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Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(3): e258-e264, jun. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1116915


El síndrome de Silver-Russell se caracteriza por retraso del crecimiento intrauterino asimétrico, con circunferencia craneal normal, barbilla pequeña y puntiaguda, que proporciona un aspecto de rostro triangular. Puede, además, presentar asimetría corporal, entre otros. Tiene una incidencia mundial estimada de 1 en 30 000-100 000 nacimientos, aunque este número es, probablemente, subestimado. En alrededor del 60 % de los casos, se puede identificar una causa molecular y la principal es la hipometilación del alelo paterno en la región de control de impresión 1 localizado en 11p15.5-p15.4. Realizar el diagnóstico de esta entidad, excluir los diagnósticos diferenciales y conocer las correlaciones (epi)genotipo-fenotipo son necesarios para realizar el adecuado seguimiento, brindar las opciones terapéuticas disponibles y el oportuno asesoramiento genético familiar. El objetivo del presente artículo es mostrar el estado actual del síndrome de Silver-Russell, un ejemplo de trastorno de impronta genómica.

Silver-Russell syndrome is characterized by asymmetrical intrauterine growth retardation, with normal head circumference and small, pointed chin, which results in a triangular face. It can also include body asymmetry, among other characteristics. Its global incidence is estimated at 1 in 30 000-100 000 births, even though this figure may be underestimated. In approximately 60 % of cases, a molecular cause can be identified, and the main one is hypomethylation of the paternal allele at the imprinting control region 1 located at 11p15.5-p15.4. It is necessary to make the diagnosis of this entity, exclude differential diagnoses, and know (epi)genotype-phenotype correlations in order to ensure an adequate follow-up, provide available therapeutic options, and offer a timely family genetic counseling. The objective of this article is to describe the current status of the Silver-Russell syndrome, a model of genomic imprinting disorder.

Humans , Male , Female , Silver-Russell Syndrome/physiopathology , Phenotype , Genomic Imprinting , Diagnosis, Differential , Silver-Russell Syndrome/diagnosis , Silver-Russell Syndrome/therapy , Fetal Growth Retardation , Genetic Counseling , Genotype
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787419


Like the body of Hominin, mind is the result of natural selection. Therefore, an evolutionary approach in the biological aspects is essential for an intrinsic understanding of mental disorders. However, the evolutionary medical approach to mental disordershas not been well researched because evolutionary psychiatry is not widely accepted, and the conceptual paradigm has not been unified. Nevertheless, some evolutionary hypotheses about some mental disorders have been proposed, including the following: 1) thesimple disease argument that mental disorder is a mere disease, 2) the genomic lag hypothesis that current genes are incompatible with evolutionary environmental changes, 3) the developmental mismatch hypothesis that brain development cannot reflect entire-information of surrounding environment, 4) the trade-off hypothesis that costs are offset by other adaptive benefits, 5) the by-product hypothesis that mental disorders are inevitable outcome of evolutionary design, 6) the cliff-edge model that the encephalizationin the Hominin caused mental disorders, 7) the inclusive fitness hypothesis that costs of individual are compensated by benefits of kinship, 8) the antagonistic polymorphism hypothesis that differential costs and benefits according to sex or age cause ofpolymorphic psychological traits 9) the heterozygote advantage hypothesis that the heterozygous genotypes have higher relative fitness, so they can persist even though homozygous genotypes cause mental disorders, and 10) a genomic imprinting hypothesis that conflicts between maternal genes and paternal genes cause mental disorders. I will summarize and compare the evolutionary hypotheses of mental disorders and present the lim itations of each hypothesis.

Brain , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Genomic Imprinting , Genotype , Heterozygote , Hominidae , Humans , Mental Disorders , Selection, Genetic
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-819046


Uniparental disomy (UPD) refers to a chromosome defect that an individual's homologous chromosome or segments are inherited from one parent. UPD can cause either aberrant patterns of genomic imprinting or homozygosity of mutations, leading to various diseases, including cancer. The mechanisms of UPD formation are diverse but largely due to the incorrect chromosome separation during cell division. UPD does not alter the number of gene copies, thus is difficult to be detected by conventional cytogenetic techniques effectively. Assisted by the new techniques such as single nucleotide polymorphism arrays, more and more UPD-related cases have been reported recently. UPD events are non-randomly distributed across cancer types, which play important role in the occurrence, development and metastasis of cancer. Here we review the research progress on the formation mechanisms, detection methods, the involved chromosomal regions and genes, and clinical significance of UPD; and also discuss the directions for future studies in this field.

Genomic Imprinting , Humans , Neoplasms , Genetics , Research , Uniparental Disomy
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 910-918, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771835


Parthenogenetic embryonic stem cells (pESCs) derived from bi-maternal genomes do not have competency of tetraploid complementation, due to lacking of paternal imprinting genes. To make pESCs possess fully development potentials and similar pluripotency to zygote-derived ESCs, we knocked out one allelic gene of the two essential maternal imprinting genes (H19 and IG) in their differentially methylated regions (DMR) via CRISPR/Cas9 system and obtained double knock out (DKO) pESCs. Maternal pESCs had similar morphology, expression levels of pluripotent makers and in vitro neural differentiation potentials to zygotes-derived ESCs. Besides that, DKO pESCs could contribute to full-term fetuses through tetraploid complementation, proving that they held fully development potentials. Derivation of DKO pESCs provided a type of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) matched pluripotent stem cells, which would benefit research in regenerative medicine.

Animals , Embryonic Stem Cells , Gene Knockout Techniques , Genomic Imprinting , Mice , Parthenogenesis , Pluripotent Stem Cells , Regenerative Medicine , Tetraploidy
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764063


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Genomic imprinting modulates growth and development in mammals and is associated with genetic disorders. Although uniparental embryonic stem cells have been used to study genomic imprinting, there is an ethical issue associated with the destruction of human embryos. In this study, to investigate the genomic imprinting status in human neurodevelopment, we used human uniparental induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) that possessed only maternal alleles and differentiated into neural cell lineages. METHODS: Human somatic iPSCs (hSiPSCs) and human parthenogenetic iPSCs (hPgiPSCs) were differentiated into neural stem cells (NSCs) and named hSi-NSCs and hPgi-NSCs respectively. DNA methylation and gene expression of imprinted genes related neurodevelopment was analyzed during reprogramming and neural lineage differentiation. RESULTS: The DNA methylation and expression of imprinted genes were altered or maintained after differentiation into NSCs. The imprinting status in NSCs were maintained after terminal differentiation into neurons and astrocytes. In contrast, gene expression was differentially presented in a cell type-specific manner. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that genomic imprinting should be determined in each neural cell type because the genomic imprinting status can differ in a cell type-specific manner. In addition, the in vitro model established in this study would be useful for verifying the epigenetic alteration of imprinted genes which can be differentially changed during neurodevelopment in human and for screening novel imprinted genes related to neurodevelopment. Moreover, the confirmed genomic imprinting status could be used to find out an abnormal genomic imprinting status of imprinted genes related with neurogenetic disorders according to uniparental genotypes.

Alleles , Astrocytes , Cell Lineage , DNA Methylation , Embryonic Stem Cells , Embryonic Structures , Epigenomics , Ethics , Gene Expression , Genomic Imprinting , Genotype , Growth and Development , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells , Mammals , Mass Screening , Neural Stem Cells , Neurons
National Journal of Andrology ; (12): 488-496, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812736


Objective@#To investigate the influence of high fat diet-induced obesity (HFDIO) on the differentially methylated region (DMR) of the imprinted gene and global genome methylation of sperm DNA.@*METHODS@#We performed bisulfite sequencing on the DMR of the imprinted gene and global genome methylation of sperm DNA in the mouse model of HFDIO.@*RESULTS@#No statistically significant differences were found between the HFDIO model and normal control mice in MEG3-IG (93.73 vs 97.26%, P = 0.252), H19 (98.00 vs 97.83%, P = 0.920), IGF2 (97.34 vs 96.25%, P =0.166), IGF2R (1.43 vs 1.11%, P = 0.695), PEG3 (0.19 vs 0.38%, P = 0.537), MEST (0.23 vs 0.68%, P = 0.315), NNAT (0.31 vs 0.00%, P = 0.134), or SNRPN (1.88 vs 3.13%, P = 0.628). A total of 8 942 DMRs were detected across the sperm genome (P <0.05). Gene functional enrichment analysis indicated that the enriched terms with the largest numbers of genes were the metabolic process (n = 1 482), RNA synthesis (n = 779), and transcription (n = 767).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The methylation level underwent no significant change in the DMRs of the imprinted genes from the mice with HFDIO, but the CG methylation of the genes involved in the metabolic process, RNA synthesis and transcription were significantly altered.

Animals , DNA Methylation , Diet, High-Fat , Genome , Genomic Imprinting , Insulin-Like Growth Factor II , Male , Mice , Obesity , Genetics , Metabolism , RNA , Spermatozoa , Metabolism
IBJ-Iranian Biomedical Journal. 2017; 21 (1): 16-23
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-185663


Backgrund: Imprinted genes are a unique subset of few genes, which have been differentially methylated region [DMR] in a parental origin-dependent manner during gametogenesis, and these genes are highly protected during pre-implantation epigenetic reprogramming. Several studies have shown that the particular vulnerability of imprinting genes during suboptimal pre- and peri-conception micro-environments often is occurred by assisted reproduction techniques [ART]. This study investigated the methylation status of H19/IGF2 DMR at high-quality expanding/expanded human blastocysts donated by healthy individuals to evaluate the risks linked to ART

Method: Methylation levels of H19/IGF2 DMR were analyzed by bisulfite conversion and sequencing at 18 CpG sites [CpGs] located in this region

Result: The overall percentage of methylated CpGs and the proportion of hyper-methylated clones of H19/IGF2 DMR in analyzed blastocysts were 37.85 +/- 4.87% and 43.75 +/- 5.1%, respectively. For validation of our technique, the corresponding methylation levels of peripheral human lymphocytes were defined [49.52 +/- 1.86% and 50%, respectively]

Conclusion: Considering the absence of in vivoproduced human embryos, it is not possible to conclude that the methylation found in H19/IGF2 DMR is actually normal or abnormal. Regarding the possible risks associated with ART, the procedures should be optimized in order to at least reduce some of the epigenetic risks

Animals, Laboratory , Female , Humans , Male , Blastocyst , Genomic Imprinting , In Vitro Techniques , CpG Islands , Epigenesis, Genetic , Reproductive Techniques, Assisted , Iran
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-344166


<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the genetic cause for two children with omphalocele.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The patients were examined, and the medical history of their families was collected. Methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA) was performed to detect potential mutation in the patients.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Loss of methylation of imprinting center 2 (IC2) at the 11p15.5 region of the maternal chromosome was detected in both children.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The two patients were diagnosed with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome by MS-MLPA. The loss of methylation of IC2 probably underlies the disease in both patients.</p>

Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome , Genetics , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11 , DNA Methylation , Female , Genomic Imprinting , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction
São Paulo; s.n; 2016. [195] p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-870872


A maioria dos casos de puberdade precoce central (PPC) em meninas permanece idiopática. A hipótese de uma causa genética vem se fortalecendo após a descoberta de alguns genes associados a este fenótipo, sobretudo aqueles implicados com o sistema kisspeptina (KISS1 e KISS1R). Entretanto, apenas casos isolados de PPC foram relacionados à mutação na kisspeptina ou em seu receptor. Até recentemente, a maioria dos estudos genéticos em PPC buscava genes candidatos selecionados com base em modelos animais, análise genética de pacientes com hipogonadismo hipogonadotrófico, ou ainda, nos estudos de associação ampla do genoma. Neste trabalho, foi utilizado o sequenciamento exômico global, uma metodologia mais moderna de sequenciamento, para identificar variantes associadas ao fenótipo de PPC. Trinta e seis indivíduos com a forma de PPC familial (19 famílias) e 213 casos aparentemente esporádicos foram inicialmente selecionados. A forma familial foi definida pela presença de mais de um membro afetado na família. DNA genômico foi extraído dos leucócitos do sangue periférico de todos os pacientes. O estudo de sequenciamento exômico global realizado pela técnica ILLUMINA, em 40 membros de 15 famílias com PPC, identificou mutações inativadoras em um único gene, MKRN3, em cinco dessas famílias. Pesquisa de mutação no MKRN3 realizada por sequenciamento direto em duas famílias adicionais (quatro pacientes) identificou duas novas variantes nesse gene. O MKRN3 é um gene de um único éxon, localizado no cromossomo 15 em uma região crítica para a síndrome de Prader Willi. O gene MKRN3 sofre imprinting materno, sendo expresso apenas pelo alelo paterno. A descoberta de mutações em pacientes com PPC familial despertou o interesse para a pesquisa de mutações nesse gene em 213 pacientes com PPC aparentemente esporádica por meio de reação em cadeia de polimerase seguida de purificação enzimática e sequenciamento automático direto (Sanger). Três novas mutações e duas...

Most cases of central precocious puberty (CPP) in girls remain idiopathic. The hypothesis of a genetic cause has been strengthened after the discovery of some genes associated with this phenotype, particularly those involved with the kisspeptin system (KISS1 and KISS1R). However, genetic defects in KISS1 and its receptor are rare and have been identified in only a few patients with CPP.over the past years. To date, most genetic studies in CPP was based mainly on a candidate gene approach, including genes selected in animal studies, human models of patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism or in genome wide association studies. In the present study, we used whole exome sequencing, a more advanced method of sequencing, to identify variants associated with CPP. Thirty-six patients with the familial form of CPP (19 families) and 213 apparently sporadic cases were initially selected. The familial form was defined by the presence of more than one member affected in the family. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes in all patients. Whole exome sequencing performed by ILLUMINA technique in 40 members of 15 families with CPP, identified inactivating mutations in a single gene, MKRN3, in five out of these families. Analysis of MKRN3 mutations performed by automatic sequencing in two additional families (four patients) identified two novel mutations. MKRN3 is an introless gene located on chromosome 15, in the Prader Willi syndrome critical region, and it is expressed only by the paternal allele due to the maternal imprinting. Following the initial findings, we searched for MKRN3 mutations in 213 patients with apparently sporadic CPP using polymerase chain reaction followed by direct enzymatic purification and automated sequencing (Sanger). Three new mutations and two previously reported, including four frameshifts and one missense variant was identified in six unrelated girls with CPP. All variants were not described in...

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Genomic Imprinting , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Puberty, Precocious/genetics
Clin. biomed. res ; 36(2): 71-79, 2016. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-834493


Introdução: Prader-Willi (SPW) e Angelman (SA) são síndromes clinicamente distintas, causadas pela perda de expressão de genes na região cromossômica 15q11.2-q13, de origem paterna ou materna, respectivamente. Ambas compartilham os mesmos métodos diagnósticos. Nossos objetivos foram: a) analisar por PCR metilação-específica (MSP) pacientes com suspeita clínica de SPW/SA; b) comparar resultados de diferentes metodologias de diagnóstico molecular; c) aplicar a técnica MSP na rotina assistencial de pacientes encaminhados ao Serviço de Genética Médica/Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (SGM/HCPA). Métodos: Foram analisados 123 pacientes com suspeita clínica de SPW (n = 71) ou SA (n = 52) por MSP. Desses, 79 possuíam análise prévia por hibridação in situ fluorescente (FISH) e/ou Southern blot (SB). Resultados: Foram detectados 21 casos positivos – 15 de SPW (12,19%) e 6 de SA (4,88%). Nove pacientes tiveram etiologia molecular determinada, sendo sete com diagnóstico de SPW (quatro dissomias uniparentais – UPD15 materna – e três deleções na região 15q11-13) e dois com diagnóstico de SA (um com UPD15 paterna e um com deleção na região 15q11-13). Foram observados resultados equivalentes entre MSP e SB e resultados discrepantes entre MSP e FISH (n = 4). Foram padronizados dois protocolos de MSP para confirmação dos resultados e controle interno de qualidade. Conclusão: O perfil de detecção de cada técnica varia de acordo com o mecanismo etiológico presente. A análise por MSP detecta alterações no padrão de metilação geradas por deleção, UPD e defeitos de imprinting, sem identificar o mecanismo etiológico responsável...

Introduction: Prader-Willi (PWS) and Angelman (AS) are clinically different syndromes caused by loss of expression of genes located on the chromosome 15q11.2-q13, of paternal or maternal origin, respectively. Both syndromes have the same diagnostic methods. The aims of the present study were: a) to perform a molecular analysis of 123 patients with clinical findings suggestive of PWS or AS using methylation-specific PCR (MSP); b) to compare the results obtained using different molecular diagnostic methodologies; c) to standardize MSP to be used in the routine care of patients at Medical Genetics Service/Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (SGM/HCPA). Methods: 123 patients with clinical findings suggestive of PWS (n = 71) or AS (n = 52) were analyzed by MSP. 79 had undergone previous laboratory analysis by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and/or Southern blot (SB). Results: MSP detected 21 positive cases – 15 PWS (12,19%) and 6 AS (4,88%). Molecular etiology was determined in 9 patients only – 7 were diagnosed with PWS (4 had uniparental disomy – maternal UPD15 – and 3 had deletions at 15q11-13) and 2 were diagnosed with AS (1 of paternal UPD15 and 1 deletion at 15q11-13). Comparing both methodologies, it was possible to observe concordant results between MSP and SB and discordant results between MSP and FISH (n = 4). We standardized two MSP methods in order to confirm the results and for internal quality control. Conclusion: The resulting profile of each technique varies according to the existing etiological mechanism. The methylation analysis by MSP technique detects changes on methylation pattern caused by deletion, UPD and imprinting defects, but it does not identify the responsible etiologic mechanism...

Humans , Genomic Imprinting , Methylation , Prader-Willi Syndrome
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 48(7): 583-587, 07/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-751347


We report the case of a father and son diagnosed with atypical chronic myeloid leukemia (aCML). Both patients harbored SETBP1 mutations, which are present in 24.3% of aCML patients. Moreover, both shared the variant encoding p.Pro737His, but the aCML severity was greater in the son because of the presence of two other missense mutations causing p.Asp868Asn and p.Ser885Arg alterations. SETBP1 mutations may be associated with an adverse prognosis, so their detection would help in the diagnosis of aCML and the determination of a patient's prognosis.

Animals , Female , Male , Mice , Pregnancy , Chromosome Aberrations/statistics & numerical data , Embryo Culture Techniques , Genomic Imprinting , Placenta Diseases/genetics , Placenta/metabolism , Reproductive Techniques, Assisted/adverse effects , Blastocyst/cytology , Chromosome Aberrations/embryology , Embryo, Mammalian , Epigenesis, Genetic , Embryo Culture Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Incidence , Placenta Diseases/pathology , Placenta/pathology , Reproductive Techniques, Assisted/statistics & numerical data , Stochastic Processes
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-287998


The connection between male infertility and abnormal methylation of imprinted genes has attracted much attention. Some imprinted genes, e.g., H19, MEG3, MEST and SNRPN, are known to be related with male infertility. Abnormal imprinted information may influence sperm concentration, motility and morphology, but the mechanism is still unclear. Sperm genomic imprinting reconstruction and erase respectively occur at the time of spermatogenesis and before embryo transfer. Many studies have shown that the probability of imprinting disorder syndrome of offspring born through assisted reproductive technology (ART) was significantly higher, leading to the worry about the safety of ART and speculation that the operation and in vitro environment may affect sperm imprinted information, which in turn may lead to imprinting diseases in the offspring. However, above connection still lacks convincing evidence. This paper has conducted a literature review of recent literature and explored the impact of abnormal methylation of imprinted genes on male fertility and the offspring.

Genomic Imprinting , Humans , Infertility, Male , Genetics , Male , Proteins , Genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding , Genetics , Reproductive Techniques, Assisted
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 47(12): 1029-1035, 12/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-727661


DNA methylation is essential in X chromosome inactivation and genomic imprinting, maintaining repression of XIST in the active X chromosome and monoallelic repression of imprinted genes. Disruption of the DNA methyltransferase genes DNMT1 and DNMT3B in the HCT116 cell line (DKO cells) leads to global DNA hypomethylation and biallelic expression of the imprinted gene IGF2 but does not lead to reactivation of XIST expression, suggesting that XIST repression is due to a more stable epigenetic mark than imprinting. To test this hypothesis, we induced acute hypomethylation in HCT116 cells by 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5-aza-CdR) treatment (HCT116-5-aza-CdR) and compared that to DKO cells, evaluating DNA methylation by microarray and monitoring the expression of XIST and imprinted genes IGF2, H19, and PEG10. Whereas imprinted genes showed biallelic expression in HCT116-5-aza-CdR and DKO cells, the XIST locus was hypomethylated and weakly expressed only under acute hypomethylation conditions, indicating the importance of XIST repression in the active X to cell survival. Given that DNMT3A is the only active DNMT in DKO cells, it may be responsible for ensuring the repression of XIST in those cells. Taken together, our data suggest that XIST repression is more tightly controlled than genomic imprinting and, at least in part, is due to DNMT3A.

Humans , DNA Methylation/genetics , Epigenetic Repression/genetics , Genome, Human , Genome/genetics , Genomic Imprinting/genetics , Insulin-Like Growth Factor II/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , Azacitidine/administration & dosage , Azacitidine/analogs & derivatives , /genetics , DNA Methylation/drug effects , Gene Knockout Techniques , Genome, Human/drug effects , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence/methods , Microarray Analysis , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Proteins/metabolism , RNA, Long Noncoding/metabolism , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods
Scientific Journal of Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences. 2014; 19 (1): 21-29
in Fa | IMEMR | ID: emr-157554


Obsessive-compulsive disorder is [OCD] one of the serious problems which imposes high economic and social expenses on the society. The aim of this study was to identify a probable transmission pattern in the families of the patients with OCD. This cross sectional study included 150 patients in the psychiatric centers in Sanandaj. Diagnosis of the disorder was confirmed by a psychiatrist. History of signs and symptoms of OCD in the maternal and paternal relatives of the patients, including the type, severity and duration of the signs and symptoms were recorded in a questionnaire for every patient. We used descriptive statistics to determine relative and absolute frequencies, and chi-square test to analyze the relationship among the nominal variables. The results of this study showed that contamination and pathological doubt were the most frequent patterns. Washing was the most frequent pattern of obsession which was observed in 42% of the patients. The family history of OCD were18% in paternal and 44.7% in maternal relatives. 35.3% of the patients had no family history of OCD. The results indicated that family history of OCD, especially maternal, is important and OCD is more likely to occur in the subjects with family history of this disorder. However more studies are needed to identify the exact genetic pattern

Genomic Imprinting , Family , Chi-Square Distribution , Surveys and Questionnaires , Cross-Sectional Studies
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-291753


Assisted reproduction technologies (ART) include controlled ovarian hyperstimulation, in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, in vitro maturation of oocytes, pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, etc. They have been used for the treatment of impaired fertility but may damage the health of offspring. The ART procedures may alter the epigenetic status of these offspring and DNA methylation may be a crucial mechanism. This paper summarizes epigenetic alterations in ART embryos and offspring, and discusses the risks.

Animals , DNA Methylation , Embryo, Mammalian , Metabolism , Female , Fertilization in Vitro , Genomic Imprinting , Humans , Pregnancy , Preimplantation Diagnosis
National Journal of Andrology ; (12): 387-391, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-309702


Spermatogenesis is a process consisting of spermatogonial proliferation, spermatocytic meiosis, and spermiogenesis, and is also considered to be a process in which heterochromatins gradually aggregate and finally reach a highly condensed formation in the sperm head. Recent studies show that epigenetic regulation plays a key role in spermatogenesis. This review discusses the mechanisms of epigenetic regulation in spermatogenesis in three aspects, DNA methylation, histone modification, and noncoding RNAs. These factors are essential for spermatogenesis, fertilization, and embryogenesis by mutual regulation as well as by gene expression regulation, transposon activation, sex chromosome inactivation, and genome imprinting.

DNA Methylation , Embryonic Development , Epigenesis, Genetic , Physiology , Genomic Imprinting , Humans , Male , Meiosis , Spermatogenesis , Genetics , Spermatogonia , Cell Biology , Physiology
National Journal of Andrology ; (12): 734-737, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-309646


Epigenetics comprises the modifications made in gene expressions without changing the DNA sequence itself. Significant epigenetic changes take place during spermatogenesis and fertilization and exert direct influences on embryogenesis. This article provides an overview of the latest researches on epigenetics of male germ cells and a brief discussion on the correlation of sperm with embryogenesis in four aspects: DNA methylation, histone modification, regulation of non-coding RNAs, and genomic imprinting.

Animals , DNA Methylation , Embryonic Development , Epigenesis, Genetic , Genomic Imprinting , Histones , Metabolism , Humans , Male , Spermatozoa
Genomics & Informatics ; : 105-113, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-91763


A subset of mammalian genes differ functionally between two alleles due to genomic imprinting, and seven such genes (Peg3, Usp29, APeg3, Zfp264, Zim1, Zim2, Zim3) are localized within the 500-kb genomic interval of the human and mouse genomes, constituting the Peg3 imprinted domain. This Peg3 domain shares several features with the other imprinted domains, including an evolutionarily conserved domain structure, along with transcriptional co-regulation through shared cis regulatory elements, as well as functional roles in controlling fetal growth rates and maternal-caring behaviors. The Peg3 domain also displays some unique features, including YY1-mediated regulation of transcription and imprinting; conversion and adaptation of several protein-coding members as ncRNA genes during evolution; and its close connection to human cancers through the potential tumor suppressor functions of Peg3 and Usp29. In this review, we summarize and discuss these features of the Peg3 domain.

Alleles , Animals , Fetal Development , Genes, Tumor Suppressor , Genome , Genomic Imprinting , Humans , Mice , YY1 Transcription Factor
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-63301


Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) have been considered as the most important cells in regenerative medicine as they are able to differentiate into all types of cells in the human body. PSCs have been established from several sources of embryo tissue or by reprogramming of terminally differentiated adult tissue by transduction of so-called Yamanaka factors (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and cMyc). Interestingly, accumulating evidence has demonstrated the residence of PSCs in adult tissue and with the ability to differentiate into multiple types of tissue-committed stem cells (TCSCs). We also recently demonstrated that a population of pluripotent Oct4(+) SSEA-1(+)Sca-1(+)Lin-CD45(-) very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) resides in the adult murine bone marrow (BM) and in other murine tissue. These very small (~3-6 microm) cells express pluripotent markers such as Oct4, Nanog, and SSEA-1. VSELs could be specified into several tissue-residing TCSCs in response to tissue/organ injury, and thus suggesting that these cells have a physiological role in the rejuvenation of a pool of TCSCs under steady-state conditions. In this review article, we discuss the molecular nature of the rare population of VSELs which have a crucial role in regulating the pluripotency, proliferation, differentiation, and aging of these cells.

Adult , Aging , Lewis X Antigen , Bone Marrow , DNA Methylation , Embryonic Structures , Genomic Imprinting , Human Body , Humans , Pluripotent Stem Cells , Regenerative Medicine , Rejuvenation , Stem Cells
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-63295


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Genomic imprinting is an inheritance phenomenon by which a subset of genes are expressed from one allele of two homologous chromosomes in a parent of origin-specific manner. Even though fine-tuned regulation of genomic imprinting process is essential for normal development, no other means are available to study genomic imprinting in human during embryonic development. In relation with this bottleneck, differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into specialized lineages may be considered as an alternative to mimic human development. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, hESCs were differentiated into three lineage cell types to analyze temporal and spatial expression of imprinted genes. Of 19 imprinted genes examined, 15 imprinted genes showed similar transcriptional level among two hESC lines and two human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) lines. Expressional patterns of most imprinted genes were varied in progenitors and fully differentiated cells which were derived from hESCs. Also, no consistence was observed in the expression pattern of imprinted genes within an imprinting domain during in vitro differentiation of hESCs into three lineage cell types. CONCLUSIONS: Transcriptional expression of imprinted genes is regulated in a cell type-specific manner in hESCs during in vitro differentiation.

Alleles , Embryonic Development , Embryonic Stem Cells , Female , Genomic Imprinting , Human Development , Humans , Parents , Pluripotent Stem Cells , Pregnancy , Wills