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Rev. cuba. cir ; 62(4)dic. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1550844


Introducción: La hemorragia digestiva alta tiene una elevada morbimortalidad. La endoscopía digestiva alta es el estudio de elección para su diagnóstico y tratamiento. Objetivo: Describir la conducta ante la hemorragia digestiva alta. Métodos: Para la revisión bibliográfica se consultaron artículos científicos indexados en idioma español e inglés, relacionados con la hemorragia digestiva, publicados en las bases de datos PubMed, SciELO, Medline y Cochrane, pertenecientes a autores dedicados al estudio de este tema. Desarrollo: La hemorragia digestiva alta se clasifica, según la etiología de origen, en variceal y no variceal. La mayoría de los pacientes con hemorragia digestiva alta el sangrado se autolimita. La causa más habitual es la úlcera péptica, pero en caso de sangrado masivo la etiología más frecuente es la variceal. El empleo precoz de la terlipresina en los pacientes con hemorragia digestiva alta variceal mejora el control del sangrado y disminuye la mortalidad. Se debe hacer uso de escalas validadas de estratificación del riesgo: escala de riesgo de Rockall (tiene como propósito principal predecir la mortalidad y riesgo de resangrado del paciente) y la escala de Glasgow-Blatchford). Conclusiones: Sospechar la presencia de hemorragia digestiva alta, estratificar su riesgo e instaurar el manejo inicial y apropiado constituye una prioridad para el médico de urgencia(AU)

Introduction: Upper gastrointestinal bleeding presents high morbidity and mortality. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is the study of choice for its diagnosis and treatment. Objective: To describe the management of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Methods: For the bibliographic review, the consultation was carried out of scientific articles indexed in Spanish and English, related to gastrointestinal bleeding, published in the databases PubMed, SciELO, Medline and Cochrane, belonging to authors dedicated to the study of this subject. Development: Upper gastrointestinal bleeding is classified, according to the etiology of origin, into variceal and nonvariceal. In most patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding the bleeding as such is self-limiting. The most common cause is peptic ulcer; however, in the case of massive bleeding, the most frequent etiology is variceal. Early use of terlipressin in patients with variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding improves bleeding control and decreases mortality. Validated risk stratification scales should be used: Rockall risk scale (its main purpose is to predict patient mortality and risk of bleeding recurrence) and the Glasgow-Blatchford scale. Conclusions: Suspecting the presence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding, stratifying its risk, as well as instituting initial and appropriate management, are a priority for the emergency physician(AU)

Humans , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal/methods , Terlipressin/therapeutic use , Hemorrhage/etiology , Review Literature as Topic , Databases, Bibliographic
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 963-967, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010892


OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate and summarize the relevant evidence of anticoagulation and bleeding risk management in patients with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), and provide the evidence-based basis for the management of anticoagulation and bleeding during ECMO treatment.@*METHODS@#According to the evidence "6S" pyramid model, all evidence on ECMO anticoagulation management and bleeding risk was searched in relevant databases, organizations and guideline websites at home and abroad. Evidence types included guidelines, expert consensus, systematic evaluation, Meta-analysis and original study. The search time limit was from May 31, 2012 to May 31, 2022. Two researchers with evidence-based research background conducted independent literature quality evaluation of the retrieved evidence, and the evidence that met the quality standards was extracted and summarized based on the opinions of industry experts.@*RESULTS@#A total of 315 articles were retrieved, and 13 articles were included, including 3 guidelines, 6 expert consensus, and 4 Meta-analysis. A total of 27 best evidences were summarized from 7 aspects, including the selection of ECMO anticoagulation, anticoagulation in priming, anticoagulation in operation, anticoagulation monitoring, bleeding and treatment, thrombosis and treatment, and prevention and management of terminal limb ischemia.@*CONCLUSIONS@#This study provides evidence-based basis for bleeding prevention and anticoagulant management in ECMO patients. It is recommended to selectively apply the best evidence after evaluating the clinical environmental conditions of medical institutions, so as to improve the prognosis of ECMO patients.

Humans , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Blood Coagulation , Hemorrhage/etiology , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 121-124, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970974


Viper bite envenomation represents a significant occupational hazard among agricultural workers in India. The viper bite envenomation is usually suspected when a patient presents with predominant local symptoms at the bitten site, including pain, swelling, and necrosis. Further, systemic findings such as diffuse intravascular coagulation, hypotension, and shock may alert physicians of viper bite envenomation rather than a neurotoxic snake bite. However, cerebral complications are rare in viper bites but may potentially fatal. Central nervous system involvement in a viper bite is either due to neurotoxins or hemorrhagins present in the venom, which may induce cerebral thrombosis, ischemia, infarction, and hemorrhage. Here we present a case of a previously healthy adult male who succumbed to extensive subarachnoid, intracerebral, and intraventricular hemorrhages involving bilateral cerebral hemispheres following viper snake bite envenomation. This report highlights the importance of anticipating cerebral complications in viper bite envenomation, a rare occurrence. It also emphasizes the need for early antisnake venom administration to prevent and control systemic envenomation and its complications.

Adult , Humans , Male , Snake Bites/complications , Hemorrhage/etiology , Intracranial Hemorrhages , Shock , India
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009845


OBJECTIVES@#To explore the risk factors for hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) in children with β-thalassemia major (TM) undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT).@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was conducted on clinical data of 247 children with TM who underwent allo-HSCT at Shenzhen Children's Hospital from January 2021 to November 2022. The children were divided into an HC group (91 cases) and a non-HC group (156 cases) based on whether HC occurred after operation. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to explore the risk factors for HC, and the receiver operating characteristic curve was used to analyze the predictive efficacy of related factors for HC.@*RESULTS@#Among the 247 TM patients who underwent allo-HSCT, the incidence of HC was 36.8% (91/247). Univariate analysis showed age, incompatible blood types between donors and recipients, occurrence of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD), positive urine BK virus deoxyribonucleic acid (BKV-DNA), and ≥2 viral infections were associated with the development of HC after allo-HSCT (P<0.05). Multivariable analysis revealed that incompatible blood types between donors and recipients (OR=3.171, 95%CI: 1.538-6.539), occurrence of aGVHD (OR=2.581, 95%CI: 1.125-5.918), and positive urine BKV-DNA (OR=21.878, 95%CI: 9.633-49.687) were independent risk factors for HC in children with TM who underwent allo-HSCT. The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that positive urine BKV-DNA alone or in combination with two other risk factors (occurrence of aGVHD, incompatible blood types between donors and recipients) had a certain accuracy in predicting the development of HC after allo-HSCT (area under the curve >0.8, P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Incompatible blood types between donors and recipients, occurrence of aGVHD, and positive urine BKV-DNA are risk factors for HC after allo-HSCT in children with TM. Regular monitoring of urine BKV-DNA has a positive significance for early diagnosis and treatment of HC.

Humans , Child , Retrospective Studies , beta-Thalassemia/therapy , Cystitis/epidemiology , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Risk Factors , Hemorrhage/etiology , Graft vs Host Disease/complications , DNA , Polyomavirus Infections/epidemiology
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 1137-1148, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009413


Liver disease-associated thrombocytopenia syndrome refers to thrombocytopenia caused by liver disease or the treatment of liver disease, and its incidence rate is related to the duration and severity of liver disease. The direct effect of thrombocytopenia on clinical outcomes is an increased risk of bleeding in patients with liver disease, whereas the indirect effect involves delay or termination of treatment due to the potential risk of bleeding. Liver disease-associated thrombocytopenia pathophysiological mechanisms involve decreased platelet production, abnormal distribution, destruction, or increased consumption. Presently, treatment strategies targeting different mechanisms include platelet-stimulating drugs, surgery, immunosuppressive drugs, and platelet transfusion, but the clinical application needs to be standardized further. The National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Diseases organized experts to discuss and formulate consensus with reference to the latest evidence-based medical evidence in the field so as to improve the clinical management level of liver disease-associated thrombocytopenia syndrome in China in terms of diagnosis, typing, and reasonable selection of treatment schemes.

Humans , Consensus , Thrombocytopenia/complications , Liver Diseases/complications , Hemorrhage/etiology , Blood Platelets
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 82(3): 333-337, sept. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1409942


Resumen Durante la cirugía endoscópica nasosinusal, la sección inadvertida y retracción hacia la órbita de la arteria etmoidal anterior (AEA) es el mecanismo habitual del hematoma orbitario (HO); éste se manifiesta con proptosis, dolor y déficit visual potencialmente irreversible. El déficit visual es secundario a isquemia del nervio óptico por aumento de la presión intraocular, siendo suficientes treinta minutos para que ocurra daño visual permanente. Por sus secuelas el tratamiento del HO debe ser rápido y agresivo. Presentamos el caso de un varón de 72 años con diagnóstico de rinosinusitis crónica con pólipos nasales refractaria a tratamiento médico que se sometió a cirugía endoscópica nasal y que desarrolló en el posoperatorio inmediato con un HO. Se manejó precozmente con cantotomía-cantolisis, descompresión orbitaria medial endoscópica y control vascular de la AEA. El paciente evoluciona favorablemente, sin déficit visual. En este artículo se discutirán el diagnóstico y manejo oportunos del hematoma orbitario iatrogénico.

Abstract During endoscopic sinonasal surgery, inadvertent section of the anterior ethmoidal artery (AEA) with retraction into the orbit is the usual mechanism of orbital hematoma (OH), leading to proptosis, pain, and potentially irreversible visual loss. Thirty minutes is sufficient for retinal ischemia and permanent visual loss. The explanation for blindness is due to increased intraorbital pressure. The treatment of iatrogenic HO must be quick and aggressive, because if it is not managed in time, it can cause a permanent visual deficit. We present the case of a 72-year-old man with a diagnosis of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps refractory to medical treatment who underwent nasal endoscopic surgery, evolving in the immediate postoperative period with an HO, requiring canthotomy - cantolysis and early surgical reintervention for endoscopic medial orbital decompression and vascular control of AEA. The patient evolves favorably, without visual deficit. This article will discuss the timely diagnosis and management of iatrogenic orbital hematoma.

Humans , Male , Aged , Orbital Diseases/etiology , Nasal Polyps/surgery , Endoscopy/adverse effects , Hematoma/etiology , Endoscopy/methods , Hemorrhage/etiology
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 82(3): 360-365, sept. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1409947


Resumen La mononucleosis infecciosa (MI) es un cuadro clínico generalmente benigno y autolimitado en la infancia y adolescencia debido a la primoinfección del virus de Epstein-Barr caracterizado por la triada de faringitis, fiebre y adenopatías. El riesgo de complicaciones aumenta con la edad y la inmunosupresión, siendo las complicaciones letales más frecuentes las asociadas a rotura esplénica, alteraciones neurológicas y obstrucción de la vía aérea por el aumento del tamaño amigdalar. Los abscesos cervicales asociados a MI son poco frecuentes, siendo mayoritariamente periamigdalinos e intraamigdalares. Presentamos dos casos quirúrgicos de abscesos cervicales profundos de gran tamaño con afectación retrofaríngea y parafaríngea en adolescentes sanos de corta edad (14 y 15 años), sin ningún tipo de inmunosupresión o factores de riesgo, uno de ellos asociado además, a una relevante hemorragia amigdalar espontanea, condición no descrita previamente en la literatura en relación a MI en un paciente tan joven.

Abstract Infectious mononucleosis (MI) is a generally benign and self-limited condition in childhood and adolescence due to the primary EBV infection characterized by the triad of pharyngitis, fever, and lymphadenopathies. The risk of complications increases with age and immunosuppression. The most frequent fatal complications are those associated with splenic rupture, neurological alterations, and airway obstruction due to increased tonsillar size. Cervical abscesses associated with MI are rare, being mostly peritonsillar and intra-tonsil. We present two surgical cases of big deep cervical abscesses with retropharyngeal and parapharyngeal involvement in healthy very young adolescents (14 and 15 years old), without any type of immunosuppression or risk factors, one of them associated with a clinically relevant spontaneous tonsillar bleeding, which had not been described in the literature associated with MI in such young patient.

Humans , Female , Adolescent , Peritonsillar Abscess/complications , Peritonsillar Abscess/therapy , Infectious Mononucleosis/complications , Infectious Mononucleosis/therapy , Pharyngitis/etiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Peritonsillar Abscess/diagnostic imaging , Fever/etiology , Hemorrhage/etiology , Infectious Mononucleosis/diagnostic imaging
Medwave ; 22(2): e002118, mar.2022. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1366391


Contexto La hemofilia es un trastorno hemorrágico de la coagulación que ocurre en uno de cada 5000 nacimientos masculinos. Los pacientes con hemofilia A grave no tratados tienen complicaciones hemorrágicas, incluyendo sangrados articulares y menor sobrevida. El emicizumab es un anticuerpo monoclonal aprobado por los Estados Unidos para la profilaxis rutinaria de pacientes pediátricos y adultos con hemofilia A grave con inhibidores del factor VIII de coagulación. Objetivos Realizar un estudio de costo-efectividad de la profilaxis con emicizumab para niños y adultos con hemofilia A grave, en comparación con el actual manejo de esos pacientes en el Ministerio de Salud y el Seguro Social de Salud de Perú. Metodología Se modeló la transición del paciente entre estados médicos con la metodología de Markov y se estimó a lo largo de su vida costos y efectos incrementales de emicizumab comparados con el actual manejo. Se estimó el impacto presupuestario de emicizumab proyectando costos netos anuales y su valor presente a cinco años. Resultados Emicizumab generaría ahorros en el Ministerio de Salud entre 14,6 y 16,0 por niño y 11,8 por adulto, en US$ millones actuales, y en el Seguro Social de Salud de 12,8 a 14,9 por niño y 40,1 por adulto. Además, se generan ganancias en efectividad, medidas en años de vida ajustados por calidad, de 0,36 por niño y 0,56 por adulto y de 0,25 por niño y 0,36 por adulto en esas respectivas instituciones. El impacto presupuestario sería un ahorro anual neto, en US$ millones, de 12,8 y 15,0 en esas entidades. Conclusión El actual manejo de la enfermedad es muy costoso y con resultados de salud inferiores a los posibles con emicizumab. Este fármaco produciría grandes ahorros y mejor salud. Ambas entidades debieran implementar protocolos para la profilaxis y tratamiento de la hemofilia y financiarla con presupuesto propio.

Settings Hemophilia is a coagulation disorder that occurs in one in 5000 male births. Patients with untreated severe hemophilia A have hemorrhagic complications, including joint bleeds and decreased survival. Emicizumab is a monoclonal antibody approved by the United States for routine prophylaxis of pediatric and adult patients with severe hemophilia A with factor VIII inhibitors. Objectives To perform a cost-effectiveness study of emicizumab prophylaxis for children and adults with severe hemophilia A compared with the current disease management in the Peruvian Ministry of Health and Social Security Health Insurance. Methods The patient transition between medical states was modeled with Markov methodology, and the lifetime costs and incremental effects of emicizumab compared to current management were estimated. The budgetary impact of emicizumab was estimated by projecting annual net costs and its five-year present value. Results In the Ministry of Health, emicizumab would generate savings between 14.6 and 16.0 per child and 11.8 per adult, in current US$ million. Social Security Health Insurance savings would be 12.8 to 14.9 per child and 40.1 per adult. In addition, this strategy would generate effectiveness gains, measured in quality-adjusted life-years, of 0.36 per child and 0.56 per adult and 0.25 per child, and 0.36 per adult in those respective institutions. The budgetary impact would be a net annual saving of 12.8 and 15.0 US$ million in those entities. Conclusions The current management of hemophilia A is very costly and has health outcomes inferior to those possible with emicizumab. This drug would produce significant savings and better patient health. The Ministry of Health and Social Health Insurance should implement hemophilia prophylaxis and treatment protocols and finance this drug.

Humans , Male , Child , Adult , Hemophilia A/complications , Hemophilia A/drug therapy , Peru , Factor VIII/therapeutic use , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Antibodies, Bispecific , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Hemorrhage/etiology
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 285-289, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935939


Objective: To study the diagnostic value of immediate color Doppler ultrasonography on traumatic hepatic hemorrhage after tissue sampling with ultrasound-guided liver biopsy and the clinical effect of its-directed local compression hemostasis at puncture-site. Methods: 132 hospitalized patients with various liver diseases underwent ultrasound-guided hepatic puncture-biopsies, including 61 cases with diffuse parenchymal and 71 cases with focal liver lesions. Immediate postoperative color Doppler ultrasonography was performed following liver biopsy. Abnormal blood flow signal was observed at hepatic puncture biopsy site, and if there were hemorrhagic signals, ultrasound-directed local compression hemostasis was performed until the bleeding signal disappeared. F-test and Chi-square test were used for statistical analysis. Results: Immediate color Doppler ultrasonography showed traumatic hemorrhage in 36.1% (22/61) and 40.8% (29/71) cases of diffuse liver disease and focal liver disease group, respectively. All hemorrhagic signals were eventually disappeared after ultrasound-directed local compression hemostasis. The median hemostasis time was 2 min in both groups, and there was no statistically significant difference in bleeding rate and hemostasis time between the two groups (P>0.05). There were no serious complications and deaths. Conclusion: Traumatic hepatic hemorrhage along the needle puncture tract is a common accompanying condition during liver biopsy. Immediate postoperative color Doppler ultrasonography can trace bleeding signals in timely manner and direct effective compression hemostasis, so it should be used routinely to help avoid occurrence of severe hemorrhagic complications.

Humans , Biopsy , Hemorrhage/etiology , Hemostasis/physiology , Liver/pathology , Liver Diseases/pathology , Ultrasonography , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color/adverse effects
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 37(3): 233-240, sept. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388152


Resumen La leptospirosis es una de las zoonosis endémicas más importantes en el mundo con un aumento de la incidencia en los últimos años. En el personal militar podría ser catalogada como una enfermedad ocupacional dado sus actividades específicas en áreas rurales. Su presentación clínica es variable siendo en la mayoría de los casos una enfermedad febril autolimitada. De acuerdo con diversos factores dependientes del patógeno y del hospedero pueden presentarse manifestaciones severas de la enfermedad dentro de la cual destaca el compromiso pulmonar con una alta tasa de mortalidad. Existe evidencia del uso de esteroide sistémico como parte del tratamiento de esta complicación. Presentamos el caso de un paciente joven, militar, que debuta con síndrome de hemorragia alveolar difusa secundario a leptospirosis y presenta una excelente respuesta al tratamiento con altas dosis de metilprednisolona, con una discusión del proceso diagnóstico y aspectos fisiopatológicos de esta condición.

Leptospirosis is one of the most important endemic zoonoses in the world with an increase in incidence in recent years. In military personnel it could be classified as an occupational disease given their specific activities in rural areas. Its clinical presentation is variable being in most cases a self-limited febrile disease. According to various factors dependent on the pathogen and the host, severe manifestations of the disease may occur within which the pulmonary involvement with a high mortality rate stands out. There is evidence of systemic steroid use as part of the treatment of this complication. We present a case of a young, military patient who debuts with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage syndrome secondary to leptospirosis and presents an excellent response to treatment with high doses of methylprednisolone, with a discussion of the diagnostic process and pathophysiological aspects of this condition.

Humans , Male , Young Adult , Pulmonary Alveoli/pathology , Hemorrhage/etiology , Leptospirosis/complications , Lung Diseases/etiology , Steroids/therapeutic use , Weil Disease , Zoonoses , Tropical Zone , Leptospirosis/diagnosis , Leptospirosis/drug therapy , Military Personnel , Occupational Diseases
Rev. méd. Chile ; 149(7): 1081-1084, jul. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389557


We report a 47-year-old male with a severe disease caused by COVID-19, who required mechanical ventilation for 18 ays. During the hospital stay he received dexamethasone and anticoagulation with heparin. After discharge a new chest CT scan showed homogeneous hypo vascular enlargement of both adrenal glands, not present in the initial imaging studies. It was interpreted as a subacute bilateral adrenal hemorrhage. The patient remained stable and without any complaint.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Adrenal Gland Diseases/etiology , Adrenal Gland Diseases/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19 , Heparin , SARS-CoV-2 , Hemorrhage/etiology
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942177


OBJECTIVE@#To observe the postoperative bleeding after percutaneous renal biopsy (PRB) in Tibet, To analyze and summarize the risk factors associated with bleeding in high altitude patients to improve the safety of surgery.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis of 150 cases of PRB in the Department of Nephrology, People's Hospital of Tibet Autonomous Region from May 2016 to May 2018 were carried out, and the correlations between the potential risk factors (gender, age, blood pressure, hemoglobin, platelet, serum creatinine) and postoperative bleeding events were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#During the study period, the 150 patients receiving procedure of PRB were enrolled in our hospital, with an average age of (41.2±15.6) years, of whom 58.7% (88/150) were male, 41.3% (62/150) were female, and major bleeding complications occurred in 12 biopsies (8.0%, 12/150). Six cases for men and women, respectively. The mean age in the bleeding group seemed to be higher than that in the non-bleeding group [(48.3±20.0) years vs. (40.6±15.1) years, P=0.099]. There was no significant difference in the incidence of hypertension, hemoglobinemia, urea nitrogen and prothrombin time between the two groups. The level of serum creatinine in the hemorrhage group seemed to be higher than that in the non-bleeding group (P=0.090), and the time of the hemorrhagic group was longer than that in the non-bleeding group (P=0.069). The platelet count in the bleeding group was significantly lower than that in the non-bleeding group (P < 0.05). Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that the prolonged activation of partial prothrombin time and lower platelet count had a relatively high risk of bleeding, which was statistically significant (P=0.079, P=0.082).@*CONCLUSION@#PRB is safe and reliable on the whole in plateau areas; Old age, low platelet count, decreased renal function and prolonged activated partial coagulation time are related to postoperative bleeding of PRB, and hyperhemoglobin is not a risk factor for bleeding. High hemoglobin is not a risk factor for postoperative bleeding of PRB at high altitude.

Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Biopsy , Hemorrhage/etiology , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Tibet
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 48: e20202783, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155358


ABSTRACT Introduction: extremity tourniquet (TQ) use has increased in the civilian setting; the beneficial results observed in the military has influenced acceptance by EMS and bystanders. This review aimed to analyze extremity TQ types used in the civilian setting, injury site, indications, and complications. Methods: a systematic review was conducted based on original articles published in PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane following PRISMA guidelines from 2010 to 2019. Data extraction focused on extremity TQ use for hemorrhage control in the civilian setting, demographic data, study type and duration, mechanism of injury, indications for use, injury site, TQ type, TQ time, and complications. Results: of the 1384 articles identified, 14 were selected for review with a total of 3912 civilian victims with extremity hemorrhage and 3522 extremity TQ placements analyzed. The majority of TQs were applied to male (79%) patients, with blunt or penetrating trauma. Among the indications for TQ use were hemorrhagic shock, suspicion of vascular injuries, continued bleeding, and partial or complete traumatic amputations. Upper extremity application was the most common TQ application site (56%), nearly all applied to a single extremity (99%), and only 0,6% required both upper and lower extremity applications. 80% of the applied TQs were commercial devices, and 20% improvised. Conclusions: TQ use in the civilian setting is associated with trauma-related injuries. Most are single-site TQs applied for the most part to male adults with upper extremity injury. Commercial TQs are more commonly employed, time in an urban setting is under 1 hour, with few complications described.

RESUMO Introdução: o uso de torniquete em extremidades (TQ) aumentou no ambiente civil; os resultados benéficos observados nas forças armadas influenciaram a aceitação por equipes de pré-hospitalar (PH) assim como pela população leiga. Esta revisão teve como objetivo analisar os tipos de TQ de extremidades usados em ambiente civil, local da lesão, indicações e complicações. Métodos: revisão sistemática foi conduzida com base em artigos originais publicados no PubMed, Embase e Cochrane seguindo as diretrizes do PRISMA de 2010 a 2019. Extração de dados focada no uso de TQ de extremidade para controle de hemorragia em ambiente civil, dados demográficos, tipo de estudo e duração, mecanismo de lesão, indicações de uso, local da lesão, tipo de TQ, tempo de TQ e complicações. Resultados: dos 1.384 artigos identificados, 14 foram selecionados para revisão com total de 3.912 vítimas civis com hemorragia nas extremidades e 3.522 colocações de extremidades TQ analisadas. A maioria foi aplicado em pacientes do sexo masculino (79%), com trauma contuso ou penetrante. Entre as indicações estavam choque hemorrágico, suspeita de lesões vasculares, sangramento contínuo e amputações traumáticas parciais ou completas. A aplicação na extremidade superior foi o local de aplicação mais comum (56%), quase todos aplicados a uma única extremidade (99%), e apenas 0,6% requereram aplicações nas extremidades superior e inferior. 80% dos TQs aplicados eram dispositivos comerciais e 20% improvisados. Conclusões: o uso de TQ em ambientes civis está associado a traumas. Os TQs comerciais são mais utilizados, com tempo menor que uma hora de uso e poucas complicações.

Humans , Male , Adult , Tourniquets/statistics & numerical data , Vascular System Injuries/therapy , Exsanguination/prevention & control , Hemorrhage/prevention & control , Emergency Medical Services , Emergency Treatment , Extremities/injuries , Vascular System Injuries/complications , Vascular System Injuries/mortality , Exsanguination/etiology , Exsanguination/mortality , Hemorrhage/etiology , Hemorrhage/mortality
Rev. Hosp. Clin. Univ. Chile ; 32(3): 187-192, 2021. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353082


Background: Anaemia and transfusions are frequent in critically ill patients and there are avoidable causes such as routine laboratory tests. Patients and methods: Descriptive study during one continuous week including patients over 18-years old in a medical-surgical ICU. Results: 18 patients were included during a week in 12 beds in our unit, median age 62,5 years, 50% male. Median daily blood loss was 35ml, 45% in laboratory samples and 27% related to renal replacement therapy. 3 patients required 1 transfusion of red blood cells. Conclusions: There is a pattern of continuous blood loss in critically ill patients, primarily in routine laboratory tests. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Hemorrhage/etiology , Intensive Care Units , Blood Transfusion , Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Anemia/complications
Colomb. med ; 51(4): e4024486, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154004


Abstract Damage control resuscitation should be initiated as soon as possible after a trauma event to avoid metabolic decompensation and high mortality rates. The aim of this article is to assess the position of the Trauma and Emergency Surgery Group (CTE) from Cali, Colombia regarding prehospital care, and to present our experience in the implementation of the "Stop the Bleed" initiative within Latin America. Prehospital care is phase 0 of damage control resuscitation. Prehospital damage control must follow the guidelines proposed by the "Stop the Bleed" initiative. We identified that prehospital personnel have a better perception of hemostatic techniques such as tourniquet use than the hospital providers. The use of tourniquets is recommended as a measure to control bleeding. Fluid management should be initiated using low volume crystalloids, ideally 250 cc boluses, maintaining the principle of permissive hypotension with a systolic blood pressure range between 80- and 90-mm Hg. Hypothermia must be management using warmed blankets or the administration of intravenous fluids warmed prior to infusion. However, these prehospital measures should not delay the transfer time of a patient from the scene to the hospital. To conclude, prehospital damage control measures are the first steps in the control of bleeding and the initiation of hemostatic resuscitation in the traumatically injured patient. Early interventions without increasing the transfer time to a hospital are the keys to increase survival rate of severe trauma patients.

Resumen La resucitación en el control de daños debe iniciarse lo más rápido posible después de presentado el evento traumático para evitar descompensación metabólica y aumento de la mortalidad. El objetivo de este artículo es sustentar nuestro enfoque respecto a la atención prehospitalaria y presentar nuestra experiencia en la implementación de la iniciativa "Stop the Bleed" en Latinoamérica. La atención prehospitalaria es la fase Cero de la resucitación del control de daños. Por medio de la implementación de la iniciativa "Stop the Bleed" se identificó que el personal prehospitalario tiene una mejor percepción sobre el uso de técnicas hemostáticas como el torniquete que el personal hospitalario. Se recomienda el uso de torniquetes como medida de control de sangrado en extremidades. El manejo de líquidos debe realizarse usando cristaloides a bajos volúmenes, con bolos de 250 mL para cumplir el principio de la hipotensión permisiva con un rango entre 80 y 90 mm Hg de presión arterial sistólica. Se deben realizar medidas para evitar la hipotermia como el uso de sábanas térmicas o paso de líquidos calientes. Estas medidas no deben retrasar en ningún momento el tiempo de traslado para recibir la atención hospitalaria. En conclusión, la atención prehospitalaria es el paso inicial para garantizar las primeras medidas de control de sangrado y de resucitación hemostática de los pacientes. Realizar intervenciones tempranas sin acortar el tiempo de traslado a la atención hospitalaria son las claves para aumentar la tasa de supervivencia.

Humans , Resuscitation/methods , Wounds and Injuries/therapy , Emergency Medical Services/methods , Hemorrhage/prevention & control , Wounds and Injuries/complications , Blood Volume , Body Temperature , Algorithms , Injury Severity Score , Hemorrhage/etiology
Colomb. med ; 51(4): e4064506, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154007


Abstract Noncompressible torso hemorrhage is one of the leading causes of preventable death worldwide. An efficient and appropriate evaluation of the trauma patient with ongoing hemorrhage is essential to avoid the development of the lethal diamond (hypothermia, coagulopathy, hypocalcemia, and acidosis). Currently, the initial management strategies include permissive hypotension, hemostatic resuscitation, and damage control surgery. However, recent advances in technology have opened the doors to a wide variety of endovascular techniques that achieve these goals with minimal morbidity and limited access. An example of such advances has been the introduction of the Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta (REBOA), which has received great interest among trauma surgeons around the world due to its potential and versatility in areas such as trauma, gynecology & obstetrics and gastroenterology. This article aims to describe the experience earned in the use of REBOA in noncompressible torso hemorrhage patients. Our results show that REBOA can be used as a new component in the damage control resuscitation of the severely injured trauma patient. To this end, we propose two new deployment algorithms for hemodynamically unstable noncompressible torso hemorrhage patients: one for blunt and another for penetrating trauma. We acknowledge that REBOA has its limitations, which include a steep learning curve, its inherent cost and availability. Although to reach the best outcomes with this new technology, it must be used in the right way, by the right surgeon with the right training and to the right patient.

Resumen La hemorragia no compresible del torso es una de las principales causas de muerte prevenibles alrededor del mundo. Una evaluación eficiente y apropiada del paciente traumatizado con hemorragia activa es la esencia para evitar el desarrollo del rombo de la muerte (hipotermia, coagulopatía, hipocalcemia y acidosis). Actualmente, las estrategias de manejo inicial incluyen hipotensión permisiva, resucitación hemostática y cirugía de control de daños. Sin embargo, los recientes avances tecnológicos han abierto las puertas a una amplia variedad de técnicas endovasculares que logran esos objetivos con una morbilidad mínima y un acceso limitado. Un ejemplo de estos avances ha sido la introducción del balón de resucitación de oclusión aortica; REBOA ( Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta , por sus sigla en inglés ), el cual, ha tenido gran provecho entre los cirujanos de trauma alrededor del mundo debido a su potencial y versatilidad en áreas como trauma, ginecología y obstetricia, y gastroenterología. El objetivo de este artículo es describir la experiencia lograda en el uso del REBOA en pacientes con hemorragia no compresible del torso. Nuestros resultados muestran que el REBOA puede usarse como un nuevo actor en la resucitación de control de daños del paciente con trauma severo, para este fin, nosotros proponemos dos nuevos algoritmos para el manejo de pacientes hemodinámicamente inestables: uno para trauma cerrado y otro para trauma penetrante. Se reconoce que el REBOA tiene sus limitaciones, las cuales incluye un periodo de aprendizaje, su costo inherente y la disponibilidad. A pesar de esto, para lograr los mejores resultados con esta nueva tecnología, el REBOA debe ser usado en el momento correcto, por el cirujano correcto con el entrenamiento y el paciente correcto.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Resuscitation/methods , Wounds and Injuries/therapy , Hemorrhage/therapy , Aorta , Wounds and Injuries/complications , Wounds and Injuries/physiopathology , Injury Severity Score , Prospective Studies , Balloon Occlusion , Hemodynamics , Hemorrhage/etiology , Hemorrhage/physiopathology
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(7): 1034-1038, jul. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1139407


Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity may appear after brain injury. Its clinical manifestations are sporadic and self-limited crisis of arterial hypertension, hyperthermia, tachycardia, hyperhidrosis, muscle tension, sialorrhea and mydriasis. These subside with the administration of morphine and beta-blockers. It may be caused by a dysautonomia leading to increased levels of catecholamines due to the lack of brain regulation. We report a 19 years-old man with a history of illicit drug and alcohol consumption, with a secondary axonal injury due to a cranioencephalic trauma. During hospitalization, he had recurrent, self-limited episodes of dysautonomia. An infectious cause was discarded. When morphine was administrated suspecting the presence of pain, the crisis subsided, which helped to establish the diagnosis of paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity.

Humans , Male , Adult , Sympathetic Nervous System/pathology , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Hemorrhage/etiology , Sympathetic Nervous System/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 80(2): 172-177, jun. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115832


En este artículo se presenta un paciente que en contexto de un cuadro amigdalino agudo bilateral con un absceso periamigdalino unilateral concomitante presenta sangrado espontáneo proveniente de la amígdala abscedada. Los signos y síntomas observados en este paciente, así como los estudios complementarios son compatibles con la entidad clínica definida como amigdalitis hemorrágica espontánea, una complicación altamente infrecuente de la amigdalitis aguda y/o crónica en nuestra época, la que solía tener una gran tasa de mortalidad y gravedad en la era preantibiótica. A continuación, se reúnen y analizan los antecedentes descritos en la literatura referidos a este cuadro, al igual que su estudio complementario requerido para definir conducta, la cual es fundamentalmente de resorte quirúrgico.

In this article we report a patient who, in the context of a bilateral acute tonsillar condition with a concomitant unilateral peritonsillar abscess presents spontaneous bleeding from the abscessed tonsil. The clinical features observed in our patient, as well as the complementary studies are all compatible with the clinical entity known as spontaneous tonsil hemorrhage, a highly rare complication of acute and/or chronic tonsillitis in our time, which used to have major severity and mortality rate in the pre-antibiotic era. Following next, we gather and analyze the information described in literature referred to this affliction, as well as the complementary tests required to define its fundamentally surgical management.

Humans , Male , Young Adult , Tonsillitis/complications , Hemorrhage/etiology , Tonsillectomy , Tonsillitis/surgery , Tonsillitis/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Abscess
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(1): 67-77, ene.-feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249872


Resumen La hemofilia adquirida (HA) es un trastorno hemostático autoinmune ocasionado por autoanticuerpos dirigidos contra el factor VIII: C. En 52 % de los casos, la causa se desconoce o no se asocia con otra entidad patológica; en el resto, existen factores concomitantes: lupus, artritis reumatoide, cáncer, embarazo y medicamentos. En México no existe registro ni conciencia de la enfermedad entre el personal de salud. Los grupos de mayor incidencia son las mujeres en edad reproductiva y los individuos mayores de 70 años. Se caracteriza por hemorragia grave, sobre todo posterior a traumatismos y parto o cesárea, y equimosis grandes en tronco y extremidades. La sospecha es simple, basta que concurran hemorragia súbita, grave y un TTPa prolongado que no se corrige con plasma. El tratamiento consiste en lograr la hemostasia y erradicar el anticuerpo; lo primero se logra con el factor VII activado recombinante o concentrado del complejo de protrombínico activado. La ciclofosfamida, prednisona o rituximab sirven para erradicar el anticuerpo. La mayoría de los casos no son diagnosticados y la mortalidad es alta. Ya que los médicos desconocen el problema, no se sospecha, no se diagnostica y no se trata. Este documento revisa los datos más recientes de la HA y abunda en el diagnóstico y tratamiento.

Abstract Acquired hemophilia (AH) is an autoimmune hemostatic disorder mediated by autoantibodies directed against factor VIII: C. In 52% of cases, the cause is unknown or is not associated with other pathological entities; in the rest, there are concomitant factors: lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, cancer, pregnancy, and medications. In Mexico, there is not a registry of AH, and awareness of the disease among health personnel is low. The groups with the highest incidence are women of childbearing age and individuals older than 70 years. It is characterized by severe bleeding, especially after trauma and normal childbirth or cesarean delivery, and large ecchymoses in the trunk and extremities. The suspicion is simple, it just takes for sudden, severe hemorrhage and a prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time that is not corrected with plasma to concur in an individual. Treatment involves achieving hemostasis and eradicating the antibody. The former is achieved with recombinant activated factor VII or activated prothrombin complex concentrate. Cyclophosphamide, prednisone or rituximab are used to eradicate the antibody. Most cases of AH are not diagnosed, which translates into a high mortality rate. Given that awareness about the disease among physicians is low, it is not suspected, neither diagnosed, and nor is it treated. This document reviews the most recent data on AH and expands on its diagnosis and treatment.

Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Autoantibodies/immunology , Factor VIII/immunology , Hemophilia A/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Hematologic/etiology , Prognosis , Ecchymosis/etiology , Hemophilia A/complications , Hemophilia A/therapy , Hemophilia A/epidemiology , Hemorrhage/etiology , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use