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1.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(2): 505-516, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364318

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento A estimulação ventricular direita convencional aumenta o risco de fibrilação atrial e insuficiência cardíaca em portadores de marca-passo. A estimulação do ramo esquerdo (RE) do sistema His-Purkinje pode evitar os desfechos indesejados da estimulação ventricular direita. Objetivo Analisar retrospectivamente os desfechos intraoperatórios, eletrocardiográficos e os dados clínicos do seguimento inicial de pacientes submetidos à estimulação do RE. Métodos Foram avaliados os parâmetros eletrônicos do implante e eventuais complicações precoces de 52 pacientes consecutivos submetidos à estimulação do sistema de condução. O nível de significância alfa adotado foi igual a 0,05. Resultados 52 pacientes foram submetidos a estimulação do RE do sistema His-Purkinje, obtendo sucesso em 50 procedimentos. 69,2% dos pacientes eram do sexo masculino e a mediana e intervalo interquatil da idade no momento do implante foi de 73,5 (65,0-80,0) anos. A duração do QRS pré-implante foi de 146 (104-175) ms e de 120 (112-130) ms após o procedimento. O tempo de ativação do ventrículo esquerdo foi de 78 (70-84) ms. A amplitude da onda R foi de 12,00 (7,95-15,30) mV, com limiar de estimulação de 0,5 (0,4-0,7) V × 0,4 ms e impedância de 676 (534-780) ohms. O tempo de procedimento foi de 116 (90-130) min e o tempo de fluoroscopia foi de 14,2 (10,0-21,6) min. Conclusão A estimulação cardíaca do sistema de condução His-Purkinje por meio da estimulação do ramo esquerdo é uma técnica segura e factível. Nesta casuística, apresentou alta taxa de sucesso, foi realizada com tempo de procedimento e fluoroscopia baixos e obteve medidas eletrônicas adequadas.


Abstract Background Conventional right ventricular pacing increases the risk of atrial fibrillation and heart failure in pacemaker patients. Stimulation of the left bundle branch (LBB) of the His-Purkinje system can prevent the unwanted outcomes of right ventricular pacing. Objective To retrospectively analyze the intraoperative outcomes, electrocardiographic and clinical data from the initial follow-up of patients submitted to stimulation of the LBB. Methods The electronic parameters of the implant and of possible early complications of 52 consecutive patients submitted to stimulation of the conduction system were evaluated. The adopted significance level was 0.05. Results Fifty-two patients underwent left bundle branch stimulation, with 50 successful procedures; 69.2% of the patients were male, and the median and interquartile range of age at the time of implantation was 73.5 (65.0-80.0) years. The pre-implant QRS duration was 146 (104-175) ms and 120 (112-130) ms after the procedure. The left ventricle activation time was 78 (70-84) ms. The R-wave amplitude was 12.00 (7.95-15.30) mV, with a stimulation threshold of 0.5 (0.4-0.7) V x 0.4 ms and impedance of 676 (534-780) ohms. The procedure duration was 116 (90-130) min, and the fluoroscopy time was 14.2 (10.0-21.6) min. Conclusion Cardiac stimulation of the His-Purkinje conduction system through the stimulation of the left bundle branch is a safe and feasible technique. In this study, it showed a high success rate, with low procedure and fluoroscopy periods, achieving adequate electronic measurements.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Bundle of His , Cardiac Pacing, Artificial/methods , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Electrocardiography/methods , Heart Conduction System
3.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(8): 630-636, Aug. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1135669

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Electrocardiographic markers have been used in people to classify arrhythmogenic risk. The aims of this study were to investigate electrocardiographic markers of conduction and repolarization in Boxers and non-Boxer dogs, and compare such findings between groups. Ten-lead standard electrocardiograms of Boxer dogs and non-Boxers recorded from 2015 to 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. Dogs >/ 4 years of age and weighing > 20kg were included. Animals with valvular insufficiencies, congenital cardiopathies, cardiac dilation, suspected systolic dysfunction, biphasic T-wave, bundle branch blocks, and those receiving antiarrhythmics were excluded. Electrocardiographic markers of conduction, QRS duration (QRSd) and dispersion (QRSD), and repolarization (corrected QT interval, Tpeak-Tend, JT and JTpeak), as well as derived indices, were measured. Two hundred dogs met the inclusion/exclusion requirements, including 97 Boxers (8.1±2.5 years old; 30±7kg) and 103 non-Boxer (8.8±2.5 years old, 30±8kg). QRSd and QRSD, and repolarization markers in lead II and left precordial lead V4 were considered similar between groups. Dispersion of late repolarization on lead rV2, Tpeak-Tend interval, was considered longer in Boxers (45±8ms vs 38±10ms, P=0.01). The Tpeak-Tend/JTpeak and the JTpeak/JT also differed between groups. Our results indicate that the dispersion of myocardial late repolarization in lead rV2 is slower in Boxers than other dog breeds.(AU)


Marcadores eletrocardiográficos têm sido estudados em seres humanos para estratificação do risco arritmogênico. Os objetivos deste estudo foram investigar os marcadores eletrocardiográficos de condução e repolarização miocárdica em Boxers e em cães de outras raças, e comparar tais resultados entre os grupos. Para tal, a eletrocardiografia convencional de 10 derivações registradas de 2015 a 2018 foram avaliadas de maneira retrospectiva. Cães com idade igual ou superior a 4 anos e pesando > 20kg foram incluídos. Animais com insuficiência valvar, cardiopatias congênitas, dilatação cardíaca, suspeita de disfunção sistólica, onda T bifásica, bloqueio(s) de ramo(s), ou aqueles que recebiam antiarrítmicos foram excluídos. Variáveis eletrocardiográficas de condução, como a duração e dispersão do complexo QRS (QRSd e QRSD, respectivamente), e repolarização (intervalo QT corrigido, Tpico-Tfinal, JT e JTpico), bem como índices derivados, foram mensurados. Duzentos cães que se adequaram aos critérios de inclusão/exclusão foram incluídos, 97 Boxers (8,1±2,5 anos; 30±7kg) e 103 não Boxers (8,8±2,5 anos; 30±8kg). O QRSd e o QRSD, e os marcadores de repolarização nas derivações II e V4 foram similares entre os grupos. O marcador de dispersão da repolarização tardia na derivação rV2, Tpico-Tfinal, foi considerado mais longo no Boxers (45±8ms vs 38±10ms, P=0.01). O Tpico-Tfinal/JTpico e o JTpico/JT também diferiram entre os grupos. Nossos resultados indicam que a dispersão da repolarização miocárdica tardia na derivação precordial direita, rV2, é mais lenta no Boxer do que nas outras raças.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnostic imaging , Dog Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Electrocardiography/methods , Electrocardiography/veterinary , Cardiac Complexes, Premature/veterinary , Echocardiography/veterinary , Heart Conduction System
6.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 90(1): 12-16, Jan.-Mar. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131000

ABSTRACT

Abstract Complete heart block (CHB) results from dysfunction of the cardiac conduction system, which results in complete electrical dissociation. The ventricular escape rhythm can have its origin anywhere from the atrioventricular node to the bundle branch-Purkinje system. CHB typically results in bradycardia, hypotension, fatigue, hemodynamic instability, syncope, or even Stokes-Adams syndrome. Escape rhythm originating above the bifurcation of the His bundle (HB) produces narrow QRSs with relatively rapid heart rate (HR) (except in cases of His system disease). We present a middle-aged man with an HR of 34 bpm, progressive fatigue, in whom a temporary pacemaker was implanted in the subtricuspid region. The post-intervention electrocardiogram had unusual features.


Resumen El bloqueo cardíaco completo (BCC) resulta de la disfunción del sistema de conducción cardíaco, lo que ocasiona una disociación eléctrica completa entre aurículas y ventrículos. El ritmo de escape resultante puede tener su origen en cualquier lugar desde el nodo auriculoventricular hasta el sistema His Purkinje. El BCC generalmente produce bradicardia, hipotensión, fatiga, inestabilidad hemodinámica, síncope o incluso el síndrome de Stokes-Adams. El ritmo de escape que se origina por encima de la bifurcación del haz de His produce intervalos QRS estrechos con frecuencia cardíaca no muy lenta (excepto en casos de enfermedad del sistema Hisiano). Presentamos a un hombre de mediana edad con una frecuencia cardíaca de 34 lpm, fatiga progresiva, en el que se implantó un marcapasos temporario en la región subtricuspídea. El electrocardiograma resultante a la intervención presentó características inusuales.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Cardiac Pacing, Artificial/adverse effects , Heart Rate/physiology , Heart Ventricles/physiopathology , Electrocardiography , Fatigue/physiopathology , Heart Conduction System/physiopathology
7.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(2): 487-495, 01-03-2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146405

ABSTRACT

Canine distemper is a viral disease that affects several systems on dogs, among them, the cardiovascular system. The aim of this study was to identify canine distemper virus (CDV) in the sinoatrial node (SAN) of dogs serologically positive for distemper by Polymerase Chain Reaction preceded by reverse transcription (RT-PCR), and to analyze gross and microscopic changes of distemper in the heart and other tissues. SAN and tissue fragments were collected from 17 serologically positive dead animals, necropsied from October 2015 to December 2016. In the heart, right heart dilatation was observed in 13 dogs (76.47%) and left concentric hypertrophy in two dogs (11.76%). Microscopically, lymphocytic myocarditis was observed in four (23.53%) dogs and 41.18% presented viral inclusion corpuscles of CDV in the bladder epithelium. Only one (5.88%) dog presented a 319 bp target fragment for distemper virus using primers CDV 1 and CDV 2 at the sinoatrial node. In conclusion, CDV can be located in the sinoatrial node of naturally infected dogs, as demonstrated in this study by the RT-PCR technique, reinforcing the hypothesis that CDV is capable of causing inflammatory lesions in the sinoatrial node of this species. Macroscopic and microscopic cardiac changes are frequently observed in dogs with distemper, mainly cardiac dilatation and myocarditis. Viral inclusions of CDV in bladder epithelial cells are an important microscopic finding for the diagnosis of distemper.


A cinomose canina é uma doença viral que afeta vários sistemas, dentre eles o cardiovascular. Objetivou-se identificar o vírus da cinomose canina no nó sinoatrial (NSA) de cães sorologicamente positivos para cinomose, através da reação em cadeia da polimerase, precedida de transcrição reversa (RT-PCR), além de analisar os achados macroscópicos e histológicos da cinomose no coração e outros tecidos. Foram coletados fragmentos de tecidos e do NSA de 17 cães sorologicamente positivos para cinomose que vieram a óbito e foram necropsiados no período de outubro de 2015 a dezembro de 2016. No coração observou-se dilatação cardíaca direita em 76,47% dos cães e hipertrofia concêntrica esquerda em 11,76% dos cães. Microscopicamente observou-se miocardite linfocítica em 23,53% dos cães e 41,18% apresentou corpúsculos de inclusão viral no epitélio vesical. Somente um (5,88%) cão apresentou fragmento alvo de 319 bp para cinomose utilizando os primers VCC1 e VCC2, no nó sinoatrial. Conclui-se que o VCC pode localizar-se no nó sinoatrial de cães naturalmente infectados, como demonstrados neste estudo pela técnica de RT-PCR, reforçando a hipótese de que o VCC é capaz de provocar lesões inflamatórias no nó sinoatrial dessa espécie. Alterações cardíacas macroscópicas e microscópicas, principalmente dilatação cardíaca e miocardite, são frequentemente observadas em cães com cinomose. Inclusões virais nas células epiteliais da bexiga são importantes achados microscópicos para diagnóstico da cinomose.


Subject(s)
Distemper , Dogs , Heart Conduction System , Cardiomyopathies
8.
Anon.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(3): 197-200, June 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020059

ABSTRACT

El bloqueo de rama funcional durante una taquicardia supraventricular puede ser observado con longitudes de ciclo cortas y representa una respuesta fisiológica del sistema de conducción intraventricular por la existencia de conducción nodal auriculo ventricular acelerada. Presentamos el caso de un paciente joven con taquicardia reentrante aurículo-ventricular ortodrómica y bloqueo de rama alternante. Esta respuesta infrecuente se explica por el hallazgo obtenido durante el estudio electrofisiológico. Una conducción nodal aurículo-ventricular acelerada produce un frente de onda que despolariza las ramas durante sus períodos refractarios. Una vez que ocurrió el bloqueo en una de las ramas, dicho bloqueo persistió debido al fenómeno de linking, que es por conducción oculta retrógrada repetitiva de la rama contralateral. Después de la ablación transcatéter de una vía accesoria oculta lateral izquierda, el marcapaseo auricular rápido a la misma longitud de ciclo de la taquicardia, reprodujo la misma aberrancia observada durante la taquicardia. Este procedimiento demostró que el bloqueo de rama funcional fue debido a la longitud de ciclo corto y no a la presencia de una vía accesoria aurículo-ventricular.


Functional bundle branch block during a supraventricular tachycardia can be observed with shorter cycle lengths and represent a physiologic response by the specialized intraventricular conduction system to accelerated AV nodal conduction. The present case corresponds to a young patient with exercise induced orthodromic A-V reentrant tachycardia and alternating bundle branch block. This unusual response is explained by the finding obtained during the electrophysiology study. An accelerated AV nodal conduction made the depolarizing wave front reach the bundle branches during their refractory period. Once block in one bundle was stablished, block persisted due to the linking phenomenon that is repetitive retrograde concealed conduction from the contralateral bundle. After catheter ablation of a concealed left-sided accessory A-V pathway, rapid atrial pacing at the same cycle length of the tachycardia reproduced the same aberrancies observed during tachycardia. This response proved that functional bundle branch block is due to the short cycle length and not the presence of an accessory A-V pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Tachycardia, Supraventricular/diagnostic imaging , Bundle-Branch Block/diagnostic imaging , Tachycardia, Supraventricular/complications , Bundle-Branch Block/etiology , Catheter Ablation , Electrocardiography , Electrophysiology , Heart Conduction System/physiopathology , Heart Conduction System/diagnostic imaging
9.
CorSalud ; 11(1): 75-78, ene.-mar. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089713

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Hombre de 80 años de edad, con antecedentes de miocardiopatía dilatada de origen isquémico, con disfunción sisto-diastólica del ventrículo izquierdo, que inicialmente presentó flutter auricular con inestabilidad hemodinámica y se realizó cardioversión eléctrica, luego de la cual se obtuvo un ritmo no precedido de onda P a 40 latidos por minuto, que fue interpretado como fibrilación auricular bloqueada; razón por la que se le colocó un marcapasos externo. Durante su evolución se realizó electrocardiograma de 12 derivaciones, donde se evidenció estimulación ventricular permanente con conducción retrógrada (ventrículo-auricular). Se disminuyó la frecuencia de estimulación para priorizar el ritmo espontáneo del paciente y se obtuvo marcada mejoría de la curva de presión arterial.


ABSTRACT An 80-year-old male patient is presented, with previous dilated cardiomyopathy of ischemic etiology, with systo-diastolic left ventricular dysfunction, who initially presented atrial flutter and hemodynamic instability, thus, an electrical cardioversion was performed. After this procedure, a blocked atrial fibrillation was observed. Thus, an external pacemaker was placed. During the evolution, a 12 lead electrocardiogram was performed, showing permanent ventricular stimulation with retrograde conduction (ventriculo-atrial). The pacing rate was diminished for prioritizing the patient's spontaneous rhythm resulting in an improvement of the blood pressure curve.


Subject(s)
Heart Conduction System , Cardiac Pacing, Artificial , Atrial Function
10.
J. bras. pneumol ; 44(6): 456-460, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984598

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To conduct a longitudinal investigation of cardiac vagal activity (CVA) by measuring resting HR and calculating the cardiac vagal index (CVI) in individuals undergoing sympathectomy for the treatment of primary hyperhidrosis. Methods: This was a descriptive longitudinal study involving 22 patients, 13 of whom were female. The mean age was 22.5 ± 8.8 years. The palms, soles, and axillae were the most commonly affected sites. Resting HR was measured by an electrocardiogram performed 20 min before the 4-second exercise test (4sET), which was used in order to evaluate CVA at three different time points: before surgery, one month after surgery, and four years after surgery. Results: Resting HR (expressed as mean ± SE) was found to have decreased significantly at 1 month after surgery (73.1 ± 1.6 bpm before surgery vs. 69.7 ± 1.2 bpm at one month after surgery; p = 0.01). However, the HR values obtained at four years after surgery tended to be similar to those obtained before surgery (p = 0.31). The CVI (expressed as mean ± SE) was found to have increased significantly at one month after surgery (1.44 ± 0.04 before surgery vs. 1.53 ± 0.03 at one month after surgery; p = 0.02). However, the CVI obtained at four years after surgery tended to be similar to that obtained before surgery (p = 0.10). Conclusions: At one month after sympathectomy for primary hyperhidrosis, patients present with changes in resting HR and CVA, both of which tend to return to baseline at four years after surgery.


RESUMO Objetivo: Investigar longitudinalmente o comportamento da atividade vagal cardíaca (AVC) por meio da FC de repouso e do índice vagal cardíaco (IVC) de indivíduos submetidos à simpatectomia para o tratamento de hiperidrose primária. Métodos: Estudo de natureza descritiva e longitudinal que avaliou 22 pacientes (13 mulheres), com média de idade de 22,5 ± 8,8 anos. Os locais mais afetados eram as mãos, pés e axilas. A FC de repouso média foi mensurada através de eletrocardiograma 20 min antes do teste de exercício de 4 segundos (T4s), que foi utilizado para a avaliação da AVC em três momentos: antes da cirurgia, um mês após a cirurgia e quatro anos após a cirurgia. Resultados: A média ± erro-padrão da FC de repouso apresentou uma redução significativa entre a avaliação pré-operatória e um mês após a cirurgia (73,1 ± 1,6 bpm vs. 69,7 ± 1,2 bpm; p = 0,01), tendendo a retornar aos valores pré-operatórios quatro anos após a cirurgia (p = 0,31). Houve um aumento significativo do IVC entre o pré-operatório e um mês após a cirurgia (1,44 ± 0,04 vs. 1,53 ± 0,03; p = 0,02), tendendo também a retornar próximo aos valores do pré-operatório após quatro anos da cirurgia (p = 0,10). Conclusões: A simpatectomia resultou em alteração na FC de repouso e na AVC um mês após a cirurgia, retornando, após quatro anos, aos valores próximos do pré-operatório.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Sympathectomy/methods , Heart Conduction System/physiopathology , Heart Rate/physiology , Hyperhidrosis/surgery , Rest/physiology , Thoracoscopy , Time Factors , Follow-Up Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Hyperhidrosis/physiopathology
11.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 64(10): 916-921, Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-976779

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY The septomarginal trabecula is a muscular structure which transmits the right branch of the atrioventricular bundle. It is usually supplied by a branch from the second anterior septal artery. Anastomoses between the right and left coronary arteries may happen on the septomarginal trabecula. They are of great significance in order to prevent ischemia during a myocardial infarction. Surgeries such as Konno's and Ross' procedures implies in knowledge of these vessels anatomy. The coronary arteries of 50 human hearts were injected with latex and subsequentely dissected with the purpose of identifying the arterial branch that supplied the septomarginal trabecula. The trabecular branch arose from the second anterior septal artery in 38% of cases, and the branch arose from the first anterior septal artery in 26%. One of the hearts had its septomarginal trabecula supplied by the conus arteriosus arteryliterature. Anastomoses between the right and left coronary arteries were found inside the septomarginal trabecula. The right branch of the atrioventricular bundle is subject to a great number of clinical conditions and is often manipulated during surgery, thus, the study of the septal branches of the coronary arteries and the trabecular branch is essential.


RESUMO A trabécula septomarginal é uma estrutura muscular que transmite o ramo direito do feixe atrioventricular. É usualmente suprida por um ramo da segunda artéria septal anterior. Anastomoses entre as artérias coronárias direita e esquerda podem ocorrer na trabécula. São de grande significância especialmente na prevenção de isquemia durante um infarto do miocárdio. Procedimentos cirúrgicos como o de Konno's e Ross implicam conhecimento anatômico desses vasos. As artérias coronárias de 50 corações humanos foram injetadas com látex e dissecadas com o propósito de identificar o ramo arterial que supria a trabécula septomarginal. Em somente 38% dos casos o ramo foi proveniente da segunda artéria septal anterior, enquanto que em 26% dos casos a artéria se originou da primeira septal anterior. Um dos corações teve a trabécula septomarginal suprida por um ramo originário da artéria do cone arterioso. Além disso, foram encontradas anastomoses entre as artérias coronárias no interior da trabécula septomarginal. Em suma, o ramo direito do feixe atrioventricular está sujeito a inúmeras condições clínicas e é alvo de manuseio em cirurgias, logo, o estudo dos ramos septais das artérias coronárias, em especial o ramo trabecular é essencial.


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronary Circulation , Coronary Vessels/anatomy & histology , Heart Ventricles/anatomy & histology , Ventricular Function , Contrast Media , Heart Conduction System , Heart Septum/anatomy & histology
12.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 1081-1096, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738673

ABSTRACT

We reviewed the anatomical characteristics of the conduction system in the ventricles of human and ungulate hearts and then raised some questions to be answered by clinical and anatomical studies in the future. The ventricular conduction system is a 3-dimensional structure as compared to the 2-dimensional character of the atrial conduction system. The proximal part consisting of the atrioventricular node, the bundle of His and fascicles are groups of conducting cells surrounded by fibrous connective tissue so as to insulate from the underlying myocardium. Their location and morphological characters are well established. The bundle of His is a cord like structure but the left and right fascicles are broad at the proximal and branching at the distal part. The more distal part of fascicles and Purkinje system are linear networks of conducting cells at the immediate subendocardium but the intra-mural network is detected at the inner half of the ventricular wall. The papillary muscle also harbors Purkinje system not in the deeper part. It is hard to recognize histologically in human hearts but conducting cells as well as Purkinje cells are easily recognized in ungulate hearts. Further observation on human and ungulate hearts with myocardial infarct, we could find preserved Purkinje system at the subendocardium in contrast to the damaged system at the deeper myocardium. Further studies are necessary on the anatomical characteristics of this peripheral conduction system so as to correlate the clinical data on hearts with ventricular arrhythmias.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Atrioventricular Node , Bundle of His , Connective Tissue , Heart , Heart Conduction System , Humans , Myocardial Infarction , Myocardium , Papillary Muscles , Purkinje Cells , Purkinje Fibers , Tachycardia, Ventricular
13.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 109(3): 222-230, Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887924

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is very common in hemodialysis patients and an independent risk factor for mortality in this population. The myocardial remodeling underlying the LVH can affect ventricular repolarization causing abnormalities in QT interval. Objective: to evaluate the reproducibility and reliability of measurements of corrected QT interval (QTc) and its dispersion (QTcd) and correlate these parameters with LVH in hemodialysis patients. Methods: Case-control study involving hemodialysis patients and a control group. Clinical examination, blood sampling, transthoracic echocardiogram, and electrocardiogram were performed. Intra- and interobserver correlation and concordance tests were performed by Pearson´s correlation, Cohen's Kappa coefficient and Bland Altman diagram. Linear regression was used to analyze association of QTc or QTcd with HVE. Results: Forty-one HD patients and 37 controls concluded the study. Hemodialysis patients tended to have higher values of QTc, QTcd and left ventricular mass index (LVMi) than controls but statistical significance was not found. Correlation and concordance tests depicted better results for QTc than for QTcd. In HD patients, a poor but significant correlation was found between QTc and LVMi (R2 = 0.12; p = 0.03). No correlation was found between values of QTcd and LVMi (R2= 0.00; p=0.940). For the control group, the correspondent values were R2= 0.00; p = 0.67 and R2= 0.00; p = 0.94, respectively. Conclusion: We found that QTc interval, in contrast to QTcd, is a reproducible and reliable measure and had a weak but positive correlation with LVMi in HD patients.


Resumo Fundamentos: A hipertrofia ventricular esquerda (HVE) é muito comum em pacientes em hemodiálise e um fator de risco independente de mortalidade nessa população. O remodelamento do miocárdio, subjacente à HVE, pode afetar a repolarização ventricular, causando anormalidades no intervalo QT. Objetivo: avaliar a reprodutibilidade e confiabilidade das medidas do intervalo QT corrigido (QTc) e sua dispersão (QTcd), e correlacionar esses parâmetros com HVE em pacientes em hemodiálise. Métodos: Estudo caso-controle envolvendo pacientes em hemodiálise e um grupo controle. Foram realizados avaliação clínica, coleta de sangue, ecocardiografia transtorácica, e eletrocardiograma. Testes de correlação e concordância intraobservador e interobservador foram realizados por correlação de Pearson, coeficiente kappa de Cohen e diagrama de Bland Altman. A regressão linear foi usada para analisar a associação entre QTc ou QTcd e HE. Resultados: Quarenta e um pacientes em hemodiálise e 37 controles completaram o estudo. Houve uma tendência de os pacientes apresentarem valores mais altos de QTc, QTcd e de índice de massa ventricular esquerda que os controles, mas sem significância estatística. Os testes de correlação e de concordância apresentaram melhores resultados para QTc que para QTcd. Em pacientes em hemodiálise, uma correlação fraca, mas significativa foi encontrada entre QTc e IMVE (R2 = 0,12; p = 0,03). Não foi encontrada correlação entre QTcd e IMVE (R2 = 0,00; p=0,940). Para o grupo controle, esses valores correspondentes foram R2 = 0,00; p = 0,67 e R2 = 0,00; p = 0,94, respectivamente. Conclusão: o intervalo QTc, diferentemente do intervalo QTcd, é uma medida reprodutível e confiável, e apresentou uma correlação fraca, mas positiva com o IMVE em pacientes em hemodiálise.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular/diagnosis , Heart Conduction System/physiopathology , Echocardiography , Case-Control Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Risk Factors , Renal Dialysis , Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular/complications , Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular/physiopathology , Electrocardiography , Renal Insufficiency/complications , Renal Insufficiency/physiopathology , Renal Insufficiency/therapy
14.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 15(3): 251-255, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-891410

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To assess the association between cigarette smoking and ventricular arrhythmias in adolescents. Novel electrocardiographic parameters -Tp-e interval, as well as Tpe/QT and Tpe/QTc ratios - were used to make this assessment. Methods The study population consisted of 87 subjects aged between 16-19 years. Fifty-one adolescent smokers with no risk of arrhythmia comprised the Smoker Group, and 36 adolescents who had never smoked cigarettes comprised the Control Group. Smokers were defined as patients smoking more than three cigarettes per day, for at least 1 year. Body mass index, systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressures were measured, and electrocardiograms were performed on all subjects. Heart rate, PR and Tp-e intervals, and Tpe/QT, Tpe/QTc ratio were digitally measured. Results Adolescents in Smoker Group had smoked cigarettes for 2.9±1.4 years (range 1 to 6 years). The mean age at starting smoking was 13.8±1.4 years. There were no differences between smokers and Control Group as to baseline clinical variables (p>0.05). The PR, QT and QTc intervals were similar in all groups. Tp-e interval (98.4±12.7ms and 78.3±6.9 ms; p<0.001), Tpe/QT (0.28±0.04 and 22±0.03; p<0.01), Tpe/QTc (0.24±0.03 and 0.19±0.01; p<0.001) ratios were significantly higher in Smoker Group. There were no correlations between years of smoking, number of cigarettes per day, Tpe interval, Tpe/QT or Tpe/QTc ratios. Conclusion Cigarette smoking is associated with risk of ventricular arrhytmogenesis with prolonged Tp-e interval and increased Tpe/QT and Tpe/QTc ratios in adolescents.


RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar a associação entre tabagismo e arritmias ventriculares em adolescentes usando novos parâmetros eletrocardiográficos: intervalo Tp-e, e relações Tpe/QT e Tpe/QTc. Métodos A população do estudo incluiu 87 indivíduos de 16 a 19 anos de idade. Cinquenta e um adolescentes fumantes, sem risco de arritmia, formaram o Grupo Fumantes, e 36 adolescentes, que nunca tinham fumado cigarros, formaram o Grupo Controle. Os fumantes foram definidos como pacientes que fumavam mais de três cigarros por dia, há pelo menos 1 ano. O índice de massa corporal, e a pressão arterial sistólica, diastólica e média foram medidos, e foram realizados eletrocardiogramas em todos os participantes. Frequência cardíaca, intervalos PR e Tp-e, e as relações Tpe/QT e Tpe/QTc foram medidas por instrumentos digitais. Resultados Os adolescentes do Grupo Fumante fumavam há 2,9±1,4 anos (variação 1 a 6 anos). A média de idade ao começar a fumar foi 13,8±1,4 anos. Não houve diferença nas variáveis clínicas iniciais entre os Grupos Fumante e controle (p>0,05). Os intervalos PR, QT e QTc foram semelhantes em todos os grupos. O intervalo Tp-e (98,4±12,7ms e 78,3±6,9ms; p<0,001), e as relações Tpe/QT (0,28±0,04 e 22±0,03; p<0,01) e Tpe/QTc (0,24±0,03 e 0,19±0,01; p<0,001) foram significativamente maiores no Grupo Fumantes. Não houve correlação entre anos de tabagismo, número de cigarros por dia, intervalo Tpe e relações Tpe/QT e Tpe/QTc. Conclusão O hábito de fumar está associado ao risco de arritmogênese ventricular, com interval Tp-e prolongado e aumento nas relações Tpe/QT e Tpe/QTc em adolescentes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , Cigarette Smoking/adverse effects , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Electrocardiography , Cigarette Smoking/physiopathology , Heart Conduction System/physiology , Heart Rate/physiology
16.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 77(1): 7-12, feb. 2017. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-841625

ABSTRACT

Coronary sinus mapping is commonly used to evaluate left atrial activation. Herein, we propose to use it to assess which right ventricular pacing modality produces the shortest left ventricular activation times (R-LVtime) and the narrowest QRS widths. Three study groups were defined: 54 controls without intraventricular conduction disturbances; 15 patients with left bundle branch block, and other 15 with right bundle branch block. Left ventricular activation times and QRS widths were evaluated among groups under sinus rhythm, right ventricular apex, right ventricular outflow tract and high output septal zone (SEPHO). Left ventricular activation time was measured as the time elapsed from the surface QRS onset to the most distal left ventricular deflection recorded at coronary sinus. During the above stimulation modalities, coronary sinus mapping reproduced electrical differences that followed mechanical differences measured by tissue doppler imaging. Surprisingly, 33% of the patients with left bundle branch block displayed an early left ventricular activation time, suggesting that these patients would not benefit from resynchronization therapy. SEPHO improved QRS widths and left ventricular activation times in all groups, especially in patients with left bundle branch block, in whom these variables became similar to controls. Left ventricular activation time could be useful to search the optimum pacing site and would also enable detection of non-responders to cardiac resynchronization therapy. Finally, SEPHO resulted the best pacing modality, because it narrowed QRS-complexes and shortened left ventricular activations of patients with left bundle branch block and preserved the physiological depolarization of controls.


El mapeo del seno coronario se utiliza comúnmente para evaluar la activación de la aurícula izquierda. Aquí, investigamos su utilidad para evaluar qué modalidad de estimulación ventricular derecha produce los menores tiempos de activación ventricular izquierda (R-LVtime). Se definieron tres grupos: 54 controles; 15 pacientes con bloqueo de rama izquierda y 15 con bloqueo de rama derecha. El ancho de QRS y los tiempos de activación fueron evaluados en cada grupo bajo las siguientes modalidades: ritmo sinusal, ápex del ventrículo derecho, tracto de salida del ventrículo derecho y alta salida en septum (SEPHO). El R-LVtime se midió como el tiempo transcurrido desde el inicio del QRS de superficie y la deflexión ventricular izquierda más distal del seno coronario. Durante las distintas modalidades de estimulación, el mapeo del seno coronario reprodujo diferencias eléctricas acompañadas por diferencias mecánicas que fueron evaluadas mediante Tissue Doppler Imaging. El 33% de los pacientes con bloqueo de rama izquierda mostró R-LVtime tempranos, lo que sugiere que estos pacientes no se beneficiarían con terapia de resincronización. SEPHO mejoró el ancho de QRS y el R-LVtime de todos los grupos, especialmente en los pacientes con bloqueo de rama izquierda. En conclusión, el R-LVtime serviría para identificar el sitio óptimo de estimulación y permitiría detectar ciertos no respondedores a la terapia de resincronización. Además, el SEPHO resultó la mejor modalidad de estimulación porque estrechó el QRS y acortó el R-LVtime de los pacientes con bloqueo de rama izquierda pero no alteró la despolarización fisiológica de los controles.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Bundle-Branch Block/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/therapy , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/therapy , Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy/methods , Heart Conduction System/physiopathology , Echocardiography, Doppler , Case-Control Studies , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Electrocardiography
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-633447

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with acute ischemic stroke are susceptible  to  cardiac  arrhythmias  however,fatal arrhythmias  are  rare  in  the  absence  of  cardiac  disease.Cardiac arrhythmias can develop in lesions at the right side of the brain specifically the insular,frontal and parietal area.Data that show the direct relationship of ischemic stroke and arrhythmia are scarce but they are indirectly attributed to an imbalance in the autonomic nervous system.This paper aims to present a rare case of an association between a fatal arrhythmia and right thalamic infarct.   CASE: Presenting a case of a 39-year-old admitted as a survivor of sudden cardiac death from ventricular fibrillation.She presented with a history of left sided weakness a week prior but no work-up was done. Baseline serum electrolytes and  cardiac markers were all normal.Electrocardiogram (ECG) post-cardioversion showed sinus tachycardia.Echocardiogram   and cardiac computed tomography (CT) angiography were normal.  Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and angiography (MRA) of the brain showed an acute infarct at the right thalamus and an absent left internal carotid artery (ICA).Electroencephalogram (EEG) was negative.Bisoprolol was given and an Automatic Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (AICD) was subsequently placed.No recurrence of cardiac arrhythmia was noted on continuous cardiac telemetry monitoring during her hospitalization and on six months of follow-up.CONCLUSION: Fatal cardiac arrhythmias, can occur in patients with  acute  thalamic  infarct  even  beyond  24  hours  in  the presence of other confounding factors despite the absence of cardiac pathology. This case showed the association of heightened  autonomic  imbalance  caused  by  an  acute stroke, decreased cerebral flow, and fatal arrhythmia. This elucidates the importance of cardiac monitoring in acute ischemic stroke. With the paucity of information on serious cardiac arrhythmia and ischemic stroke, a future study on this correlation will be useful.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Bisoprolol , Tachycardia, Sinus , Ventricular Fibrillation , Carotid Artery, Internal , Defibrillators, Implantable , Electric Countershock , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Electrocardiography , Death, Sudden, Cardiac , Heart Conduction System , Stroke , Thalamus , Brain , Autonomic Nervous System , Telemetry , Angiography , Hospitalization , Survivors , Electrolytes
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-633203

ABSTRACT

SYNOPSIS: A variety of non-cardiac conditions have been reported to present with ischemic heart disease clinically and electrocardiographically like cholecystitis which leads to nonspecific T-wave inversions or ST-segment depressions, rarely  it  leads  to  ST-segment  elevation.CLINICAL PRESENTATION: We  report  a  case  of  a  58-year-old,male,  hypertensive,  diabetic,  and  with  hyperthyroidism on  medication.  Patient  presents  with  two  weeks history of  epigastric  pain  associated  with  nausea  and  vomiting.Symptoms spontaneously resolved until one day prior to admission  patient  developed  persistent  abdominal  pain.Patient  was  seen  at  a  local  hospital  wherein  work-up was  done  which  showed  leukocytosis  on  CBC, hydrops of  gallbladder  on  ultrasound. Further work-up were anteroseptal wall ST elevation on ECG with negative cardiac enzymes. Patient was advised transfer to our institution.  PHYSICAL FINDINGS: Pertinent  Physical  exam  includes tachycardia, epigastric tenderness and positive Murphy's sign. During the course, patient developed fever and jaundice.  LABORATORY WORK-UP: Repeat CBC still showed leukocytosis with  neutrophilia.  Repeat  electrocardiogram  showed anteroseptal  wall  ST  elevation  with  negative  Troponin.Echocardiogram showed adequate ejection fraction and adequate  wall  motion  contractility.Thyroid  function  test showed  increased  FT4  and  decreased  TSH.TREATMENT: Patient was initially started with acute coronary syndrome  regimen.  Antibiotics  were  initiated  and  anti-thyroid and anti-diabetes drugs were adjusted accordingly.There  was  noted  progressive  abdominal  pain; hence, patient  was  referred  to  surgery.  Patient  was  cardio-pulmonary  and  endocrinologically  prepared  and  cleared  for  the  procedure.    Patient  tolerated  the  procedure.OUTCOME: Patient  was  discharged  improved  with  noted improvement  of  the  electrocardiogram.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Acute Coronary Syndrome , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Heart Conduction System , Coronary Artery Disease , Tachycardia , Cholecystitis , Hyperthyroidism , Diabetes Mellitus , Cholecystectomy
20.
Rev. bras. crescimento desenvolv. hum ; 26(3): 281-296, 2016. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-843502

ABSTRACT

The mechanisms of cellular excitability and propagation of electrical signals in the cardiac muscle are very important functionally and pathologically. The heart is constituted by three types of muscle: atrial, ventricular, and specialized excitatory and conducting fibers. From a physiological and pathophysiological point of view, the conformational states of the sodium channel during heart function constitute a significant aspect for the diagnosis and treatment of heart diseases. Functional states of the sodium channel (closed, open, and inactivated) and their structure help to understand the cardiac regulation processes. There are areas in the cardiac muscle with anatomical and functional differentiation that present automatism, thus subjecting the rest of the fibers to their own rhythm. The rate of these (pacemaker) areas could be altered by modifications in ions, temperature and especially, the autonomic system. Excitability is a property of the myocardium to react when stimulated. Another electrical property is conductivity, which is characterized by a conduction and activation process, where the action potential, by the all-or-nothing law, travels throughout the heart. Heart relaxation also stands out as an active process, dependent on the energetic output and on specific ion and enzymatic actions, with the role of sodium channel being outstanding in the functional process. In the gene mutation aspects that encode the rapid sodium channel (SCN5A gene), this channel is responsible for several phenotypes, such as Brugada syndrome, idiopathic ventricular fibrillation, dilated cardiomyopathy, early repolarization syndrome, familial atrial fibrillation, variant 3 of long QT syndrome, multifocal ectopic ventricular contractions originating in Purkinje arborizations, progressive cardiac conduction defect (Lenègre disease), sudden infant death syndrome, sick sinus syndrome, sudden unexplained nocturnal death syndrome, among other sodium channel alterations with clinical overlapping. Finally, it seems appropriate to consider the "sodium channel syndrome" (mutations in the gene of the alpha subunit of the sodium channel, SCN5A gene) as a single clinical entity that may manifest in a wide range of phenotypes, to thus have a better insight on these cardiac syndromes and potential outcomes for their clinical treatment.


Os mecanismos da excitabilidade celular e de propagação dos sinais elétricos no músculo cardíaco são de grande importância funcional e patológica. O coração é composto por três tipos de músculo: atrial, ventricular e das fibras especializadas excitatórias e condutoras. Do ponto de vista fisiológico e fisiopatológico os estados conformacionais do canal de sódio constitui-se um importante aspecto para o diagnóstico e tratamento de doenças cardíacas. A descrição dos estados funcionais do canal de sódio (fechado, aberto e inativado) e sua estrutura ajudam a compreensão dos processos de regulação cardíaca. Há áreas no músculo cardíaco com diferenciação anatômica e funcional que possuem automatismo submetendo as demais fibras ao seu próprio ritmo. A frequência dessas áreas (marca-passo) pode ser alterada por modificações iônicas, pela temperatura e, especialmente, do sistema autonômico. Já a excitabilidade é a propriedade que tem o miocárdio de reagir quando estimulado. A outra propriedade elétrica é a condutibilidade, que se caracteriza por um processo de condução e ativação, no qual o potencial de ação, pela ei do tudo ou nada, percorre todo o coração. Destaca-se que o relaxamento do coração também é um processo ativo, dependente de gasto energético e de ações iônicas e enzimáticas específicas, destacando o papel dos canais de sódio no processo funcional. Nos aspectos das mutações no gene que codifica o canal rápido de sódio (gene SCN5A), este é responsável por vários fenótipos, tais como a síndrome de Brugada; a fibrilação ventricular idiopática, a miocardiopatia dilatada; a síndrome de repolarização precoce; a fibrilação atrial familiar; a síndrome do QT longo variante 3; as contrações ventriculares ectópicas multifocais originadas nas arborizações de Purkinje; o distúrbio progressivo de condução intraventricular cardíaco (doença de Lenègre); a síndrome da morte súbita do recém-nascido; a síndrome do nódulo sinusal doente; a síndrome da morte súbita noturna inesperada, entre outras alterações do canal de sódio com sobreposições clínicas, as chamadas "overpping". Por fim, parece ser apropriado considerar a "síndrome do canal de sódio" (mutações no gene da subunidade alfa do canal de sódio, gene SCN5A) como uma entidade clínica única que pode manifestar-se com um amplo espectro de fenótipos e assim, prover um melhor entendimento destas síndromes cardíacas e potencial desfecho para seu tratamento clínico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Heart Conduction System , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Heart Diseases/therapy , Sodium Channels
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