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1.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1510995

ABSTRACT

La prevalencia de depresión en adolescentes es aproximadamente 7% en Chile. Sólo entre 18% y 34% de jóvenes con depresión accede a ayuda profesional. Objetivo: El objetivo de esta investigación fue analizar barreras y facilitadores para la búsqueda de ayuda profesional en salud mental, desde la perspectiva de adolescentes entre 15 y 17 años con depresión en Santiago de Chile. Método: Se llevó a cabo un estudio cualitativo exploratorio y descriptivo desde el enfoque fenomenológico. Se realizaron diez entrevistas semi estructuradas a adolescentes, que fueron analizadas con teoría fundamentada. Resultados: Las principales barreras fueron estigma, minimización de síntomas y preocupación por confidencialidad. Los principales facilitadores fueron contar con red de apoyo, reconocimiento de síntomas e intervenciones escolares que favorecen la detección de síntomas. Conclusiones: Se debe trabajar de manera conjunta con adolescentes, sus familias, pares y sistema escolar brindando información sobre la depresión y su tratamiento.


The prevalence of depression in adolescents is approximately 7% in Chile. Only between 18% and 34% of young people with depression access professional help. Objective: The aim of this research was to analyze the barriers and facilitators for seeking professional help in mental health, from the perspective of adolescents between 15 and 17 years of age with depression in Santiago, Chile. Methodology: An exploratory and descriptive qualitative study was carried out from the phenomenological approach. Ten semi-structured interviews were conducted with adolescents and analyzed with grounded theory. Results: The main barriers were stigma, minimization of symptoms, and concerns about confidentiality. The main facilitators were having a support network, symptom recognition, and school interventions that favor symptom detection. Conclusions: Joint work should be done with adolescents, their families, peers, and school system providing information about depression and its treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Mental Health , Depression/epidemiology , Chile/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires , Help-Seeking Behavior , Barriers to Access of Health Services
2.
Ter. psicol ; 41(1): 19-38, abr. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515601

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La pandemia por COVID-19 ha tenido un impacto negativo en el bienestar psicológico de la población, siendo los jóvenes un grupo especialmente vulnerable. Objetivo: El presente estudio se propuso examinar los niveles de búsqueda de ayuda (formal e informal) para problemas en salud mental y sus variables asociadas en una muestra de estudiantes universitarios de la Región de La Araucanía, en el contexto de la pandemia por COVID-19. Método: A través de un muestreo no probabilístico por conveniencia, se reclutó a 500 estudiantes de entre 18 y 29 años. Se describió y comparó su nivel de búsqueda de ayuda, así como variables que podrían obstaculizarla o facilitarla, según género. Adicionalmente, se estimaron modelos de regresión lineal múltiple diferenciados por género, con la búsqueda de ayuda informal como variable criterio. Resultados: Se evidenció una renuencia general a buscar ayuda (formal e informal) tanto en hombres como mujeres, una mayor experimentación de malestar psicológico y mayor conocimiento sobre salud mental en mujeres. Finalmente, se observaron diferencias en los predictores de la búsqueda de ayuda informal entre hombres y mujeres, siendo el apoyo social y las emociones negativas en pandemia los únicos comunes entre géneros. Conclusión: Se discuten los bajos niveles de búsqueda de ayuda evidenciados, y las diferencias observadas en variables asociadas, en función de la brecha de género en salud mental.


Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the psychological well-being of the population, with young people being a particularly vulnerable group. Aim: The present study examines help-seeking intention for mental health problems and associated variables among male and female university students in La Araucanía Region during the COVI-19 pandemic. Method: A sample of 500 students aged 18 to 29 was recruited through non-probabilistic convenience sampling. Help-seeking levels and facilitating or hindering variables were compared by gender. Multiple linear regression models were estimated separately by gender to predict the criterion variable of informal help-seeking. Results: The results indicate that both men and women are reluctant to seek help (formal and informal). Women reported higher levels of psychological distress and greater knowledge about mental health than men. Differences in predictors of informal help-seeking between men and women are evidenced, with social support and negative emotions in pandemic being the only common predictors between genders. Conclusion: The low levels of help-seeking evidenced, and the differences observed in associated variables based on the gender gap in mental health, are discussed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Students/psychology , Help-Seeking Behavior , COVID-19 , Anxiety , Stress, Psychological , Chile , Depression , Pandemics , Psychological Well-Being
3.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e246660, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1422419

ABSTRACT

Objetivamos reconstruir, por meio das vozes de mães de jovens negros mortos em ações policiais, a subtração da vida de seus filhos em contínuas políticas que precarizavam suas existências ao negar-lhes direitos básicos e cidadania. Participaram desta pesquisa seis mães. As conversas com elas, após cuidadosa aproximação, se iniciaram com a pergunta disparadora: "Como você gostaria de contar a história do seu filho?". Para subsidiar nossas análises, tomamos como centrais a articulação teórica e política das noções de genocídio negro e de necropolítica. Este artigo evidencia que, entre o nascimento e a interrupção da vida por balas que atravessam o corpo como um alvo predestinado, o racismo constrói trilhos de precarização da vida que a torna cada vez mais abjeta, vulnerável e descartável, conduzindo à morte precoce, ainda que preveníveis, de jovens negros, principalmente, residentes em periferias e favelas. Nesta discussão, fomentamos uma visão menos compartimentalizada das múltiplas políticas genocidas, trazendo para o diálogo outras políticas públicas, para além da segurança pública. Abordamos um continuum de produção e legitimação de mortes de jovens negros, centrando nossas análises nas formas de apagamento social e institucional desses jovens, que ocorreram anteriormente à morte física, de modo a desqualificar suas vidas. Esses processos contribuem para que a política de segurança pública extermine vidas de jovens negros sem causar ampla comoção social, a devida investigação criminal e, portanto, a responsabilização do Estado, pois já eram vidas mutiladas e desumanizadas em suas existências.(AU)


We aim to reconstruct, with the voices of mothers of young black people killed in police actions, the subtraction of their children's lives in continuous policies that undermined their existence by denying them basic rights and citizenship. Six mothers participated in this research. The conversations with them, after a careful approach, began with the triggering question: "How would you like to tell your child's story?". To support our analyses, we take as central the theoretical and political articulation of the notions of black genocide and necropolitics. This article shows that, between the birth and the interruption of life by bullets that pass through the body as a predestined target, racism builds trails of precariousness of life that makes it increasingly more abject, vulnerable, and disposable, leading to premature death, even if preventable, of young black people, mainly, living in suburbs and slums. In this discussion, we foster a less compartmentalized view of multiple genocidal policies, bringing to the dialogue other public policies, in addition to public safety. We approach a continuum of production and legitimization of deaths of young black people, centering our analysis on the forms of social and institutional erasure of these young people, which occurred before physical death, to disqualify their lives. These processes contribute to the public security policy to exterminate the lives of young black people without causing widespread social upheaval, due criminal investigation, and, thus, the accountability of the State, since they were already mutilated and dehumanized lives in their existence.(AU)


El objetivo de este artículo es reconstruir, a través de las voces de las madres de jóvenes negros asesinados en acciones policiales, la sustracción de la vida de sus hijos en políticas continuas que socavaron su existencia al negarles derechos básicos y ciudadanía. Seis madres participaron en esta investigación. Las conversaciones con estas madres, después de un enfoque cuidadoso, comenzaron con la pregunta desencadenante: "¿Cómo le gustaría contar la historia de su hijo?". Para apoyar el análisis, se tomó como eje central la articulación teórica y política de las nociones de genocidio negro y necropolítica. Este artículo muestra que, entre el nacimiento y la interrupción de la vida por balas que atraviesan el cuerpo como fin predestinado, el racismo construye senderos de precariedad de la vida que la hace cada vez más abyecta, vulnerable y desechable, conduciendo a una muerte prematura, incluso prevenible, de jóvenes negros, principalmente, residentes en la periferia y favelas. Esta discusión fomenta una visión menos compartimentada de múltiples políticas genocidas, llevando al diálogo otras políticas públicas, además de la seguridad pública. Se acerca a un continuo de producción y legitimación de muertes de jóvenes negros, centrando el análisis en las formas de borrado social e institucional de estos jóvenes, ocurridas antes de la muerte física, para descalificar sus vidas. Tales procesos contribuyen a la política de seguridad pública para exterminar la vida de los jóvenes negros sin provocar un gran revuelo social, la debida investigación criminal y, en consecuencia, la rendición de cuentas del Estado, pues ya eran vidas cuya existencia era mutilada y deshumanizada.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Young Adult , Public Policy , Women , Adolescent , Racism , Genocide , Mothers , Poverty , Prejudice , Psychology , Race Relations , Social Behavior , Social Justice , Social Problems , Social Support , Socioeconomic Factors , Violence , Child Labor , Brazil , Bereavement , Illicit Drugs , Child Advocacy , Colonialism , Criminal Law , Hazards , Death , Whistleblowing , Dehumanization , Ethics , Social Stigma , Social Discrimination , Sociological Factors , Underage Drinking , Help-Seeking Behavior , Social Segregation , Social Privilege , Freedom , Respect , Intersectional Framework , Systemic Racism , Social Vulnerability , Citizenship , Homicide , Human Rights
4.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e243766, 2023. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1431119

ABSTRACT

A pandemia da covid-19 impôs transformações no cotidiano mundial, em âmbito micro e macroestrutural. Seu impacto psicológico desestabiliza e evidencia desigualdades e vulnerabilidades psicossociais brasileiras. Configura-se como um estudo de perspectiva crítica, com base na Psicologia Sócio-histórica, com o objetivo de mapear os posicionamentos da Psicologia, vindos de diferentes campos, diante das ações de saúde mental. Para tanto, utiliza-se o site do Conselho Federal de Psicologia para a análise de 62 documentos, que resultaram em dois eixos de produção crítica: 1) a relação da Psicologia com o Conselho Federal de Psicologia; e 2) da Psicologia com a sociedade. Revela-se o abismo social entre segmentos da sociedade brasileira; formas de exclusão da população carcerária; violência doméstica contra as mulheres e as crianças; dificuldades de acesso a estratégias sociais, na educação e na saúde, e de superação dos impasses acirrados com a infecção global pelo novo coronavírus. Conclui-se que a diversidade de públicos, temáticas, áreas de atuação e referenciais teóricos materializa um compromisso crítico e científico da Psicologia.(AU)


The COVID-19 pandemic imposed transformations in the world daily life, at the micro and macrostructural levels. Its psychological impact destabilizes and highlights Brazilian inequalities and psychosocial vulnerabilities. This is a critical perspective study, based in socio-historical Psychology, aiming to map the positions of Psychology, from different fields, in the face of mental health actions. To this end, the Federal Council of Psychology website is utilized to analyze 62 documents, which resulted in two axes of critical production: 1) the relation between Psychology and the Federal Council of Psychology; and 2) Psychology with society. They reveal the social gap between segments of Brazilian society; ways of excluding prison po7pulation; domestic violence against women and children; and difficulties in accessing social strategies, in education and health, and in overcoming impasses aggravated by the global infection by the new coronavirus. In conclusion, the diversity of public, themes, areas of professional performance, and theoretical references materialize Psychology's critical and scientific commitment.(AU)


La pandemia del COVID-19 provocó transformaciones globales en lo cotidiano a nivel micro y macroestructural. Su impacto psicológico desestabiliza y destaca las desigualdades y vulnerabilidades psicosociales en Brasil. Esta es una investigación en la perspectiva crítica, basada en la psicología sociohistórica, con el objetivo de mapear las posiciones de la Psicología, procedentes de diferentes campos, frente a las acciones de salud mental. Para este fin, se utiliza el sitio web del Consejo Federal de Psicología para el análisis de 62 documentos, lo que resultó en dos ejes de producción crítica: 1) la relación de la Psicología con el Consejo Federal de Psicología; y 2) de la Psicología con la sociedad. Se revelan la brecha social entre los segmentos de la sociedad brasileña; las formas de exclusión de la población carcelaria; la violencia doméstica contra las mujeres y los niños; y las dificultades para acceder a las estrategias sociales, en la educación y la salud, para superar los impasses agravados por la infección global por el nuevo coronavirus. Se concluye que la diversidad de públicos, temáticas, áreas de actividad y referentes teóricos materializa un compromiso crítico y científico de la Psicología.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Socioeconomic Factors , Pandemics , COVID-19 , Anxiety , Pain , Pneumonia, Viral , Poverty , Psychology , Public Policy , Quality of Life , Race Relations , Refugees , Research , Role , Safety , Sexual Behavior , Authoritarianism , Social Isolation , Social Problems , Social Sciences , Sports , Torture , Unemployment , Population Characteristics , Food Relief , Ill-Housed Persons , Career Mobility , Marriage , Poverty Areas , Child Abuse , Child Welfare , Quarantine , Public Health , Hunger , Codependency, Psychological , Coronavirus Infections , Combat Disorders , Congresses as Topic , Universal Access to Health Care Services , Crime , Armed Conflicts , Relief, Assistance and Protection in Disasters , Access to Information , Judiciary , State , Dehumanization , Human Rights Abuses , Depression , Developing Countries , Air Pollution , Education , Elder Abuse , Emergencies , Professional Training , Information Technology , Emigrants and Immigrants , Social Marginalization , Help-Seeking Behavior , Physical Abuse , Social Segregation , Gender-Based Violence , Cultural Rights , Access to Essential Medicines and Health Technologies , Adverse Childhood Experiences , Internet-Based Intervention , Psychological Distress , Gender Identity , Emotional Abuse , Food Insecurity , Access to Healthy Foods , Social Status , Social Cohesion , Social Vulnerability , Humanitarian Crisis , Family Support , Family Structure , Residential Segregation , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Post-Infectious Disorders , Health Promotion , Human Rights , Jurisprudence , Malpractice
5.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e243741, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1431125

ABSTRACT

Este artigo reflete sobre os modos como a cisnormatividade, conceito impulsionado pelos transfeminismos, tem auxiliado na composição da psicologia de maneira histórica. Ao elaborar uma crítica sobre como a violência de gênero está expressivamente presente no território brasileiro, discute-se como tem sido pensada a saúde mental, esfera que, uma vez inserida nesse contexto mais amplo, está sendo convocada a produzir saídas criativas em relação aos sujeitos que são alvo de discriminações transfóbicas. Na busca de deslocar o olhar do indivíduo para o social, foi realizado um estudo bibliográfico para investigar os diferentes impactos que a cisnormatividade opera em nossos currículos psicológicos, gerando efeitos na prática e na própria profissão. A aposta está em reconhecer outras epistemologias como projetos éticos e políticos a uma psicologia contemporânea, e a contribuição transfeminista a "outra" clínica. É nesse sentido que este trabalho se destina a pensar um modo de cuidado que esteja baseado na singularidade, mas que, ao mesmo tempo, seja capaz de dedicar alguma atenção ao paradigma normativo que nos guia como terapeutas.(AU)


This article reflects on the ways that cisnormativity, a concept boosted by transfeminisms, has played a historical role in the composition of psychology. Elaborating a criticism on how gender violence is expressively present in the Brazilian territory, we discuss how mental health is conceived, a sphere that, inserted in this wider context, is invited to create creative solutions related to the subjects who are the target of transphobic discrimination. Trying to shift the focus from the individual to the collective, a bibliographical study was conducted to recognize the different impacts that cisnormativity has in our psychological curriculums, having effects on the practice and on the profession itself. The goal is to recognize other epistemologies as ethical and political projects for contemporary psychology and the transfeminist contribution to "another" clinic. It is in this sense that this work aims to think about a form of care that is based on singularity, but that can also pay attention to the normative paradigm that guides us as therapists.(AU)


Este artículo reflexiona sobre las formas en que la cisnormatividad, un concepto impulsado por los transfeminismos, ha tenido un papel en la composición de la psicología de manera histórica. Al elaborar una crítica sobre como la violencia de género está expresamente presente en el territorio brasileño, se discute cómo se ha pensado la salud mental, dominio que, una vez insertado en este contexto más amplio, es convocado a producir soluciones creativas con relación a los sujetos que son objeto de discriminación transfóbica. Al desviar el enfoque del individuo hacia lo social, se realizó un estudio bibliográfico para investigar los diferentes impactos que tiene la cisnormatividad en nuestros planes de estudios psicológicos, generando efectos en la práctica y en la propia profesión. El foco está en reconocer otras epistemologías como proyectos éticos y políticos para la psicología contemporánea y la contribución transfeminista a una "otra" clínica. En este sentido, este trabajo pretende pensar en una forma de cuidado que se basa en la singularidad, al mismo tiempo que sea capaz de dedicar cierta atención al paradigma normativo que a nosotras nos guía como terapeutas.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Psychology , Feminism , Sexism , Hospitals , Anxiety , Prejudice , Psychiatry , Psychoanalysis , Psychology, Social , Psychosexual Development , Religion , Reproduction , Reproductive and Urinary Physiological Phenomena , Science , Self Concept , Sex , Sexual Behavior , Sex Offenses , Social Adjustment , Social Change , Social Justice , Social Problems , Therapeutics , Transsexualism , Transvestism , Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms , Biology , Body Image , Adaptation, Psychological , Sex Characteristics , Civil Rights , Cultural Diversity , Sexuality , Address , Heterosexuality , Dehumanization , Aggression , Racial Groups , Sexual Development , Reproductive Rights , Gender and Health , Mental Health Assistance , Existentialism , Femininity , Masculinity , Sex Reassignment Procedures , Sex Reassignment Surgery , Sexual Health , Homophobia , Transgender Persons , Social Norms , Help-Seeking Behavior , Gender Dysphoria , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Social Construction of Gender , Cisgender Persons , Gender Binarism , Androcentrism , Gender Stereotyping , Gender Studies , Freedom , Respect , Psychological Distress , Empowerment , Intersex Persons , Psychosocial Intervention , Gender Equity , Gender Role , Genitalia , Health Disparate Minority and Vulnerable Populations , Citizenship , Guilt , Hate , Hostility , Identity Crisis , Individuation , Morale
6.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e252476, 2023. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1448942

ABSTRACT

Este artigo tem como objetivo analisar a vivência de trabalho precoce de adolescentes e jovens em cumprimento de medida socioeducativa, no estado da Paraíba. Os instrumentos utilizados foram um Questionário Mosquito Diagnóstico e uma Entrevista Semiestruturada. A análise foi realizada com o software Iramuteq, (Interface de R pour les Analyses Multidimensionnelles de Textes et de Questionnaires), através da Análise Hierárquica Descendente, que gerou seis classes: significado do trabalho; infância e escola; condições objetivas de vida; trabalho, drogas e ato infracional; consequências do trabalho infantil; e trabalho infantojuvenil. A perspectiva teórica utilizada foi a psicologia histórico-cultural e os dados discutidos a partir do conceito de vivência. Conclui-se que as vivências e situações sociais de desenvolvimento foram caracterizadas pelo trabalho precoce que oportunizou o envolvimento com atos infracionais e as instituições responsáveis pela garantia de direitos em vez de garantir a proteção social, criminalizaram por meio de medidas socioeducativas.(AU)


This article aims to analyze the experience of child labor of adolescents and youngsters that are complying a social-educational measure, in the State of Paraíba. The instruments utilized were a Questionnaire Mosquito Diagnóstico and a Semi-Structured Interview. The analysis was performed by using the Iramuteq software (Interface de R pour les Analyses Multidimensionnelles de Textes et de Questionnaires), by using Descending Hierarchical Analysis, which generated six classes: meaning of labor; childhood and school; objective conditions of life; labor, drugs, and act of infraction; consequences of child labor; and child labor. The theoretical perspective used was historical-cultural psychology and the data were discussed from the concept of experience. It was concluded that the experiences and social situations of development were characterized by child labor, which enabled the involvement with acts of infraction; and the institutions responsible for guaranteeing rights, instead of guaranteeing social protection, criminalized by using social-educational measures.(AU)


Este artículo tiene como objetivo analizar la vivencia precoz de adolescentes y jóvenes que cumplen medidas socioeducativas en el estado de Paraíba (Brasil). Los instrumentos utilizados fueron un Cuestionario Mosquito Diagnóstico y una entrevista semiestructurada. El análisis se realizó con el software Iramuteq (Interface de R pour les Multidimensionnelles Analyzes de Textes et de Questionnaires), mediante análisis jerárquico descendente, que generó seis clases: Significado del trabajo; Infancia y escuela; Condiciones objetivas de vida; Trabajo, drogas y acto de infracción; Consecuencias del trabajo infantil; y Trabajo infantojuvenil. La perspectiva teórica que se utilizó fue la psicología histórico-cultural, y los datos se discutieron desde el concepto de vivencia. Se concluye que las vivencias y situaciones sociales de desarrollo se caracterizaron por trabajo infantil que permitió la participación en infracciones y que las instituciones responsables de garantizar los derechos en lugar de la protección social los criminalizaron mediante medidas socioeducativas.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Child Labor , Adolescent , Education , Personality , Play and Playthings , Poverty , Prejudice , Sex Work , Psychology , Public Policy , Punishment , Schools , Self Concept , Social Change , Social Class , Social Conditions , Social Support , Socialization , Socioeconomic Factors , Stereotyping , Student Dropouts , Suicide, Attempted , Theft , Violence , Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms , Work Hours , Child Abuse, Sexual , Mainstreaming, Education , Occupational Risks , Accidents, Occupational , Family , Illicit Drugs , Child, Abandoned , Child Advocacy , Child, Institutionalized , Child Welfare , Self-Injurious Behavior , Civil Rights , Family Planning Policy , Sexual Harassment , Communication , Adult , Legislation , Counseling , Crime , Dangerous Behavior , Adolescent Health , Death , Deinstitutionalization , Friends , Minors , Aggression , Human Rights Abuses , Educational Status , Employment , Health Vulnerability , Job Market , Bullying , Remuneration , Social Discrimination , Drug Trafficking , Enslaved Persons , Social Capital , Emotional Adjustment , Underage Drinking , Literacy , Help-Seeking Behavior , Self-Control , Psychiatric Rehabilitation , Psychosocial Support Systems , Work-Life Balance , Frailty , Survivorship , Recidivism , Academic Failure , Adverse Childhood Experiences , Cyberbullying , Data Analysis , Involuntary Commitment , Return to School , Sustenance , Emotional Abuse , Financial Stress , Life Course Perspective , Housing Instability , Social Vulnerability , Citizenship , Homicide , Household Work , Human Rights , Institutionalization , Juvenile Delinquency , Language , Mental Health Services
7.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e264324, 2023. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1529206

ABSTRACT

O estudo teve como objetivo identificar os argumentos da estratégia de persuasão dos discursos apresentados na audiência pública sobre a Arguição de Descumprimento de Preceito Fundamental-ADPF 442, realizada em 2018, cujo propósito era discutir sobre a interrupção voluntária da gravidez até a 12ª semana. Para tal, foi realizada uma pesquisa de abordagem qualitativa, analítico-descritiva e documental. O objeto de análise foi o registro da audiência, apresentado em vídeo, disponibilizado na plataforma digital YouTube, e em ata lavrada pelo STF, ambos de acesso público. A partir de uma análise do discurso, identificou-se os argumentos utilizados na estratégia de persuasão, que foram sistematizados em quatro categorias de argumentos para cada um dos dois grupos identificados: o grupo pró e o grupo contra a descriminalização do aborto. As três primeiras categorias, Saúde mental, Direito e Saúde pública, mesmo com diferenças na forma de apresentar o argumento, se repetem nos dois grupos. Todavia, a quarta categoria, Pressupostos, se diferenciou. No grupo pró descriminalização do aborto, apresentou-se como Pressupostos filosóficos e científicos, e no grupo contra, como Pressupostos morais. Por fim, a defesa da saúde mental das mulheres foi o principal argumento numa forma de humanizar o sofrimento vivido pelas que desejam abortar e não encontram o suporte do Estado para assegurar sua dignidade, cidadania e efetiva igualdade, garantidas constitucionalmente.(AU)


The study aimed to identify the arguments of the persuasion strategy of the speeches presented at the public hearing on the Action Against the Violation of Constitutional Fundamental Rights -ADPF 442, held in 2018, whose purpose was to discuss the voluntary interruption of pregnancy until the 12th week. To this end, a qualitative, analytical-descriptive, and documentary research was carried out. The object of analysis was the video recording of the hearing available on the YouTube platform, and in minutes drawn up by the STF, both of which are public. Based on a discourse analysis, the arguments used in the persuasion strategy were identified, which were systematized into four categories of arguments for each of the two identified groups: the group for and the group against the decriminalization of abortion. The first three categories, Mental Health, Law and Public Health, even with differences in the way of presenting the argument, are repeated in both groups. However, the fourth category, Assumptions, differed. In the group for the decriminalization of abortion, it was presented as Philosophical and Scientific Assumptions, whereas the group against, as Moral Assumptions. Finally, the defense of women's mental health was the main argument in a way of humanizing the suffering experienced by those who wish to have an abortion and do not find the support of the State to guarantee their dignity, citizenship, and effective equality, constitutionally guaranteed.(AU)


El estudio tuvo como objetivo identificar los argumentos de la estrategia de persuasión de los discursos presentados en la audiencia pública sobre el Argumento por Incumplimiento de un Percepto Fundamental -ADPF 442, realizada en 2018, con el objetivo de discutir la interrupción voluntaria del embarazo hasta la 12.ª semana. Para ello, se llevó a cabo una investigación cualitativa, analítico-descriptiva y documental. El objeto de análisis fue la grabación de la audiencia, que está disponible en la plataforma digital YouTube, y actas levantadas por el Supremo Tribunal Federal -STF, ambas de acceso público. A partir de un análisis del discurso se identificaron los argumentos utilizados en la estrategia de persuasión, los cuales se sistematizaron en cuatro categorías de argumentos para cada uno de los dos grupos identificados: el grupo pro y el grupo en contra de la despenalización del aborto. Las tres primeras categorías ("salud mental", "derecho" y "salud pública") aún con diferencias en la forma de presentar el argumento se repiten en ambos grupos. Pero difiere la cuarta categoría "supuestos". En el grupo a favor de la despenalización del aborto se presentó como "supuestos filosóficos y científicos", y en el grupo en contra, como "supuestos morales". Finalmente, la defensa de la salud mental de las mujeres fue el principal argumento en un intento por humanizar el sufrimiento que viven aquellas que desean abortar y no encuentran el apoyo del Estado para garantizar su dignidad, ciudadanía e igualdad efectiva, preconizadas por la Constitución.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Abortion, Criminal , Mental Health , Abortion , Anxiety , Pain , Parity , Pregnancy, Unwanted , Prejudice , Psychology , Public Policy , Rape , Religion , Reproduction , Safety , Audiovisual Aids , Sex , Sex Education , Sex Offenses , Social Behavior , Suicide , Obstetric Surgical Procedures , Torture , Violence , Public Administration , Unified Health System , Brazil , Pregnancy , Bereavement , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Abortion, Eugenic , Christianity , Women's Health , Patient Compliance , Civil Rights , Negotiating , Abortion, Induced , Condoms , Abortion, Legal , Communications Media , Pregnancy, High-Risk , Pregnancy Reduction, Multifetal , Contraceptive Devices , Contraceptive Devices, Male , Feminism , Life , Advertising , Crime , Personal Autonomy , Patient Rights , Legal Intervention , Death , Information Dissemination , Prenatal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Wedge Argument , Beginning of Human Life , Sexology , Depression , Reproductive Rights , Disease Prevention , Family Development Planning , Health of Specific Groups , Violence Against Women , Control and Sanitary Supervision of Equipment and Supplies , Cerebrum , Family Planning Services , Fertilization , Fetal Distress , Health Communication , Fetus , Social Networking , Reproductive Health , Sexual Health , Sexism , Social Discrimination , Help-Seeking Behavior , Public Service Announcements as Topic , Political Activism , Freedom , Sadness , Psychological Distress , Internet Use , Gender Equity , Citizenship , Document Analysis , Guilt , Human Rights , Anencephaly , Love , Mental Disorders , Morale
8.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e255629, 2023. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1529219

ABSTRACT

Sobreviventes ao suicídio são pessoas que têm suas vidas profundamente afetadas e apresentam sofrimento psicológico, físico ou social após serem expostas a esse fato. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a experiência de sobreviventes ao suicídio de jovens, a partir do luto. Participaram sete sobreviventes entre familiares, amigos e parceiros amorosos de jovens que cometeram suicídio. A análise de conteúdo de entrevistas narrativas apontou que os participantes utilizam explicações racionalizadas ou dissociadas, criando uma distância entre o evento e eles mesmos. Como formas de lidar com o sofrimento podem buscar o isolamento, apoio entre amigos, prática religiosa e/ou a dedicação ao trabalho. Reafirma-se a dimensão do luto diante dessa experiência, além da importância da prevenção ao suicídio e da posvenção aos sobreviventes.(AU)


Suicide survivors are people who have their lives deeply affected; they experience psychological, physical, and social suffering following the occurrence. The aim of this study is to analyze the experience of survivors of youth suicide attempts, based on grief. Seven survivors participated among family, friends, and romantic partners of young people who committed suicide. The content analysis of narrative interviews showed that the participants use rationalized or dissociated explanations, creating a distance between the event and themselves. As ways to deal with suffering, they seek isolation, support among friends, religious practice, and/or dedication to work. The dimension of grief in the face of this experience is reaffirmed, as well as the importance of suicide prevention and postvention for survivors.(AU)


Este artículo tiene como objetivo presentar la construcción metodológica desarrollada en una investigación de maestría, en la que sostenemos la escritura de escenas como método de investigación de la escucha clínica. Las escenas del trabajo en cuestión se recogieron a lo largo del tiempo desde la experiencia en un proyecto de extensión universitario de atención a la niñez y adolescencia en situación de vulnerabilidad social aplicado en una comunidad periférica. En este texto, presentamos los interrogantes que se elaboraron en torno a la elección por el trabajo con escenas y compartimos el rescate histórico de las mismas como un método de escribir la clínica y la reanudación del análisis a partir de la tradición psicoanalítica. Amparadas en el psicoanálisis y en lecturas y contribuciones del filósofo francés Jacques Derrida, nos basaremos en la noción de que la escena se constituye como un lugar de producción, engendrando la configuración particular de elementos significantes en los procesos de subjetivación y de construcción social. La escena no es aquí una representación de lo que pasa en la clínica, sino un modo de producir escucha y sus procesos de investigación.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Suicide , Bereavement , Adolescent , Survivors , Anxiety , Personal Satisfaction , Professional-Family Relations , Professional-Patient Relations , Psychology , Psychology, Social , Psychotropic Drugs , Religion , Self Care , Self Concept , Self Mutilation , Social Isolation , Social Support , Societies , Stress, Psychological , Suicide, Attempted , Therapeutics , Violence , Women , Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms , Humans , Child , Mental Health , Child Health , Self-Injurious Behavior , Intergenerational Relations , Suicide, Assisted , Crime Victims , Adolescent Health , Death , Trust , Qualitative Research , Vulnerable Populations , Aggression , Depression , Developing Countries , Empathy , User Embracement , Family Conflict , Family Relations , Mental Fatigue , Wandering Behavior , Bullying , Suicidal Ideation , Apathy , Forgiveness , Hope , Protective Factors , Help-Seeking Behavior , Psychological Trauma , Physical Abuse , Burnout, Psychological , Frustration , Emotional Regulation , Social Integration , Suicide, Completed , Internet Addiction Disorder , Emotional Abuse , Social Interaction , Family Support , Psychological Well-Being , Suicide Prevention , Guilt , Health Promotion , Interpersonal Relations , Life Cycle Stages , Loneliness , Antidepressive Agents , Negativism , Antisocial Personality Disorder
9.
Psicol. Estud. (Online) ; 28: e53140, 2023. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1431113

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Os estudos existentes acerca da revelação da violência sexual são, em sua maioria, baseados em casos de meninas. À vista disso, objetivou-se conhecer as reações protetivas e não protetivas de mães e pais diante da revelação de meninos vítimas de violência sexual. Para tanto, foi realizado um estudo qualitativo, por meio de entrevistas, com nove mães. Em seguida, efetuou-se a análise temática dos dados, que resultou em seis temas: momento da revelação; confiança e desconfiança; acolhimento; busca de ajuda; emoções; e proteção. Tomados em conjunto, os resultados indicam que as mães apresentaram, no geral, reações protetivas diante da revelação, evidentes em todos os temas identificados. A partir do momento da revelação, as mães confiaram nos seus filhos e buscaram acolhê-los por meio de uma escuta atenta, também, cabe dizer, algumas entraram em estado de paralisia e entristecimento. Esse acolhimento foi seguido de busca de informações e de atendimento especializado. A proteção ocorreu, ainda, por meio do afastamento dos agressores e monitoramento da rotina dos filhos. Nesse sentido, é fundamental que haja investimento em ações de conscientização sobre os serviços disponíveis para que cuidadores possam proteger crianças e adolescentes em risco. Além disso, são necessárias intervenções que visem auxiliá-los no manejo de seus sentimentos diante da revelação, bem como em relação às consequências da violência para crianças e adolescentes.


RESUMEN. Los estudios existentes sobre divulgación de violencia sexual se basan principalmente en casos de niñas. El objetivo era conocer las reacciones protectoras y no protectoras de madres y padres ante la revelación de niños que son víctimas de violencia sexual. Se realizó un estudio cualitativo, a través de entrevistas con nueve madres. Se llevó a cabo un análisis temático de datos, que resultó en seis temas: momento de revelación, confianza y desconfianza, acogida, búsqueda de ayuda, emociones y protección. Los resultados indican que las madres mostraron reacciones protectoras a la revelación, evidente en todos los temas. Desde el momento de la revelación, las madres confiaron en sus hijos y trataron de recibirlos escuchando atentamente, algunos de los cuales entraron en un estado de parálisis y tristeza. Siguió la búsqueda de información y asistencia especializada. La protección también se produjo mediante la eliminación de agresores y el monitoreo de la rutina de los niños. Es necesario invertir en acciones de concientización sobre los servicios disponibles. Además, se necesitan intervenciones para ayudarlos a manejar sus sentimientos ante la divulgación.


ABSTRACT. Studies on the disclosure of sexual violence are majorly based on cases involving girls. The objective was to investigate protective and non-protective reactions of mothers and fathers of boys towards the disclosure of sexual violence victimization. In this qualitative research, we interviewed nine mothers and analyzed the data using thematic analysis, which resulted in six themes: moment of disclosure, trust and distrust, welcoming, help seeking, emotions, and protection. Altogether, results showed that mothers, in general, presented protective reactions towards the disclosure, which was evident in all identified themes. After disclosure, mothers trusted their sons and sought to protect them by attentive listening, although some of them entered a state of paralysis and sadness. This welcoming of their sons' disclosure was followed by seeking information and specialized treatment. Protection was also identified by withdrawing from aggressors and monitoring the boys' routines. Thus, it is necessary to invest in actions to raise awareness of the available services so that caretakers can protect children and adolescents at risk. In addition, interventions are required to assist them to manage their feelings towards disclosure, as well as the consequences of violence for children and adolescents.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Adult , Sex Offenses/psychology , Disclosure , Awareness , Child Abuse, Sexual/psychology , Nuclear Family/psychology , Caregivers , Crime Victims/psychology , Trust/psychology , Emotions , User Embracement , Help-Seeking Behavior , Sadness/psychology , Mothers
10.
Aesthethika (Ciudad Autón. B. Aires) ; 18(1, n. esp): 85-90, jun, 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1517049

ABSTRACT

El suicidio ­o las autolesiones como su antecesor mortífero­ no suelen ser más que una pantalla a un dolor imposible de ser procesado por el sujeto que padece. Las coordenadas que lo atraviesan se amplían, convergen y torsionan en una espiral sin fin cuando ya no quedan recursos para encontrar una salida vital. El proyecto de vida pareciera impensable, en especial, cuando las múltiples versiones de lo ominoso se hacen presentes. Si además el tiempo etario donde aparecen coincide con un tiempo crucial ­adolescencia, jóvenes, adultos mayores­ suele requerirse algún modo de apuntalamiento al Yo en crisis. En este episodio de New Amsterdam vemos como el desinvestimiento subjetivo que produce la invisibilidad del sujeto para los objetos externos diferenciados madre familia (Aulagnier,2004) hacen a una joven intentar construir su identidad bajo un tiempo extremo de angustia


Suicide ­or self-harm like its deadly predecessor­ are usually nothing more than a screen for a pain impossible to be processed by the subject who suffers. The coordinates that pass through it expand, converge and twist in an endless spiral when there are no more resources left to find a vital exit. The life project seems unthinkable, especially when the multiple versions of the ominous are present. If, in addition, the age period in which they appear coincides with a crucial time ­ adolescence, youth, older adults ­ some form of propping up the Self in crisis is usually required. In this episode of New Amsterdam we see how the subjective disinvestment that produces the invisibility of the subject for the differentiated external objects mother-family (Aulagnier, 2004) makes a young woman try to build her identity under an extreme time of anguish


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Suicide , Adolescent , Self Mutilation , Diagnostic Errors/psychology , Social Stigma , Help-Seeking Behavior , Anthropology, Cultural
11.
Acta bioeth ; 28(1): 59-66, jun. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383284

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Prevenir y detectar tempranamente los problemas de salud mental en población adolescente es fundamental para disminuir la posibilidad de desarrollar trastornos más graves. Asimismo, buscar ayuda para estos problemas y acceder de manera oportuna a la atención en salud mental en este grupo es necesario. No obstante, se ha constatado que los adolescentes tienden a no buscar ayuda profesional cuando presentan sintomatología de trastornos emocionales y, cuando la buscan, más bien lo hacen en fuentes informales. Diversas barreras, a nivel individual, estructural, social, y de la relación profesional salud-paciente, pueden obstaculizar la conducta de búsqueda de ayuda en los adolescentes. Entre estas se encuentra la preocupación de los jóvenes por la confidencialidad. En el presente artículo se expone y analiza evidencia sobre el rol de la confidencialidad en la conducta de búsqueda de ayuda para problemas de salud mental en adolescentes, planteando en su análisis una mirada desde la bioética y señalando algunas de sus implicancias en el abordaje de las prestaciones de salud mental juvenil.


Abstract: Prevention and early detection of mental health problems in the adolescent population is essential to reduce the possibility of developing more serious disorders. Likewise, seeking help for these problems and timely access to mental health care in this group is necessary. However, it has been found that adolescents tend not to seek professional help when they present symptoms of emotional disorders and, when they do seek help, they do so from informal sources. Various barriers, at the individual, structural, social, and health professional-patient relationship levels, can hinder help-seeking behavior in adolescents. Among these is young people's concern about confidentiality. This article presents and analyzes evidence on the role of confidentiality in help-seeking behavior for mental health problems in adolescents, presenting an analysis from a bioethical perspective and pointing out some of its implications in the approach to youth mental health services.


Resumo: Prevenir e detectar precocemente os problemas de saúde mental em população adolescente é fundamental para diminuir a possibilidade de desenvolver transtornos mais graves. Assim mesmo, para esse grupo é necessário buscar ajuda para esses problemas e acessar oportunamente atenção em saúde mental. Não obstante, constatou-se que os adolescentes tendem a não buscar ajuda profissional quando apresentam sintomatologia de transtornos emocionais e, quando buscam, o fazem em fontes informais. Diversas barreiras, em nível individual, estrutural, social e da relação profissional da saúde-paciente, podem obstaculizar a conduta de busca de ajuda pelos adolescentes. Entre estas se encontra a preocupação dos jovens com a confidencialidade. No presente artigo se expõe e analisa-se evidencias sobre o papel da confidencialidade na conduta de busca de ajuda para problemas de saúde mental em adolescentes, propondo-se um olhar a partir da bioética e ressaltando algumas de suas implicações na abordagem da saúde mental juvenil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Confidentiality , Adolescent Health , Mental Health Assistance , Help-Seeking Behavior , Mental Health
12.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 42: e240345, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1422363

ABSTRACT

Neste trabalho, investigamos a experiência de seis mães enlutadas pela morte de seus filhos. As experiências concretas, tal como descritas pelas mães, nos permitem acompanhar o fenômeno do luto materno. Ao analisar fenomenologicamente o sentido encontrado no âmbito da experiência do luto, precisamos, em um primeiro momento, recuar frente às interpretações correntes sobre o luto, subtraindo a conotação patologizante que muitas vezes é atribuída a essa experiência. Após essa postura metodológica, acompanhamos os vetores internos mobilizadores da experiência do luto e, por fim, alcançamos a dinâmica e a estrutura do próprio fenômeno. Com a análise fenomenológica, constatamos doze unidades de significado presentes no relato das mães enlutadas: a imortalidade por meio de homenagens e comemorações; a eternidade do luto; a saudade e a lembrança; a luta contra o esquecimento; o pedido de ajuda; o ver para além do corpo; o vazio que não se preenche; a vida continua, mesmo que a do filho não; a crença em Deus e no reencontro; o afeto do amor; o inexplicável e imensurável do luto.(AU)


In this paper we investigate the experience of six mother grieving the death of their children. Concrete experiences, as described by the mothers, allow us to follow up the maternal grief phenomenon. Analyzing phenomenologically the meaning we find in the sphere of the grief experience, it is necessary, at first, to recede in the face of the current interpretations over grief, subtracting a pathologizing connotation that is often attributed to the experience. After this methodological approach, we follow the internal mobilizing vectors from the grief experience and finally, we reach the dynamic and the structure of the phenomenon itself. With a phenomenological analysis, we found twelve units of meanings found in the grieving mothers' report: the immortality by using tributes and celebrations; the eternity of mourning; the longing and remembrance; the fight against forgetfulness; the aid request; the vision beyond the body; the emptiness that is not filled; life goes on, even though the child's does not; belief in God and in reunion; the affection of love; the inexplicable and immeasurable mourning.(AU)


En este trabajo investigamos la experiencia de seis madres afligidas por la muerte de sus hijos. Las experiencias concretas, tal como las describen las madres, nos permiten seguir el fenómeno del luto materno. Al analizar fenomenológicamente el significado que está en el contexto de la experiencia del luto, necesitamos, al principio, retirarnos de las interpretaciones actuales del luto, sacando la connotación patológica que a menudo se atribuye a esta experiencia. Después de esta postura metodológica, seguimos los vectores internos movilizando la experiencia del luto y, finalmente, alcanzamos la dinámica y estructura del fenómeno mismo. Con el análisis fenomenológico, llegamos a doce unidades de significado presentes en el informe de madres afligidas: la inmortalidad a través de homenajes y celebraciones; la eternidad del luto; el anhelo y recuerdo; la lucha contra el olvido; la solicitud de ayuda; el verlo más allá del cuerpo; el vacío que no se llena; la vida sigue incluso si la del hijo no; el creer en Dios y en el reencuentro; el afecto del amor; lo inexplicable e inconmensurable del luto.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Aged , Psychological Phenomena , Bereavement , Death , Hermeneutics , Psychology , Psychology, Clinical , Family , Denial, Psychological , Resilience, Psychological , Psychotherapy, Psychodynamic , Help-Seeking Behavior , Sadness , Psychological Distress , Loneliness , Mother-Child Relations
13.
South African Family Practice ; 64(3): 1-9, 19 May 2022. Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1380571

ABSTRACT

Depression is a major contributor to the overall global burden of disease, impacting social life, family life and occupational functioning if left untreated. Despite its high prevalence and morbidity, the evidence suggests that men are hesitant to seek help, with a large percentage remaining undiagnosed. This study aimed to determine the attitudes and perceptions related to depression and its treatment amongst black men in a rural district of South Africa.Methods: The design used was an exploratory descriptive qualitative design. Participants were selected by purposive sampling. Individual semistructured interviews were conducted, which were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. The data were subsequently analysed thematically to develop themes and subthemes.Results: Participants described depression as a psychological problem associated with lack of sleep, loneliness, feeling unwanted, increased stress, deep sadness, weight loss, forgetfulness, crying over small things and lack of concentration. Collectively, the interviews with participants showed a good understanding of the psychosocial determinants of depression but exposed a lack of awareness of its biological determinants. A large proportion (n = 13; 68.4%) of participants reported not having knowledge of available services in their area for people seeking treatment for depression. Barriers to help-seeking behaviours were fear of social stigma, fear of expressing their feelings, gender norms and stereotypes and lack of trust in others.Conclusion: Interventions such as support groups and mental health awareness programmes to counteract personal perceptions may help to improve and expand the effectiveness of depression treatment. The results highlight the future need to raise awareness of depressive symptoms and expand health outreach programmes.Keywords: depression; perceptions; attitudes; mental health; help-seeking; treatment; SouthAfrica.


Subject(s)
Perception , Mental Health , Depression , South Africa , Help-Seeking Behavior
14.
Rev. Esc. Enferm. USP ; 54: e03650, 2020. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | BDENF, LILACS | ID: biblio-1143697

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo Compreender as necessidades de ajuda de homens com HIV que fazem sexo com homens à luz de uma Teoria Prescritiva. Método Estudo descritivo e qualitativo, realizado com homens com HIV que fazem sexo com homens atendidos por um Serviço Ambulatorial Especializado de uma capital no Nordeste do Brasil, entre os meses de novembro de 2017 e maio de 2018. A pesquisa utilizou a análise do discurso do sujeito coletivo. Resultados Participaram do estudo 49 homens com HIV, que se autodenominaram homem que faz sexo com homem. Ajuda foi descrita como apoio, acolhimento, suporte psicossocial e familiar. O desejo de receber auxílio foi relacionado à aceitação e ao esquecimento do diagnóstico. Os problemas enfrentados aludiram à aceitação do diagnóstico, ao medo e ao preconceito. Destacaram-se como fonte de amparo os profissionais e familiares. O cuidado de enfermagem foi citado como significativo, e a principal ajuda requerida foi do tipo psicológica. Conclusão As necessidades de ajuda identificadas relacionaram-se principalmente ao suporte psicológico, proveniente dos profissionais de saúde e dos familiares. Os participantes são receptivos ao recebimento de ajuda, sobretudo, no que se refere ao enfrentamento do diagnóstico.


RESUMEN Objetivo Entender las necesidades de asistencia de hombres con VIH que tienen relaciones sexuales con hombres, a la luz de una Teoría Prescriptiva Método: Se trata de un estudio descriptivo y cualitativo, realizado entre noviembre de 2017 y mayo de 2018, entre hombres con VIH que tienen relaciones sexuales con personas de su mismo sexo y se atienden en una Clínica Ambulatoria Especializada de una capital del noreste de Brasil. La investigación utilizó el análisis del discurso del sujeto colectivo. Resultados Participaron 49 hombres con VIH que declararon tener relaciones sexuales con personas del mismo sexo. La asistencia pretendida fue descripta como soporte, refugio, apoyo psicosocial y familiar. El deseo de recibir apoyo estaba relacionado con la aceptación y el olvido del diagnóstico. Los problemas enfrentados aludían a la aceptación del diagnóstico, al miedo y a los prejuicios. Se destacaron, como fuente de apoyo, los profesionales y los familiares. La atención de enfermería se citó como significativa, y la principal ayuda requerida fue la psicológica. Conclusión Las necesidades de ayuda identificadas eran, principalmente, de apoyo psicológico de los profesionales de la salud y de los miembros de la familia. Los participantes están abiertos a recibir ayuda, sobre todo, en lo tocante al enfrentamiento del diagnóstico.


ABSTRACT Objective To understand the needs for help of men who have sex with men and live with HIV in the light of a Prescriptive Theory. Method Descriptive and qualitative study, conducted with men who have sex with men and live with HIV who were treated in a Specialized Outpatient Service in a capital in Northeastearn Brazil, between the months of November 2017 and May 2018. The study used the analysis of the discourse of the collective subject. Results 49 men with HIV who self-identified as men who have sex with men participated in the study. Help was described as support, welcoming, psychosocial and family support. The desire to receive assistance was related to accepting and forgetting the diagnosis. The problems experienced were related to the acceptance of the diagnosis, fear and prejudice. Professionals and family members stood out as sources of support. Nursing care was cited as significant and the main help required was psychological. Conclusion The needs for help identified were mainly related to psychological support coming from health professionals and family members. Participants were willing to receive help, especially to cope with the diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , HIV , Help-Seeking Behavior , Men , Nursing Theory , Brazil , Primary Care Nursing
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777612

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The persuasive effect of health messages can depend on message features, audience characteristics, and target behaviors. The objective of this study was to compare the responses to persuasive messages encouraging professional help seeking for depression between individuals with and without psychological distress.@*METHODS@#A cross-sectional web-based survey was conducted on Japanese adults aged 35-45 years, who randomly received one of three persuasive messages that aimed to promote help-seeking intentions for depression. The primary message statements were as follows: (1) depression can happen to anyone, (2) depression needs treatment, and (3) depression improves with treatment. Participants rated the messages in terms of comprehensibility, persuasiveness, emotional response, and intended future use. Help-seeking intention for depression was measured using vignette methodology before and after exposure to the messages. Eligible participants who had not received medical treatment for their mental disorders were classified as either distressed (K6 score ≥ 5, N = 824) or non-distressed (K6 score < 5, N = 1133) and analyzed.@*RESULTS@#No significant differences in comprehensibility or persuasiveness scores were observed between the messages, but the distressed group had significantly lower scores than the non-distressed group. Negative emotional responses such as surprise, anger, fear, sadness, guilt, and anxiety were significantly stronger when reading message 2, while a positive emotional response such as happiness was significantly stronger when reading message 3. These emotional responses were more prominent in the distressed than in the non-distressed group. After reading messages 1, 2, and 3, the proportions of participants in the distressed group who reported having a positive help-seeking intention increased by 35.1%, 32.1%, and 27.7%, respectively, and by 6.4%, 17.3%, and 15.2%, respectively in the non-distressed group. Multiple logistic regression analysis among participants having no help-seeking intention before exposure to the messages showed that message 2 had a significantly greater effect of increasing help-seeking intentions in the non-distressed group.@*CONCLUSION@#The exposure to persuasive messages may promote help-seeking intentions for depression. It seems likely that loss framing will work better than neutral and gain framing. Meanwhile, the responses to persuasive messages may differ to some extent between distressed and non-distressed individuals, as individuals with psychological distress are likely to be more susceptible to persuasive messages than those without.@*TRIAL REGISTRATION@#Not applicable; this is not a report of intervention trial.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Therapeutics , Health Promotion , Help-Seeking Behavior , Intention , Persuasive Communication , Stress, Psychological , Psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 728-736, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760908

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Many depressed adolescents do not seek professional help despite there being evidence-based treatments for depression, such as cognitive behavioral therapy or computer-based therapy. To increase professional help-seeking behavior in depressed adolescents, it is necessary to positively change help-seeking attitudes. This study aimed to explore the effect of sub-groups of help-seeking attitudes, gender, and depression level on adolescents' help-seeking intentions and their perceptions of computer-based psychotherapy. METHODS: Participants were 246 adolescents aged 13–18 years recruited from six middle and high schools in South Korea. Measures were self-administered questionnaires, and included the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, the Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help Scale, the Intention to Seek Counseling Inventory, Preferences for Depression Treatment, and the Perceptions of Computerized Therapy Questionnaire. RESULTS: Help-seeking intentions were positively related with female gender and the recognition of the need for help. A higher level of confidence in therapists was related to high preference for computer-based therapy and face-to-face therapy. Adolescents with more severe depression were more likely to prefer pharmacotherapy. The perceptions of computer-based therapy were more positive in male adolescents, and in adolescents with a higher level of confidence in therapists yet a lower level of interpersonal openness. CONCLUSION: To promote adolescents' help-seeking behavior, improvement of the recognition of the need for help is required, especially among male adolescents. Computer-based therapy provides an alternative for male adolescents with high confidence in therapists yet low interpersonal openness. Consideration of the help-seeking attitudes and gender is needed when providing therapeutic intervention to depressed adolescents.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Female , Humans , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , Counseling , Depression , Drug Therapy , Help-Seeking Behavior , Intention , Korea , Psychotherapy , Therapy, Computer-Assisted
17.
Rev. colomb. psiquiatr ; 47(3): 155-164, jul.-set. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-978316

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Antecedentes: El trastorno conversivo es un reto para los clínicos por los vacíos conceptuales en lo que respecta a la patogenia y cómo confluyen otras entidades psiquiátricas y la falta de aproximaciones a las vivencias tanto de pacientes como de familiares con la enfermedad. Objetivo: Describir los modelos explicativos (ME) que utilizan los cuidadores de niños y adolescentes con trastorno conversivo que consultan al Hospital Pediátrico de La Misericordia. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio cualitativo con una muestra por conveniencia de 10 casos atendidos entre mayo de 2014 y abril de 2015. La herramienta usada fue una entrevista en profundidad con padres y/o cuidadores. Resultados: Los cuidadores tienen diversas creencias en torno al origen de los síntomas, y consideran principalmente enfermedad, factores mágicos místicos y factores psicosociales. Se explican los síntomas en cada caso de varias maneras, y no se encontró una relación directa entre estas creencias, el patrón de síntomas y los comportamientos de búsqueda de ayuda. La presentación sintomática es polimorfa y genera interferencia principalmente en la actividad escolar de los pacientes. La atención médica se percibe como pertinente y la atención psiquiátrica, como insuficiente. Entre los itinerarios terapéuticos, se describen consultas con diversos agentes, además de la atención médica, incluidas medicinas alternativas y enfoques mágico-religiosos. Conclusiones: Los ME en trastorno conversivo son variados, pero incluyen con frecuencia elementos mágico-religiosos y factores psicosociales. Las creencias subyacentes no se relacionan directamente con la búsqueda de ayuda u otras variables.


ABSTRACT Background: Conversion disorder is a challenge for clinicians due to the conceptual gaps as regards its pathogenesis, the way in which it converges with other psychiatric disorders, and the lack of approaches to the experiences of both patients and family members with the disease. Objective: To describe Explanatory Models (EM) offered to caregivers of paediatric patients with conversion disorder who attended the Hospital de la Misericordia. Methods: A qualitative study was conducted with a convenience sample of 10 patients who attended the Hospital de La Misericordia, ¿Bogotá? between May 2014 and April 2015. The tool used was an in-depth interview applied to parents and/or caregivers. Results: Caregivers have different beliefs about the origin of the symptoms, especially considering sickness, magical-mystical factors, and psychosocial factors. The symptoms are explained in each case in various ways and there is no direct relationship between these beliefs, the pattern of symptoms, and help-seeking behaviours. Symptomatic presentation is polymorphous and mainly interferes in the patient's school activities. The medical care is perceived as relevant, and psychiatric care as insufficient. Among the therapeutic routes, consultations with various agents are described, including medical care, alternative medicine, and magical-religious approaches. Conclusions: EMs in conversion disorder are varied, but often include magical-religious elements and psychosocial factors. The underlying beliefs are not directly related to help-seeking behaviours or other variables.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Therapeutics , Caregivers , Conversion Disorder , Psychology , Referral and Consultation , Stress, Psychological , Complementary Therapies , Homeopathic Pathogenesy , Emergency Medical System , Medical Care , Help-Seeking Behavior , Mental Disorders
18.
Univ. psychol ; 17(1): 149-160, ene.-mar. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-979481

ABSTRACT

Resumen La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo, adaptar y validar en adolescentes chilenos, el cuestionario de barreras para la búsqueda de ayuda para problemas de salud mental, versión breve (BASH-B). Este cuestionario mide las barreras o razones percibidas por los adolescentes para no buscar ayuda profesional cuando presentan algún problema psicológico. Los participantes fueron 387 adolescentes de entre 14 y 19 años (M = 15.71 años), escolarizados en establecimientos de enseñanza media de la comuna de Talca (Chile). Se analizaron las propiedades psicométricas del instrumento. El análisis confirmatorio corroboró la estructura factorial unidimensional. Además, los índices de confiabilidad fueron adecuados. La escala presentó asociación significativa con las variables depresión y autoeficacia en las direcciones esperadas. En base a estos resultados, es posible decir que el BASH-B es un instrumento que posee propiedades psicométricas adecuadas para medir las barreras de la búsqueda de ayuda en el ámbito de la salud mental en adolescentes.


Abstract This research has a goal to adapt and validate for Chilean teenagers the Barriers to Adolescents Seeking Help Scale, brief version (BASH-B). This questionnaire measures the perceived barriers and reasons for teenagers not looking for professional help when they presents some psychological problem. There were 387 teenagers participants between 14 and 19 years olds (M = 15.71 years), attending high schools in Talca regional area. The psychometric properties of the instrument were analyzed. A confirmatory factor analysis corroborated the one-dimensional structure. The reliability indexes as appropriate. In addition, the scale presented significant association with the variables depression and self-efficacy in the hipothesized directions. Based on these results is possible to confirm that the BASH-B a appropriate psychometric properties to measure the barriers to help seeking for Mental health Problems in teenagers.


Subject(s)
Mental Health , Adolescent , Help-Seeking Behavior
19.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 71(supl.1): 646-651, 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-898512

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To identify social, clinical and behavioral factors of tuberculosis patients that are associated with delay in the search for primary health care. Method: This is a cross-sectional, quantitative study conducted with 56 people on treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis in the city of Natal, in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. The data were collected through a structured instrument. The Chi-square and Fisher tests were applied to test the association between independent and dependent variables (search time). A value of p <0.05 was set as statistically significant. Results: No social or clinical variables were statistically associated with patient delays in the search for primary health care. Among the behavioral variables, self-medication and the first health service sought had a statistically significant association with the time for seeking care (p = 0.020, and p = 0.033, respectively). Conclusion: Self-medication contributes to the delay in the search for primary health care by tuberculosis patients.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Identificar factores sociales, clínicos y conductuales de enfermos de tuberculosis, asociados a la demora por buscar la primera atención de salud. Método: Estudio transversal, cuantitativo, realizado con 56 personas en tratamiento de tuberculosis pulmonar, en Natal/RN, Brasil. Datos recolectados mediante instrumento estructurado. Se aplicaron los tests de Chi-cuadrado y de Fisher para probar la asociación entre las variables dependientes e independientes (tiempo de búsqueda). Se estableció un valor de p < 0,05 como estadísticamente significativo. Resultados: Ninguna variable social o clínica mostró asociación estadística a la demora del enfermo en la búsqueda de la primera atención de salud. Entre las variables conductuales, la automedicación y el primer servicio de salud buscado presentaron asociación estadísticamente significativa con el tiempo de búsqueda (p = 0,020 y p = 0,033, respectivamente). Conclusión: La automedicación contribuye a la demora en la búsqueda de la primera atención de salud en el enfermo de tuberculosis.


RESUMO Objetivo: Identificar fatores sociais, clínicos e comportamentais dos doentes de tuberculose que estejam associados ao atraso na procura pelo primeiro atendimento à saúde. Método: Estudo transversal, quantitativo, conduzido com 56 pessoas em tratamento da tuberculose pulmonar em Natal/RN, Brasil. Os dados foram coletados por meio de instrumento estruturado. Aplicaram-se os testes de Qui-quadrado e Fisher para testar a associação entre as variáveis independentes e dependentes (tempo de procura). Fixou-se valor de p < 0,05 como estatisticamente significativo. Resultados: Nenhuma variável social ou clínica se mostrou estatisticamente associada ao atraso do doente na procura pelo primeiro serviço de saúde. Dentre as variáveis comportamentais, a automedicação e o primeiro serviço de saúde procurado apresentaram associação estatística significativa com o tempo de procura (p = 0,020 e p = 0,033, respectivamente). Conclusão: A automedicação contribui para o atraso na procura pelo primeiro atendimento à saúde pelo doente de tuberculose.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Time Factors , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/psychology , Mass Screening/psychology , Help-Seeking Behavior , Socioeconomic Factors , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Brazil , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , Sex Factors , Mass Screening/trends , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Educational Status , Delayed Diagnosis/psychology , Income/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged
20.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 26: e3025, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-961148

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To know and analyze the critical path followed by women subjected to intimate partner violence until reaching a Reference Center of a Brazilian city, from the perspective of these women. Method: Qualitative research, based on the concept of critical path. Participant observations of the support group of the Reference Center and interviews with ten women in situations of violence who were followed up in this service. Results: the motivating factors for women to seek help were the increase in the severity of the aggressions, the impact of the violence on their children and support from their family. They go to several sectors and services before reaching the Reference Center, such as the police and legal counsel, health and social services. They find little effective responses from the services, and care is indicated as the most relevant response factor to face the situation. Conclusion: the assistance is fragmented and dependent on the posture of the professional. The Reference Center is recognized as an important place of support for women. In addition to governmental efforts to maintain the network structured, the permanent education of the working professionals is also fundamental.


RESUMO Objetivo: Conhecer e analisar a rota crítica de mulheres em situação de violência, na perspectiva das mesmas, perpetrada por parceiro íntimo até um Centro de Referência de um município brasileiro. Método: Pesquisa qualitativa, ancorada pelo conceito de rota crítica. Foram realizadas observações participantes do grupo de apoio do Centro de Referência e entrevistas com dez mulheres em situação de violência, acompanhadas por esse serviço. Resultados: os fatores motivadores para as mulheres buscarem ajuda foram o aumento da gravidade das agressões, o impacto da violência nos filhos e o apoio familiar. Passando por diversos setores e serviços antes do acesso ao Centro de Referência, tais como policial, jurídico, saúde e social. Tais mulheres encontram pouca resposta efetiva dos serviços, sendo que o acolhimento é apontado como fator de resposta mais relevante para enfrentamento da situação. Conclusão: O atendimento é fragmentado e dependente da postura do profissional que as atende. O Centro de Referência é reconhecido como importante local de apoio pelas mulheres. Além dos esforços governamentais para manter a rede estruturada, é fundamental a educação permanente dos profissionais atuantes.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Conocer y analizar la ruta crítica de mujeres en situación de violencia perpetrada por su pareja hasta un Centro de Referencia de un municipio brasileño, según la perspectiva de las mismas. Método: se trata de una investigación cualitativa, fundamentada bajo el concepto de ruta crítica. Se realizaron observaciones participativas del grupo de apoyo del Centro de Referencia y se entrevistaron diez mujeres en situación de violencia, acompañadas por este servicio. Resultados: los factores motivadores para que las mujeres buscaran ayuda fueron el aumento de la gravedad de las agresiones, el impacto de la violencia en los hijos y el apoyo familiar. Las mujeres pasan por diversos sectores y servicios antes de acceder al Centro de Referencia, tales como el policial, el jurídico, el de salud y el social. Encuentran poca respuesta efectiva de los servicios, siendo que la acogida es el factor de respuesta principal para enfrentar la situación. Conclusión: La atención está dividida y depende de la postura del profesional que las asiste. El Centro de Referencia es reconocido como importante lugar de apoyo para las mujeres. Además de los esfuerzos gubernamentales para mantener la red estructurada, es fundamental educar continuamente a los profesionales actuantes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Spouse Abuse , Domestic Violence , Help-Seeking Behavior , Intimate Partner Violence , Gender-Based Violence , Qualitative Research
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