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1.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(10): 1314-1320, Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041031

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE To review articles that evaluated the prevalence of Raynaud's phenomenon of occupational origin. METHODS The search for articles was carried out in the Medline (via PubMed), Embase, Web of Science, Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), and Latin America and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (Lilacs) databases. RESULTS 64 articles were obtained from the electronic search; 18 articles met the eligibility criteria. All studies discussed the exposure to vibrations in the upper limbs. In 6 of them, the thermal issue was directly or indirectly addressed. No studies have addressed exposure to vinyl chloride. CONCLUSIO In general, a higher prevalence of Raynaud's phenomenon was found among vibratory tool operators compared to non-exposed workers, with an increase in the number of cases the higher the level of vibration and the time of exposure. Cold is a triggering and aggravating factor of the Raynaud phenomenon and seems to play an important role in the emergence of vascular manifestations of the hand-arm vibration syndrome.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Realizar um estudo de revisão dos artigos que avaliaram a prevalência do fenômeno de Raynaud de origem ocupacional. MÉTODOS A busca pelos artigos foi realizada nas bases de dados Medline (via PubMed), Embase, Web of Science, Scientific Eletronic Library Online (SciELO) e Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (Lilacs). RESULTADOS Sessenta e quatro artigos foram obtidos a partir da busca eletrônica, dos quais 18 cumpriram os critérios de elegibilidade. Todos os estudos discutiram sobre a exposição a vibrações localizadas em membros superiores. Em seis deles, a questão térmica foi direta ou indiretamente abordada. Nenhum estudo abordou a exposição ao cloreto de vinila. CONCLUSÃO De maneira geral, constatou-se maior prevalência do fenômeno de Raynaud entre operadores de ferramentas vibratórias em comparação aos não expostos, com aumento do número de casos quanto maior o nível de vibração e tempo de exposição. O frio é fator desencadeante e agravante do fenômeno de Raynaud e parece exercer papel importante para o surgimento das manifestações vasculares da síndrome de vibração de mãos e braços.


Subject(s)
Humans , Raynaud Disease/etiology , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Occupational Diseases/etiology , Raynaud Disease/epidemiology , Vinyl Chloride/adverse effects , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Cold Temperature/adverse effects , Hand-Arm Vibration Syndrome/complications , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762574

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The detection rate of hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) is very low in South Korea compared with other countries. The absence of uniform consensus and guidelines for diagnosing HAVS has been presumed to be one of the reasons. The HAVS has various manifestations including cold intolerance and its severity can be measured using the cold intolerance symptom severity (CISS) questionnaire. This study aimed to determine whether the CISS questionnaire, being used as a screening tool, can aid in the early detection of HAVS. METHODS: A total of 76 male workers with vibration-induced symptoms were enrolled as the final study participants. To compare the CISS score of healthy individuals, 41 men who had never been exposed to local vibration were included in the study. In addition to the former medical questionnaire, the participants answered the CISS questionnaire. A statistical analysis was conducted to identify the association of CISS scores with vibration induced symptom and to determine its cut off value. RESULTS: The reliability of the CISS questionnaire was proven to be good, with a total Cronbach's alpha of 0.922. The mean CISS score of the exposed group increased in every vascular stage [stage 0 = 42.6 (18.5); stage 1 = 59.4 (14.1); and over stage 2 = 60.2 (21.6)]. They were significantly higher than that of the non-exposed group. The result was fairly consistent with those in the sensorineural stage. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and area under curve (AUC) of 30 were 88.5, 65.3, 76.1, 82.1 and 0.769, respectively. From the result of logistic regression, the adjusted odds ratio of both components increased by the CISS score grouped by 30s. CONCLUSIONS: The self-reported CISS questionnaire, used to measure the degree of cold intolerance, showed high agreement with the Stockholm classification of HAVS. Hence, we recommend the use of this questionnaire to assess the level of cold intolerance among vibration-exposed workers and detect individuals who are at risk of vibration-induced impairment with a cutoff value of 30. TRIAL REGISTRATION: IRB No. 2018–07–040-001. Registered on 4 September 2018.


Subject(s)
Area Under Curve , Classification , Clothing , Consensus , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethics Committees, Research , Hand-Arm Vibration Syndrome , Humans , Korea , Logistic Models , Male , Mass Screening , Odds Ratio , Sensitivity and Specificity , Vibration
3.
Cienc. Trab ; 20(63): 137-144, dic. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-984165

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Determinar el impacto causado por el tipo de herramienta y tipo de guante sobre la transmisibilidad de la vibración mano-brazo. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un diseño experimental a trabajadores del sector de hidrocarburos, con el objetivo de identificar la transmisibilidad global de los guantes en diferentes actividades. Las mediciones se realizaron a través de dos acelerómetros: uno instalado en la máquina y otro en la palma de la mano. La transmisibilidad fue calculada en el rango de frecuencias 0-2 kHz, para cinco tipos de herramientas y 3 tipos de guantes. Finalmente, se compararon los tiempos de exposición a los que puede estar expuesto el trabajador con el uso de los guantes. RESULTADOS: Se identificó la efectividad de los guantes para proteger a los operarios, permitiéndoles trabajar un mayor número de horas por día. El análisis estadístico evidencia que la variable tipo de herramienta tiene un efecto significativo sobre la transmisibilidad, mientras que el tipo de guante no presenta efecto estadístico alguno. El estudio presenta los porcentajes de aumento de tiempos de exposición y el estudio de las transmisibilidades. CONCLUSIONES: Los tres tipos de guantes evaluados mostraron tener un desempeño eficaz como atenuadores de la vibración. El aumento del tiempo de exposición permitido al usar guantes es muy significativo para todas las herramientas.


OBJECTIVE: Determine the impact caused by the type of tool and type of glove on the transmissibility of the hand-arm vibration. METHODS: An experimental design was carried out for workers in the hydrocarbon sector, in order to identify the global transmissibility of gloves in different activities. The measurements were made through two accelerometers: one installed in the machine and the other in the palm of the hand. The transmissibility was calculated in the fre quency range 0-2 kHz, for five types of tools and 3 types of gloves. Finally, the exposure times to which the worker may be exposed with the use of gloves were compared. RESULTS: The effectiveness of the gloves was identified to protect the workers, allowing them to work a greater number of hours per day. The statistical analysis shows that the variable type of tool has a significant effect on transmissibility, while the type of glove does not have any statistical effect. The study presents the percentages of increase in exposure times and the study of transmissibilities. CONCLUSIONS: The three types of gloves evaluated showed an effec tive performance as vibration attenuators. The increase of the expo sure time allowed when wearing gloves is very significant for all tools.


Subject(s)
Humans , Vibration/adverse effects , Gloves, Protective , Hand-Arm Vibration Syndrome/prevention & control , Time Factors , Materials Testing , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Hydrocarbons , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control
4.
Med. leg. Costa Rica ; 35(1): 127-145, ene.-mar. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-894345

ABSTRACT

Resumen El síndrome vibratorio mano-brazo forma parte de la categoría de enfermedades ocupacionales o asociadas al trabajo, específicamente aquellos trabajos manuales en los que se utilicen herramientas vibratorias, como taladros, moledoras, martillos neumáticos, sierras y cualquier otra que transmita energía vibratoria directamente a la mano y brazo del trabajador. La descripción de los primeros casos de este síndrome tuvo lugar hace ya más de un siglo, y con el desarrollo industrial se volvió progresivamente, en una entidad más importante en cuanto a la discapacidad y la pérdida de calidad de vida que genera en los pacientes, así como las pérdidas económicas y de horas laborales que produce a nivel mundial, en especial en los países más desarrollados en donde su prevalencia es notablemente mayor. En el presente artículo se ha realizado una revisión literaria acerca de los principales signos y síntomas de esta enfermedad, su clasificación, fisiopatología y métodos de diagnóstico. También se abordarán los mecanismos de prevención así como el pronóstico y evolución de los pacientes una vez han sido diagnosticados.


Abstract Hand-arm vibration syndrome is part of the occupational or work-related illness category, specifically those manual workers using vibratory tools such as drills, grinders, pneumatic hammers, saws and any other tool that transmits vibratory energy directly to the Hand and arm of the worker. The description of the first cases of this syndrome took place more than a century ago, and with the industrial development it became progressively, in a more important entity as far as the disability and the loss of quality of life that generates in the patients, As well as the economic losses and hours of work that it produces worldwide, especially in the more developed countries where its prevalence is significantly higher. In this article a literary review has been carried out on the main signs and symptoms of this disease, its classification, pathophysiology and diagnostic methods. The mechanisms of prevention as well as the prognosis and evolution of the patients once they have been diagnosed will also be addressed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Raynaud Disease , Occupational Risks , Hand-Arm Vibration Syndrome/diagnosis , Occupational Diseases
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-147031

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We evaluated nailfold capillary abnormalities in patients with hand-arm vibration syndrome using nailfold capillary microscopy. METHODS: Fifty workers who underwent a special health examination because of exposure to hand-arm vibration at Ulsan University Hospital in 2012 (exposed group) and a control group of 50 white-collar employees were evaluated through a questionnaire survey regarding their present tasks, types of tools used, vibration exposure duration, use of protective wear, and medical history. Then, an occupational physician performed a physical examination for any hand deformities, skin problems, or motor and sensory dysfunctions of the upper extremities. The nailfold capillary morphologies (tortuous, crossing, bushy, meandering, branching, hemorrhage, avascular area, enlarged, and giant), capillary dimensions (afferent, top, venous, total width, and length), and specific counts (crossing and branching) on both fourth fingers were determined by a rheumatologist. Thereafter, the exposed subjects were assessed according to the Stockholm workshop classification scale. In total, 8 and 6 subjects in the exposed and control groups, respectively, were excluded from the study because of poor capillary microscopic image quality. In addition, 24 subjects in the exposed group with Stockholm vascular stage 0 were excluded. Finally, capillary morphology, dimensions, and specific counting were compared between the exposed (n = 18) and control groups (n = 44). RESULTS: The exposed group had significantly greater crossing capillaries and abnormal capillary numbers that included crossing capillaries (crossing, branching, bushy, and meandering) but smaller branching and abnormal capillary numbers that excluded crossing capillaries (branching, bushy, and meandering) than the control group did. No significant difference in capillary dimensions was observed between the two groups. Despite the adjustment for age, smoking status, and underlying diseases, the statistical significance was unchanged. In the specific counting of the type of capillaries, the exposed group had a significantly higher total crossing count but fewer total branching count than the control group did. However, no statistical significance resulted after adjustment for age, smoking status, and underlying diseases. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, the exposed group had significantly more crossing capillaries and a higher crossing count than the control group did.


Subject(s)
Capillaries , Classification , Education , Fingers , Hand Deformities , Hand-Arm Vibration Syndrome , Hemorrhage , Humans , Microscopy , Physical Examination , Skin , Smoke , Smoking , Upper Extremity , Vibration
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-289757

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the efficacy of mouse nerve growth factor (mNGF) in treating occupational hand-arm vibration disease (HAVD).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Sixty-four patients with HAVD were equally and randomly divided into treatment group and control group. The control group was given Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge and deproteinized extract of calf blood to improve circulation, and also given methylcobalamin tablets and vitamin B6 for neurotrophic treatment. In addition to the above treatments for the control group, the treatment group was also given 30 µg/d mNGF by intramuscular injection for two courses (4 weeks for each course) with a 15-day interval.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Both the treatment group and the control group showed significant improvements in clinical symptoms and signs (hand numbness and pain, and reduced senses of touch, pain, and vibration), cold water loading test (CWLT), and electroneuromyography (ENMG) after treatments (P < 0.05). And the treatment group had significantly more improvements than the control group (P < 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>mNGF can significantly improve hand numbness and pain, reduced senses of touch, pain, and vibration, CWLT, and ENMG, so it has better clinical effect and safety in treating HAVD. Early diagnosis and treatment can improve the outcome of patients with HAVD.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Hand-Arm Vibration Syndrome , Drug Therapy , Humans , Mice , Nerve Growth Factor , Pharmacology , Occupational Diseases , Treatment Outcome , Vibration
7.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-35284

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The cold provocation test for diagnosing the vascular component in hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) is likely to be accepted as an objective test, and a few studies have been performed. However, controversy has continued regarding the diagnostic performance of this method. Although objective methods such as plethysmography and laser doppler flowmetry have been studied, they have not received as much attention as other diagnostic methods. Therefore, our study aim was to spread the awareness of HAVS by reporting the results of the cold provocation test in a hand-transmitted vibration exposure group. METHODS: The study subjects were 549 workers who had been exposed to hand-transmitted vibrations and reported symptoms in their hands. While the subject immersed both their hands in 10degrees C water for 10 minutes, the skin temperature of 10 fingers was recorded from pre-immersion time to 20 minute postimmersion including 10 minutes immersion time. The recovery rates were calculated from the recorded skin temperatures. The 'decreased recovery rate' criteria were less than 30% at 5 minutes post-immersion and 60% at 10 minute post-immersion. RESULTS: Of the subjects, 69.1% and 30.9% had more severe symptoms in the right and left hands, respectively. The mean finger skin temperature of the right hand after cold-water immersion for 10 minutes was approximately 10degrees C, which increased gradually with time, but they did not reach the baseline temperature at 20 minutes post-immersion. The deviations of the skin temperature in the subjects were higher in the recovery phase than in the baseline and cold immersion phase. The 3rd finger of both hands showed the lowest 5-minute recovery rate among the fingers examined, and the left 4th finger and right 3rd finger showed the lowest 10-minute recovery rate. Of the subjects, 37.6% and 10.4% of subjects showed a lower recovery rate at 5 and 10 minutes in at least one finger, respectively, while 10.2% showed a lower recovery rate at both 5 and 10 minutes simultaneously in at least one finger. CONCLUSIONS: The larger deviations in the recovery phase than in the other phases indicated that interindividual differences are more prominent in the recovery phase. There might be no benefit in observing the finger skin temperature for an additional 10 minutes after 10 minutes post-immersion. Overall, approximately 10% of the subjects in the HAVS risk group had HAVS.


Subject(s)
Cold Temperature , Fingers , Hand , Hand-Arm Vibration Syndrome , Immersion , Laser-Doppler Flowmetry , Plethysmography , Skin Temperature , Vibration , Water
8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-75781

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study was undertaken to estimate the effect of hand transmitted vibration exposure for long time period on the auditory system in shipyard grinder workers. METHODS: From 2006 to 2009, the study was carried out on 87 grinder workers for hand transmitted vibration exposure group, with 81 welders who were served as the control group. All subjects were male; at baseline, none of the participants had ear disease or diabetes mellitus. Auditory threshold at different frequencies ranged from 0.25 kHz to 8 kHz for both ear was recorded; the following were also collected from the subjects: age, exposure duration, noise exposure level of investigation year, total cholesterol, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, and smoking history. RESULTS: In comparison of two groups, mean of age, exposure duration, noise level, total cholesterol, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, smoking rate were not significantly different between the groups. Auditory thresholds of 0.25, 0.5 kHz frequencies in both ear, 1 kHz frequency in right ear, and 8 kHz frequency in left ear were higher in hand-transmitted vibration exposure group than that in the control group at a statistically significant level. After stratification by age 50 years, there were no significant differences between the two groups in less than 50-years old age group, but auditory threshold of 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 8 kHz frequency were significantly different between the two groups in above 50-years old age group. The differences between two groups ranged from 0.4 dB(HL) to 6.7 dB(HL). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that hand transmitted vibration exposure was significant only in 0.25, 0.5 kHz frequency and the regression coefficients of vibration exposure ranged from 3.826 to 5.028 in those frequencies. CONCLUSIONS: The differences of hearing threshold between two groups only in the 50-years old group were possibly owing to changed peripheral vascular system with autonomic nervous system, and significances only in low frequencies such as 0.25, 0.5 kHz probably mean that hand vibration exposure have been transmitted to auditory organ over long term. Collectively, older people can be more susceptible to hearing loss in the presence of hand transmitted vibration exposure and auditory threshold at low frequency may be more affected by the hand transmitted vibration exposure than high frequency.


Subject(s)
Auditory Threshold , Autonomic Nervous System , Blood Pressure , Cholesterol , Diabetes Mellitus , Ear , Ear Diseases , Hand , Hand-Arm Vibration Syndrome , Hearing , Hearing Loss , Humans , Linear Models , Noise , Smoke , Smoking , Vibration
9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-129534

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In order to determine find out the best methods for a more objective detection of neurologic abnormality in early hand arm vibration syndrome(HAVS), early with analyzing the validity of each of the detection methods was analyzed. We evaluated the relationships between the sensorineural stage of Stockholm-revised vibration syndrome classification and the results of several tests. METHODS: 497 workers were investigated for symptom, exposure duration, the types of tools used, and medical history from January 2000 to December 2007. Pain sense threshold, vibrotactile threshold, hand grasp force, finger grasp force, and a finger tapping frequency test were performed by the workers. RESULTS: The grinder(67.3%) was the most commonly used tool and the mean exposure duration was 14.8 years. Although the pain sense and vibrotactile threshold level tended to increase according to sensorineural stage of the Stockholm classification, there was statistically significant difference in the vibrotactile threshold of 125, 250 Hz (p=0.006~0.038) but not in the pain sense threshold. Hand and finger grasp force tended to decrease according to the sensorineural stage of Stockholm classification and there was statistically significant difference(p=0.041,<0.001, 0.034) only on the right hand side. The tapping frequency also generally decreased according to the sensorineural stage of the Stockholm classification and there was statistically significant difference (p=0.002~0.019) only on the left hand side. CONCLUSIONS: Although there is no single standardized method that can objectively diagnose the sensorineural component of early HAVS early, the combination of subjective symptoms, the sensorineural stage of Stockholm classification, the pain and vibrotactile threshold test, the hand and finger grasp force, and the finger agility (tapping) test can objectively detect sensorineural component of HAVS early.


Subject(s)
Arm , Fingers , Hand , Hand Strength , Hand-Arm Vibration Syndrome , Vibration
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-129519

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In order to determine find out the best methods for a more objective detection of neurologic abnormality in early hand arm vibration syndrome(HAVS), early with analyzing the validity of each of the detection methods was analyzed. We evaluated the relationships between the sensorineural stage of Stockholm-revised vibration syndrome classification and the results of several tests. METHODS: 497 workers were investigated for symptom, exposure duration, the types of tools used, and medical history from January 2000 to December 2007. Pain sense threshold, vibrotactile threshold, hand grasp force, finger grasp force, and a finger tapping frequency test were performed by the workers. RESULTS: The grinder(67.3%) was the most commonly used tool and the mean exposure duration was 14.8 years. Although the pain sense and vibrotactile threshold level tended to increase according to sensorineural stage of the Stockholm classification, there was statistically significant difference in the vibrotactile threshold of 125, 250 Hz (p=0.006~0.038) but not in the pain sense threshold. Hand and finger grasp force tended to decrease according to the sensorineural stage of Stockholm classification and there was statistically significant difference(p=0.041,<0.001, 0.034) only on the right hand side. The tapping frequency also generally decreased according to the sensorineural stage of the Stockholm classification and there was statistically significant difference (p=0.002~0.019) only on the left hand side. CONCLUSIONS: Although there is no single standardized method that can objectively diagnose the sensorineural component of early HAVS early, the combination of subjective symptoms, the sensorineural stage of Stockholm classification, the pain and vibrotactile threshold test, the hand and finger grasp force, and the finger agility (tapping) test can objectively detect sensorineural component of HAVS early.


Subject(s)
Arm , Fingers , Hand , Hand Strength , Hand-Arm Vibration Syndrome , Vibration
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-209382

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There have been many studies on hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) for almost a century. The Stockholm Workshop scale has been accepted as a useful tool in diagnosing HAVS. Although they are not standard tests for diagnosis, cold provocation test and plethysmography of the fingers are commonly used as objective measurements to confirm the vascular component of HAVS. However, there are only a handful of case reports and studies worldwide on Raynaud's phenomenon in the toes. We report the case of a patient with HAVS who developed Raynaud's phenomenon in the toes after the vibration exposure had ceased. To our knowledge, this is the first report of this entity in Korea. CASE REPORT: A 58-year-old male, who had been diagnosed with HAVS in 2003, first noticed white toes in the summer of 2006 after immersing his feet in cold water. He had been working as a rock drill operator since 1976 for almost 30 years and had symptoms on his fingers since 1992. He underwent the cold provocation test, photoplethysmography, Nerve conduction velocity, and basic laboratory tests to rule out other causes of secondary Raynaud's phenomenon. To describe the severity of his feet, it could be classified as vascular stage 2 and sensorineural stage 1 if we were to apply the Stockholm Workshop scale. CONCLUSIONS: The patient showed vibration-induced white toes, and we would like to share the results of objective findings related to his condition. When diagnosing HAVS, symptoms of the feet should be assessed by the occupational and environmental medicine physicians. Further studies are needed to standardize test methods to diagnose "vibration-induced white toes."


Subject(s)
Cold Temperature , Environmental Medicine , Fingers , Foot , Hand , Hand-Arm Vibration Syndrome , Humans , Male , Mandrillus , Middle Aged , Neural Conduction , Photoplethysmography , Plethysmography , Toes , Vibration , Water
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-145512

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Occupational medicine specialists in the Busan, Ulsan and Kyung-Nam areas established an area-based occupational disease surveillance system and used this system to collected case information for the purpose of preventing occupational diseases METHODS: 11 hospitals participated in this system. The authors selected five main diseases, which were hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS), work-related musculoskeletal disorder (WRMSD), occupational asthma, occupational skin disease and occupational lung cancer and established their case definitions. All cases were reported on the web, and real time analysis was conducted. RESULTS: Between Apri1 2001 and April 2003, 192 cases of HAVS, 118 cases of WRMSD, 33 cases of occupational asthma, 17 cases of occupational skin disease and 17 cases of occupational lung cancer (for a total of 377 cases of these five main diseases) were reported. Most of the HAVS cases came from shipbuilding, and 172 of them (92.7 %) were associated with grinding. Of the four main types of WRMSD, carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) was the most prevalent with 46 cases and shipbuilding was also the main industry involved (83.9 %). The ergonomic risk factors involved mainly associated with the hand. In 19 (57.6 %) and 4 (12.1 %) cases of occupational asthma, the agents included isocyanate and welding fume, respectively. 64.7 % of the cases of occupational skin diseases were contact dermatitis, and organic solvents and welding fume were the main agents involved. The causative agents of occupational lung cancer included Cr, welding fume, PAH, Ni, etc. 10 (58.8 %) of the cases were diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma and 5 (29.4 %) as adenoma. CONCLUSION: This result showed that an area-based occupational disease surveillance system might provide an effective method of evaluating the prevalence of such diseases, however the Busan, Ulsan and Kyung-Nam provinces are too large to be treated as individual areas. Therefore, the authors suggest that each province should establish its own surveillance system.


Subject(s)
Adenoma , Asthma, Occupational , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Carpal Tunnel Syndrome , Dermatitis, Contact , Hand , Hand-Arm Vibration Syndrome , Lung Neoplasms , Occupational Diseases , Occupational Medicine , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Skin Diseases , Solvents , Specialization , Welding
13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-221755

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to estimate the epidemiologic characteristics of hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) due to occupational exposure of hand transmitted vibration and to identify the occupations and industries where such exposures arises, and the main sources of exposure. METHODS: In April 2001 the Busan, Ulsan, and Kyung-Nam Province occupational disease surveillance system was established to measure the incidence and prevalence of work-related HAVS and other occupational diseases in these Korean provinces. Occupational physicians of nine hospitals in Busan, Ulsan, and Kyung-nam Province were involved in this project between April 2001 and November 2002. Physicians collected information through questionnaires and interviews. Information gathered included age, occupation, types of vibration tools used and presence of subjective symptoms such as vibration-induced white finger (VWF), numbness and tingling. RESULTS: A total 192 cases were reported with 188 males and 4 females. The shipbuilding industry was the most common type of industry and grinders were the most common source of exposure. Symptoms of neurological disorder were more common than those of vascular disorder. CONCLUSIONS: The authors concluded that exposure to hand transmitted vibration is common and that HAVS is one of the most common occupational diseases in Korea. However, the range and extent of hand transmitted vibration and the overall prevalence of HAVS in Korea is still unknown. More extensive research on this syndrome in order to priorite necessary preventive measures is required.


Subject(s)
Female , Fingers , Hand , Hand-Arm Vibration Syndrome , Humans , Hypesthesia , Incidence , Korea , Male , Nervous System Diseases , Occupational Diseases , Occupational Exposure , Occupations , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vibration
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-195360

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Various objective tests have been widely used worldwide for diagnosing the hand-arm vibration syndrome. Among these, the cold provocation test has been frequently used to confirm the presence of Raynaud's phenomenon. This study was carried out in order to evaluate finger skin temperature by cold provocation test(10 degrees C for 10 minute) for the diagnosis of hand-arm vibration syndrome METHODS: Fifty-eight workers who had been exposed to local vibration were examined. Information concerning age, occupation, types of vibration tools used, presence of subjective symptoms such as vibration induced white finger(VWF), and numbness and tingling were collected. The subjects were classified into three groups according to their symptoms(Vascular, Neural, and No symptom group). In order to examine the applicability of the cold provocation test using water at 10 degrees C for 10 minute, we compared finger skin temperature between the groups. RESULTS: The mean value of the finger skin temperature at 5 minutes and 10 minutes after cold provocation as well as the recovery rate in the vascular group were significantly lower than that seen in the other groups. CONCLUSIONS: The evaluation of finger skin temperature by cold provocation test is very useful method for the diagnosis of hand-arm vibration syndrome. The test results will assist in confirming the diagnosis of the hand-arm vibration syndrome.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis , Fingers , Hand-Arm Vibration Syndrome , Hypesthesia , Occupations , Skin Temperature , Skin , Vibration , Water
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-195356

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) among symptomatic swagging workers exposed to hand-arm vibration, using medical evaluation and measurement of workplace vibration. Furthermore, to evaluate the neurophysiological METHODS: Four workers showing symptoms relevant to HAVS were evaluated. Medical evaluation consisted of medical interview, questionnaire, nail-bed compression test, and sensory perception tests for vibration and pain. Some other diseases were excluded by a medical interview, hematological assessment, and urinalysis. Cold provocation test was used to assess the peripheral vascular changes, and a nerve conduction velocity (NCV) test was implemented to ascertain the peripheral neural changes. Pegboard, hole plate, and tapping board tests were performed to assess motor nerve function. The hand-arm vibration acceleration levels of the swagging machines were measured. Six months later, follow-up NCV tests were performed. RESULTS: The actual exposure time to vibration was not longer than 15 minutes per day. The hand-arm vibration acceleration levels of the swagging machines, according to actual exposure time, were from 3.63 to 12.98 m/sec2, by ISO 5349. The vibratory perception thresholds and the recovery time of a nail color following finger cooling were significantly increased in all four workers. The perception of pain was mildly increased. The nerve conduction studies at first diagnosis and follow-up showed multifocal neural impairment caused by vibration. However, we could not rule out the concomitant presence of the carpal tunnel syndrome in one worker. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that HAVS can be caused by hand-arm vibration in swagging workers. Interestingly, the NCV results suggested that vibration-induced neural conduction impairments could vary, and need to be interpreted cautiously.


Subject(s)
Acceleration , Carpal Tunnel Syndrome , Diagnosis , Fingers , Follow-Up Studies , Hand-Arm Vibration Syndrome , Neural Conduction , Surveys and Questionnaires , Urinalysis , Vibration
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-106295

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To confirm the HAVS in workers exposed to hand-arm vibration with using the objective diagnostic methods METHODS: Several tests were used to help substantiate a clinical diagnosis of HAVS. Some other diseases were excluded by a medical interview, hematologic assessment, urinalysis, X-rays. The hand-arm vibration acceleration level of the grinder was evaluated for considering HAVS. Peripheral vascular changes were examined by a cold provocation test. An electromyography was implemented to ascertain the peripheral neural changes. RESULTS: 8 workers with symptoms in hands & fingers, exposed to hand-arm vibration were examined. Some other diseases(primary Raynauds disease, secondary Raynauds disease in not occupational origin) were excluded by a medical interview, hematologic assessment, urinalysis, X-rays. The hand-arm vibration acceleration level of the grinder was 7. 9 m/sec2. The recovery time of a skin temperature followed finger cooling was significantly prolonged in 6 workers with HAVS. The nerve conduction velocity was reduced in 6 workers with HAVS. CONCLUSIONS: So we report 6 cases of HAVS in grinding workers exposed to hand-arm vibration diagnosed objectively by an exclusion of some other disease, handarm vibration acceleration level, cold provocation test, electromyography.


Subject(s)
Acceleration , Diagnosis , Electromyography , Fingers , Hand , Hand-Arm Vibration Syndrome , Neural Conduction , Raynaud Disease , Skin Temperature , Urinalysis , Vibration
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-17238

ABSTRACT

A hand-arm vibration syndrome, local vibration illness, occurs in some workers who use hand held vibration tools. It consists of white fingers, diffusely distributed finger neuropathy, pain in the hand and arm, and a small excess risk of osteoarthritis. This study is aimed to identify effective methods to confirm local vibration illness among various health exams, which are mentioned in worker's special health exam regulation. In addition, this study is aimed to quantitatively assess the daily vibration exposure level as a major determinant of vibration illness. The subjects, 46 vibration workers, were selected according to the results of the first special health exam about vibration hazards at shipbuilding industry in 1997. They all had experiences of work related blanching of fingers. Fifteen controls, who had no vibration exposure at all, were also recruited to compare their test results with the results of vibration workers. We adopted 1 subjective and 6 objective tests to evaluate the effectiveness and feasibility for confirming local vibration illness. These tests were history taking of subjective symptoms according to the Stockholm classification, checking blood pressure of finger, checking grasp power, checking finger skin temperature, nail-bed pressing test, vibration perceptional threshold test, and skin prick test for pain perception. Among these, checking skin temperature, nail-bed pressing test, and vibration perception test included cold water provocations. We also estimated some vibration exposure levels of hand held vibration tools by using previously published data from one automobile company. In conclusion, history taking of subjective symptoms according to the Stockholm classification, nail-bed pressing test, and vibration perceptional threshold test were discovered to be effective to diagnose local vibration illness. Furthermore, vibration perceptional threshold on right fingers showed a dose-response relationship to daily vibration exposure levels. The parameter beta was 0.0005(+/-0.0002), and statistically significant by REM (random effects model).


Subject(s)
Arm , Automobiles , Blood Pressure , Classification , Fingers , Hand , Hand Strength , Hand-Arm Vibration Syndrome , Osteoarthritis , Pain Perception , Skin , Skin Temperature , Vibration , Water
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-131376

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted on 103 male workers exposed to local vibration (exposure workers) and 23 male clergical workers not exposed to local vibration (reference workers) to evaluate the effect of local vibration in a automobile industry workers who had used vibratory tools such as electric bolt impacter or grinder. The assessment methods of this study were some tests recommended by Wasserman and Taylor. None of reference workers complained sensorineural symptoms, but 43.7% of exposed workers complained over one of those symptoms. The proportion of non-recovery type, which means that there was no full recovery of temperature of finger tips, was from 0% to 31. 3% in reference workers and from 10.7% to 15.5% in exposure workers. There was statistically significant difference of recovery time of plethysmogram after cold provocation between mean recovery time of 0.44 minutes in reference workers and that of 3.05 minutes in exposure workers. The proportion of bad plethysmogram was from 0% to 4.4% in reference workers and from 3.9% to 7.8% in exposure workers. There was statistically significant difference of discrimination sense between mean length of 2.04 mm in reference workers and that of 2.9 mm in exposure workers. There were also statistically significant difference of pain sense between mean weights of from 5.02 g to 5.26 g in reference workers and those of from 6.81 g to 7.6 g in exposure workers. By the results of multiple stepwise regression analysis the statistically significant variable affecting discrimination and pain sense was exposure and those affecting vibration sense were exposure and age. We concluded that exposure of local vibration in automobile workers was significaritly associated with decrease of sensorineural sense regardless of age and other, possible related variables.


Subject(s)
Automobiles , Discrimination, Psychological , Fingers , Hand-Arm Vibration Syndrome , Humans , Male , Vibration , Weights and Measures
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-131373

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted on 103 male workers exposed to local vibration (exposure workers) and 23 male clergical workers not exposed to local vibration (reference workers) to evaluate the effect of local vibration in a automobile industry workers who had used vibratory tools such as electric bolt impacter or grinder. The assessment methods of this study were some tests recommended by Wasserman and Taylor. None of reference workers complained sensorineural symptoms, but 43.7% of exposed workers complained over one of those symptoms. The proportion of non-recovery type, which means that there was no full recovery of temperature of finger tips, was from 0% to 31. 3% in reference workers and from 10.7% to 15.5% in exposure workers. There was statistically significant difference of recovery time of plethysmogram after cold provocation between mean recovery time of 0.44 minutes in reference workers and that of 3.05 minutes in exposure workers. The proportion of bad plethysmogram was from 0% to 4.4% in reference workers and from 3.9% to 7.8% in exposure workers. There was statistically significant difference of discrimination sense between mean length of 2.04 mm in reference workers and that of 2.9 mm in exposure workers. There were also statistically significant difference of pain sense between mean weights of from 5.02 g to 5.26 g in reference workers and those of from 6.81 g to 7.6 g in exposure workers. By the results of multiple stepwise regression analysis the statistically significant variable affecting discrimination and pain sense was exposure and those affecting vibration sense were exposure and age. We concluded that exposure of local vibration in automobile workers was significaritly associated with decrease of sensorineural sense regardless of age and other, possible related variables.


Subject(s)
Automobiles , Discrimination, Psychological , Fingers , Hand-Arm Vibration Syndrome , Humans , Male , Vibration , Weights and Measures
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-72186

ABSTRACT

Recent studies reveal that grip forces during the hand-arm vibration are most significant for the genesis of vibration-induced white finger syndrome. Therefore, exerted grip forces and skin temperatures or fingers were regarded as dependent variables in experiments and the effects of grip temperature, noise, pushing force, vibration and the combined effect of vibration and pushing force were studied. The objectives or the present study were, first, to varify and compare the changes of grip force affected by grip temperature, noise, pushing force, vibration and the combined effect of vibration and pushing force and, second, to observe the reaction of finger skin temperature affected by above factors. Forty-six healthy male students(25.07+/-2.85) participated in five systematically permuted trials, which endured 4 minutes each other. Experiments were executed in a special chamber with an air temperature of 21 C. In each experiments, the subjects were exposed to five experiment types: (l) grip force of 25 N only, (2) pushing force of 50 N, (3) acceleration of vibration 7.1m/sec2(z-direction), (4) pink noise or 95 dB(A) and (5) combination of pushing force 50 N and acceleration of vibration 7.1m/sec2. A repeated-measures analysis of variance(ANOVA) was performed on the grip force to test whether it was affected by noise, pushing force, vibration and pushing force. The present results show that vibration was significantly related to the increase of grip force, but the other factors, such as pushing force, noise and grip temperature had no significant influence on the increase of grip force and that the reaction of finger skin temperature were significantly affected by the skin temperature at start of experiment and grip temperature, not grip force and other experimental conditions. Therefore, we suggest that the management for decreasing the grip force is meaningful to prevent the occurrence of Hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS).


Subject(s)
Acceleration , Fingers , Hand Strength , Hand-Arm Vibration Syndrome , Humans , Male , Noise , Skin Temperature , Skin , Vibration
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