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1.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(1): 28-36, Jan.-Feb. 2022. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP, CONASS, SESSP-IDPCPROD, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1356316

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Exercise tests are an important tool in the investigation of myocardial ischemia. The ramp protocol has gained increasing importance in clinical practice because of the possibility of individualizing its exercise intensity. OBJECTIVE: To assess and compare the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of Bruce and ramp protocols for exercise testing in the diagnosis of myocardial ischemia considering myocardial perfusion scintigraphy as the reference standard. Secondary objectives included the assessment of hemodynamic profiles, functional capacity, and the incidence of arrhythmias in each of the protocols. METHODS: Participants underwent exercise testing using the ramp and Bruce protocols, and the tests' diagnostic power was assessed. For testing the difference between data provided by both protocols, we used a paired Student's t-test or Wilcoxon test, depending on the assumption of data normality. The level of significance adopted for all tests was 5%. RESULTS: The ramp protocol showed sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy values of 55.6%, 82.4%, and 76.7%, respectively, whereas the Bruce protocol had results of 77.8%, 64.7%, and 67.4%, respectively. The maximum heart rate and double product at peak exercise were significantly higher in the Bruce protocol (p = 0.043 and p = 0.040, respectively). No differences were observed between the incidence of arrhythmias in both protocols. CONCLUSION: The Bruce protocol presented higher sensitivity for detecting ischemia on the exercise test, while the ramp protocol presented higher specificity and accuracy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnosis , Myocardial Ischemia/diagnosis , Exercise Test , Myocardial Perfusion Imaging/methods , Exercise , Predictive Value of Tests , Hemodynamics
2.
Fisioter. Bras ; 22(6): 871-880, Fevereiro 7, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1358293

ABSTRACT

)Introdução: A pressão positiva expiratória nas vias aéreas (EPAP) é a aplicação de uma resistência expiratória para manter a pressão positiva nas vias aéreas e também tem sido amplamente utilizada para prevenir possíveis complicações no pós-operatório de cirurgia cardíaca. Objetivo: Descrever o comportamento da oxigenação e hemodinâmica durante o uso de EPAP em pacientes submetidos à cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio (RM). Métodos: Estudo transversal que avaliou saturação periférica de oxigênio (SpO2), frequência cardíaca (FC), frequência respiratória (FR), pressão arterial sistólica (PAS), diastólica (PAD) e média (PAM), pressão arterial de oxigênio (PaO2), pressão arterial de dióxido de carbono (PaCO2) e índice de oxigenação calculado dividindo a PaO2 pela fração inspirada de oxigênio (FiO2), os pacientes foram avaliados em repouso, no primeiro dia de pós-operatório. A EPAP foi realizada com o paciente em sedestação na poltrona e uma gasometria arterial foi coletada e analisada para verificar os valores de PaO2, PaCO2, SaO2 e PaO2/FiO2. Foi aplicada uma resistência expiratória de 12 cmH2O por dez minutos. Imediatamente após a aplicação do EPAP, os pacientes tiveram nova análise gasométrica e a hemodinâmica analisada. Resultados: 58 pacientes, 41 (71%) do sexo masculino e com idade média de 54 ± 8 anos foram avaliados. O uso de EPAP no pós-operatório levou à melhora de todas as variáveis gasométricas, exceto PaCO2. Houve uma melhora na SaO2 (%) pré-EPAP 94 ± 3 e pós-EPAP 98 ± 2, PaO2/FiO2 pré-EPAP 279 ± 10 e pós-EPAP 346 ± 8, PaO2 (mmHg) pré-EPAP 78 ± 8 e pós-EPAP 97 ± 7. Conclusão: Concluiu-se que a aplicação do EPAP teve um impacto positivo na oxigenação em pacientes submetidos à RM sem gerar efeitos adversos na hemodinâmica. (AU)


Subject(s)
Thoracic Surgery , Oxygenation , Respiratory Rate , Arterial Pressure , Heart Rate , Hemodynamics
3.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 98(1): 15-25, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360558

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: Dexmedetomidine (DEX) is a highly selective alpha-2 adrenergic receptor agonist, which is the main sedative in the intensive care unit. This study aims to investigate the effectiveness and adverse events of DEX in maintaining hemodynamic stability in pediatric cardiac surgery. Sources: Databases such as PubMed, Cochrane, Web of Science, WANFANG STATA and China National Knowledge Infrastructure were searched for articles about the application of DEX in maintaining hemodynamic stability during and after pediatric cardiac surgery up to 18th Feb. 2021. Only randomized controlled trials were included and random-effects model meta-analysis was applied to calculate the standardized mean deviation (SMD), odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Summary of the findings: Fifteen articles were included for this meta-analysis, and 9 articles for qualitative analysis. The results showed that preoperative prophylaxis and postoperative recovery of DEX in pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery were effective in maintaining systolic blood pressure (SBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and reducing heart rate (HR) (SBP: SMD = -0.35,95% CI: -0.72, 0.01; MAP: SMD = -0.83, 95% CI: -1.87,0.21; DBP: SMD = -0.79,95% CI: -1.66,0.08; HR: SMD = -1.71,95% CI: -2.29, -1.13). In addition, the frequency of Junctional Ectopic Tachycardia in the DEX treatment group was lower than that in the placebo group. Conclusions: The application of DEX for preoperative prophylaxis and postoperative recovery in pediatric cardiac surgery patients are effective in maintaining hemodynamic stability, and the clinical dose of DEX is not significantly related to the occurrence of pediatric adverse events which may be related to individual differences.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Dexmedetomidine/adverse effects , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Blood Pressure , Hemodynamics , Hypnotics and Sedatives/adverse effects
4.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 401-407, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936026

ABSTRACT

Microcirculatory dysfunction is an important pathophysiological change of shock. In the last decade, many researches on the mechanism of microcirculatory dysfunction have been involved in areas such as the glycocalyx damage of vascular endothelial cells, macrocirculation- microcirculation discoupling, vascular hyporeactivity, and microcirculation monitoring. Accordingly, this paper discussed how these research findings can be applied to burn patients, with the aim of alerting the clinicians to improving microcirculation, and maintaining hemodynamic coordination during the treatment of burn shock and burn septic shock. In addition, with the development of accurate and reliable microcirculation monitoring techniques, it is necessary to carry out multi-center clinical trials to reveal the clinical significance of target-oriented shock resuscitation protocol combining macrocirculatory and microcirculatory parameters.


Subject(s)
Burns/therapy , Endothelial Cells , Hemodynamics/physiology , Humans , Microcirculation/physiology , Resuscitation , Shock , Shock, Septic/therapy
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928230

ABSTRACT

To explore the influence of bionic texture coronary stents on hemodynamics, a type of bioabsorbable polylactic acid coronary stents was designed, for which a finite element analysis method was used to carry out simulation analysis on blood flow field after the implantation of bionic texture stents with three different shapes (rectangle, triangle and trapezoid), thus revealing the influence of groove shape and size on hemodynamics, and identifying the optimal solution of bionic texture groove. The results showed that the influence of bionic texture grooves of different shapes and sizes on the lower wall shear stress region had a certain regularity. Specifically, the improvement effect of grooves above 0.06 mm on blood flow characteristics was poor, and the effect of grooves below 0.06 mm was good. Furthermore, the smaller the size is, the better the improvement effect is, and the 0.02 mm triangular groove had the best improvement effect. Based on the results of this study, it is expected that bionic texture stents have provided a new method for reducing in-stent restenosis.


Subject(s)
Bionics , Computer Simulation , Coronary Vessels , Hemodynamics/physiology , Models, Cardiovascular , Stents , Stress, Mechanical
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928229

ABSTRACT

The implantation of biventricular assist device (BiVAD) is more challenging than that of left ventricular assist device for the interaction in the process of multiple input and output. Besides, ventricular assist device (VAD) often runs in constant speed (CS) mode in clinical use and thus BiVAD also faces the problems of low pulsation and imbalance of blood volume between systemic circulation and pulmonary circulation. In this paper, a delay assist mode for a VAD by shortening the support time of VAD was put forward. Then, the effect of the delay mode on cardiac output, pulsation and the function of the aortic valve was observed by numerical method and the rules of hemodynamics were revealed. The research showed that compared with VAD supported in CS mode, the VAD using delay mode in systolic and diastolic period proposed in this paper could meet the demand of cardiac output perfusion and restore the function of the arterial valves. The open ratio of aortic valve (AV) and pulmonary valve (PV) increased with the time set in delay mode, and the blood through the AV/PV helped to balance the left and the right cardiac volume. Besides, delay mode also improved the pulsation index of arterial blood flow, which is conducive to the recovery of the ventricular pulse function of patients.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular System , Diastole , Heart Failure , Heart Rate , Heart-Assist Devices , Hemodynamics , Humans , Models, Cardiovascular
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928200

ABSTRACT

It has been found that the incidence of cardiovascular disease in patients with lower limb amputation is significantly higher than that in normal individuals, but the relationship between lower limb amputation and the episodes of cardiovascular disease has not been studied from the perspective of hemodynamics. In this paper, numerical simulation was used to study the effects of amputation on aortic hemodynamics by changing peripheral impedance and capacitance. The final results showed that after amputation, the aortic blood pressure increased, the time averaged wall shear stress of the infrarenal abdominal aorta decreased and the oscillatory shear index of the left and right sides was asymmetrically distributed, while the time averaged wall shear stress of the iliac artery decreased and the oscillatory shear index increased. The changes above were more significant with the increase of amputation level, which will result in a higher incidence of atherosclerosis and abdominal aortic aneurysm. These findings preliminarily revealed the influence of lower limb amputation on the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases, and provided theoretical guidance for the design of rehabilitation training and the optimization of cardiovascular diseases treatment.


Subject(s)
Amputation , Aorta, Abdominal/surgery , Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal/surgery , Blood Flow Velocity/physiology , Hemodynamics/physiology , Humans , Lower Extremity , Models, Cardiovascular , Stress, Mechanical
8.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 672-680, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927507

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#It is still unclear what the minimal infusion volume is to effectively predict fluid responsiveness. This study was designed to explore the minimal infusion volume to effectively predict fluid responsiveness in septic shock patients. Hemodynamic effects of fluid administration on arterial load were observed and added values of effective arterial elastance (Ea) in fluid resuscitation were assessed.@*METHODS@#Intensive care unit septic shock patients with indwelling pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) received five sequential intravenous boluses of 100 mL 4% gelatin. Cardiac output (CO) was measured with PAC before and after each bolus. Fluid responsiveness was defined as an increase in CO >10% after 500 mL fluid infusion.@*RESULTS@#Forty-seven patients were included and 35 (74.5%) patients were fluid responders. CO increasing >5.2% after a 200 mL fluid challenge (FC) provided an improved detection of fluid responsiveness, with a specificity of 80.0% and a sensitivity of 91.7%. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.93 (95% CI: 0.84-1.00, P  < 0.001). Fluid administration induced a decrease in Ea from 2.23 (1.46-2.78) mmHg/mL to 1.83 (1.34-2.44) mmHg/mL (P = 0.002), especially for fluid responders in whom arterial pressure did not increase. Notably, the baseline Ea was able to detect the fluid responsiveness with an AUC of 0.74 (95% CI: 0.59-0.86, P < 0.001), whereas Ea failed to predict the pressure response to FC with an AUC of 0.50 (95% CI: 0.33-0.67, P = 0.086).@*CONCLUSION@#In septic shock patients, a minimal volume of 200 mL 4% gelatin could reliably detect fluid responders. Fluid administration reduced Ea even when CO increased. The loss of arterial load might be the reason for patients who increased their CO without pressure responsiveness. Moreover, a high level of Ea before FC was able to predict fluid responsiveness rather than to detect the pressure responsiveness.@*TRIAL REGISTRATION@#ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04515511.


Subject(s)
Cardiac Output/physiology , Fluid Therapy , Gelatin/therapeutic use , Hemodynamics , Humans , Shock, Septic/therapy
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928883

ABSTRACT

Echocardiogram is vital for the diagnosis of cardiac disease. The heart has complex hemodynamics requiring an advanced ultrasound imaging mode. Cardiac ultrasound vector flow imaging is capable of measuring the actual magnitude and direction of the blood flow velocity, obtaining the quantitative parameters of hemodynamics, and then providing more information for clinical research and diagnosis. This study mainly reviewed several different vector flow imaging techniques for cardiac flow and presented the implementation difficulties, and proposed a diverging wave based high frame rate cardiac ultrasound vector flow imaging. The study discussed the limitation of current ultrasound technology used in the cardiac flow measurement, analyzed and demonstrated the specific reasons for these implementation difficulties and the potential future development.


Subject(s)
Blood Flow Velocity , Heart/physiology , Hemodynamics , Ultrasonography
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928875

ABSTRACT

By using Doppler sensor and pressure sensor, the cerebrovascular stroke detector can be used to measure the blood flow velocity and blood pressure of the carotid artery. In this study, a variety of signal conversion and isolation processing techniques are proposed for processing and feature extraction of the output signals from the sensors. Finally, effective signal output waveforms that can be used to evaluate the cerebrovascular hemodynamics index (CVHI) are obtained, and the sound signal outputs that can reflect the change characteristics of blood flow velocity and blood pressure signals are generated, which realizes the application functional requirements of the detector.


Subject(s)
Blood Flow Velocity/physiology , Cerebrovascular Circulation/physiology , Hemodynamics/physiology , Humans , Stroke , Technology
11.
In. Soeiro, Alexandre de Matos; Leal, Tatiana de Carvalho Andreucci Torres; Accorsi, Tarso Augusto Duenhas; Gualandro, Danielle Menosi; Oliveira Junior, Múcio Tavares de; Caramelli, Bruno; Kalil Filho, Roberto. Manual da residência em cardiologia / Manual residence in cardiology. Santana de Parnaíba, Manole, 2 ed; 2022. p.966-973, ilus, tab.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353818
12.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(2): 448-460, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364325

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamentos Uma metodologia para identificação de pacientes portadores de aneurisma de aorta ascendente (AAAs) sob alto risco de remodelamento aórtico não está completamente definida. Objetivo Esta pesquisa objetiva caracterizar numericamente o fluxo sanguíneo aórtico, relacionando a distribuição do estresse mecânico resultante com o crescimento de AAAs. Métodos Estudo analítico, observacional, unicêntrico, em que um protocolo de fluidodinâmica computacional (CFD - Computacional Fluid Dynamics) foi aplicado a imagens de angiotomografia computadorizada (ATC) de aorta de pacientes portadores de AAAs. Duas ATC de aorta com pelo menos um ano de intervalo foram obtidas. Dados clínicos dos pacientes foram registrados e, a partir das imagens de ATC, foram gerados modelos tridimensionais. Foram realizados estudos do campo de velocidade e estruturas coerentes (vórtices) com o objetivo de relacioná-los ao crescimento ou não do aneurisma e, posteriormente, compará-los com os dados clínicos dos pacientes. O teste de Kolmogorov-Smirnov foi utilizado para avaliar a normalidade da amostra e o teste não-paramétrico Wilcoxon signed-rank foi aplicado para comparações de dados pareados entre os ângulos aórticos. A significância estatística foi fixada em 5%. Resultados Para o grupo que apresentou crescimento do aneurisma, a incidência do jato na parede aórtica gerou áreas de recirculação posterior ao jato, induzindo à formação de vórtices complexos, ocasionando um incremento na pressão média no endotélio aórtico. O grupo sem crescimento do aneurisma apresentou diminuição na pressão média. Conclusão Este estudo piloto mostrou que a CFD baseada em ATC pode, em um futuro próximo, ser uma ferramenta auxiliar na identificação dos padrões de fluxo associados ao processo de remodelamento de AAAs.


Abstract Background A methodology to identify patients with ascending aortic aneurysm (AsAA) under high risk for aortic growth is not completely defined Objetive This research seeks to numerically characterize the aortic blood flow by relating the resulting mechanical stress distribution with AsAA growth. Methods Analytical, observational, single-center study in which a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) protocol was applied to aortic computed tomography angiogram (CTA) images of patients with AsAA. Two CTA exams taken at a minimum interval of one year were obtained. From the CTA-gathered images, three-dimensional models were built, and clinical data were registered. Study of velocity field and coherent structures (vortices) was performed aiming to relate them to the presence or absence of aneurysm growth, as well as comparing them to the patients' clinical data. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to evaluate the normality of the distribution, and the non-parametric Wilcoxon signed-rank test, for non-normal distribution, was used to compare the paired data of the aortic angles. Statistical significance was set at 5%. Results The incident jet in the aortic wall generated recirculation areas in the posterior region of the jet, inducing complex vortices formation in the group with aneurysm growth, leading to an average pressure increase in the ascending aortic wall between exams. In the group without aneurysm growth, the average pressure decreased. Conclusion This pilot study showed that CFD based on CTA may in the near future be a tool to help identify flow patterns associated with AsAA remodeling process.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aortic Aneurysm/diagnostic imaging , Hydrodynamics , Aorta/diagnostic imaging , Pilot Projects , Hemodynamics/physiology
13.
Rev. argent. cir ; 113(4): 477-481, dic. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1356958

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El vólvulo gástrico agudo (VGA) es una entidad infrecuente, con elevada mortalidad de hasta 50%, y su diagnóstico se basa en un alto nivel de sospecha clínica. En el paciente estable se puede plantear manejo no operatorio, pero en el inestable se impone el tratamiento quirúrgico. Presentamos el caso de un paciente con VGA e inestabilidad hemodinámica, en el cual se realizó laparotomía y devolvulación gástrica, pero falleció en el posoperatorio inmediato por shock refractario.


ABSTRACT Acute gastric volvulus (AGV) is an uncommon condition with high mortality (up to 50%) and its diagnosis is based on high level of suspicion. Conservative management can be attempted in stable patients, but the surgical approach is indicated in unstable cases. We report the case of a patient with AGV and hemodynamic instability who underwent laparotomy with reduction of the volvulus but who died in the immediate postoperative period due to refractory shock.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Stomach Volvulus/diagnostic imaging , Postoperative Period , Stomach Volvulus , Mortality , Intestinal Volvulus , Hemodynamics , Laparotomy
14.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(4): 750-764, Oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345224

ABSTRACT

Resumo Muitos avanços ocorreram nas últimas décadas na terapêutica da hipertensão arterial pulmonar (HAP), uma doença grave, progressiva, incurável e potencialmente fatal. Para seu tratamento adequado, são fundamentais o diagnóstico hemodinâmico e a classificação de sua etiologia, em que várias delas (colagenoses, hipertensão portal, cardiopatia congênitas, esquistossomose) requerem medidas específicas, além do tratamento farmacológico característico para HAP. O tratamento com fármacos-alvo para HAP baseia-se em produtos farmacêuticos que interferem em três vias fisiopatológicas moleculares: da prostaciclina, da endotelina e do óxido nítrico. Tais fármacos apresentam múltiplas apresentações (oral, endovenosa, subcutânea e inalatória) e mudaram a história da HAP. Essas medicações e suas estratégias de uso, assim como particularidades das diferentes formas de HAP, são o foco desta revisão.


Abstract In the last decades, important advances have been made in the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a severe, progressive, incurable, and potentially fatal disease. For an adequate therapy, correct hemodynamic diagnosis and etiology classification are fundamental. Many etiologies - rheumatic disease, portal hypertension, congenital heart diseases, schistosomiasis - require specific measures, in addition to drug therapy for PAH. The specific therapy for PAH is based on medications that act on three pathophysiological pathways - prostacyclin, endothelin, and nitric oxide pathways. These drugs have multiple presentations (oral, intravenous, subcutaneous, and inhaled) and have changed the history of PAH. This review presents an overview of drug therapy strategies and different forms and peculiarities of PAH.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Hemodynamics
15.
Notas enferm. (Córdoba) ; 21(38): 34-42, nov. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1348586

ABSTRACT

Si bien el uso rtPA está indicado para diversas patologías como el tratamiento trombolítico en los infartos agudos de miocardio, el tromboembolismo pulmonar agudo con inestabilidad hemodinamica y el tratamiento trombolítico del accidente cerebrovascular isquémico agudo conforme a la disposición DI­2018-495-APN-ANMAT#MSYDS el uso del mismo en Argentina y conforme a consenso (consenso sobre accidente cerebrovascular isquémico agudo). La administración oportuna del rtPA, a pacientes apropiadamente seleccionados constituye el principal tratamiento de forma temprana en el ACV (1-8). Por lo que el rol que cumple enfermería es fundamental en la valoración de riesgos previa a la administración, preparación, administración del fármaco y valoración continua post administración del mismo[AU]


Although the use of rtPA is indicated for various pathologies such as thrombolytic treatment in acute myocardial infarctions, acute pulmonary thromboembolism with hemodynamic instability, and thrombolytic treatment of acute ischemic stroke according to the DI-2018-495-APN-ANMAT provision. #MSYDS the use of thesame in Argentina and accordingtoconsensus (consensus on accident cerebrovascular ischemico acute). Timely administration of rtPAto appropriately selected patients constitutes the main treat mentearly in stroke (1,8). Therefore, the role play edby nursingis fundamental in the risk ass essment prior to the administration, preparation, administration of the drug, and continuous post-administration assessment[AU]


Embora o uso de rtPA seja indicado para várias patologias, como tratamento trombolítico em infartos agudos do miocárdio, tromboembolismo pulmonar agudo com instabilidade hemodinâmica e tratamento trombolítico de acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico agudo de acordo com a disposição DI- 2018-495-APN-ANMAT. #MSYDS a uso do mesmona Argentina e de acordocom o consenso (consensus on accident cerebrovascular ischemico agute). A administração oportuna de rtPA a pacientes adequadamente selecionados constitui o principal tratamento no início do AVC (1,8). Por tanto, o papel da enfermagem é fundamental na avaliação do risco antes da administração, preparo, administração do medicamento e avaliação pós-administração contínua[AU]


Subject(s)
Humans , Plasminogen , Plasminogen/administration & dosage , Stroke , Ischemic Stroke , Myocardial Infarction , Nursing Care , Pulmonary Embolism , Hemodynamics
16.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 97(5): 564-570, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340152

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To evaluate the influence of intra-abdominal pressure on the cardiac index (CI) at different intra-abdominal hypertension grades achieved when performing an abdominal compression maneuver (ACM). Evaluating the effectiveness of the ACM in distending the left internal jugular vein (LIJV). Methods: Prospective observational study conducted in the PICU of a quaternary care teaching hospital. Participants underwent the ACM and the IAP was measured with an indwelling urinary catheter. At each IAH grade reached during the ACM, the CI was measured by transthoracic echocardiography and the LIJV cross-sectional area (CSA) was determined by ultrasonography. Results: Twenty-four children were included (median age and weight of 3.5 months and 6.37 kg, respectively). The median CI observed at baseline and during IAH grades I, II, III, and IV were 3.65 L/min/m2 (IQR 3.12−4.03), 3.38 L/min/m2 (IQR 3.04−3.73), 3.16 L/min/m2 (IQR 2.70−3.53), 2.89 L/min/m2 (IQR 2.38−3.22), and 2.42 L/min/m2 (IQR 1.91−2.79), respectively. A 25% increase in the LIJV CSA area was achieved in 14 participants (58%) during the ACM. Conclusion: The ACM significantly increases IAP, causing severe reversible impairment in the cardiovascular system and is effective in distending the LIJV in just over half of the subjects. Even low levels of HIA can result in significant cardiac dysfunction in children. Therefore, health professionals should be aware of the negative hemodynamic repercussions caused by the increased IAP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Critical Illness , Intra-Abdominal Hypertension , Prospective Studies , Ultrasonography , Hemodynamics
17.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 49(3): e601, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1280184

ABSTRACT

Abstract The new coronavirus 2019-nCov or SARS-Cov-2 is responsible for the most important pandemic in the 21st century: the coronavirus disease (COVID-19). The 2019-nCov infection elicits a hyper-coagulable state, conditioning a worse outcome in these patients. The pathophysiology of the exaggerated coagulation activation in these patients is still unknown, and probably involves several mechanisms, different from those involved in sepsis-associated coagulopathy. This article discusses the case of a patient with no remarkable medical history, who after 7 days of fever, diarrhea and epigastric pain was diagnosed with COVID-19 bilateral pneumonia, further aggravated by severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. In this context, the patient experienced a massive acute pulmonary thromboembolism accompanied by an acute thrombus in the heart's right ventricle, leading to hemodynamic instability. For the first time in our center in these patients, systemic fibrinolysis was successfully performed, with resolution of the intracavitary thrombus and the acute hemodynamic shock.


Resumen El nuevo coronavirus 2019-nCov o SARS-Cov-2 es responsable de la pandemia más importante del siglo XXI: la enfermedad del coronavirus (COVID-19). La infección por 2019-nCov produce un estado de hipercoagulabilidad, que promueve peores desenlaces en estos pacientes. La fisiopatología de la exagerada activación de la coagulación en estos pacientes aún se desconoce y posiblemente involucre varios mecanismos, diferentes a los participan en la coagulopatía asociada a sepsis. El presente artículo presenta el caso de un paciente sin antecedentes médicos y quien luego de 7 días de fiebre, diarrea y dolor epigástrico, fue diagnosticado con neumonía bilateral por COVID-19, agravada por la presencia de Síndrome de Dificultad Respiratoria Aguda. En este contexto, el paciente desarrolla un tromboembolismo pulmonar agudo masivo, acompañado de un trombo agudo en el ventrículo derecho, produciéndole inestabilidad hemodinámica. Por primera vez en nuestro centro, se realizó exitosamente una fibrinólisis sistémica, con resolución del trombo intracavitario y del shock hemodinámico agudo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Pulmonary Embolism , Thrombosis , Blood Coagulation , Pandemics , Fibrinolysis , COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn , Coronavirus , SARS-CoV-2 , Heart Ventricles , Hemodynamics , Infections
18.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 36(4): 557-560, July-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1347156

ABSTRACT

Abstract Atrial septal aneurysm (ASA) is an uncommon but well-recognized cardiac abnormality. This educational text reviews the case of a 54-year-old female presenting an ASA related to a small ostium secundum atrial septal defect. The considerable signs and symptoms, interestingly, have not been justified by the clinical and hemodynamic investigations. So, we opted for a better imaging investigation with cardiac catheterization and transesophageal echocardiography. The surgical process was earlier indicated and performed with aid of cardiopulmonary bypass.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Heart Aneurysm/surgery , Heart Aneurysm/diagnostic imaging , Heart Septal Defects, Atrial/surgery , Heart Septal Defects, Atrial/diagnostic imaging , Cardiac Catheterization , Echocardiography, Transesophageal , Hemodynamics , Middle Aged
20.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 49(2): e800, Apr.-June 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1251506

ABSTRACT

Patients with severe COVID-19 infection frequently require to be in prone position. 1 Furthermore, these patients with mechanical ventilation need additional vasopressor support (95.4 % vs. 1.5 %) and exhibit a higher risk of developing atrial arrhythmias (17.7 % vs. 1.9 %). 2 A study conducted in Wuhan, China, reported that 17.9 % of the patients experienced intrahospital cardiac arrest; the arrest rhythms were asystole (89.7 %), pulseless electrical activity (4.4 %) and defibrillatable rhythms (5.9 %). 3 In order to reduce the hemodynamic effects secondary to changes in position 4 cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) maneuvers in prone position are recommended (inverted CPR) 5; this technique was described in 1989 by McNeil, and has proven to be successful 6,7 doing the inverse precordial compressions at the usual rate and amplitude. 8 86 % of the patients have the largest left ventricular area localized between 0 and 2 vertebral segments below the line that crosses the two inferior angles of the scapulae. In this location, the maneuver may be done as shown in Figure 1


Los pacientes con infección grave por COVID-19 requieren con frecuencia estar en posición prona. 1 Además, estos pacientes con ventilación mecánica necesitan apoyo vasopresor adicional (95,4 % frente a 1,5 %) y presentan un mayor riesgo de desarrollar arritmias auriculares (17,7 % frente a 1,9 %). 2 Un estudio realizado en Wuhan, China, informó de que el 17,9% de los pacientes experimentaron una parada cardiaca intrahospitalaria; los ritmos de parada fueron asistolia (89,7%), actividad eléctrica sin pulso (4,4%) y ritmos desfibrilables (5,9%). 3 Para reducir los efectos hemodinámicos secundarios a los cambios de posición 4 se recomiendan las maniobras de reanimación cardiopulmonar (RCP) en decúbito prono (RCP invertida) 5; esta técnica fue descrita en 1989 por McNeil, y ha demostrado ser exitosa 6,7 realizando las compresiones precordiales inversas a la frecuencia y amplitud habituales. 8 El 86% de los pacientes tienen la mayor área ventricular izquierda localizada entre 0 y 2 segmentos vertebrales por debajo de la línea que cruza los dos ángulos inferiores de las escápulas. En esta localización, la maniobra puede realizarse como se muestra en la figura 1


Subject(s)
Humans , Respiration, Artificial , Prone Position , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , COVID-19 , Pulse , Risk , Selection of the Waste Treatment Site , Heart Arrest , Hemodynamics , Infections
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