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1.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 41(2): 311-315, abr. 2024. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1559674

ABSTRACT

El alelo HLA B*57:01 es un marcador genético asociado con la hipersensibilidad al fármaco anti-retroviral abacavir (ABC) y su frecuencia en la población peruana todavía es desconocida. El objetivo fue identificar el alelo HLA B*57:01 en una población militar de Lima, Perú. Se reclutaron 43 personas viviendo con VIH (PVV) quienes aceptaron participar a través de un consentimiento informado. La detección del alelo HLA B*57:01 se realizó mediante RPC en tiempo real (RT-PCR). Asimismo, se determinó la carga viral (CV), el recuento de linfocitos CD4 y la genotipificación del VIH. Se identificaron dos casos positivos al alelo HLA B*57:01 (4,7%). Además, uno de ellos presentó múltiples mutaciones de resistencia a los anti-retrovirales (ARV), incluyendo ABC. Se demostró por primera vez en el Perú la presencia del alelo HLA B*57:01.


The HLA B*57:01 allele is a genetic marker associated with hypersensitivity to the antiretroviral Abacavir (ABC) and its frequency in the Peruvian population is still unknown. The objective was to identify the HLA B*57:01 allele in a military population from Lima, Peru. Forty three people living with HIV (PLWH) were recruited, who agreed to participate through informed consent. Detection of the HLA B*57:01 allele was performed by real-time PCR (RT-PCR). Likewise, viral load (VL), CD4 lymphocyte count and HIV genotyping were determined. Two cases positive for the HLA B*57:01 allele (4.7%) were identified. In addition, one of them had multiple resistance mutations to antiretrovirals (ARVs), including ABC. The presence of the HLA B*57:01 allele was demonstrated for the first time in Peru.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , HIV Infections/genetics , Anti-HIV Agents/adverse effects , Drug Hypersensitivity/genetics , Military Personnel , Peru , HLA-B Antigens/genetics , Genetic Markers , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV/genetics , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Viral Load/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Cyclopropanes/adverse effects , Drug Hypersensitivity/immunology , Alleles , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Genotype
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009100

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To summarize the gene therapy strategies for neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and related research progress.@*METHODS@#The recent literature on gene therapy for NF1 at home and abroad was reviewed. The structure and function of the NF1 gene and its mutations were analyzed, and the current status as well as future prospects of the transgenic therapy and gene editing strategies were summarized.@*RESULTS@#NF1 is an autosomal dominantly inherited tumor predisposition syndrome caused by mutations in the NF1 tumor suppressor gene, which impair the function of the neurofibromin and lead to the disease. It has complex clinical manifestations and is not yet curable. Gene therapy strategies for NF1 are still in the research and development stage. Existing studies on the transgenic therapy for NF1 have mainly focused on the construction and expression of the GTPase-activating protein-related domain in cells that lack of functional neurofibromin, confirming the feasibility of the transgenic therapy for NF1. Future research may focus on split adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene delivery, oversized AAV gene delivery, and the development of new vectors for targeted delivery of full-length NF1 cDNA. In addition, the gene editing tools of the new generation have great potential to treat monogenic genetic diseases such as NF1, but need to be further validated in terms of efficiency and safety.@*CONCLUSION@#Gene therapy, including both the transgenic therapy and gene editing, is expected to become an important new therapeutic approach for NF1 patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Neurofibromatosis 1/pathology , Neurofibromin 1/metabolism , GTPase-Activating Proteins , Mutation , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genetic Therapy
3.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 43(3): 128-133, sept. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1517860

ABSTRACT

Introducción: las mujeres con mutación BRCA1/2 (mBRCA) tienen un riesgo aumentado de desarrollar cáncer de mama (CM) y ovario (CO). La salpingo-oforectomía bilateral (SOB) se asocia con la reducción del riesgo del 80% para CO y un 50% para CM. Se recomienda realizarla entre los 35 y 40 años. Como consecuencia se produce una menopausia prematura, con un impacto negativo sobre la calidad de vida por la presencia de síntomas climatéricos, aumento del riesgo de enfermedad cardiovascular, osteoporosis y riesgo de alteración cognitiva. La terapia hormonal (THM) es el tratamiento más eficaz para la prevención de estos síntomas. Estado del arte: distintos estudios han demostrado un mayor riesgo de CM en mujeres posmenopáusicas que reciben THM en particular con terapia combinada, estrógeno + progesterona (E+P). Según el metanálisis de Marchetti y cols., en las mujeres portadoras de mBRCA que recibieron THM, no hubo diferencias en el riesgo de CM comparando E solo con E+P. En el estudio de Kotsopoulos, incluso se encontró un posible efecto protector en aquellas que usaron E solo. Otro estudio en portadoras sanas demostró que, en las mujeres menores de 45 años al momento de la SOB, la THM no afectó las tasas de CM. Sin embargo, en las mujeres mayores de 45 años, las tasas de CM fueron más altas. Como el esquema de E+P se asocia con un mayor riesgo relativo (RR) de CM, las dosis de progestágenos utilizados se deberían limitar, eligiendo derivados naturales de progesterona, de uso intermitente para disminuir la exposición sistémica. Según diferentes guías internacionales, a las portadoras de mBRCA sanas que se someten a una SOB se les debe ofrecer THM hasta la edad promedio de la menopausia. Conclusión: la menopausia prematura disminuye la expectativa de vida; es por ello que una de las herramientas para mejorar y prevenir el deterioro de la calidad de vida es la THM. El uso de THM a corto plazo parece seguro para las mujeres portadoras de mBRCA que se someten a una SOB antes de los 45 años, al no contrarrestar la reducción del riesgo de CM obtenida gracias a la cirugía. (AU)


Introduction: women with BRCA1/2 (mBRCA) mutation have an increased risk of developing breast (BC) and ovarian (OC) cancer. Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) is associated with an 80% risk reduction for OC and 50% for BC. The recommended age for this procedure is 35 to 40 years. The consequence is premature menopause, which hurts the quality of life due to the presence of climacteric symptoms, increased risk of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and a higher risk of cognitive impairment. Hormone therapy (MHT) is the most effective treatment for preventing these symptoms. State of the art: different studies have shown an increased risk of BC in postmenopausal women receiving MHT, particularly with combined therapy, estrogen + progesterone (E+P). According to the meta-analysis by Marchetti et al., in women carrying mBRCA who received MHT, there was no difference in the risk of BC compared to E alone with E+P. In the Kostopoulos study, there was also a possible protective effect in those who used E alone. Another study in healthy carriers showed that in women younger than 45 years at the time of BSO, MHT did not affect BC rates. However, in women older than 45 years, BC rates were higher. As the E+P scheme is associated with a higher RR of BC, the doses of progestogens should be limited, choosing natural progesterone byproducts of intermittent use to decrease systemic exposure. According to various international guidelines, healthy mBRCA carriers undergoing BSO should be offered MHT until the average age of menopause. Conclusion: premature menopause decreases life expectancy, which is why one of the tools to improve and prevent deterioration of quality of life is MHT. Short-term use of MHT appears safe for women with mBRCA who undergo BSO before age 45 as it does not counteract the reduction in the risk of MC obtained by surgery. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Breast Neoplasms/genetics , Menopause, Premature , BRCA1 Protein/genetics , Hormone Replacement Therapy , BRCA2 Protein/genetics , Salpingo-oophorectomy/statistics & numerical data , Progesterone/adverse effects , Progesterone/therapeutic use , Breast Neoplasms/prevention & control , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Estrogens/adverse effects , Estrogens/therapeutic use
4.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 653-658, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986187

ABSTRACT

Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) risk prediction, diagnosis establishment, clinical management, and all other aspects are facing great challenges. Although the current understanding of its pathogenesis is still incomplete, research over the past 20 years has shown that genetic susceptibility may play an important role in the occurrence and development of DILI. In recent years, pharmacogenomics studies have further revealed the association between human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes, some non-HLA genes, and hepatotoxicity from certain drugs. However, due to the lack of well-designed, prospective, large-sample cohort validation and low positive predictive values, there may still be some way to go before the current results can be truly translated into clinical practice for precise prediction and prevention of DILI risk.


Subject(s)
Humans , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/genetics , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Liver
5.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 1146-1150, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985646

ABSTRACT

Mosaic chromosomal alteration (mCA) is referred to as large-scale somatic mutations on chromosomes, which results in diverse karyotypes in body. The mCA is regarded as one of the phenotypes of aging. Studies have revealed its associations with many chronic diseases such as hematopoietic cancers and cardiovascular diseases, but its genetic basis (e.g. genetic susceptibility variants) is still under-investigated. This paper reviews GWAS studies for mCA on autosomal chromosomes and sex chromosomes [mosaic loss of the Y chromosome (mLOY) and mosaic loss of the X chromosome (mLOX)] based on large population, respectively. Most of the genetic susceptibility loci found in studies for autosomal mCA were associated with copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity. The study of sex chromosome mCA focused on mosaic loss mutations. The number of genetic susceptibility loci for mLOY was high (up to 156), but it was relatively less for mLOX.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Genome-Wide Association Study/methods , Mosaicism , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Chromosomes, Human, Y , Mutation
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985488

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the association of circulating sPD-1 level and PD-1 gene polymorphisms with HBV infection and HBV infection-associated hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods: A case-control study was conducted. A total of 237 chronic HBV infection cases and 138 HBV infection-associated hepatocellular carcinoma in the Department of Infectious Diseases of the First Hospital of Shanxi Medical University from 2018 to 2021 were selected as the case group. About 250 individuals who visited a hospital physical examination center for routine physical examination during the same period were selected as the control group. Plasma sPD-1 levels were measured by using an ELISA kit and genotyping was performed by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. The association of sPD-1 levels and PD-1 polymorphisms with HBV infection as well as HBV infection-associated hepatocellular carcinoma was analyzed by using logistic regression models after adjusting for age, sex, alcohol consumption, smoking, ALT and AST levels. The sPD-1 level and PD-1 polymorphisms were independent variables, and HBV infection was the dependent variable. Results: The age of 237 chronic HBV infections, 138 HBV infection-related liver cancer case subjects and 250 control subjects in the study was (49.1±10.8), (51.9±12.7) and (50.7±11.9) years, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression model analysis showed that with a 1 pg/ml increase in sPD-1 level, the OR (95%CI) values for the risk of incident HBV infection cases and HBV hepatocellular carcinoma cases were 1.92 (1.68-2.19) and 2.02 (1.69-2.40). For rs2227981, compared with the CC genotype, the TT genotype had a lower risk of HBV infection and liver cancer associated with HBV infection, with OR (95%CI) values of 0.45 (0.22-0.91) and 0.35 (0.14-0.91). For rs2227982, compared with the CC genotype, the CT and TT genotypes also had a lower risk of HBV infection [OR (95%CI) values of 0.72 (0.53-0.97) and 0.57 (0.35-0.93)] and HBV infection-related liver cancer [OR (95%CI) values of 0.64 (0.45-0.92) and 0.52 (0.29-0.93)]. Conclusions: Plasma sPD-1 levels and PD-1 gene polymorphisms are associated with HBV infection and HBV infection-associated hepatocellular carcinoma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/genetics , Case-Control Studies , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genotype , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Liver Neoplasms/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/genetics
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009874

ABSTRACT

Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systemic inflammatory vascular disorder that predominantly affects children and is the leading cause of acquired heart disease in children. Although the etiology of this disease remains unclear, genome-wide association and genome-wide linkage studies have shown that some susceptible genes and chromosomal regions are associated with the development and progression of KD. With the advancement of high-throughput DNA sequencing techniques, more and more genomic information related to KD is being discovered. Understanding the genes involved in the pathogenesis of KD may provide novel insights into the diagnosis and treatment of KD. By analyzing related articles and summarizing related research advances, this article mainly discusses the T cell activation-enhancing genes that have been confirmed to be closely associated with the development and progression of KD and reveals their association with the pathogenesis of KD and coronary artery lesions.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/complications , Genome-Wide Association Study , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Polymorphism, Genetic , Coronary Vessels/pathology , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009841

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To explore the correlation between the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of rs3135388, rs114293611 and rs142804168 of HLA-DRB1 gene and early-onset severe preeclampsia (sPE).@*METHODS@#Blood samples were collected from 102 early-onset sPE mothers and their neonates (sPE group), as well as 120 normotensive mothers and their neonates (control group). Sanger sequencing was performed to compare the genotype distribution, allele frequencies, and differences in genotype distribution after maternal-infant compatibility between the two groups.@*RESULTS@#Statistically significant differences in genotype distribution at rs114293611 of HLA-DRB1 gene were observed between sPE and control groups in both mothers and neonates (P<0.05). The frequency of the T allele at rs114293611 was higher in the sPE group of neonates than that in the control group (P<0.05), while no significant difference was found between the two groups of mothers (P>0.05). The maternal-infant genotype compatibility analysis showed significant differences in genotype distribution between sPE and control groups (P<0.05). There were no significant differences in genotype distribution and allele frequencies at rs3135388 and rs142804168 of HLA-DRB1 gene between the two groups of mothers and neonates (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The SNP at rs114293611 of HLA-DRB1 gene may be associated with the development of early-onset sPE in mothers. Maternal-infant genotype compatibility abnormality at rs114293611 of HLA-DRB1 gene may be a predisposition factor for the development of sPE.


Subject(s)
Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , HLA-DRB1 Chains/genetics , Pre-Eclampsia/genetics , Gene Frequency , Genotype , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Alleles
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009343

ABSTRACT

The pathogenesis of stroke is complex, with genetic risk factors as one of the main factors. The genetic variants of phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D) was significantly associated with the susceptibility to ischemic stroke (IS) in Caucasian population, but its association with the susceptibility to stroke in Chinese population is unclear. This article is intended to review the research on the association between PDE4D genetic variants and stroke susceptibility in Chinese population, aiming to further optimize the relevant research programs and provide reference for the prevention and treatment of stroke in China.


Subject(s)
Humans , Brain Ischemia/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , East Asian People , Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 4/genetics , Stroke/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Risk Factors
10.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 504-510, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969935

ABSTRACT

Non-syndromic oral cleft (NSOC), a common birth defect, remains to be a critical public health problem in China. In the context of adjustment of childbearing policy for two times in China and the increase of pregnancy at older childbearing age, NSOC risk prediction will provide evidence for high-risk population identification and prenatal counseling. Genome-wide association study and second generation sequencing have identified multiple loci associated with NSOC, facilitating the development of genetic risk prediction of NSOC. Despite the marked progress, risk prediction models of NSOC still faces multiple challenges. This paper summarizes the recent progress in research of NSOC risk prediction models based on the results of extensive literature retrieval to provide some insights for the model development regarding research design, variable selection, model-build strategy and evaluation methods.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cleft Palate/genetics , Cleft Lip/genetics , Genome-Wide Association Study , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Risk Factors , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971082

ABSTRACT

The "Lübeck disaster", twins studies, adoptees studies, and other epidemiological observational studies have shown that host genetic factors play a significant role in determining the host susceptibility to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and pathogenesis of tuberculosis. From linkage analyses to genome-wide association studies, it has been discovered that human leucocyte antigen (HLA) genes as well as non-HLA genes (such as SLC11A1, VDR, ASAP1 as well as genes encoding cytokines and pattern recognition receptors) are associated with tuberculosis susceptibility. To provide ideas for subsequent studies about risk prediction of MTB infection and the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis, we review the research progress on tuberculosis susceptibility related genes in recent years, focusing on the correlation of HLA genes and non-HLA genes with the pathogenesis of tuberculosis. We also report the results of an enrichment analysis of the genes mentioned in the article. Most of these genes appear to be involved in the regulation of immune system and inflammation, and are also closely related to autoimmune diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Genome-Wide Association Study , Tuberculosis/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation , Cytokines/genetics , Autoimmune Diseases , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971081

ABSTRACT

Biogenetics plays an important role in the pathogenesis of depressive disorder in adolescents. Various genetic polymorphism studies have updated the understanding of adolescent depressive disorder. However, due to the influence of gene-environment interaction and age of puberty, the influence of gene polymorphisms on adolescent depressive disorder is complicated to clarify. Investigating and clarifying the relationship between gene polymorphisms and adolescent depressive disorder will promote the research on the pathogenesis of this disorder and provide a reference for the prevention and treatment of this disorder. This article reviews the genetic polymorphisms related to adolescent depressive disorder.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Depressive Disorder, Major/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic , Gene-Environment Interaction , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Genetic Predisposition to Disease
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970890

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To assess the association of rs55829688 and rs75315904 polymorphisms of the lncRNA-GAS5 gene with susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in Guangxi population.@*METHODS@#Peripheral venous blood samples were collected from the SLE group and control group. Following extraction of genomic DNA, SNPscan and Sanger sequencing were carried out to determine the genotypes for the rs55829688 and rs75315904 loci of the lncRNA-GAS5 gene.@*RESULTS@#No difference was found between the two groups with regard to the genotypic frequencies for rs55829688 and rs75315904 (P > 0.05). However, the frequencies of C allele of rs55829688 between the two groups was significantly different (P < 0.05). In the SLE group, the frequencies of C allele and CT+CC genotype for rs55829688 among SLE patients with nephritis were significantly lower than those of SLE patients without nephritis (P < 0.05). In addition, haplotype analysis showed that the frequency of rs55829688 C/rs75315904 A allele in the SLE group was lower than that of the control group (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#In Guangxi population, the carrier status of rs55829688 C allele of the lncRNA-GAS5 gene may reduce the risk of SLE and its complicated nephritis, and the rs55829688 C/rs75315904 A haplotype may reduce the risk for SLE.


Subject(s)
Humans , Case-Control Studies , China/epidemiology , Gene Frequency , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genotype , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/genetics , Nephritis , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics
14.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 404-409, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981951

ABSTRACT

Male infertility caused by idiopathic oligoasthenospermia (OAT) is known as idiopathic male infertility. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) and fluoride may play important roles in idiopathic male infertility, but their effects are still unknown. Our study examined the relationship between GST polymorphisms and fluoride-induced toxicity in idiopathic male infertility and determined the underlying mechanism. Sperm, blood, and urine samples were collected from 560 males. Fluoride levels were measured by a highly selective electrode method, and GST genotypes were identified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Semen parameters, DNA fragmentation index (DFI), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and oxidative stress (OS) biomarkers were statistically assessed at the P < 0.05 level. Compared with healthy fertile group, semen parameters, fluoride levels, OS biomarkers, sex hormone levels, and MMP and DFI levels were lower in the idiopathic male infertility group. For glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1[-]) and glutathione S-transferase T1 (GSTT1[-]) or glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) mutant genotypes, levels of semen fluoride, OS, MMP, and DFI were considerably higher, and the mean levels of sperm parameters and testosterone were statistically significant in GSTM1(+), GSTT1(+), and GSTP1 wild-type genotypes. Both semen and blood fluoride levels were associated with oxidative stress in idiopathic male infertility patients. Elevated fluoride in semen with the genotypes listed above was linked to reproductive quality in idiopathic male infertility patients. In conclusion, GST polymorphisms and fluorine may have an indicative relationship between reproductive quality and sex hormone levels, and OS participates in the development of idiopathic male infertility.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Fluorides/adverse effects , Semen , Polymorphism, Genetic , Glutathione Transferase/genetics , Glutathione S-Transferase pi/genetics , Infertility, Male/genetics , Genotype , Biomarkers , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Case-Control Studies
15.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1671-1679, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980972

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#A polygenic risk score (PRS) derived from 112 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for gastric cancer has been reported in Chinese populations (PRS-112). However, its performance in other populations is unknown. A functional PRS (fPRS) using functional SNPs (fSNPs) may improve the generalizability of the PRS across populations with distinct ethnicities.@*METHODS@#We performed functional annotations on SNPs in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) with the 112 previously reported SNPs to identify fSNPs that affect protein-coding or transcriptional regulation. Subsequently, we constructed an fPRS based on the fSNPs by using the LDpred2-infinitesimal model and then analyzed the performance of the PRS-112 and fPRS in the risk prediction of gastric cancer in 457,521 European participants of the UK Biobank cohort. Finally, the performance of the fPRS in combination with lifestyle factors were evaluated in predicting the risk of gastric cancer.@*RESULTS@#During 4,582,045 person-years of follow-up with a total of 623 incident gastric cancer cases, we found no significant association between the PRS-112 and gastric cancer risk in the European population (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.00 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.93-1.09], P = 0.846). We identified 125 fSNPs, including seven deleterious protein-coding SNPs and 118 regulatory non-coding SNPs, and used them to construct the fPRS-125. Our result showed that the fPRS-125 was significantly associated with gastric cancer risk (HR = 1.11 [95% CI, 1.03-1.20], P = 0.009). Compared to participants with a low fPRS-125 (bottom quintile), those with a high fPRS-125 (top quintile) had a higher risk of incident gastric cancer (HR = 1.43 [95% CI, 1.12-1.84], P = 0.005). Moreover, we observed that participants with both an unfavorable lifestyle and a high genetic risk had the highest risk of incident gastric cancer (HR = 4.99 [95% CI, 1.55-16.10], P = 0.007) compared to those with both a favorable lifestyle and a low genetic risk.@*CONCLUSION@#These results indicate that the fPRS-125 derived from fSNPs may act as an indicator to measure the genetic risk of gastric cancer in the European population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Prospective Studies , Stomach Neoplasms/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Risk Factors , Multifactorial Inheritance/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , Genome-Wide Association Study
16.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244123, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278562

ABSTRACT

Abstract Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) is an important component of the innate immune system and have been associated with several autoimmune diseases, such as Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). The aim of this study was to investigate polymorphisms in TLR9 gene in a Brazilian SLE patients group and their association with clinical manifestation, particularly Jaccoud's arthropathy (JA). We analyzed DNA samples from 204 SLE patients, having a subgroup of them presenting JA (n=24). A control group (n=133) from the same city was also included. TLR9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (−1237 C>T and +2848 G>A) were identified by sequencing analysis. The TLR9 gene genotype frequency was similar both in SLE patients and the control group. In the whole SLE population, an association between the homozygosis of allele C at position −1237 with psychosis and anemia (p < 0.01) was found. Likewise, the homozygosis of allele G at position +2848 was associated with a discoid rash (p < 0.05). There was no association between JA and TLR9 polymorphisms. These data show that TLR9 polymorphisms do not seem to be a predisposing factor for SLE in the Brazilian population, and that SNPs are not associated with JA.


Resumo O receptor Toll-like 9 (TLR9) é um componente importante do sistema imunológico inato e tem sido associado a várias doenças autoimunes, como o Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico (LES). O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar polimorfismos no gene TLR9 em um grupo de pacientes brasileiros com LES e sua associação com a manifestação clínica, particularmente a artropatia de Jaccoud (JA). Foram analisadas amostras de DNA de 204 pacientes com LES, e um subgrupo com JA (n=24). Um grupo de controle (n=133) da mesma cidade também foi incluído. Os polimorfismos de nucleotídeos únicos TLR9 (SNPs) (−1237 C>T e +2848 G>A) foram identificados pela análise de sequenciamento. A frequência do genótipo genético TLR9 foi semelhante tanto em pacientes com LES quanto no grupo controle. Em toda a população de LES, foi encontrada associação entre a homozigose do alelo C na posição −1237 com psicose e anemia (p < 0,01). Da mesma forma, a homozigose do alelo G na posição +2848 foi associada a uma erupção cutânea discoide (p < 0,05). Não houve associação entre polimorfismos JA e TLR9. Esses dados mostram que os polimorfismos TLR9 não parecem ser um fator predisponível para o LES na população brasileira, e que os SNPs não estão associados ao JA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Toll-Like Receptor 9/genetics , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/genetics , Brazil , Pilot Projects , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Gene Frequency/genetics
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986984

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the correlation of polymorphisms of AF4/FMR2 family genes and IL-10 gene with genetic susceptibility to ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and identify the high-risk factors of AS.@*METHODS@#This case-control study was conducted among 207 AS patients and 321 healthy individuals. The tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs340630, rs241084, rs10865035, rs1698105, and rs1800896 of the AF4/FMR2 family gene and IL-10 gene of the AS patients were genotyped, and the distribution frequencies of the genotypes and alleles were analyzed to explore the relationship between different genetic models and AS and the gene-gene and gene-environment interactions.@*RESULTS@#Gender ratio, smoking history, drinking history, hypertension, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein differed significantly between the case group and the control group (P < 0.05). The dominant model and recessive model of AFF1 rs340630, the recessive model of AFF3 rs10865035, and the recessive model of IL-10 rs1800896 were significantly different between the two groups (P=0.031, 0.010, 0.031, and 0.019, respectively). Gene-environment interaction analysis suggested that the interaction model incorporating AFF1 rs340630, AFF2 rs241084, AFF3 rs10865035, AFF4 rs1698105, IL-10 rs1800896, smoking history and drinking history was the best model. The genes related with AF4/FMR2 and IL-10 were enriched in the biological processes of AF4 super extension complex, interleukin family signal transduction, cytokine stimulation and apoptosis. The expression levels of AF4/FMR2 and IL-10 were positively correlated with immune infiltration (r > 0).@*CONCLUSION@#The SNPs of AF4/FMR2 and IL-10 genes are associated with the susceptibility to AS, and the interactions of AF4/FMR2 and IL-10 genes with the environmental factors contributes causes AS through immune infiltration.


Subject(s)
Humans , Case-Control Studies , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Interleukin-10/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Spondylitis, Ankylosing/genetics , Transcriptional Elongation Factors/genetics , Nuclear Proteins/genetics
18.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 1135-1169, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010825

ABSTRACT

Pancreatic cancer, notorious for its late diagnosis and aggressive progression, poses a substantial challenge owing to scarce treatment alternatives. This review endeavors to furnish a holistic insight into pancreatic cancer, encompassing its epidemiology, genomic characterization, risk factors, diagnosis, therapeutic strategies, and treatment resistance mechanisms. We delve into identifying risk factors, including genetic predisposition and environmental exposures, and explore recent research advancements in precursor lesions and molecular subtypes of pancreatic cancer. Additionally, we highlight the development and application of multi-omics approaches in pancreatic cancer research and discuss the latest combinations of pancreatic cancer biomarkers and their efficacy. We also dissect the primary mechanisms underlying treatment resistance in this malignancy, illustrating the latest therapeutic options and advancements in the field. Conclusively, we accentuate the urgent demand for more extensive research to enhance the prognosis for pancreatic cancer patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pancreatic Neoplasms/therapy , Prognosis , Pancreas/pathology , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genomics
19.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1469-1480, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010613

ABSTRACT

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in social interactions and repetitive behaviors. Although hundreds of ASD risk genes, implicated in synaptic formation and transcriptional regulation, have been identified through human genetic studies, the East Asian ASD cohorts are still under-represented in genome-wide genetic studies. Here, we applied whole-exome sequencing to 369 ASD trios including probands and unaffected parents of Chinese origin. Using a joint-calling analytical pipeline based on GATK toolkits, we identified numerous de novo mutations including 55 high-impact variants and 165 moderate-impact variants, as well as de novo copy number variations containing known ASD-related genes. Importantly, combined with single-cell sequencing data from the developing human brain, we found that the expression of genes with de novo mutations was specifically enriched in the pre-, post-central gyrus (PRC, PC) and banks of the superior temporal (BST) regions in the human brain. By further analyzing the brain imaging data with ASD and healthy controls, we found that the gray volume of the right BST in ASD patients was significantly decreased compared to healthy controls, suggesting the potential structural deficits associated with ASD. Finally, we found a decrease in the seed-based functional connectivity between BST/PC/PRC and sensory areas, the insula, as well as the frontal lobes in ASD patients. This work indicated that combinatorial analysis with genome-wide screening, single-cell sequencing, and brain imaging data reveal the brain regions contributing to the etiology of ASD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Autism Spectrum Disorder/metabolism , Autistic Disorder , Exome Sequencing , DNA Copy Number Variations , East Asian People , Brain/metabolism , Mutation/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics
20.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2476-2483, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007571

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Several studies have reported that polygenic risk scores (PRSs) can enhance risk prediction of coronary artery disease (CAD) in European populations. However, research on this topic is far from sufficient in non-European countries, including China. We aimed to evaluate the potential of PRS for predicting CAD for primary prevention in the Chinese population.@*METHODS@#Participants with genome-wide genotypic data from the China Kadoorie Biobank were divided into training ( n = 28,490) and testing sets ( n = 72,150). Ten previously developed PRSs were evaluated, and new ones were developed using clumping and thresholding or LDpred method. The PRS showing the strongest association with CAD in the training set was selected to further evaluate its effects on improving the traditional CAD risk-prediction model in the testing set. Genetic risk was computed by summing the product of the weights and allele dosages across genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Prediction of the 10-year first CAD events was assessed using hazard ratios (HRs) and measures of model discrimination, calibration, and net reclassification improvement (NRI). Hard CAD (nonfatal I21-I23 and fatal I20-I25) and soft CAD (all fatal or nonfatal I20-I25) were analyzed separately.@*RESULTS@#In the testing set, 1214 hard and 7201 soft CAD cases were documented during a mean follow-up of 11.2 years. The HR per standard deviation of the optimal PRS was 1.26 (95% CI:1.19-1.33) for hard CAD. Based on a traditional CAD risk prediction model containing only non-laboratory-based information, the addition of PRS for hard CAD increased Harrell's C index by 0.001 (-0.001 to 0.003) in women and 0.003 (0.001 to 0.005) in men. Among the different high-risk thresholds ranging from 1% to 10%, the highest categorical NRI was 3.2% (95% CI: 0.4-6.0%) at a high-risk threshold of 10.0% in women. The association of the PRS with soft CAD was much weaker than with hard CAD, leading to minimal or no improvement in the soft CAD model.@*CONCLUSIONS@#In this Chinese population sample, the current PRSs minimally changed risk discrimination and offered little improvement in risk stratification for soft CAD. Therefore, this may not be suitable for promoting genetic screening in the general Chinese population to improve CAD risk prediction.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Female , Coronary Artery Disease/genetics , Biological Specimen Banks , East Asian People , Risk Assessment/methods , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Risk Factors , Genome-Wide Association Study
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