leukemia.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Neoplasm , Genetics , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins , Genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Genes, Reporter , Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1-alpha , Humans , Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors , Metabolism , Leukemia, Monocytic, Acute , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Transcription, Genetic
11.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 36: 34-46, nov. 2018. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048187

ABSTRACT

Background: Somatic embryogenesis receptor-like kinase 1 (SERK1) is a cell membrane receptor active in different plant tissues and involved in cell differentiation activities including somatic embryogenesis. The identification of promoter elements responsible for SERK1 expression during the onset of somatic embryogenesis can be useful to understand the molecular regulation of the cell-to embryo transition, and these promoter elements represent biotechnological tools in plant organ tissue culture. Results: A −1,620 bp DNA sequence located upstream of the Coffea canephora SERK1 gene homologue (CcSERK1) was isolated, and then, different segments containing key response elements (REs) for somatic embryogenesis onset and development were fused to the uidA (encoding a ß-glucuronidase, GUS) reporter gene to evaluate its expression in transgenic leaf explants. DNA segments of −1,620 and −1048 bp in length directed uidA expression with patterns in leaf explants similar to those occurring during somatic embryogenesis. When a −792-bp fragment was used, uidA expression disappeared only in leaf explants and pro-embryogenic mass but persisted in developing embryos. No uidA expression was detected in any embryogenic stage when a −618-bp fragment was used. Conclusion: DNA deletions showed that a −1048-bp sequence located upstream of the CcSERK1 gene is sufficient to direct gene expression during the onset and the development of C. canephora somatic embryogenesis. The DNA segment located between −1048 and −792 bp (containing BBM and WUS REs) is needed for gene expression before embryogenesis onset but not during embryo development. The promoter segment between −792 and −618 bp (including GATA, ARR1AT, and ANT REs) regulates gene expression in developing embryos.


Subject(s)
Plant Proteins/genetics , Protein Kinases/genetics , Coffea/genetics , Biotechnology , Gene Expression , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Plants, Genetically Modified , Cloning, Molecular , Genes, Reporter , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Embryonic Development
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714337

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Patients treated with interferon-beta (IFN-β) can develop neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against IFN-β that can negatively affect the therapeutic response. This study assessed the prevalence of NAbs and the impact of NAb positivity on the therapeutic response to IFN-β in Korean patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: This was a multicenter study involving 150 MS patients from 9 Korean medical centers who were treated with IFN-β for at least 6 months. Sera that had not been influenced by acute treatment were assessed for NAbs using a luciferase reporter gene assay. To evaluate the association between persistent positivity for NAbs and disease activity, NAbs were tested at 2 different time points in 75 of the 150 patients. Disease activity was defined as the presence of clinical exacerbations and/or active MRI lesions during a 1-year follow-up after NAb positivity was confirmed. RESULTS: NAbs were found in 39 of the 150 (26%) MS patients: 30 of the 85 (35%) who were treated with subcutaneous IFN-β-1b, 9 of the 60 (15%) who were treated with subcutaneous IFN-β-1a, and 0 of the 5 (0%) who were treated with intramuscular IFN-β-1a. Thirty of the 39 patients exhibiting NAb positivity were tested at different time points, and 20 of them exhibited persistent NAb positivity. Disease activity was observed more frequently in patients with persistent NAb positivity than in those with transient positivity or persistent negativity [16/20 (80%) vs. 4/55 (7%), respectively; p < 0.001]. When disease activity was compared between patients with persistent and transient NAb positivity, the difference was unchanged and remained statistically significant [16/20 (80%) vs. 2/10 (20%), p=0.004]. CONCLUSIONS: These results further support that persistent NAb positivity is associated with disease activity in MS patients treated with IFN-β.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , Follow-Up Studies , Genes, Reporter , Humans , Interferon-beta , Luciferases , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Multiple Sclerosis , Prevalence
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715004

ABSTRACT

Stem cell therapy opens a new window in medicine to overcome several diseases that remain incurable. It appears such diseases as cardiovascular disorders, brain injury, multiple sclerosis, urinary system diseases, cartilage lesions and diabetes are curable with stem cell transplantation. However, some questions related to stem cell therapy have remained unanswered. Stem cell imaging allows approval of appropriated strategies such as selection of the type and dose of stem cell, and also mode of cell delivery before being tested in clinical trials. MRI as a non-invasive imaging modality provides proper conditions for this aim. So far, different contrast agents such as superparamagnetic or paramagnetic nanoparticles, ultrasmall superparamagnetic nanoparticles, fluorine, gadolinium and some types of reporter genes have been used for imaging of stem cells. The core subject of these studies is to investigate the survival and differentiation of stem cells, contrast agent's toxicity and long term following of transplanted cells. The promising results of in vivo and some clinical trial studies may raise hope for clinical stem cells imaging with MRI.


Subject(s)
Brain Injuries , Cartilage , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , Contrast Media , Fluorine , Gadolinium , Genes, Reporter , Hope , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Molecular Imaging , Multiple Sclerosis , Nanoparticles , Regenerative Medicine , Stem Cell Transplantation , Stem Cells
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771459

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of sodium valproate (VPA) on activation of miR-34c-5p/ATG4B signaling pathway and autophagy in SH-SY5Y cells.@*METHODS@#Routinely cultured SH-SY5Y cells were treated with VPA at different doses for 24 h, and the changes in the mRNA levels of ATG4B and miR-34c-5p and the protein expression of ATG4B were assessed using qRTPCR and immunoblotting, respectively. The effect of transfection with a plasmid containing ATG4B promoter on the promoter activity of ATG4B in VPA-treated SH-SY5Y cells was assessed using the reporter gene assay. The stability of ATG4B mRNA was analyzed with qPCR in SH-SY5Y cells treated with VPA alone or with VPA combined with the transcription inhibitor actinomycin D. The expression level of miR-34c-5p was detected using qPCR in SH-SY5Y cells treated with VPA alone or with VPA combined with miR-34c-5p mimics or antagonist, and the role of miR-34c-5p in VPA-induced ATG4B down-regulation was evaluated. The changes in the level of autophagy were evaluated by detecting LC3-Ⅱ expression in the cells after treatment with VPA or VPA combined with miR-34c-5p antagonist.@*RESULTS@#VPA dose-dependently down-regulated the expression of ATG4B at both the mRNA and protein levels in SH-SY5Y cells. VPA treatment did not significantly affect the promoter activity of ATG4B, but obviously lowered the mRNA stability of ATG4B in SH-SY5Y cells. VPA treatment up-regulated the expression of miR-34c-5p, and the miR-34c-5p antagonist reversed VPA-induced down-regulation of ATG4B in SH-SY5Y cells. VPA also down-regulated the expression level of LC3-Ⅱ in SH-SY5Y cells.@*CONCLUSIONS@#VPA suppresses autophagy in SH-SY5Y cells possibly via activating miR-34c-5p/ATG4B signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Autophagy , Autophagy-Related Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Cell Line , Cysteine Endopeptidases , Genetics , Metabolism , Dactinomycin , Pharmacology , Down-Regulation , Genes, Reporter , Humans , MicroRNAs , Metabolism , Microtubule-Associated Proteins , Metabolism , RNA, Messenger , Metabolism , Signal Transduction , Transfection , Valproic Acid , Pharmacology
15.
Mycobiology ; : 429-439, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-729732

ABSTRACT

To develop a convenient promoter analysis system for fungi, a null-pigment mutant (NPG) of Aspergillus nidulans was used with the 4′-phosphopantetheinyl transferase (PPTase) gene, npgA, which restores the normal pigmentation in A. nidulans, as a new reporter gene. The functional organization of serially deleted promoter regions of the A. nidulans trpC gene and the Cryphonectria parasitica crp gene in filamentous fungi was representatively investigated to establish a novel fungal promoter assay system that depends on color complementation of the NPG mutant with the PPTase npgA gene. Several promoter regions of the trpC and crp genes were fused to the npgA gene containing the 1,034-bp open reading frame and the 966-bp 3’ downstream region from the TAA, and the constructed fusions were introduced into the NPG mutant in A. nidulans to evaluate color recovery due to the transcriptional activity of the sequence elements. Serial deletion of the trpC and crp promoter regions in this PPTase reporter assay system reaffirmed results in previous reports by using the fungal transformation step without a laborious verification process. This approach suggests a more rapid and convenient system than conventional analyses for fungal gene expression studies.


Subject(s)
Aspergillus nidulans , Aspergillus , Complement System Proteins , Fungi , Genes, Fungal , Genes, Reporter , Open Reading Frames , Pigmentation , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Transferases
16.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 28: 41-46, July. 2017. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1015839

ABSTRACT

Background: Streptomyces clavuligerus was the producer of clavulanic acid, claR, a pathway-specific transcriptional regulator in S. clavuligerus, positively regulates clavulanic acid biosynthesis. In this study, the promoter-less kanamycin resistance gene neo was fused with claR to obtain strain NEO from S. clavuligerus F613-1. The claR-neo fusion strain NEO was mutated using physical and chemical mutagens and then screened under high concentrations of kanamycin for high-yield producers of clavulanic acid. Results: The reporter gene neo was fused downstream of claR and used as an indicator for expression levels of claR in strain NEO. After three rounds of continuous treatment and screening, the high-yield clavulanic acid-producing strain M3-19 was obtained. In the shaking flask model, the clavulanic acid titer of M3-19 reached 4.33 g/L, which is an increase of 33% over the titer of 3.26 g/L for the starting strains S. clavuligerus F613-1 and NEO. Conclusions: Our results indicate that neo can be effectively used as a reporter for the expression of late-stage biosynthetic genes when screening for high-yield strains and that this approach has strong potential for improving Streptomyces strains of industrial value.


Subject(s)
Streptomyces/genetics , Streptomyces/metabolism , Kanamycin , Clavulanic Acid/biosynthesis , Transcription Factors/genetics , Transcription, Genetic , Biological Assay , Recombinant Proteins , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Mutagenesis , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Genes, Reporter , Gene Fusion , Fermentation , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-153373

ABSTRACT

Our study aims to investigate the roles that microRNA-214 (miR-214) plays in the epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) process and the development of interstitial cystitis (IC) in postmenopausal women by targeting Mitofusin 2 (Mfn2). IC bladder tissues and adjacent normal bladder tissues were collected from postmenopausal women. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining was conducted. The target relationship between miR-214 and Mfn2 was determined by a dual luciferase reporter gene assay. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) were extracted from postmenopausal rats and assigned to the blank, mimics, miR-214 inhibitors, mimics negative control (NC), inhibitors NC, Mfn2 siRNA, miR-214 inhibitors and Mfn2 siRNA groups. Exosomes secreted by transfected ADMSCs were instilled into the bladders of postmenopausal rats. The expression of miR-214 and Mfn2 mRNA and EMT markers was assessed by qRT-PCR and western blotting. It was confirmed that Mfn2 was the target gene of miR-214 in IC. Compared with the normal bladder tissues, miR-214 decreased, but Mfn2 increased in IC bladder tissues. Compared with the blank group, the expression of miR-214 and the expression levels of N-cadherin, Fibronectin, Twist1, Snail and Vimentin mRNA and protein increased, whereas the expression levels of Mfn2, E-cadherin and ZO-1 mRNA and protein decreased in the miR-214 mimics and Mfn2 groups. The expression of MiR-214 and the expression levels of N-cadherin, Fibronectin, Twist1, Snail and Vimentin mRNA and protein decreased, whereas the expression levels of Mfn2, E-cadherin and ZO-1 mRNA and protein increased in the miR-214 inhibitors group. Our findings indicate that the inhibition of miR-214 promotes the EMT process and contributes to bladder wall fibrosis by up-regulating Mfn2, thus leading to the occurrence of IC in postmenopausal women.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blotting, Western , Cadherins , Cystitis, Interstitial , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Exosomes , Female , Fibronectins , Fibrosis , Genes, Reporter , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Luciferases , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Rats , RNA, Messenger , RNA, Small Interfering , Snails , Urinary Bladder , Vimentin
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-71194

ABSTRACT

It was previously observed that recombinant flock house virus (FHV) RNA1 was efficiently packaged into turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV), provided that the TYMV coat protein (CP) sequence was present at the 3′-end. FHV RNA encapsidated by TYMV CPs also had a four-nucleotide extension at the 5′-end. Since even a short extension at the 5′- and 3′-ends of FHV RNA1 inhibits replication, we examined whether the recombinant FHV RNA is indeed capable of replication. To this end, we introduced constructs expressing recombinant FHV RNAs into the plant Nicotiana benthamiana. Northern blot analysis of inoculated leaves suggested abundant production of recombinant FHV RNA1 and its subgenomic RNA. This demonstrated that recombinant FHV RNA with terminal extensions at both ends was competent for replication. We also showed that the recombinant FHV RNA can express the reporter gene encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein.


Subject(s)
Blotting, Northern , Brassica napus , Capsid Proteins , Genes, Reporter , Plants , RNA , Tobacco , Tymovirus
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-32628

ABSTRACT

Cordyceps bassiana is one of Cordyceps species with anti-oxidative, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, anti-angiogenic, and anti-nociceptive activities. This mushroom has recently demonstrated to have an ability to reduce 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis symptoms in NC/Nga mice. In this study, we further examined phytochemical properties of this mushroom by column chromatography and HPLC analysis. By chromatographic separation and spectroscopic analysis, 8 compounds, such as 1,9-dimethylguanine (1), adenosine (2), uridine (3), nicotinamide (4), 3-methyluracil (5), 1,7-dimethylxanthine (6), nudifloric acid (7), and mannitol (8) were identified from 6 different fractions and 4 more subfractions. Through evaluation of their anti-inflammatory activities using reporter gene assay and mRNA analysis, compound 1 was found to block luciferase activity induced by NF-κB and AP-1, suppress the mRNA levels of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Therefore, our data strongly suggests that compound 1 acts as one of major principles in Cordyceps bassiana with anti-inflammatory and anti-atopic dermatitis activities.


Subject(s)
Adenosine , Agaricales , Animals , Chromatography , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Cordyceps , Dermatitis , Dermatitis, Atopic , Fruit , Genes, Reporter , Luciferases , Mannitol , Mice , Niacinamide , Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases , RNA, Messenger , Transcription Factor AP-1 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Uridine
20.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 51-58, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-65063

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We aimed to investigate the effectiveness of ferritin as a contrast agent and a potential reporter gene for tracking tumor cells or macrophages in mouse cancer models. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adenoviral human ferritin heavy chain (Ad-hFTH) was administrated to orthotopic glioma models and subcutaneous colon cancer mouse models using U87MG and HCT116 cells, respectively. Brain MR images were acquired before and daily for up to 6 days after the intracranial injection of Ad-hFTH. In the HCT116 tumor model, MR examinations were performed before and at 6, 24, and 48 h after intratumoral injection of Ad-hFTH, as well as before and every two days after intravenous injection of ferritin-labeled macrophages. The contrast effect of ferritin in vitro was measured by MR imaging of cell pellets. MRI examinations using a 7T MR scanner comprised a T1-weighted (T1w) spin-echo sequence, T2-weighted (T2w) relaxation enhancement sequence, and T2*-weighted (T2*w) fast low angle shot sequence. RESULTS: Cell pellet imaging of Ad-hFTH in vitro showed a strong negatively enhanced contrast in T2w and T2*w images, presenting with darker signal intensity in high concentrations of Fe. T2w images of glioma and subcutaneous HCT116 tumor models showed a dark signal intensity around or within the Ad-hFTH tumor, which was distinct with time and apparent in T2*w images. After injection of ferritin-labeled macrophages, negative contrast enhancement was identified within the tumor. CONCLUSION: Ferritin could be a good candidate as an endogenous MR contrast agent and a potential reporter gene that is capable of maintaining cell labeling stability and cellular safety.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Tracking/methods , Colonic Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Contrast Media/administration & dosage , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Ferritins/administration & dosage , Genes, Reporter , Glioma/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Injections, Intravenous , Macrophages , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Male , Mice , Neoplasm Transplantation , Skin Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Time Factors
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