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1.
Rev. Méd. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 60(2): 156-163, 24-feb-2022. mapas, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1367310

ABSTRACT

Introducción: en un contexto donde la prevalencia de diabetes mellitus e hipertensión arterial ha aumentado significativamente en años recientes, las enfermedades renales adquieren importancia por la potencial demanda de atención especializada y de recursos en salud que requieren. Objetivo: analizar la distribución geográfica de la nefropatía diabética (ND) y la insuficiencia renal (IR) con base en las consultas otorgadas en unidades de primer nivel del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) durante 2019, para identificar las unidades médicas con mayor carga de atención. Material y métodos: estudio ecológico-exploratorio en el que se estimaron indicadores por cada mil derechohabientes en relación a las consultas otorgadas por ND e IR según la ocasión de servicio, la unidad médica familiar (UMF) de primer nivel y la representación. Se utilizó estadística espacial para analizar dichos indicadores. Resultados: el 45% de las consultas otorgadas fue por ND y el 52.4% por IR. La mayor carga por ND se registró en la UMF No. 50 de Cd. Juárez (Chihuahua) y en la No. 49 Gabino Barreda (Veracruz Sur), con 1.7 consultas de primera vez y 148.3 subsecuentes por mil derechohabientes, respectivamente. Mientras que en la UMF No. 40 Manlio Fabio Altamirano y No. 25 Cotaxtla, en Veracruz Norte, la mayor carga fue por IR, con 4.9 consultas de primera vez y 134.2 subsecuentes por mil derechohabientes, respectivamente. Conclusiones: los resultados podrían contribuir al fortalecimiento de las unidades médicas que así lo requieran y en la distribución eficiente de los recursos disponibles para atender la demanda de servicios de salud de ND e IR en el IMSS


Background: In a context where the prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus and Hypertension has increased significantly in recent years, kidney diseases become important for the potential demand for specialized health care and resources required. Objective: To analyze the geographical distribution of Diabetic Nephropathy (DN) and Renal Insufficiency (RI) based on the medical consultations given in first-level units of IMSS during 2019, to identify the medical units with the highest burden of care. Material and methods: Ecological-exploratory study in which indicators were estimated for every thousand persons in relation to medical consultations given by ND and RI according to service time, first-level medical unit (UMF) and representation to analyze the magnitude and geographic distribution at the national level. Results: 45% of medical consultations were by ND and 52.4% by RI. The highest burden per DN was registered in UMF No. 50 Cd. Juarez (Chihuahua) and No. 49 Gabino Barreda (Veracruz Sur), with 1.7 first-time medical consultations and 148.3 subsequent medical consultations per 1,000 persons, respectively. While in UMF No. 40 Manlio Fabio Altamirano and No. 25 Cotaxtla, in Veracruz Norte, the highest burden was for RI, with 4.9 first-time medical consultations and 134.2 subsequent medical consultations per 1000 persons, respectively. Conclusions: The results could contribute to strengthening of medical units where it is necessary and the efficient allocation of resources available to meet the demand for health services of ND and RI in IMSS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Renal Insufficiency , Kidney Diseases , Geographic Information Systems , Spatial Analysis , Geography/statistics & numerical data , Sociodemographic Factors , Mexico
2.
Rev. bras. ativ. fís. saúde ; 27: 1-12, fev. 2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1382102

ABSTRACT

The aim was to identify the main geospatial indicators used in bikeability index through constructive methodological studies. The study protocol was registered in PROSPERO under the registration number CRD42020166795, following the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guide. Original studies indexed in the electronic databases Lilacs, Pu-bMed, Science Direct, Scopus, SPORTDiscus, Trid, and Web of Science were selected. The review also included grey literature through Google Scholar, OpenGrey, ProQuest, and a list of references and documents pointed out by experts. After removing duplicates and analyzing titles and abstracts, the review considered only 11 out of the 703 initial papers, which provided 100 environment in-dicators with varied definitions and metrics for estimating the Bikeability index. The census tract was the most used unit of the analysis found in the papers, which used GIS (Geographic Informa-tion System) data besides self-reported information on environmental characteristics. The results indicate that the most usual indicators relate to infrastructure ­ existence and width of bike lanes ­ destination, slope, speed limit, and connectivity and intersections. The creation and maintenance of bicycle-friendly environments could consider the implementation of more infrastructure on flat and connected streets with changes in speed limits in neighborhoods, especially in regions with low density of intersections, to decrease accidents and increase cyclists' perception of safety.


Identificar os principais indicadores geoespaciais sobre a construção do índice de bikeability. O protocolo do estudo foi registrado no PROSPERO, sob o número de registro CRD42020166795, seguiu o guia (PRIS-MA). Foram selecionados estudos originais indexados nas bases de dados eletrônicas Lilacs, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, SPORTDiscus, Trid, Web of Science. A revisão também incluiu literatura cinza, além da lista de referências e documentos identificados por especialistas. A busca inicial identificou 703 artigos, após a retirada das duplicatas e análise de títulos, resumos e texto completo, 11 artigos foram incluídos na revisão. Um total de 100 indicadores geoespaciais do ambiente construído foram identificados com diferentes defini-ções e métricas para estimar o índice de bikeability. O setor censitário foi a unidade de análise mais utilizada nos artigos, que utilizaram dados de SIG (Sistema de Informações Geográficas) além de informações autorre-feridas sobre características ambientais. Os resultados indicam que os indicadores mais usuais dizem respeito à infraestrutura ­ existência e largura das ciclovias ­ destino, inclinação, limite de velocidade, conectividade e interseções. A criação e manutenção de ambientes amigos da bicicleta poderia contemplar a implantação de mais infraestrutura em vias planas e conectadas com mudanças nos limites de velocidade nos bairros, principalmente em regiões com baixa densidade de cruzamentos, para diminuir os acidentes e aumentar a percepção de segurança dos ciclistas.


Subject(s)
Bicycling , Geographic Information Systems , Environment Design , Built Environment
3.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 42(spe): e262850, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1386982

ABSTRACT

Este texto discute a atuação da Psicologia nas Políticas Públicas em nosso país, apontando para a necessidade de desmonte da ainda dominante subjetividade universal e centrada no indivíduo, bem como a possibilidade de resistência entendida como invenção. Para tal, discorre acerca de algumas instituições que devem ser enfrentadas: a colonialidade do poder, a branquitude e a interseccionalidade em diálogo com as ideias de Deleuze e Guattari. O funcionamento macropolítico dessa tríade busca a reprodução de situações de hierarquia, desqualificação e exclusão, mantidas na micropolítica do cotidiano por meio de microfascismos que miniaturizam a necessidade de igualar e julgar. Além dos microfascismos, temos a perspectiva de uma micropolítica ativa que se faz por transversalidade e pelo agenciamento com a diferença. Ao sustentar a imanência dessa macropolítica em micropolíticas, insistimos na indissociabilidade da interioridade/exterioridade e indivíduo/social, para um futuro da Psicologia que sustente a complexidade e a invenção da nossa profissão. Concluímos que é preciso operar para a resistência e invenção convocando o coletivo para fazer uma psicologia brasileira à altura do nosso tempo.(AU)


This paper discusses the role played by Psychology in Brazilian public policies, pointing to the need to dismantle the still dominant universal and individual-centered subjectivity, as well as the possibility of resistance understood as invention. For this purpose, it scrutinizes some institutions that must be confronted: the coloniality of power, whiteness and intersectionality, dialoguing with authors such as Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari. The macro-political functioning of this triad seeks to reproduce situations of hierarchy, disqualification, and exclusion, upheld in everyday life micropolitics by micro-fascisms that miniaturize the need to equalize and judge. Beyond these micro-fascisms, we observe an active micropolitics established by transversality and by agencying difference. By upholding the immanence of this macro-politics in micropolitics, we insist on the inseparability of interiority/exteriority and individual/social, for a future Psychology that asserts the complexity and invention of our profession. In conclusion, we must strive for resistance and invention by calling on the collective to make a Brazilian psychology that matches our time.(AU)


Este trabajo discute el papel de la Psicología en las Políticas Públicas en Brasil, señalando la necesidad de desmontar la subjetividad universal e individualista aún dominante, así como la posibilidad de resistencia entendida como invención. Para ello, se plantean algunas instituciones a las que hay que enfrentarse: la colonialidad del poder, la blancura y la interseccionalidad en diálogo con Gilles Deleuze y Félix Guattari. El funcionamiento macropolítico de esta tríada busca reproducir situaciones de jerarquía, descalificación y exclusión, mantenidas en la micropolítica de la vida cotidiana a través de microfascismos, que miniaturizan la necesidad de igualar y juzgar. Más allá de los microfascismos tenemos la posibilidad de una micropolítica activa que se hace a través de la transversalidad y de la agencia con la diferencia. Al sostener la inmanencia de esta macropolítica con la micropolítica, insistimos en la inseparabilidad de la interioridad/exterioridad y de lo individual/social hacia un futuro de la Psicología que sostenga la complejidad y la invención de nuestra profesión. Concluimos que es necesario operar para la resistencia y la invención convocando al colectivo para hacer una psicología brasileña a la altura de nuestro tiempo.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Politics , Public Policy , Colonialism , Poverty , Psychology , Role , Social Support , Socioeconomic Factors , Work , Democracy , Geographic Information Systems , Racial Groups , Ego , Intersectional Framework , Social Vulnerability , Government , Individuation
4.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 38(1): e00288920, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355970

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Automatic geocoding methods have become popular in recent years, facilitating the study of the association between health outcomes and the place of living. However, rather few studies have evaluated geocoding quality, with most of them being performed in the US and Europe. This article aims to compare the quality of three automatic online geocoding tools against a reference method. A subsample of 300 handwritten addresses from hospital records was geocoded using Bing, Google Earth, and Google Maps. Match rates were higher (> 80%) for Google Maps and Google Earth compared with Bing. However, the accuracy of the addresses was better for Bing with a larger proportion (> 70%) of addresses with positional errors below 20m. Generally, performance did not vary for each method for different socioeconomic status. Overall, the methods showed an acceptable, but heterogeneous performance, which may be a warning against the use of automatic methods without assessing quality in other municipalities, particularly in Chile and Latin America.


Resumen: Los métodos automáticos de geocodificación se han convertido en algo popular durante los últimos años para facilitar el estudio de la asociación entre resultados de salud y lugar para vivir. No obstante, más bien pocos estudios han evaluado la calidad de la geocodificación, siendo realizados la mayoría de ellos en EE.UU. y Europa. El objetivo de este artículo es comparar la calidad de tres herramientas automáticas de geocodificación en línea frente a un método de referencia. La submuestra de 300 direcciones escritas a mano, procedentes del registro hospitalario, se geocodificaron usando Bing, Google Earth y Google Maps. Los porcentajes de coincidencia fueron mayores (> 80%) en el caso de Google Maps y Google Earth comparados con Bing. Sin embargo, la precisión de las direcciones fue mejor con Bing, en una proporción más grande (> 70%) de direcciones que tenían errores de posición por debajo de 20m. En general, el rendimiento no varió en cada método para diferentes niveles estatus socioeconómico. En general, los métodos mostraron un rendimiento aceptable, pero heterogéneo. Esto previene contra el uso de métodos automáticos sin evaluar la calidad en otras ciudades, particularmente en Chile y Latinoamérica.


Resumo: Os métodos de geocodificação automática se tornaram populares nos últimos anos para facilitar o estudo da associação entre desfechos de saúde e lugar de residência. Entretanto, poucos estudos avaliaram a qualidade da geocodificação, e a maioria dos estudos existentes foi realizada nos Estados Unidos e Europa. O estudo teve como objetivo comparar a qualidade de três ferramentas de geocodificação eletrônica automática em relação a um método de referência. Foi geocodificada uma subamostra de 300 endereços anotados à mão em prontuários hospitalares, usando Bing, Google Earth e Google Maps. As taxas de correspondência dos registros foram mais altas (> 80%) com Google Maps e Google Earth, comparado com Bing. Entretanto, a acurácia dos endereços foi melhor com Bing, com uma proporção maior (> 70%) de endereços com erros de localização menores que 20 metros. Em geral, o desempeno não variou para cada método de acordo com condição socioeconômica. Os métodos apresentaram desempenho geral aceitável, porém heterogêneo. Os resultados servem de alerta contra o uso de métodos automáticos sem avaliar a qualidade em outras cidades, particularmente no Chile e no resto da América Latina.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hospital Records , Geographic Mapping , Brazil , Chile , Geographic Information Systems
5.
Rev. Méd. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 59(6): 500-509, 01-dic-2021. grap, map
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355278

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la diabetes mellitus (DM) y las enfermedades del corazón, entre las que se incluye la hipertensión arterial sistémica (HTA), se han posicionado entre las primeras causas de mortalidad en México, lo que plantea retos importantes para las diferentes instituciones de salud. Objetivo: analizar la tendencia espacio-temporal de DM e HTA con base en las detecciones realizadas en unidades de primero y segundo nivel del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), durante el periodo 2004-2019. Material y métodos: estudio ecológico en el que se calcularon las tasas de detección de ambos padecimientos por mil derechohabientes según año, trienio y representación. La tendencia espacio-temporal se analizó mediante estadística espacial utilizando Sistemas de Información Geográfica. Resultados: de 2004 a 2019 hubo 9 399 889 y 11 862 069 detecciones en promedio de DM e HTA, respectivamente. Referente al primer padecimiento, la tasa de deteccion osciló de 203.4 (2004) a 384.4 (2019) por mil derechohabientes, cuya tendencia aumentó en Tamaulipas. Mientras que la HTA disminuyó de 1140.2 (2004) a 352 (2019) detecciones por mil derechohabientes en Veracruz Sur y Tamaulipas, respectivamente. Conclusiones: la tendencia espacio-temporal observada puede contribuir a organizar y orientar, según su representación y nivel de atención, los programas institucionales, protocolos de atención, guías de práctica clínica y demás instrumentos de políticia pública disponibles en el IMSS para mejorar la detección oportuna, atención, control y acceso a medicamentos para DM e HTA.


Background: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and heart diseases, which include Systemic Arterial Hypertension (SAH), have been positioned as the two main causes of mortality in Mexico, which represents important challenges for the different health institutions. Objective: To analyze the spatio-temporal trend of DM and SAH based on the detections made in first and and second level units of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, during the period 2004-2019. Material and methods: Ecological study in which detection rates of both diseases were calculated per 1,000 persons according to year, triennium and representation. The spatio-temporal trend was analyzed by spatial statistics using Geographic Information Systems. Results: During 2004-2019 therere were 9 399 889 and 11 862 069 detections on average of DM and SAH, respectively. Regarding DM, the detection rate ranged from 203.4 (2004) to 384.4 (2019) per 1000 persons, this trend increased in Tamaulipas. While SAH decreased from 1140.2 (2004) to 352 (2019) per 1000 persons in Veracruz Sur and Tamaulipas, respectively. Conclusions: The observed spatio-temporal trend can contribute to organizing and guiding, according to representation and level of care, institutional programs, integrated care protocols, clinical practice guidelines and other public policy instruments available at the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social to improve early detection, care, control and access to medications for DM and SAH.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Clinical Protocols , Diabetes Mellitus , Health Services Accessibility , Health Services Research , Hypertension , Social Security , Epidemiology , Cause of Death , Geographic Information Systems , Mexico
6.
Medisan ; 25(6)2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1356475

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las enfermedades no transmisibles representan un importante problema sanitario a nivel mundial, sobre todo para los países en vías de desarrollo. Objetivo: Identificar la variación de la mortalidad por cáncer de mama, de pulmón y de próstata y su posible asociación con la contaminación ambiental. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio ecológico a nivel nacional, desde 2000 hasta 2010, tomando como unidad de análisis el municipio. Las enfermedades seleccionadas fueron los tumores malignos, en específico los de mama, de próstata y de pulmón, y se calcularon las tasas de mortalidad acumuladas y tipificadas relacionadas con estos durante este período. Asimismo, se empleó el Sistema de Información Geográfica para confeccionar los mapas de estratificación de riesgo tomando como referencia la tasa nacional y se escogieron las principales fuentes fijas contaminantes de tipo industrial para el análisis de la contaminación atmosférica. Resultados: Fueron elaborados los mapas de estratificación de riesgo de morir por cada una de las enfermedades seleccionadas y se obtuvo el mapa de las principales fuentes fijas contaminantes de tipo industrial; de igual modo, se realizaron otros mapas integrales para explorar la posible asociación entre dichas entidades clínicas y la contaminación ambiental. Conclusiones: El análisis integral de la estratificación del riesgo epidemiológico y ambiental reflejó que los municipios más afectados fueron Mariel, Nuevitas y Moa, así como Matanzas, Cienfuegos, Camagüey y Santiago de Cuba. En Ciudad de La Habana sobresalieron los municipios de Habana Vieja, Regla, Cotorro, San Miguel del Padrón, Arroyo Naranjo, Marianao y Centro Habana.


Introduction: The non communicable diseases represent an important sanitary problem at world level, mainly for the developing countries. Objective: To identify the variation of mortality due to lung, breast and prostate cancer and their possible association with the environmental contamination. Methods: An ecological study at national level was carried out, from 2000 to 2010, taking as analysis unit the municipality. The selected diseases were malignant tumors, specifically those of breast, prostate and lung, and the accumulated typified mortality rates related with these were calculated during this period. Also, the System of Geographical Information was used to make the risk stratification maps, taking as reference the national rate and the main fixed pollutants sources of industrial type were chosen for the analysis of the atmospheric contamination. Results: Maps stratification risk of dying were elaborated for each of the selected diseases and the map of the main fixed pollutants sources of industrial type was obtained; in the same way, other comprehensive maps were elaborated to explore the possible association between these clinical entities and the environmental contamination. Conclusions: The comprehensive analysis of the stratification of the epidemiological and environmental risk reflected that the most affected municipalities were Mariel, Nuevitas and Moa, as well as Matanzas, Cienfuegos, Camagüey and Santiago de Cuba. In Havana the municipalities of Old Havana, Cotorro, San Miguel del Padrón, Arroyo Naranjo, Marianao and Centro Habana stood out.


Subject(s)
Risk , Mortality , Noncommunicable Diseases/mortality , Geographic Information Systems
7.
Rev. cuba. inform. méd ; 13(2): e446, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1357281

ABSTRACT

Una meta del sistema de salud es la prevención de enfermedades, por ello cobra especial importancia el estudio de la relación de enfermedades con el espacio. Existen evidencias del empleo de los Sistemas de Información Geográfica en estudios sobre la distribución espacial de problemas de salud. A pesar de esto, los trabajos reportados en la literatura consultada no explotan la componente espacial de los datos, lo que limita su integralidad. Por otra parte, existe dispersión en las metodologías, herramientas y técnicas para abordar estudios de este tipo. En esta investigación se presenta un método de estratificación de territorios basado en Sistemas de Información Geográfica y medidas de similitud geométrica, definidas a partir de los criterios: distancia, tamaño y conectividad. La propuesta permite realizar estudios estratificados según la primera ley de la geografía y garantiza la obtención de estratos más compactos. El método propuesto cuenta con cinco etapas: Selección de indicadores y territorios, Preprocesamiento de indicadores, Agrupamiento, Postprocesamiento y Visualización, soportado en una solución informática basada en software libre. Como parte de la validación se aplica el método en un caso de estudio y se realiza el análisis de índices de validación que avalan la efectividad y competitividad de la propuesta(AU)


A goal of the health system is the prevention of diseases, which is why the study of the relationship of diseases with space is of special importance. There is evidence of the use of Geographic Information Systems in studies on the spatial distribution of health problems. Despite this, the works reported in the consulted literature do not exploit the spatial component of the data, which limits its comprehensiveness. On the other hand, there is dispersion in the methodologies, tools and techniques to approach studies of this type. This research presents a method of stratification of territories based on Geographic Information Systems and geometric similarity measures, defined from the criteria: distance, size and connectivity. The proposal allows for stratified studies according to the first law of geography and guarantees the obtaining of more compact strata. The proposed method has five stages: Selection of indicators and territories, Pre-processing of indicators, Grouping, Post-processing and Visualization, supported by a computer solution based on free software. As part of the validation, the method is applied in a case study and the analysis of validation indices is carried out that guarantee the effectiveness and competitiveness of the proposal(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Software Design , Health Systems , Geographic Information Systems/standards , Disease Prevention
8.
Enferm. foco (Brasília) ; 12(2): 297-304, set. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1291403

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: aplicar o Índice de Vulnerabilidade Social para o Distrito Federal e compará-lo com a distribuição espacial da cobertura dos Núcleos Ampliados de Saúde da Família e Atenção Básica. Método: trata-se de estudo ecológico com base nos dados do censo demográfico, da Secretaria de Estado de Saúde do Distrito Federal, bem como de outros disponibilizados pela Gerência de Apoio à Saúde da Família. Resultados: verificou-se que 31,4% dos setores censitários do Distrito Federal foram classificados com baixo nível de vulnerabilidade social, 47,8% médio, 12,2% elevado e 8,3% muito elevado. Apenas 37,17% do território do cenário de estudo apresentavam cobertura Núcleo Ampliado de Saúde da Família e Atenção Básica. Ao comparar a distribuição espacial desses desfechos, observou-se elevada extensão de vazios assistenciais de cobertura desse serviço, tanto em setores rurais quanto urbanos, e estes frequentemente classificados em maior estrato de vulnerabilidade. Conclusão: Recomenda-se a utilização de ferramentas de gestão de políticas públicas, como o Índice de Vulnerabilidade Social, para o redesenho da Rede de Atenção à Saúde, tendo em vista o enfrentamento das iniquidades sociais. (AU)


Objective: Apply the Social Vulnerability Index for the Federal District and compare it with the spatial distribution of coverage of the Extended Family Health and Primary Care Centers. Methods: This is an ecological study based on data from the demographic census, from the State Department of Health of the Federal District, as well as others made available by the Family Health Support Management. Results: It was found that 31.4% of the census sectors in the Federal District were classified as having a low level of social vulnerability, 47.8% medium, 12.2% high and 8.3% very high. Only 37.17% of the territory in the study scenario had coverage of the Extended Family Health and Primary Care coverage. When comparing the spatial distribution of these outcomes, a high extent of care gaps in the coverage of this service was observed, both in rural and urban sectors, and these are often classified into a greater stratum of vulnerability. Conclusion: It is recommended to use public policy management tools, such as the Social Vulnerability Index, for the redesign of the Health Care Network, with a view to tackling social inequities. (AU)


Objetivo: Aplicar el Índice de Vulnerabilidad Social del Distrito Federal y compararlo con la distribución espacial de cobertura de los Centros de Salud Familiar Extendida y Atención Primaria. Método: Se trata de un estudio ecológico basado en datos del censo demográfico, del Departamento de Salud del Estado del Distrito Federal, así como otros puestos a disposición por la Gerencia de Apoyo a la Salud de la Familia. Resultados: Se encontró que 31.4% de los sectores censales del Distrito Federal fueron clasificados como de bajo nivel de vulnerabilidad social, 47.8% medio, 12.2% alto y 8.3% muy alto. Solo el 37,17% del territorio en el escenario de estudio tenía cobertura de la cobertura de Salud Familiar Extendida y Atención Primaria. Al comparar la distribución espacial de estos resultados, se observó un alto grado de brechas de atención en la cobertura de este servicio, tanto en el sector rural como en el urbano, y estos suelen ser clasificados como de mayor nivel de vulnerabilidad. Conclusión: Se recomienda utilizar herramientas de gestión de políticas públicas, como el Índice de Vulnerabilidad Social, para el rediseño de la Red de Atención de Salud, con miras a abordar las inequidades sociales. (AU)


Subject(s)
Social Vulnerability , Primary Health Care , Family Health , Nursing , Geographic Information Systems
9.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(supl.1): 2471-2482, jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278846

ABSTRACT

Abstract To describe a general overview of health services delivery in Mexico and geospatially analyze the current distribution and accessibility of Primary Health Care (PHC) facilities to contribute to new approaches to improve healthcare planning in Mexico. We performed a spatial analysis of official data to analyze current distances from health facilities to population, to determine the underserved areas of health services delivery in three selected states using a ranking of indicators. We estimated service area coverage of PHC facilities with road networks of three Mexican states (Chiapas, Guerrero, and Oaxaca). Our estimations provide an overview of spatial access to healthcare of the Mexican population in Mexico's three most impoverished states. We did not consider social security nor private providers. Geospatial access to health facilities is critical to achieving PHC and adequate coverage. Countries like Mexico must measure this to identify underserved areas with a lack of geospatial access to healthcare to solve it. This type of analysis provides critical information to help decision-makers decide where to build new health facilities to increase effective geospatial access to care and to achieve Universal Health Coverage.


Resumo Descrever uma visão geral da prestação de serviços de saúde no México e analisar geoespacialmente a atual distribuição e acessibilidade das unidades de APS para contribuir com novas abordagens para melhorar o planejamento da saúde no México. Realizamos uma análise espacial de dados oficiais para analisar as distâncias atuais das unidades de saúde à população, para determinar as áreas descobertas de prestação de serviços de saúde em 3 estados selecionados usando uma classificação de indicadores. Estimamos a cobertura da área de serviço das unidades de APS com redes viárias de 3 estados do México (Chiapas, Guerrero e Oaxaca). Nossas estimativas fornecem uma visão geral do acesso espacial à saúde da população mexicana nos três estados mais pobres do México. Não consideramos seguridade social nem prestadores privados. O acesso geoespacial às unidades de saúde é fundamental para alcançar a cobertura universal de saúde e uma cobertura eficaz. Países, como o México, devem medir isso para identificar áreas não merecidas com falta de acesso geoespacial à saúde para resolvê-lo. Os governos devem gerar políticas e mecanismos para distribuir efetivamente novas instalações de saúde para aumentar o acesso geoespacial efetivo à saúde, bem como para evitar instalações de saúde não planejadas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Geographic Information Systems , Health Services Accessibility , Universal Health Insurance , Health Facilities , Mexico
10.
Rev. cuba. inform. méd ; 13(1): e401, ene.-jun. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1251736

ABSTRACT

La COVID-19 ha desatado una emergencia internacional en Salud Pública al afectar millones de personas, provocar muertes, y causar una crisis humanitaria nunca antes vista. Esto ha saturado los sistemas de información en salud de los países afectados, donde resultan de utilidad las herramientas informáticas para el manejo de un gran número de casos, al menor costo económico posible. En este contexto resalta el paquete de programas epidemiológicos Epi InfoTM, que permite crear formularios electrónicos para la recolección de datos. La presente investigación tiene como objetivo describir las ventajas y facilidades de implementar Epi InfoTM para los casos de COVID-19. Con módulos para analizar la información mediante cálculos y representaciones de medidas epidemiológicas, además de crear mapas de casos sospechosos o confirmados, Epi InfoTM cuenta también con complementos para dispositivos móviles y la web; todos con experiencias probadas en situaciones de epidemias como la del Ébola, VIH y el MERS. Por lo que Epi InfoTM es una aplicación robusta y libre de costo muy útil para su implementación en los sistemas de información en salud para el manejo adecuado de casos de COVID-19(AU)


COVID-19 has unleashed an international Public Health emergency by affecting millions of people, causing deaths, and a humanitarian crisis never seen before. This has saturated the health information systems of the affected countries, where computer tools are useful for managing a large number of cases, at the lowest possible economic cost. In this context, the Epi InfoTM package of epidemiological programs which allows creating electronic forms for data collections, stands out in addition with modules to analyze the information through calculations and representations of epidemiological measures. It also allows creating maps of suspected or confirmed cases and has applications for mobile devices and web; all with proven experiences in epidemic situations such as Ebola, HIV, and the previous outbreaks of Coronavirus. Therefore, Epi InfoTM is a robust and free of cost application, very useful for its implementation in health information systems for the adequate management of COVID-19 cases(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Geographic Information Systems/standards , Epidemics/history , Epidemiological Monitoring , Health Information Systems/organization & administration , COVID-19/transmission
11.
Rev. cuba. salud pública ; 47(1): e2326, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289569

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La baja accesibilidad a los servicios de la atención primaria en Conakry afecta la salud de su población. El sector sanitario ante las restricciones financieras se propone establecer prioridades para la extensión progresiva de la cobertura de instalaciones de atención primaria, como primer paso hacia la cobertura universal de salud. Objetivo: Establecer prioridades entre los cinco distritos de la ciudad de Conakry, República de Guinea, para la extensión progresiva de la cobertura de instalaciones de atención primaria. Métodos: Se estableció una prioridad para cada distrito partiendo del análisis lógico-deductivo de dos variables: nivel de salud y nivel de accesibilidad a instalaciones de atención primaria. El nivel de salud se definió según dos criterios: vulnerabilidad sociodemográfica y nivel de morbimortalidad, con la combinación de sistemas de información geográfica con la evaluación multicriterio. El nivel de accesibilidad se midió con el sistema de información geográfica, evaluando la proporción de habitantes por distritos y su recorrido en intervalos, desde 1 km hasta más de 4 km, se asumió 2 km como distancia máxima permisible en transporte público. Resultados: El distrito con la mayor prioridad correspondió a Ratoma, seguido de Matoto, Kaloum, Matam y Dixinn, en este mismo orden Conclusiones: La priorización de distritos en Conakry, según necesidades de atención primaria, puede apoyar al gobierno en la toma de decisiones para la implementación de políticas de salud que permitan avanzar hacia su cobertura universal(AU)


Introduction: Low accessibility to primary care services in Conakry affects the health of its population. The health sector, in view of the financial constraints, aims to prioritize the progressive extension of coverage of primary care facilities, as a first step towards universal health coverage. Objective: Prioritize the five districts of Conakry city, in the Republic of Guinea, for the progressive extension of primary care facilities´ coverage. Methods: A priority was established for each district based on the logical-deductive analysis of two variables: health level and accessibility level to primary care facilities. The health level was defined according to two criteria: socio-demographic vulnerability and morbidity and mortality level, with the combination of geographic information systems with multicriteria assessment. The level of accessibility was measured with the geographic information system, assessing the proportion of inhabitants by district and their route at intervals, from 1km to more than 4km; it was assumed 2km as the maximum permissible distance by public transport. Results: The district with the highest priority was Ratoma, followed by Matoto, Kaloum, Matam and Dixinn, in this same order. Conclusions: Prioritization of districts in Conakry city, according to primary care needs, can support the government in making decisions for the implementation of health policies that allow progress towards universal health coverage(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Primary Health Care , Geographic Information Systems , Health Priorities , Health Services Accessibility
12.
Rev. cuba. salud pública ; 47(1): e2672, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289567

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Cuba comenzó de manera temprana sus preparativos ante la emergencia por COVID-19 y ha desplegado muchas capacidades científico-técnicas para su enfrentamiento, entre ellas la gestión de sistemas de información geográfica, a cargo de la empresa GEOCUBA. Objetivo: Identificar posibles sitios de riesgo geoespacial relacionados con la transmisión de COVID-19 en Santiago de Cuba. Métodos: Se desarrolló un estudio ecológico. Se identificaron grupos de transmisión de COVID-19 y riesgos epidemiológicos. Se resumieron variables epidemiológicas, sociales y espaciales. Se realizaron análisis espaciales y sobrevuelos de dron como técnicas de telepidemiología. Resultados: Se identificaron cinco grupos espaciales de transmisión, uno en el municipio Palma Soriano, uno en Contramaestre y tres en Santiago de Cuba. Las distancias espaciales entre casos y confirmados se relacionaron con la forma de transmisión de la COVID-19. Se identificaron bajas tasas de incidencia. Se apreció baja movilidad, cumplimiento de medidas de distanciamiento y protección social. Conclusiones: La creación de un grupo multidisciplinario en Santiago de Cuba, a propuesta de las máximas estructuras del partido y el gobierno, garantizó el despliegue de recursos tecnológicos para el uso de la telepidemiología, lo que permitió la identificación espacial y posterior gestión integral de riesgos ecoepidemiológicos relacionados con la transmisión de COVID-19 en Santiago de Cuba. Las acciones gubernamentales diferenciadas, la percepción de riesgo de la población y la respuesta comunitaria influyeron en las bajas tasas de transmisión y dispersión espacial de la enfermedad, lo que muestra la importancia de la concepción de la salud como producto social(AU)


Introduction: Cuba early started its preparations to face the emergency due to COVID-19 and it has made a deployment of several scientific-technical capacities for it, among them the management of geographical information's systems by GEOCUBA company. Objective: Identify posible sites of geospatial risk related with the transmission of COVID-19 in Santiago de Cuba province. Methods: It was developed an ecologic study. There were identified groups of COVID-19 transmission and epidemiological risks. Epidemiological, social and spatial variables were resumed. Also there were made spatial analyses and overflights of drones as teleepidemiology techniques. Results: There were identified five spatial groups of transmission: one in Palma Soriano municipality, one in Contramaestre municipality and three in Santiago de Cuba municipality. The spatial distances among the cases and confirmed cases were related with the form of transmission of COVID-19. There were identified low incidence rates. It was noticed low mobility, accomplishment of the social distancing rules and social protection. Conclusions: The creation of a multidisciplinary group in Santiago de Cuba province, as a proposal of the highest level of the Communist Party and the Government, secured the deployment of technologic resources for the use of telepidemiology, and this allowed the spatial identification and further comprehensive management of ecoepidemiologic risks related with the transmission of COVID-19 in Santiago de Cuba. The different governmental actions, the perception of risk of the population, and the community response impacted in the low rates of transmission and spatial spreading of the disease, which shows the importance of worthing health as a social productAU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Social Mobility , Population Concentration , Geographic Information Systems , COVID-19/transmission , Cuba
13.
Interface (Botucatu, Online) ; 25: e200587, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286871

ABSTRACT

A globalização ocasionou a circulação de vírus e bactérias em escala global, fazendo autoridades sanitárias atentarem às relações entre espaço e doenças. Assim, a Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) desempenha papel central na produção de conhecimentos e na divulgação de informações que regulam normas sanitárias. Por meio da análise de práticas discursivas ligadas ao controle de doenças, discutem-se, aqui, estratégias biopolíticas e a produção de espacialidades, tendo em conta a análise de documentos publicados pela OMS em que são apresentados os preceitos da instituição. Neles, destaca-se a produção de espacialidades nacionais que passam a ser valoradas de acordo com as capacidades de prevenção e controle de doenças de cada país membro, especialmente em momentos de crise. (AU)


La globalización causó la circulación de virus y bacterias en escala global, haciendo que las autoridades sanitarias observen las relaciones entre espacio y enfermedades. De esa forma, la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) desempeña un papel central en la producción de conocimientos y en la divulgación de informaciones que regulan normas sanitarias. A partir del análisis de prácticas discursivas vinculadas al control de enfermedades, se discuten aquí estrategias biopolíticas y la producción de espacialidades, llevando en consideración el análisis de documentos publicados por la OMS que presentan los preceptos de la institución. En ellos se subraya la producción de espacialidades nacionales que pasan a valorarse de acuerdo con las capacidades de prevención y control de enfermedades de cada país miembro, especialmente en momentos de crisis. (AU)


Globalization has caused the circulation of viruses and bacteria on a global scale, compelling health authorities to pay attention to the dynamics between space and diseases. Consequently, the World Health Organization (WHO) plays an essential role concerning knowledge production and information spreading as a health standard regulation. Using discursive practices analysis, about disease control, through document analysis written by the WHO where arise discussions about biopolitical strategies and spatiality production. In those documents the national spatialities are produced and valued according to the prevention and control of diseases capacities in each country member, especially in crisis periods. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , World Health Organization , Communicable Disease Control , Global Health , Pandemics/prevention & control , Politics , Brazil/epidemiology , Geographic Information Systems , COVID-19/prevention & control
14.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 24: e210003, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1144142

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Objective: To identify environmental factors present in areas with high density of road traffic accidents (RTA) in Leon, Nicaragua. Methods: The analysis included all accidents recorded by the Police Department in León City, from January to June 2017. All crashes were georeferenced, and data were collected from the environment elements within a perimeter of 20 meters from the site in which accidents occurred with a pre-tested data collection instrument. We specified a Poisson regression model to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) to determine environmental factors associated with the event incidence. For the identification areas with high, medium, and low occurrences of crashes, kernel density around points in which RTA occurred were estimated. Results: Out of 667 recorded crashes, 90% involved men aged 15-40, and motorcycle accidents represented 60% of injuries or deaths. Environmental factors that were positively associated with RTA included good road conditions (adjusted IRR = 1.36, 95%CI 1.13 - 1.63) and the existence of bicycle lanes (adjusted IRR = 1.64, 95%CI 1.29 - 2.10). Environmental characteristics associated with higher speeds and heavier accidents can increase their incidence. Conclusion: We found that high-foot-traffic commercial or touristic centers are three areas with high density of crashes. Local authorities can use these findings to promote road safety measures in high-incidence areas in León City.


RESUMO: Objetivo: Identificar os fatores ambientais presentes em áreas com alta densidade de acidentes de trânsito rodoviário (ATR) em León, Nicarágua. Métodos: Foram incluídos na análise todos os acidentes registrados pelo Departamento de Polícia da cidade de León de janeiro a junho de 2017. Georreferenciamos todos os acidentes e coletamos dados dos elementos ambientais em um perímetro de 20 metros do local até os acidentes ocorridos por meio de um instrumento de coleta de dados pré-testado. Foi especificado um modelo de regressão de Poisson para estimar as razões das taxas de incidência (TI) e intervalos de confiança de 95% (IC95%) para determinar os fatores ambientais associados à incidência do evento. Para identificar áreas com alta, média e baixa ocorrência de acidentes, estimamos a densidade do núcleo em torno dos pontos onde o ATR ocorreu. Resultados: Dos 667 acidentes registrados, 90% envolveram homens com idades entre 15 e 40 anos, e os acidentes de motocicleta representaram 60% dos ferimentos ou mortes. Os fatores ambientais que foram associados positivamente aos ATR incluíram boas condições da estrada (TI ajustada = 1,36; IC95% 1,13 - 1,63) e a existência de ciclovias (TI ajustada = 1,64; IC95% 1,29 - 2,10). Características ambientais associadas a velocidades mais altas e acidentes mais pesados podem aumentar a incidência deles. Conclusão: Constatamos que os centros comerciais ou turísticos com tráfego intenso são três áreas com alta densidade de acidentes. As autoridades locais podem usar essas descobertas para promover medidas de segurança no trânsito em áreas de alta incidência na cidade de León.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Accidents, Traffic/statistics & numerical data , Attention , Risk Factors , Geographic Information Systems , Environment , Nicaragua/epidemiology
15.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e08512020, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288085

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Ourinhos is a municipality located between the Pardo and Paranapanema rivers, and it has been characterized by the endemic transmission of schistosomiasis since 1952. We used geospatial analysis to identify areas prone to human schistosomiasis infections in Ourinhos. We studied the association between the sewage network, co-occurrence of Biomphalaria snails (identified as intermediate hosts [IHs] of Schistosoma mansoni), and autochthonous cases. METHODS: Gi spatial statistics, Ripley's K12-function, and kernel density estimation were used to evaluate the association between schistosomiasis data reported during 2007-2016 and the occurrence of IHs during 2015-2017. These data were superimposed on the municipality sewage network data. RESULTS: We used 20 points with reported IH; they were colonized predominantly by Biomphalaria glabrata, followed by B. tenagophila and B. straminea. Based on Gi statistics, a significant cluster of autochthonous cases was superimposed on the Christoni and Água da Veada water bodies, with distances of approximately 300 m and 2200 m from the points where B. glabrata and B. straminea were present, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The residence geographical location of autochthonous cases allied with the spatial analysis of IHs and the coverage of the sewage network provide important information for the detection of human-infection areas. Our results demonstrated that the tools used for direct surveillance, control, and elimination of schistosomiasis are appropriate.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Schistosomiasis/epidemiology , Biomphalaria , Schistosomiasis mansoni/epidemiology , Schistosoma mansoni , Sewage , Brazil/epidemiology , Geographic Information Systems , Disease Vectors
16.
Rev. MVZ Córdoba ; 25(3): 37-45, sep.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1347064

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo. Utilizar los sistemas de información geográfica (SIG) como herramienta complementaria para caracterizar la ganadería bovina realizada en la región de la Orinoquia. Materiales y métodos. A través del uso de tecnologías espaciales se recopiló la información concerniente a la orientación ganadera, fisiografía, cobertura vegetal y catastro de la zona de estudio para su posterior análisis a través del software ACCESS de Microsoft. Resultados. En un alto porcentaje de los predios ganaderos ubicados en los cuatro departamentos de la Orinoquía (Casanare:72.7%, Meta:49.5%, Arauca:42% y Vichada:32%) predominan las coberturas de pastos, herbazales y vegetación secundaria, confirmando la expansión en la frontera agropecuaria que es promovida por la actividad ganadera en el país. Conclusiones. El uso de los SIG, permite realizar una mejor planificación y distribución eficiente de los recursos destinados a mejorar el funcionamiento de los sistemas de producción. Por ejemplo, en zonas donde la matriz de coberturas predominante son los pastizales y herbazales, las estrategias en pro de la sostenibilidad pueden enfocarse en la implementación de sistemas silvopastoriles, contrario a lo que pasaría en zonas donde la matriz de coberturas tenga un alto porcentaje de bosques naturales.


ABSTRACT Objective. Use Geographic Information Systems (GIS) as a complementary tool to characterize cattle farming in the Orinoquia region. Materials and methods. Through the use of space technologys, information concerning the livestock orientation, physiography, vegetation cover and land registry of the study zone was collected for further analysis over Microsoft ACCESS software. Results. In a high percentage of the cattle ranches located in the four departments (Casanare: 72.7%, Meta: 49.5%, Arauca: 42% and Vichada: 32%) the cover of pastures, grasslands and secondary vegetation predominates, confirming the expansion in the agricultural border that has had the cattle activity in the country. Conclusions. The use of complementary tools such as GIS allows for better planning and efficient distribution of resources to improve the functioning of production systems, for example, in zones where the predominant coverage matrix is grasslands, strategies in pro of sustainability can focus on the implementation of silvopastoral systems, contrary to what would happen in areas where the matrix has a high percentage of natural forests.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Geographic Information Systems , Data Analysis , Animal Husbandry
17.
RECIIS (Online) ; 14(1): 111-125, jan.-mar. 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087268

ABSTRACT

A informação pública, garantida por lei no Brasil, é base para a geração de conhecimento adaptativo em situações adversas, como a extrema vulnerabilidade socioambiental e seus impactos na saúde humana. O presente artigo avalia a transparência da informação pública nas áreas de saúde humana (com foco no Sistema Único de Saúde ­ SUS), mudanças produtivas (uso do solo) e mudanças climáticas (chuva e temperatura), utilizando dados de 5.570 municípios brasileiros, ao longo dos últimos 20 anos. A experiência da construção de uma base nacional de dados (Data Lake) a partir de informações disponibilizadas em bases públicas (ou público-privadas) ­ DATASUS, MapBiomas, Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia (Inmet) e Hidroweb da Agência Nacional de Águas (ANA) ­ confirmou que, na prática, a acessibilidade da informação pública no Brasil apresenta entraves importantes. Incluímos recomendações sobre como ela pode ser aprimorada para tornar os direitos de acesso à informação uma realidade mais concreta para o cidadão brasileiro.


The transparency of public information, a right that is entitled by law in Brazil, is the basis to generate adaptive knowledge in adverse situations, such as extreme socio-environmental vulnerability and its impacts on human health. This article evaluates the transparency of public information in three areas ­ i) human health, focusing on the Sistema Único de Saúde ­ SUS (Unified Health System); ii) productive changes (land use indicators); and iii) climate changes (rain and temperature indicators) ­ using data from all the 5,570 Brazilian municipalities over the last 20 years. The experience of building a national database (Data Lake) from available information in public (or public-private) databases ­ DATASUS, MapBiomas, Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia ­ Inmet (National Institute of Meteorology), and Hidroweb of the Agência Nacional de Águas ­ ANA (National Water Agency) ­ confirmed that, in practice, the accessibility of public information in Brazil suffers from significant shortcomings. We include some recommendations for and how it could be improved so that the access rights to information becomes a more concrete reality for the Brazilian citizen.


La información pública, garantizada por ley en Brasil, es la base para la generación de conocimiento adaptativo en situaciones adversas, como la extrema vulnerabilidad socioambiental y sus impactos en la salud humana. Este artículo evalúa la transparencia de la información pública en las áreas de salud humana (dirigindo la atención hacia el Sistema Único de Saúde ­ SUS (Sistema Único de Salud), cambios productivos (uso del suelo) y cambios climáticos (lluvia y temperatura), con datos de los 5.570 municipios brasileños, durante los últimos 20 años. La experiencia de la construcción de una base nacional de datos (Data Lake) a partir de informaciones disponibles en bases públicas (o público-privadas) ­ DATASUS, MapBiomas, Instituto Nacional de Meteorología (Inmet) e Hidroweb de la Agência Nacional de Águas ­ ANA (Agencia Nacional de Aguas) ­ confirmó que, en la práctica, la accesibilidad de la información pública en Brasil presenta obstáculos importantes. Incluimos recomendaciones acerca de como la transparencia puede ser perfeccionada para hacer de los derechos de acceso a la información una realidad más concreta para el ciudadano brasileño.


Subject(s)
Humans , Climate Change , Access to Information/legislation & jurisprudence , Decision Making , Environment and Public Health , Big Data , Unified Health System , Brazil , Public Information , Social Vulnerability , Geographic Information Systems , Health Policy , Health Information Systems
18.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 40(1): 137-152, ene.-mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089111

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La Organización Mundial de la Salud señala que tres millones de muertes al año por enfermedades cardiopulmonares están relacionadas con la exposición a la contaminación del aire. Objetivo. Estimar las superficies de concentración de partículas en suspensión de menos de 2,5 pm (Particulate Matter, PM25) en Bogotá entre el 2014 y el 2015, clasificándolas según las guías de calidad del aire de la Organización Mundial de la Salud para enfermedades cardiopulmonares. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un estudio ecológico mediante técnicas geoestadísticas. Se calcularon los promedios de PM25 en lapsos de seis horas a lo largo del día en cuatro franjas horarias. Las concentraciones se clasificaron según los valores diarios y anuales de las guías de calidad del aire de la OMS. Resultados. La localidad de Kennedy presentó las mayores concentraciones de PM25 en todas las franjas horarias. Los valores registrados en esta zona y clasificados según las guías diarias y anuales de calidad del aire, evidenciaron que la localidad presentaría un incremento de 1,2 % en la mortalidad cardiopulmonar en el corto plazo y de 9 % en el largo plazo. Conclusión. Las franjas horarias de las 0:00 a las 6:00 h y de las 12:00 a las 18:00 h, cumplieron con el valor anual de las guías de calidad del aire de 10 µg/m3 en una parte de la zona oriental de la ciudad. En el resto de la ciudad, en las franjas horarias de las 6:00 h a las 12:00 h y de las 18:00 h a las 24:00 h se registraron valores que cumplían los objetivos intermedios 2 y 3, lo que representa incrementos de 9 y 3 % en la mortalidad cardiopulmonar, respectivamente.


Introduction: The World Health Organization (WHO) points out that 3 million deaths per year caused by cardiopulmonary diseases are related to exposure to air pollution. Objective: To estimate areas of concentration of PM2.5 in Bogotá according to the WHO Air Quality Guidelines (AQG) for cardiopulmonary diseases during the period 2014-2015. Materials and methods: We conducted an ecological study with geostatistical techniques. We calculated the PM2.5 averages for six hour-periods distributed throughout the day in four time slots, which were classified according to daily and annual WHO AQG. Results: The locality of Kennedy presented the highest concentrations of PM25 in all time slots. The values registered in this area classified within the daily and annual AQG showed that the locality would present an increase of 1.2% and 9% in cardiopulmonary mortality in the short and long term, respectively. Conclusion: The time slots from 0:00 to 6:00 h y from 12:00 to 18:00 h met the annual AQG value of 10 µg/m3 in a part of the eastern zone of the city; in the rest of the city, in these same time slots, intermediate objectives 2 and 3 were met, which means increases by 9% and 3% in the cardiopulmonary mortality according to the AQG, respectively.


Subject(s)
Pulmonary Heart Disease , Particulate Matter , Geographic Information Systems , Vulnerable Populations , Ecological Studies
19.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 8(1): 1-6, 20200101. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1123727

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: analisar a distribuição espacial da COVID-19 segundo fatores socioeconômicos e demográficos no município de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. Método: trata-se de um estudo do ecológico, transversal, utilizando dados secundários, de uso e acesso públicos, oriundos do Ministério da Saúde do Brasil, por meio das informações disponíveis no open DataSUS com casos confirmados da COVID-19 e que possuíam, em suas respectivas fichas cadastrais, os bairros de residência. Resultados: a média de idade dos casos confirmados pela COVID-19 foi de 38,83 (±14,29) anos, as faixas etárias mais atingidas foram entre 20 a 29 anos (23,2%), 30 a 39 anos (27,7%), 40 a 49 anos (22,5%), 50 a 59 anos (13,7%) e 70 a 79 anos (5,7%). Todos os setores apresentaram casos da COVID-19, sendo o oeste o mais atingido. Entre os 20 bairros com o maior número de infecção, 11 possuem renda per capita média abaixo de um salário-mínimo, oito bairros com renda per capita média de até dois salários-mínimos e apenas um bairro com renda per capita média acima de dois salários mínimos. Conclusões: o número de casos da COVID-19 foi elevado, espalhando-se rapidamente para todos os setores, afetando, principalmente, bairros de baixa renda per capita. Nos bairros com renda per capita média da população abaixo de um salário-mínimo, concentram-se os piores cenários da COVID-19. A crise global de saúde pública ocasionada pela COVID-19 revelou as desigualdades e as injustiças que ameaçam o bem-estar, a segurança e a vida das pessoas.


Objective: To analyze the spatial distribution of COVID-19 according to socioeconomic and demographic factors in the city of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. Method: This is an ecological, cross-sectional study, using secondary data, of public use and access, from the Ministry of Health of Brazil, based on the information available in the open DataSUS with confirmed cases of COVID-19 and that had, in their respective records, the neighborhoods of residence. Results: The average age of the cases confirmed by COVID-19 was 38.83 (± 14.29) years old, the most affected age groups were between 20 to 29 years old (23.2%), 30 to 39 years old (27 , 7%), 40 to 49 years old (22.5%), 50 to 59 years old (13.7%) and 70 to 79 years old (5.7%). All sectors presented cases of COVID-19, being the west the most affected. Among the 20 neighborhoods with the highest number of infections, 11 have an average per capita income below one minimum wage, eight neighborhoods with an average per capita income of up to two minimum wages and only one neighborhood with an average per capita income above two minimum wages. Conclusions: The number of COVID-19 cases was high, spreading rapidly to all sectors, affecting mainly neighborhoods with low per capita income. In neighborhoods with average per capita income below one minimum wage, the worst scenarios of COVID-19 are concentrated. The global public health crisis caused by COVID-19 revealed the inequalities and injustices that threaten people's well-being, security and lives.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Socioeconomic Factors , Demography , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , Salaries and Fringe Benefits , Brazil/epidemiology , Per Capita Income , Cross-Sectional Studies , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Geographic Information Systems , Pandemics
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828404

ABSTRACT

Zha-xun is widely used in Tibetan medicine and is also an international traditional medicine. This study believes that the black organic matter constituting Zha-xun is mainly stored in the rocks. The exudation points of Zha-xun mostly distribute on the cliffs of high mountains, which makes it difficult to evaluate its resource distribution and storage area. This paper was aimed at the exudation environment of Tibetan medicine Zha-xun in Sichuan province and 6 ecological environmental factors of the Zha-xun were determined via the field investigation. Combining with these 6 factors as well as the GIS data of Sichuan province, ArcGIS software was used to extract ideal environmental factors which are suitable for exudation of Zha-xun, including geology types, geomorphological types, altitude, slope, vegetation types, and mean annual temperature. The spatial overlay analyses on the extracted environmental factors were carried out to predict the distribution area of Zha-xun in Sichuan province. Afterwards, field investigation was conducted to verify the prediction. The prediction showed that the exudation spots of Zha-xun in Sichuan province mainly located in 29 counties including 12 in Aba Prefecture, 15 in Ganzi Prefecture, and Muli County and Dechang County in Liangshan Prefecture. The deposit areas of Zha-xun were located in the Triassic, Devonian and Silurian strata and were basically distributed in 9 basins, including Dingqu River, Yalong River, Xianshui River, Dadu River, Suomo River, Minjiang River and Baishui River, characterized by a fragmented patch-like distribution along the mountain ranges, and the exudation spots of Zha-xun were mainly scattered among the rain-free cliffs' concavities of river valleys at a certain altitude. The prediction was consistent with the field investigation results, which suggested that it is possible and feasible to predict distribution of Zha-xun resources based on GIS-analysis. The study may provide a scientific basis for comprehensive investigations into Zha-xun's distribution and formation mechanism, thus promoting rational development and utilization of Zha-xun resources.


Subject(s)
China , Geographic Information Systems , Geology , Medicine, Tibetan Traditional , Medicine, Traditional , Temperature
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