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1.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 84(3): 282-296, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248965

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This review is intended to describe the therapeutic approaches for corneal blindness, detailing the steps and elements involved in corneal wound healing. It also presents the limitations of the actual surgical and pharmacological strategies used to restore and maintain corneal transparency in terms of long-term survival and geographic coverage. In addition, we critically review the perspectives of anabolic agents, including vitamin A, hormones, growth factors, and novel promitotic and anti-inflammatory modulators, to assist corneal wound healing. We discuss the studies involving nanotechnology, gene therapy, and tissue reengineering as potential future strategies to work solely or in combination with corneal surgery to prevent or revert corneal blindness.(AU)


RESUMO O presente trabalho traz uma revisão das abordagens terapêuticas para a cegueira da córnea. O estudo detalha as etapas e os elementos envolvidos na cicatrização da córnea. Ele mostra as limitações das estratégias cirúrgicas e farmacológicas usadas para restaurar e manter a transparência da córnea em termos de sobrevida a longo prazo e alcance geográfico. As perspectivas dos agentes anabólicos, incluindo vitamina A, hormônios, fatores de crescimento e novos moduladores pró-mitóticos e anti-inflamatórios para auxiliar a cicatrização da ferida na córnea, são revisadas criticamente. Aqui, apresentamos estudos envolvendo nanotecnologia, terapia gênica e reengenharia de tecidos como possíveis estratégias futuras para atuar de maneira isolada ou combinada com a cirurgia da córnea para prevenir ou reverter a cegueira corneana.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Blindness/prevention & control , Blindness/therapy , Corneal Injuries/prevention & control , Corneal Injuries/therapy , Stem Cells , Vitamin A/therapeutic use , Genetic Therapy/instrumentation , Nanotechnology/instrumentation , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/therapeutic use , Hormones/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use
2.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289427

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La leucemia linfoide crónica es un trastorno linfoproliferativo caracterizado por la acumulación de linfocitos pequeños de aspecto maduro en sangre periférica, médula ósea y tejidos linfoides con un período de vida prolongado. Presenta una gran variabilidad clínica y genética. Objetivo: Describir los aspectos citogenéticos y moleculares de la leucemia linfoide crónica. Métodos: Se realizó revisión de la literatura en inglés y español, a través del sitio web PubMed y el motor de búsqueda Google académico, de artículos publicados en los últimos 5 años. Se hizo un análisis y resumen de la bibliografía revisada. Desarrollo: En la leucemia linfoide crónica están presentes alteraciones citogenéticas frecuentes como la deleción de los cromosomas 13q, 11q y 17p, así como la trisomía 12, que unido al conocimiento del estado mutacional del gen de la región variable de la cadena pesada de la inmunoglobulina, y otras mutaciones somáticas en diferentes genes, así como a variables clínicas y de laboratorio permiten la estratificación pronóstica de los pacientes. Conclusiones: El diagnóstico a través de los estudios citogenéticos convencionales estimulados con mitógenos, la hibridación in situ por fluorescencia y la secuenciación génica permite una mayor comprensión de la biología de la enfermedad, así como tomar decisiones terapéuticas más personalizadas(AU)


Introduction: Chronic B lymphoid leukemia is a lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by the accumulation of small, mature-looking lymphocytes in peripheral blood, bone marrow and lymphoid tissues with a long life span. It has great clinical and genetic variability. Objective: To describe the cytogenetic and molecular aspects of the disease. Methods: A review of the literature in English and in Spanish was carried out, in the PubMed website and using the search engine of Google Scholar, for articles published in the last five years. We performed analysis and summary of the reviewed bibliography. Development: In chronic lymphoid leukemia, frequent cytogenetic alterations are present such as deletion of chromosomes 13q, 11q and 17p, as well as trisomy 12, which together with the knowledge of the mutational status of the gene for the variable region of the immunoglobulin heavy chain and other somatic mutations in different genes, as well as clinical and laboratory variables allows prognostic stratification of patients. Conclusions: Diagnosis through conventional mitogen-stimulated cytogenetic studies, fluorescence in situ hybridization and gene sequencing allow a better understanding of the biology of the disease, as well as making more personalized therapeutic decisions(AU)


Subject(s)
Biology , Genetic Therapy , Leukemia, Lymphoid/genetics , In Situ Hybridization , Cytogenetics , Lymphoproliferative Disorders , Mutation
3.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 41(1): 37-42, mar. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178964

ABSTRACT

El término CRISPR, por su acrónimo en inglés refiere a Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats, es decir, repeticiones palindrómicas cortas, agrupadas y regularmente esparcidas, por sus características en el genoma, pertenece naturalmente al sistema de defensa de bacterias y arqueas. Este ha sido adaptado biotecnológicamente para la edición del ADN de células eucariotas, incluso de células humanas. El sistema CRISPR-Cas para editar genes consta, en forma generalizada, de dos componentes: una proteína nucleasa (Cas) y un ARN guía (sgRNA). La simplicidad del complejo lo hace una herramienta molecular reprogramable capaz de ser dirigida y de editar cualquier sitio en un genoma conocido. Su principal foco son las terapias para enfermedades hereditarias monogénicas y para el cáncer. Sin embargo, además de editor de genes, la tecnología CRISPR se utiliza para edición epigenética, regulación de la expresión génica y método de diagnóstico molecular. Este artículo tiene por objetivo presentar una revisión de las aplicaciones de la herramienta molecular CRISPR-Cas, particularmente en el campo biomédico, posibles tratamientos y diagnósticos, y los avances en investigación clínica, utilizando terapia génica con CRISPR/Cas más relevantes hasta la fecha. (AU)


CRISPR are Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats, which naturally belong to the defense system of bacteria and archaea. It has been biotechnologically adapted for editing the DNA of eukaryotic cells, including human cells. The CRISPR-Cas system for editing genes generally consists of two components, a nuclease protein (Cas) and a guide RNA (sgRNA). The simplicity of the complex makes it a reprogrammable molecular tool capable of being targeted and editing any site in a known genome. Its main focus is therapies for monogenic inherited diseases and cancer. However, in addition to gene editor, CRISPR technology is used for epigenetic editing, regulation of gene expression, and molecular diagnostic methods. This article aims to present a review of the applications of the CRISPR-Cas molecular tool, particularly in the biomedical field, possible treatments and diagnoses, and the advances in clinical research, using the most relevant CRISPR-Cas gene therapy to date. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/genetics , CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , Biotechnology , Genetic Therapy/methods , Gene Expression , Genome, Human/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation , Epigenomics/trends , CRISPR-Associated Proteins/genetics , CRISPR-Associated Proteins/therapeutic use , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/therapy , Neoplasms/therapy
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880727

ABSTRACT

Since it was first recognized in bacteria and archaea as a mechanism for innate viral immunity in the early 2010s, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) has rapidly been developed into a robust, multifunctional genome editing tool with many uses. Following the discovery of the initial CRISPR/Cas-based system, the technology has been advanced to facilitate a multitude of different functions. These include development as a base editor, prime editor, epigenetic editor, and CRISPR interference (CRISPRi) and CRISPR activator (CRISPRa) gene regulators. It can also be used for chromatin and RNA targeting and imaging. Its applications have proved revolutionary across numerous biological fields, especially in biomedical and agricultural improvement. As a diagnostic tool, CRISPR has been developed to aid the detection and screening of both human and plant diseases, and has even been applied during the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. CRISPR/Cas is also being trialed as a new form of gene therapy for treating various human diseases, including cancers, and has aided drug development. In terms of agricultural breeding, precise targeting of biological pathways via CRISPR/Cas has been key to regulating molecular biosynthesis and allowing modification of proteins, starch, oil, and other functional components for crop improvement. Adding to this, CRISPR/Cas has been shown capable of significantly enhancing both plant tolerance to environmental stresses and overall crop yield via the targeting of various agronomically important gene regulators. Looking to the future, increasing the efficiency and precision of CRISPR/Cas delivery systems and limiting off-target activity are two major challenges for wider application of the technology. This review provides an in-depth overview of current CRISPR development, including the advantages and disadvantages of the technology, recent applications, and future considerations.


Subject(s)
CRISPR-Cas Systems , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats , Crops, Agricultural/genetics , Gene Editing/methods , Genetic Therapy , Humans , Nobel Prize , Plant Breeding
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880127

ABSTRACT

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a single gene genetic disease, which seriously threatens the life span and quality of patients. On the basis of the pathogenesis of SCD and the alternative therapy based on fetal hemoglobin F (HbF), the research progress of transcription factors involved in the regulation of HbF gene expression, such as BCL11A, ZBTB7A, KLF-1, c-MYB and SOX6, as well as the application of CRISPR / Cas9, TALEN, zinc finger nuclease and other gene editing technologies in this field has been made, providing a solid theoretical basis for the exploration of new treatment schemes for β- like hemoglobin diseases, such as sickle cell disease and β- thalassemia.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Sickle Cell/therapy , Cell Line, Tumor , DNA-Binding Proteins , Fetal Hemoglobin/genetics , Genetic Therapy , Humans , Repressor Proteins/genetics , Transcription Factors
6.
Braz. dent. j ; 31(6): 634-639, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1132353

ABSTRACT

Abstract Micro-RNA-221(miR-221) is one of oncogenic miRNAs that plays a vital role in the development and progression of oral cancers. The aim of this study is to introduce a new gene therapy for oral squamous cell carcinoma by blocking the expression of oncogenic miR-221 by its inhibitor. The present work was performed on squamous cell carcinoma cell line SCC-25 and anti-miR-221 was delivered to the cells using an ultrasound micro bubbles. Assessment of the effect of miR-221 inhibitor on SCC-25 cells was done using MTT assay, cell cycle analysis and apoptosis detection. In addition, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was also used to detect the expression -miR-221 and its target genes. Using ANOVA, statistical analysis of the results showed significant inhibition of cell viability with and induction of cell apoptosis of SCC-25 cell line after transfection. Moreover, the expression of miR-221, Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and CDKNIB/p27 were downregulated without significant difference. Transfection of SCC-25 by inhibitor of miR-221 resulting in blockage of its expression leading to arresting of tumor growth. These results proved the effective role of micro-RNA inhibitors as novel therapeutic agent for oral cancers.


Resumo Micro-RNA-221 (miR-221) é um dos miRNAs oncogênicos que desempenham um papel vital no desenvolvimento e progressão de carcinomas orais. O objetivo deste estudo é apresentar uma nova terapia gênica para o carcinoma epidermóide oral por meio do bloqueio da expressão do miR-221 oncogênico por seu inibidor. O presente trabalho foi realizado na linhagem de células de carcinoma de células escamosas SCC-25 e o anti-miR-221 foi administrado às células usando micro-bolhas de ultrassom. A avaliação do efeito do inibidor miR-221 em células SCC-25 foi feita usando ensaio de MTT, análise do ciclo celular e detecção de apoptose. Além disso, a reação em cadeia da polimerase com transcrição reversa também foi usada para detectar a expressão -miR-221 e seus genes-alvo. Usando ANOVA, a análise estatística dos resultados mostrou inibição significativa da viabilidade celular e indução da apoptose celular da linhagem celular SCC-25 após a transfecção. Além disso, a expressão de miR-221, receptor do fator de crescimento epidérmico (EGFR) e CDKNIB/p27 foram regulados para baixo sem diferença significativa. A transfecção de SCC-25 por inibidor de miR-221 resultou no bloqueio de sua expressão, levando à interrupção do crescimento do tumor. Esses resultados comprovaram o papel eficaz dos inibidores de micro-RNA como novo agente terapêutico para carcinomas orais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mouth Neoplasms/genetics , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/genetics , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/therapy , MicroRNAs/antagonists & inhibitors , MicroRNAs/genetics , MicroRNAs/therapeutic use , Mouth Neoplasms/therapy , Genetic Therapy , Apoptosis , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation
7.
Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 27(4): 294-302, jul.-ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1289228

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: describir el estado del arte del marcapasos biológico y las perspectivas para crear tejido cardíaco de marcapasos utilizando modernas tecnologías genéticas y de ingeniería de tejidos. Métodos: revisión sistemática de la literatura. Resultados: los marcapasos se han convertido en el tratamiento primordial para cierto tipo de arritmias o bloqueos avanzados sintomáticos. Somos testigos de mejoras continuas en la tecnología del dispositivo, con avances en el diseño del cable, el tamaño del generador, la longevidad de la batería y los algoritmos de software que se han traducido en dispositivos más pequeños con funcionalidad mejorada. En la actualidad existen muchos sistemas implantables de cardioestimulación capaces de reemplazar la función de los marcapasos fisiológicos (seno y nódulos aurículo-ventriculares) que incluyen los recientemente desarrollados marcapasos secuenciales y autoprogramables. En la última década la investigación ha confirmado que el marcapasos biológico se puede crear mediante la terapia génica y la terapia celular. Hoy existen dos enfoques para construir marcapasos biológicos: uno es para introducir genes de marcapasos en células madre mesenquimales, y el otro es para inducir células madre pluripotentes en las células del nódulo sinoauricular. Conclusiones: los marcapasos biológicos, actualmente en la etapa preclínica, podrían ser una alternativa a los dispositivos electrónicos para pacientes seleccionados en el futuro.


Abstract Objective: To describe the state of the art of biological pacemakers and the perspectives for creating cardiac pacing tissue using modern genetic and tissue engineering technologies. Methods: A systematic review of the literature. Results: Pacemakers have become the first line treatment for certain types of arrhythmias and advanced symptomatic blocks. We are witnessing continuous improvements in the technology of the device, with advances in the design of the cable, the size of the generator, the longevity of the battery, as well as the software algorithms that have led to smaller devices with improved functions. There are currently many cardiac stimulation implantable systems capable of replacing the function of physiological pacemakers systems (sinus and atrial-ventricular nodes) that include the recently developed sequential and self-programmable pacemakers. In the last ten years or so, studies have confirmed that biological pacemakers can be created using gene therapy and cell therapy. There are currently to main efforts to construct biological pacemakers. One is to introduce pacemaker genes in mesenchymal stem cells, and the other is to introduce pluripotent stem cells in cells of the sinoatrial node. Conclusions: Biological pacemakers, currently in the pre-clinical stage, could be an alternative to the electronic devices for selected patients in the future.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pacemaker, Artificial , Stem Cells , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , Genetic Therapy , Tissue Engineering
8.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 707-722, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827023

ABSTRACT

The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has occurred in China and around the world. SARS-CoV-2-infected patients with severe pneumonia rapidly develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and die of multiple organ failure. Despite advances in supportive care approaches, ARDS is still associated with high mortality and morbidity. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapy may be an potential alternative strategy for treating ARDS by targeting the various pathophysiological events of ARDS. By releasing a variety of paracrine factors and extracellular vesicles, MSC can exert anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, anti-microbial, and pro-angiogenic effects, promote bacterial and alveolar fluid clearance, disrupt the pulmonary endothelial and epithelial cell damage, eventually avoiding the lung and distal organ injuries to rescue patients with ARDS. An increasing number of experimental animal studies and early clinical studies verify the safety and efficacy of MSC therapy in ARDS. Since low cell engraftment and survival in lung limit MSC therapeutic potentials, several strategies have been developed to enhance their engraftment in the lung and their intrinsic, therapeutic properties. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the mechanisms and optimization of MSC therapy in ARDS and highlighted the potentials and possible barriers of MSC therapy for COVID-19 patients with ARDS.


Subject(s)
Adoptive Transfer , Alveolar Epithelial Cells , Pathology , Animals , Apoptosis , Betacoronavirus , Body Fluids , Metabolism , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Allergy and Immunology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Coinfection , Therapeutics , Coronavirus Infections , Allergy and Immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Endothelial Cells , Pathology , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Genetic Therapy , Methods , Genetic Vectors , Therapeutic Uses , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation Mediators , Metabolism , Lung , Pathology , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Methods , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Physiology , Multiple Organ Failure , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Allergy and Immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Allergy and Immunology , Pathology , Therapeutics , Translational Medical Research
9.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(3): e8876, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089338

ABSTRACT

The immune stimulatory and anti-neoplastic functions of type I interferon have long been applied for the treatment of melanoma. However, the systemic application of high levels of this recombinant protein is often met with toxicity. An approach that provides localized, yet transient, production of type I interferon may overcome this limitation. We propose that the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as delivery vehicles for the production of interferon-β (IFNβ) may be beneficial when applied together with our cancer gene therapy approach. In our previous studies, we have shown that adenovirus-mediated gene therapy with IFNβ was especially effective in combination with p19Arf gene transfer, resulting in immunogenic cell death. Here we showed that MSCs derived from mouse adipose tissue were susceptible to transduction with adenovirus, expressed the transgene reliably, and yet were not especially sensitive to IFNβ production. MSCs used to produce IFNβ inhibited B16 mouse melanoma cells in a co-culture assay. Moreover, the presence of p19Arf in the B16 cells sensitizes them to the IFNβ produced by the MSCs. These data represent a critical demonstration of the use of MSCs as carriers of adenovirus encoding IFNβ and applied as an anti-cancer strategy in combination with p19Arf gene therapy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Melanoma, Experimental/therapy , Interferon-beta/metabolism , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16/administration & dosage , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Transduction, Genetic , Melanoma, Experimental/metabolism , Genetic Therapy , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Disease Models, Animal , Mice, Inbred C57BL
10.
Clinics ; 75: e1530, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089607

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Heart failure is a progressive and debilitating disease. Intracoronary sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase gene therapy may improve the function of cardiac muscle cells. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that intracoronary sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase gene therapy can improve outcomes and reduce the number of recurrent and terminal events in advanced heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction. METHODS: A total of 768 heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction and New York Heart Association classification II to IV were included in this prospective cohort study. Patients either underwent intracoronary sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase gene therapy (CA group, n=384) or received oral placebo (PA group; n=384). Data regarding recurrent and terminal event(s), treatment-emergent adverse effects, and outcome measures were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: After a follow-up period of 18 months, intracoronary sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase gene therapy reduced the number of hospital admissions (p=0.001), ambulatory treatments (p=0.0004), and deaths (p=0.024). Additionally, intracoronary sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase gene therapy improved the left ventricular ejection fraction (p<0.0001) and Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire score (p<0.0001). The number of recurrent and terminal events/patients were higher in the PA group than in the CA group after the follow-up period of 18 months (p=0.015). The effect of the intracoronary sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase gene therapy was independent of the confounding variables. No new arrhythmias were reported in the CA group. CONCLUSIONS: Intracoronary sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase gene therapy reduces the number of recurrent and terminal events and improves the clinical course of advanced heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Sarcoplasmic Reticulum , Heart Failure , Stroke Volume , Genetic Therapy , Calcium , Prospective Studies , Ventricular Function, Left , Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium-Transporting ATPases
12.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 707-722, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828750

ABSTRACT

The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has occurred in China and around the world. SARS-CoV-2-infected patients with severe pneumonia rapidly develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and die of multiple organ failure. Despite advances in supportive care approaches, ARDS is still associated with high mortality and morbidity. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapy may be an potential alternative strategy for treating ARDS by targeting the various pathophysiological events of ARDS. By releasing a variety of paracrine factors and extracellular vesicles, MSC can exert anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, anti-microbial, and pro-angiogenic effects, promote bacterial and alveolar fluid clearance, disrupt the pulmonary endothelial and epithelial cell damage, eventually avoiding the lung and distal organ injuries to rescue patients with ARDS. An increasing number of experimental animal studies and early clinical studies verify the safety and efficacy of MSC therapy in ARDS. Since low cell engraftment and survival in lung limit MSC therapeutic potentials, several strategies have been developed to enhance their engraftment in the lung and their intrinsic, therapeutic properties. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the mechanisms and optimization of MSC therapy in ARDS and highlighted the potentials and possible barriers of MSC therapy for COVID-19 patients with ARDS.


Subject(s)
Adoptive Transfer , Alveolar Epithelial Cells , Pathology , Animals , Apoptosis , Betacoronavirus , Body Fluids , Metabolism , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Allergy and Immunology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Coinfection , Therapeutics , Coronavirus Infections , Allergy and Immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Endothelial Cells , Pathology , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Genetic Therapy , Methods , Genetic Vectors , Therapeutic Uses , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation Mediators , Metabolism , Lung , Pathology , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Methods , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Physiology , Multiple Organ Failure , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Allergy and Immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Allergy and Immunology , Pathology , Therapeutics , Translational Medical Research
13.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 707-722, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828586

ABSTRACT

The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has occurred in China and around the world. SARS-CoV-2-infected patients with severe pneumonia rapidly develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and die of multiple organ failure. Despite advances in supportive care approaches, ARDS is still associated with high mortality and morbidity. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapy may be an potential alternative strategy for treating ARDS by targeting the various pathophysiological events of ARDS. By releasing a variety of paracrine factors and extracellular vesicles, MSC can exert anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, anti-microbial, and pro-angiogenic effects, promote bacterial and alveolar fluid clearance, disrupt the pulmonary endothelial and epithelial cell damage, eventually avoiding the lung and distal organ injuries to rescue patients with ARDS. An increasing number of experimental animal studies and early clinical studies verify the safety and efficacy of MSC therapy in ARDS. Since low cell engraftment and survival in lung limit MSC therapeutic potentials, several strategies have been developed to enhance their engraftment in the lung and their intrinsic, therapeutic properties. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the mechanisms and optimization of MSC therapy in ARDS and highlighted the potentials and possible barriers of MSC therapy for COVID-19 patients with ARDS.


Subject(s)
Adoptive Transfer , Alveolar Epithelial Cells , Pathology , Animals , Apoptosis , Betacoronavirus , Body Fluids , Metabolism , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Allergy and Immunology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Coinfection , Therapeutics , Coronavirus Infections , Allergy and Immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Endothelial Cells , Pathology , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Genetic Therapy , Methods , Genetic Vectors , Therapeutic Uses , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation Mediators , Metabolism , Lung , Pathology , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Methods , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Physiology , Multiple Organ Failure , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Allergy and Immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Allergy and Immunology , Pathology , Therapeutics , Translational Medical Research
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826328

ABSTRACT

Ultrasound contrast agent microbubbles combined with low frequency ultrasound named as low-frequency ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction technology has become an effective and non-invasive anti-tumor therapy for deep tumors.It can enhance the efficacies of chemotherapy,gene therapy,immunotherapy,and anti-angiogenic therapy by improving cell membrane permeability and destroying tumor neovasculature.It can be applied to sonodynamic therapy and realize multimodal synergistic therapy on the basis of nanoparticles,which increases the anti-tumor efficiency and offers a promising target therapy for tumors.


Subject(s)
Contrast Media , Genetic Therapy , Humans , Microbubbles , Neoplasms , Ultrasonography
15.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2707-2718, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878523

ABSTRACT

Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) are common neurodegenerative diseases in human. The pathogenesis of AD and PD is complex, and the current drugs and surgical treatments have not successfully alleviated or terminated the progression of the diseases. The lentiviral vector (LV) is a retroviral vector. In recent years, LV mediated gene therapy has been a hotspot to study the mechanisms of human disease and clinical drug discovery. This review summarizes the recent progresses in the treatment of AD and PD by the application of LV, and offers a prospect for its application.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease/therapy , Genetic Therapy , Humans , Parkinson Disease/therapy
16.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(4): 1564-1571, Dec. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040170

ABSTRACT

Las glándulas salivales humanas pueden ser gravemente lesionadas por la radioterapia utilizada contra neoplasias de cabeza y cuello, produciendo hiposialia y xerostomía, las cuales afectan la salud oral y sistémica, mermando la calidad de vida de la persona. Los tratamientos convencionales actuales están diseñados para disminuir los síntomas, sin actuar sobre los cambios fisiopatológicos que se dan a nivel glandular. Esta revisión intenta analizar aquellas terapias preventivas y/o curativas que están desarrollándose en el campo biomolecular y que tienen un futuro prometedor por sus características innovadoras: terapia génica, terapia con células madre y terapia con factores de crecimiento. Se evidencia un aporte adicional de la nanotecnología, la cual está mejorando las vías de aplicación de los tratamientos.


Human salivary glands can be seriously injured by the radiotherapy used against head and neck neoplasms, producing hyposialia and xerostomy, which affect oral and systemic health, diminishing the person's quality of life. Current conventional treatments are designed to reduce symptoms, without acting on the pathophysiological changes that occur at the glandular level. This review attempts to analyze those preventive and /or curative therapies that are developing in the biomolecular field and that have a promising future due to their innovative features: Gene therapy, stem cell therapy and growth factor therapy. An additional contribution of nanotechnology is evident, which is improving the routes of treatment application.


Subject(s)
Humans , Radiotherapy/adverse effects , Salivary Gland Diseases/prevention & control , Stem Cells/physiology , Genetic Therapy/methods , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/therapeutic use , Radiation Injuries/prevention & control , Radiation-Protective Agents/therapeutic use , Salivary Gland Diseases/therapy , Salivary Glands/radiation effects , Xerostomia/prevention & control , Nanotechnology
17.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(6): 493-501, dic. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056758

ABSTRACT

En los ó;ºltimos aó;±os la terapia gó;©nica se ha posicionado como una opció;n real y segura en el desarrollo de alternativas terapó;©uticas para la cura y la prevenció;n de diferentes enfermedades. Consiste en la inserció;n de material genó;©tico en un tejido o có;©lula defectuosa, mediante el uso de un vector. Existen varias consideraciones para seleccionar el vector más apropiado, incluyendo el potencial de unió;n y entrada a la có;©lula diana, la capacidad de transferencia del material genó;©tico al nó;ºcleo, la habilidad de expresió;n del inserto y la ausencia de toxicidad. En el panorama actual, los vectores virales más utilizados son los derivados de los virus adenoasociados (AAV). Características como su bioseguridad, baja toxicidad y tropismo selectivo, han posibilitado su evaluació;n como opció;n terapó;©utica en un amplio nó;ºmero de enfermedades monogó;©nicas o complejas. A pesar de sus ventajas, los vectores AAV presentan inconvenientes, siendo el más importante la respuesta inmune del paciente al vector, especialmente la respuesta mediada por anticuerpos neutralizantes (NAb). Los NAb disminuyen la transducció;n del vector e impiden la expresió;n del gen que transporta, limitando su aplicació;n clínica. Por lo tanto, identificar y cuantificar la presencia y actividad de los NAbs, es el primer paso en cualquier protocolo de terapia gó;©nica con vectores AAV. La presencia de NAb depende principalmente de la exposició;n al virus en la naturaleza y varía drásticamente segó;ºn edad, localizació;n geográfica y estado de salud de la persona evaluada.


In recent years, gene therapy has been positioned as a real and safe option in the development of therapeutic alternatives for the cure and prevention of different diseases. It consists in the insertion of genetic material in a defective tissue or cell, through the use of a vector. There are several considerations for selecting the most appropriate vector, including the potential for binding and entry to the target cell, the ability of the genetic material to transfer to the nucleus, the ability to express the insert, and the absence of toxicity. In the current scenario, the most commonly used viral vectors are those derived from adeno-associated viruses (AAV). Characteristics such as biosafety, low toxicity and selective tropism have enabled its evaluation as a therapeutic option in many monogenic or complex diseases. Despite their advantages, AAV vectors have drawbacks, the most important being the patient’s immune response to the vector, especially the response mediated by neutralizing antibodies (NAb). NAbs decrease the transduction of the vector and prevent the expression of the gene it transports, limiting its clinical application. Therefore, identifying and quantifying the presence and activity of NAbs is the first step in any gene therapy protocol with AAV vectors. The presence of NAbs depends mainly on exposure to the virus in nature and varies drastically according to age, geographic location and health status of the person evaluated.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Genetic Therapy/methods , Dependovirus/genetics , Dependovirus/immunology , Parvoviridae Infections/genetics , Parvoviridae Infections/immunology , Parvoviridae Infections/virology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/analysis , Serogroup , Genetic Vectors , Antibodies, Viral/analysis
18.
Cad. Ibero Am. Direito Sanit. (Impr.) ; 8(3): 48-59, jul.-set. 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, CONASS | ID: biblio-1022852

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: discutir o processo regulatório de medicamentos para doenças raras no Brasil, com base no caso Zolgensma®, e avaliar criticamente as evidências disponíveis até o momento sobre a eficácia e a segurança do Zolgensma® no tratamento da atrofia muscular espinhal (AME). Metodologia: estudo descritivo realizado no Núcleo de Avaliação de Tecnologias em Saúde do Hospital Sírio-Libanês (NATS-HSL) em junho de 2019. Resultados: em abril de 2019, o uso do Zolgensma® para AME foi regulamentado nos Estados Unidos com base em dois estudos clínicos abertos (sem mascaramento), sem grupo comparador paralelo (e, portanto, não randomizados). Essas limitações metodológicas aumentam a incerteza nos resultados encontrados. A Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (Anvisa) aprovou estratégias para regulamentar o processo e os prazos de análise das submissões de registro de novos medicamentos para doenças raras, caso do Zolgensma®. Conclusão: faz-se necessário ampliar o debate em torno do processo de regulamentação e de incorporação de medicamentos órfãos para doenças raras no Brasil. O debate deve incluir as evidências relacionadas aos efeitos ­ benefícios e riscos ­ desses medicamentos, e maior clareza nos critérios para concessão de registro e recomendação de incorporação em sistemas de saúde. (AU).


Objective: to discuss the regulatory process of drugs for rare diseases in Brazil, based on the Zolgensma® case, and to critically evaluate the evidence so far available on the efficacy and safety of Zolgensma® for treating spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Methods: descriptive study conducted at the Health Technology Assessment Center of the Sírio Libanês Hospital (NATS-HSL) in June 2019. Results: in April 2019, the use of Zolgensma® for SMA was regulated in the United States based on two open-lable (unmasked), non-comparative (and therefore non-randomized) studies. These methodological limitations increase the uncertainty related to study results. The National Agency of Sanitary Surveillance (Anvisa) has approved strategies to regulate the process and specific deadlines for completing the appraisal process of new medicines for rare diseases, such as Zolgensma®. Conclusion: it is necessary to broaden the debate about the process of regulation and incorporation of orphan drugs for rare diseases in Brazil. This debate should include evidence related to the effects (benefits and risks) of these drugs, and greater transparency of the criteria indispensable for granting registration and recommendation of incorporation into health systems. (AU).


Objetivo: analizar el proceso de fármacos reguladores para enfermedades raras en Brasil, con base en el caso Zolgensma, y para evaluar críticamente la evidencia disponible hasta el momento sobre la eficacia y seguridad de Zolgensma® nel tratamiento de atrofia muscular espinal (AME). Métodos: estudio descriptivo realizado en el Centro de Evaluación de Tecnología de Salud del Hospital Sírio-Libanês (NATS-HSL) en junio de 2019. Resultados: en abril de 2019, el uso de Zolgensma® para la AME se reguló en los Estados Unidos basado en dos estudios abiertos (no enmascarados), no comparativos (y por lo tanto no aleatorios). Estas limitaciones metodológicas aumentan la incertidumbre en los resultados encontrados. La Agencia Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria en Brasil (Anvisa) ha aprobado estrategias para regular el proceso y los plazos de análisis de las solicitudes de registro de nuevos fármacos para enfermedades raras, el caso de Zolgensma. Conclusión: es necesario ampliar el debate sobre el proceso de regulación e incorporación de medicamentos huérfanos para enfermedades raras en Brasil. Este debate debe incluir evidencia relacionada con los efectos (beneficios y riesgos) de estos medicamentos y una mayor transparencia en los criterios para otorgar el registro y la recomendación de incorporación a los sistemas de salud. (AU).


Subject(s)
Muscular Atrophy, Spinal , Genetic Therapy , Rare Diseases , Products Registration , Drugs from the Specialized Component of Pharmaceutical Care
19.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(supl.3): 77-81, set. 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040555

ABSTRACT

La distrofia muscular de Duchenne es una enfermedad genéticamente determinada, ligada al cromosoma X y caracterizada clínicamente por producir debilidad muscular progresiva, con una incidencia de 1 por cada 3500-6000 varones nacidos. Es causada por la mutaciones en el gen DMD, el cual codifica la distrofina, una proteína sub-sarcolémica esencial para la estabilidad estructural del músculo. Los defectos genéticos en el gen DMD, se dividen en: deleciones (65%) duplicaciones (5-10%) y mutaciones puntuales (10-15%). Actualmente no se dispone de tratamiento curativo, el único fármaco que ha demostrado modificar la historia natural de la enfermedad (independientemente de la mutación genética) son los corticoides, los cuales están indicados en estadios tempranos de la enfermedad. En relación a los ensayos clínicos, en los últimos diez años se han experimentado grandes avances en el campo de las opciones terapéuticas, divididos en dos grandes dianas terapéuticas: 1) el área de las terapias génicas y 2) tratar de revertir o bloquear los procesos fisiopatológicos de la enfermedad, tales como inflamación, fibrosis, regeneración muscular, etc. Es probable que un tratamiento eficaz para la distrofia muscular de Duchenne requiera combinaciones que se apliquen tanto al defecto primario como las consecuencias fisiopatológicas secundarias.


Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a genetically determined disease, linked to the X chromosome, c haracterized clinically by producing progressive muscle weakness, with an incidence of 1 per 3500-6000 males born. It is caused by the mutation of the DMD gene, which encodes dystrophin, a sub-sarcolemmal protein essential for structural muscle stability. The genetic defects in the DMD gene are divided into: deletions (65%) duplications (5.10%) and point mutations (10-15%). At present there is no curative treatment, the only drug that has been shown to modify the natural history of the disease (independently of the genetic mutation) are corticosteroids, currently indicated in early stages of the disease. In relation to clinical trials, in the last ten years, has experienced great advances in the field of therapeutic options, divided into two major therapeutic targets: 1) the area of gene therapies and 2) trying to reverse or block the pathophysiological processes of the disease, such as inflammation, fibrosis, muscle regeneration, etc. It is likely that an effective treatment for Duchenne muscular dystrophy requires combinations of therapies that address both the primary defect and its secondary pathophysiological consequences.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Rabbits , Genetic Therapy/methods , Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne/therapy , Phenotype , Dystrophin/genetics , Mice, Inbred mdx , Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne/genetics , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Genotype
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772272

ABSTRACT

Orthodontic pain that is induced by tooth movement is an important sequela of orthodontic treatment and has a significant effect on patient quality of life. Studies have shown that the high expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) in trigeminal ganglions plays a vital role in the transmission and modulation of orofacial pain. However, little is known about the role of TRPV1 in orthodontic pain. In this study, male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to six groups to study the role of TRPV1 in the modulation of tooth-movement pain. The expression levels of TRPV1 mRNA and protein were determined by real-time PCR and western blot, respectively. Moreover, pain levels were assessed using the rat grimace scale (RGS). The role of TRPV1 in modulating tooth-movement pain was examined by injecting a TRPV1 antagonist into the trigeminal ganglia of rats. A lentivirus containing a TRPV1 shRNA sequence was constructed and transduced into the rats' trigeminal ganglia. The results showed that the expression levels of TRPV1 protein and mRNA were elevated following tooth-movement pain. Pain levels increased rapidly on the 1 day, peaked on the 3 day and returned to baseline on the 14 day. The TRPV1 antagonist significantly reduced tooth-movement pain. The lentivirus containing a TRPV1 shRNA sequence was able to inhibit the expression of TRPV1 and relieved tooth-movement pain. In conclusion, TRPV1-based gene therapy may be a treatment strategy for the relief of orthodontic pain.


Subject(s)
Animals , Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide , Genetic Therapy , Male , Molar , Pain , Quality of Life , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , TRPV Cation Channels , Tooth Movement Techniques , Trigeminal Ganglion
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