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Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 131-138, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981930


PURPOSE@#SAM junctional tourniquet (SJT) has been applied to control junctional hemorrhage. However, there is limited information about its safety and efficacy when applied in the axilla. This study aims to investigate the effect of SJT on respiration when used in the axilla in a swine model.@*METHODS@#Eighteen male Yorkshire swines, aged 6-month-old and weighing 55 - 72 kg, were randomized into 3 groups, with 6 in each. An axillary hemorrhage model was established by cutting a 2 mm transverse incision in the axillary artery. Hemorrhagic shock was induced by exsanguinating through the left carotid artery to achieve a controlled volume reduction of 30% of total blood volume. Vascular blocking bands were used to temporarily control axillary hemorrhage before SJT was applied. In Group I, the swine spontaneously breathed, while SJT was applied for 2 h with a pressure of 210 mmHg. In Group II, the swine were mechanically ventilated, and SJT was applied for the same duration and pressure as Group I. In Group III, the swine spontaneously breathed, but the axillary hemorrhage was controlled using vascular blocking bands without SJT compression. The amount of free blood loss was calculated in the axillary wound during the 2 h of hemostasis by SJT application or vascular blocking bands. After then, a temporary vascular shunt was performed in the 3 groups to achieve resuscitation. Pathophysiologic state of each swine was monitored for 1 h with an infusion of 400 mL of autologous whole blood and 500 mL of lactated ringer solution. Tb and T0 represent the time points before and immediate after the 30% volume-controlled hemorrhagic shock, respectively. T30, T60, T90 and T120, denote 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after T0 (hemostasis period), while T150, and T180 denote 150 and 180 min after T0 (resuscitation period). The mean arterial pressure and heart rate were monitored through the right carotid artery catheter. Blood samples were collected at each time point for the analysis of blood gas, complete cell count, serum chemistry, standard coagulation tests, etc., and thromboelastography was conducted subsequently. Movement of the left hemidiaphragm was measured by ultrasonography at Tb and T0 to assess respiration. Data were presented as mean ± standard deviation and analyzed using repeated measures of two-way analysis of variance with pairwise comparisons adjusted using the Bonferroni method. All statistical analyses were processed using GraphPad Prism software.@*RESULTS@#Compared to Tb, a statistically significant increase in the left hemidiaphragm movement at T0 was observed in Groups I and II (both p < 0.001). In Group III, the left hemidiaphragm movement remained unchanged (p = 0.660). Compared to Group I, mechanical ventilation in Group II significantly alleviated the effect of SJT application on the left hemidiaphragm movement (p < 0.001). Blood pressure and heart rate rapidly increased at T0 in all three groups. Respiratory arrest suddenly occurred in Group I after T120, which required immediate manual respiratory assistance. PaO2 in Group I decreased significantly at T120, accompanied by an increase in PaCO2 (both p < 0.001 vs. Groups II and III). Other biochemical metabolic changes were similar among groups. However, in all 3 groups, lactate and potassium increased immediately after 1 min of resuscitation concurrent with a drop in pH. The swine in Group I exhibited the most severe hyperkalemia and metabolic acidosis. The coagulation function test did not show statistically significant differences among three groups at any time point. However, D-dimer levels showed a more than 16-fold increase from T120 to T180 in all groups.@*CONCLUSION@#In the swine model, SJT is effective in controlling axillary hemorrhage during both spontaneous breathing and mechanical ventilation. Mechanical ventilation is found to alleviate the restrictive effect of SJT on thoracic movement without affecting hemostatic efficiency. Therefore, mechanical ventilation could be necessary before SJT removal.

Male , Animals , Swine , Shock, Hemorrhagic/therapy , Tourniquets , Axilla , Hemorrhage/therapy , Vascular Diseases , Respiration
Rev. cuba. estomatol ; 59(4)dic. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1441588


Introducción: El desarrollo de las ciencias médicas trae consigo un incremento en la expectativa de vida, junto a la detección temprana de un gran número de enfermedades crónicas como las cerebrovasculares y cardiovasculares, que son tratadas rutinariamente con medicamentos antiagregantes plaquetarios. El conocimiento del manejo de estos pacientes ante los procedimientos quirúrgicos estomatológicos constituye un reto en la práctica diaria profesional. Objetivo: Determinar el nivel de sangramiento posextracción dentaria en pacientes con enfermedad cardiovascular y cerebrovascular, según el tipo de antiagregantes plaquetarios y grupo dentario, así como la frecuencia de utilización de las medidas para su control. Métodos: Se efectuó un estudio observacional, descriptivo, longitudinal y prospectivo con un universo de 136 pacientes de más de 20 años, remitidos por su cardiólogo y que necesitaban realizarse extracciones dentarias sin modificar su tratamiento con antiagregantes plaquetarios. Las variables estudiadas fueron la enfermedad sistémica, el tipo de antiagregante plaquetario, el nivel de sangramiento, grupo dentario intervenido y método hemostático utilizado. Resultados: La mitad de los pacientes estudiados no presentó sangramiento posextracción dentaria. En los pacientes tratados con aspirina o clopidogrel predominaron los sujetos sin sangramiento para un 84,3 por ciento y 62,5 por ciento, respectivamente. En los de doble antiagregación prevaleció el sangramiento moderado con un 46,3 por ciento. Los grupos dentarios incisivo, canino y premolar no presentaron episodios de sangramiento para un 64,1 por ciento, 51,6 por ciento y 53,3por ciento, respectivamente. El método hemostático más utilizado fue la compresión de las corticales y termoterapia fría (47,8 por ciento). Conclusiones: La mitad de los pacientes con enfermedades cardiovasculares y cerebrovasculares no presentaron sangramiento posextracción dentaria(AU)

Introduction: The development of medical sciences brings with it an increase in life expectancy, together with the early detection of a large number of chronic diseases such as cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases, which are routinely treated with antiplatelet aggregation drugs. Knowledge on the treatment of these patients before stomatological surgical procedures constitutes a challenge in daily professional practice. Objective: To determine the level of bleeding after tooth extraction in patients with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, according to the type of antiplatelet agents and dental group, as well as the frequency of use of measures for their control. Methods: An observational, descriptive, longitudinal and prospective study was carried out with a universe of 136 patients over 20 years of age, referred by their cardiologist, who needed dental extractions without modifying their treatment with antiplatelet agents. The variables studied were systemic disease, type of antiplatelet agent, level of bleeding, dental group treated and hemostatic method used. Results: Half of the patients studied did not present bleeding after tooth extraction. In patients treated with aspirin or clopidogrel, 84.3 percent and 62.5por ciento, respectively, had no bleeding. In those with double antiplatelet therapy, modera te bleeding prevailed with 46.3 The incisor, canine and premolar tooth groups did not present bleeding episodes (64.1 percent, 51.6and 53.3 percent respectively). The most commonly used hemostatic method was cortical compression and cold thermotherapy (47.8%). Conclusions: Half of the patients with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases did not present bleeding after tooth extraction(AU)

Humans , Tooth Extraction/methods , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Hemorrhage/therapy , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Longitudinal Studies , Observational Study , Clopidogrel/therapeutic use
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935777


Objective: To explore the clinical characterist ics and risk factors of hemorrhage complicated by hemoperfusion therapy in patients with acute poisoning. Methods: In January 2021, the clinical data of 196 patients with acute poisoning who received hemoperfusion therapy in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Air Force Military Medical University from January 2018 to December 2020 were analyzed, and the patients were divided into bleeding group and non-bleeding group according to whether the patients were complicated with bleeding. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze the independent risk factors for hemorrhage in patients treated with hemoperfusion. Results: A total of 21 patients in the bleeding group and 175 patients in the non-bleeding group were included. There was no significant difference in general data such as gender, age, and body mass index between the two groups (P>0.05) . Organophosphorus pesticides (χ(2)= 4.56, P=0.030) , HA230 perfusion device (χ(2)=4.12, P=0.042) , platelet count (t=-2.33, P=0.009) and activated partial thromboplastin time (t=14.53, P<0.001) at 2 h of perfusion were the influencing factors of hemorrhage in patients with acute poisoning treated with hemoperfusion. Among them, organophosphorus pesticides, 2 h perfusion activated partial thromboplastin time ≥35 s and other factors were independent risk factors forcomplicated bleeding (P<0.05) . Conclusion: Patients with acute poisoning, especially organophosphorus pesticide poisoning, are at greater risk of bleeding during hemoperfusion therapy. Monitoring of changes in activated partial thromboplastin time should be strengthened and the dose of anticoagulants should be adjusted in time to reduce the risk of bleeding.

Humans , Hemoperfusion , Hemorrhage/therapy , Organophosphorus Compounds , Pesticides , Poisoning/therapy , Risk Factors
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 73(4): 514-518, ago. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388846


Resumen Introducción: La hemorragia no compresible de torso, actualmente tiene una alta morbimortalidad aún en los centros de referencia más especializados. El REBOA es una herramienta emergente que se utiliza como control hemostático precoz en este tipo de pacientes. Caso Clínico: Presentamos el caso de una paciente femenina de 25 años que sufre un trauma pélvico grave tras caer de altura. Ingresa hemodinámicamente inestable por lo cual se activa protocolo de transfusión masiva y realiza acceso arterial femoral común derecho. Al presentar una respuesta transitoria a la reanimación, se instala balón de REBOA en zona 3, logrando aumentar presión sistólica hasta 130 mmHg, trasladando posteriormente a quirófano. Se realiza packing pélvico preperitoneal y fijación externa, desinflando el balón después de 29 min en zona 3. La paciente sale a unidad de cuidados intensivos sin drogas vasoactivas, para completar cirugía a las 48 h y fijación definitiva 6 días después. La paciente evoluciona en buenas condiciones generales.

Introduction: Non-compressible torso hemorrhage currently has a high morbidity and mortality even in the most specialized referral centers. REBOA is an emerging tool that is used as early hemostatic control in this type of patient. Clinical Case: We present the case of a 25-year-old female patient who suffers severe pelvic trauma after falling from a height. He was admitted hemodynamically unstable, for which a massive transfusion protocol was activated and a right common femoral arterial access was performed. After presenting a transient response to resuscitation, a REBOA balloon was installed in zone 3, increasing systolic pressure up to 130 mmHg, later transferring to the operating room. Preperitoneal pelvic packing and external fixation were performed, deflating the balloon after 29 minutes in zone 3. The patient left the intensive care unit without vasoactive drugs, to complete surgery 48 hours later and definitive fixation 6 days later. The patient evolves in good general condition.

Humans , Female , Adult , Aorta/surgery , Balloon Occlusion/methods , Endovascular Procedures/methods , Resuscitation/methods , Hemorrhage/therapy
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879675


Throughout the past 2020, the pandemic COVID-19 has caused a big global shock, meanwhile it brought a great impact on the public health network. Trauma emergency system faced a giant challenge and how to manage trauma under the pandemic of COVID-19 was widely discussed. However, the trauma treatment of special population (geriatric patients and patients taking anticoagulant drugs) has received inadequate attention. Due to the high mortality following severe traumatic hemorrhage, hemostasis and trauma-induced coagulopathy are the important concerns in trauma treatment. Sepsis is another topic should not be ignored when we talking about trauma. COVID-19 itself is a special kind of sepsis, and it may even be called as serious systemic infection syndrome. Sepsis has been become a serious problem waiting to be solved urgently no matter in the fields of trauma, or in intensive care and infection, etc. This article reviewed the research progress in areas including trauma emergency care, trauma bleeding and coagulation, geriatric trauma and basic research of trauma within 2020.

Female , Humans , Male , COVID-19 , Community Networks , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/therapy , Emergency Medical Services , Health Services for the Aged , Hemorrhage/therapy , Hemostasis , Pandemics , Public Health , Sepsis/therapy , Time Factors , Trauma Centers , Wounds and Injuries/therapy
Colomb. med ; 51(4): e4064506, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154007


Abstract Noncompressible torso hemorrhage is one of the leading causes of preventable death worldwide. An efficient and appropriate evaluation of the trauma patient with ongoing hemorrhage is essential to avoid the development of the lethal diamond (hypothermia, coagulopathy, hypocalcemia, and acidosis). Currently, the initial management strategies include permissive hypotension, hemostatic resuscitation, and damage control surgery. However, recent advances in technology have opened the doors to a wide variety of endovascular techniques that achieve these goals with minimal morbidity and limited access. An example of such advances has been the introduction of the Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta (REBOA), which has received great interest among trauma surgeons around the world due to its potential and versatility in areas such as trauma, gynecology & obstetrics and gastroenterology. This article aims to describe the experience earned in the use of REBOA in noncompressible torso hemorrhage patients. Our results show that REBOA can be used as a new component in the damage control resuscitation of the severely injured trauma patient. To this end, we propose two new deployment algorithms for hemodynamically unstable noncompressible torso hemorrhage patients: one for blunt and another for penetrating trauma. We acknowledge that REBOA has its limitations, which include a steep learning curve, its inherent cost and availability. Although to reach the best outcomes with this new technology, it must be used in the right way, by the right surgeon with the right training and to the right patient.

Resumen La hemorragia no compresible del torso es una de las principales causas de muerte prevenibles alrededor del mundo. Una evaluación eficiente y apropiada del paciente traumatizado con hemorragia activa es la esencia para evitar el desarrollo del rombo de la muerte (hipotermia, coagulopatía, hipocalcemia y acidosis). Actualmente, las estrategias de manejo inicial incluyen hipotensión permisiva, resucitación hemostática y cirugía de control de daños. Sin embargo, los recientes avances tecnológicos han abierto las puertas a una amplia variedad de técnicas endovasculares que logran esos objetivos con una morbilidad mínima y un acceso limitado. Un ejemplo de estos avances ha sido la introducción del balón de resucitación de oclusión aortica; REBOA ( Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta , por sus sigla en inglés ), el cual, ha tenido gran provecho entre los cirujanos de trauma alrededor del mundo debido a su potencial y versatilidad en áreas como trauma, ginecología y obstetricia, y gastroenterología. El objetivo de este artículo es describir la experiencia lograda en el uso del REBOA en pacientes con hemorragia no compresible del torso. Nuestros resultados muestran que el REBOA puede usarse como un nuevo actor en la resucitación de control de daños del paciente con trauma severo, para este fin, nosotros proponemos dos nuevos algoritmos para el manejo de pacientes hemodinámicamente inestables: uno para trauma cerrado y otro para trauma penetrante. Se reconoce que el REBOA tiene sus limitaciones, las cuales incluye un periodo de aprendizaje, su costo inherente y la disponibilidad. A pesar de esto, para lograr los mejores resultados con esta nueva tecnología, el REBOA debe ser usado en el momento correcto, por el cirujano correcto con el entrenamiento y el paciente correcto.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Resuscitation/methods , Wounds and Injuries/therapy , Hemorrhage/therapy , Aorta , Wounds and Injuries/complications , Wounds and Injuries/physiopathology , Injury Severity Score , Prospective Studies , Balloon Occlusion , Hemodynamics , Hemorrhage/etiology , Hemorrhage/physiopathology
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eAO5032, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133784


ABSTRACT Objective To describe the implementation of a care protocol based on rapid response teams, for management and resolution of bleeding. Methods A hospital protocol called Hemorrhage Code (Code H) was devised and developed. In a flow line, a multidisciplinary team provides comprehensive, fast and effective care to the patient with a severe hemorrhagic condition. In another flow line, professionals based at the hospital pharmacy focus on identifying patients at risk of bleeding, to avoid this event. Several hospital professionals and sectors were trained, each with specific roles, ensuring full support to the medical and nursing staffs. Results After implementing this protocol, we were able to significantly reduce the number of catastrophic events related to failure in bleeding management. Conclusion Code H is an example of a value-based medicine and precision medicine project by delivering comprehensive and multidisciplinary care, in addition to point-of-care testing introduced in clinical practice, optimizing patient safety and care practices at the hospital. Furthermore, it will be possible to minimize the risk of lawsuits for the hospital and physicians, as well as rationalizing resources with benefits for administrators and payers.

RESUMO Objetivo Descrever a implantação de um protocolo de atendimento nos moldes de times de resposta rápida, para manejo e resolução do sangramento. Métodos Foi idealizado e desenvolvido um protocolo institucional, chamado Código Hemorrágico, ou Código H, no qual, em um fluxo, um time multiprofissional e multidisciplinar foi constituído para atendimento integral, rápido e eficaz do paciente com doença hemorrágica grave. Em um outro fluxo, os profissionais, centralizados na farmácia do hospital, focavam na identificação do paciente com risco de hemorragia, no sentido de evitar o evento. Vários profissionais e setores do hospital foram treinados, e cada um, com funções específicas, deveria oferecer garantia total de apoio e suporte às equipes médica e de enfermagem. Resultados Após a implementação do protocolo, o número de eventos catastróficos relacionados à falha no manejo do sangramento reduziu significativamente. Conclusão O Código H é um exemplo de projeto de medicina baseada em valor e de medicina de precisão, por meio de atendimento integral e multidisciplinar, além de testes point of care introduzidos na prática clínica, com otimização da segurança do paciente e da prática assistencial na instituição. Ainda, por meio dele, deve ser possível minimizar o risco de ações judiciais para o hospital e os médicos, além de racionalizar recursos, com benefícios para administradores e fontes pagadoras.

Humans , Shock, Hemorrhagic/therapy , Blood Coagulation Disorders/therapy , Blood Transfusion , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Patient Safety , Patient Care/standards , Hemorrhage/therapy , Brazil , Retrospective Studies , Hemorrhage/prevention & control
Rev. colomb. ortop. traumatol ; 34(2): 102-103, 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1372344


Introducción Las fracturas pélvicas se asocian a sangrado arterial y/o venoso, ocasionando mortalidad elevada. El objetivo del estudio es diseñar, implementar y evaluar un protocolo para el tratamiento de fracturas pélvicas Materiales y métodos estudio prospectivo observacional, de pacientes con fractura pélvica que ingresaron a la clínica Medical. Variables: edad, sexo, arteria comprometida, lesión unilateral o bilateral, tipo de fractura pélvica (clasificación de Tile), indicación de la arteriografía, acceso uni o bilateral, éxito angiográfico, complicaciones del procedimiento, lesiones asociadas, mortalidad a 30 días, mecanismo de trauma, días de estancia en cuidado intensivo. Resultados 56 pacientes con fractura pélvica, 17 pacientes se llevaron a arteriografía pélvica por sospecha de sangrado, 14 pacientes tenían sangrado arterial, promedio de 36 años, las arterias más comúnmente lesionadas fueron la arteria hipogástrica, arteria sacra lateral y la arteria obturatriz. la mayoría de sangrados se asociaron a fracturas tipo C, las lesiones asociadas se encontraron en un 34% de casos, la indicación de la arteriografía fue inestabilidad hemodinámica al momento del ingreso, el control del sangrado se logró en el 86% de casos, la punción fue única en el 100% de casos, se requirió empaquetamiento pélvico 12% de casos. Discusión El trauma pélvico asociado a accidentes de motocicleta es común, el manejo multidisciplinario y la oportuna intervención del cirujano vascular es decisiva para el diagnóstico y tratamiento temprano de las lesiones vasculares pélvicas; la realización de un protocolo de manejo con un algoritmo de embolización mostró ser efectivo y seguro para el control del sangrado pélvico. Nivel de Evidencia: III

Background Pelvic fractures are frequently associated with arterial and / or venous bleeding, leading to high mortality (10 and 50%). Aim of study is to show our experience, based on an institutional protocol developed for the management of the patient with major pelvic trauma. Methods We conducted a prospective observational study for a 3 years period of time. The variables analyzed were: age, sex, artery involved, unilateral or bilateral lesion, type of pelvic fracture (Tile classification), indication of arteriography, unilateral or bilateral access, angiographic success, complications of the procedure, associated injuries, mortality at 30 days, trauma mechanism, days of stay in ICU and floor. Results We found 56 patients with pelvic fracture, 17 patients were taken to pelvic arteriography due to suspected bleeding, 14 patients had arterial bleeding, with an average age of 36 years, the arteries most commonly injured were the hypogastric artery, lateral sacral artery and the obturator artery, 50% of cases the bleeding was bilateral, the majority of bleeds were associated with type C fractures, associated lesions were found in 34% of cases, the indication of arteriography was hemodynamic instability at the time of admission, control of bleeding was achieved in 86% of cases (n: 15), the puncture was unique in 100% of cases (n: N: 14), pelvic packing was required in 2 patients (12%) Discussion Pelvic embolization for pelvic fracture is a safe and feasible procedure. A multidisciplinary approach and a high suspicion of pelvic arterial injury must be always in mind. Mortality in our trial was very low comparative with previous reports. Evidence Level: III

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Pelvis/injuries , Embolization, Therapeutic/methods , Fractures, Bone/complications , Hemorrhage/etiology , Hemorrhage/therapy , Pelvis/surgery , Angiography , Prospective Studies , External Fixators , Fractures, Bone/surgery , Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Iliac Artery/diagnostic imaging
Rev. medica electron ; 41(5): 1192-1204, sept.-oct. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1094122


RESUMEN Introducción: la hemorragia digestiva alta ocurre por una lesión sangrante localizada entre el esfínter esofágico superior y el ángulo de Treitz. Objetivo: determinar el comportamiento del tratamiento endoscópico del sangrado digestivo alto por úlcera péptica, en el departamento de Gastroenterología del Hospital Universitario Comandante "Faustino Pérez". Materiales y métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, prospectivo para evaluar el resultado del tratamiento endoscópico en el sangrado digestivo alto por úlcera péptica en el Hospital Universitario Comandante "Faustino Pérez" de Matanzas, de enero del 2016 a febrero del 2018. El tratamiento endoscópico fue la inyectoterapia con epinefrina al 1:10000. Se analizaron las variables: grupo de edades, sexo, resultado del tratamiento endoscópico, estigmas endoscópicos de sangrado, recidiva hemorrágica, mortalidad directa, necesidad de cirugía, estadía hospitalaria y cantidad de unidades transfusionales. Resultados: se constató un predominio de pacientes masculinos (87.5 %), menores de 60 años (70%). Prevalecieron los pacientes con estigmas endoscópicos de sangrado activo venoso (45%). La terapia endoscópica tuvo un resultado satisfactorio (92.5%) en su mayoría. La ocurrencia de resangrado (45%), mortalidad directa por hemorragia digestiva, promedio de estadía hospitalaria, cantidad de unidades transfusionales y necesidad de intervención quirúrgica de urgencia (17.5%), resultó similar a los estudios reportados, demostrando que la inyectoterapia endoscópica aún constituye una opción eficaz si no se cuenta con otras terapias endoscópicas. Conclusiones: la mayoría de los casos tratados con inyectoterapia endoscópica tuvieron un sangrado activo venoso o Forrest IB que fue satisfactoria. La inyectoterapia no satisfactoria fue en pacientes con sangrado activo. La mortalidad directa relacionada con el sangrado fue infrecuente y en relación con el sangrado arterial. Se demostró que la inyectoterapia endoscópica aún constituye una opción eficaz si no se cuenta con otras terapias endoscópicas (AU).

SUMMARY Introduction: high digestive bleeding happens due to a bleeding lesion located between the upper anatomical sphincter of the esophagus and the angle of Treitz. Objective: to determine the endoscopic treatment behavior of high digestive bleeding caused by peptic ulcer, in the department of Gastroenterology of the University Hospital "Comandante Faustino Perez". Materials and methods: a prospective descriptive study was carried out to evaluate the result of the endoscopic treatment in high digestive bleeding caused by peptic ulcer in the University Hospital "Comandante Faustino Perez", of Matanzas, from January 2016 to February 2018. The endoscopic treatment was injecto-therapy with epinephrine at 1:10000. The analyzed variables were: age group, sex, result of the endoscopic treatment, bleeding endoscopic stigma, hemorrhagic relapse, direct mortality, surgery necessity, hospital staying, and quantity of transfusion units. Results: male patients (87.5 %), aged less than 60 years predominated. Patients with endoscopic stigma of venous active bleeding (45 %) prevailed. In most of cases, endoscopic therapy achieved satisfactory results (92.5 %). The authors found that bleeding relapse (45 %), direct mortality by digestive hemorrhage, average hospital staying, quantity of transfusion units and necessity of urgent surgeries (17.5 %) were similar to those reported in other studies. Conclusions: most cases treated with endoscopic injectotherapy had active venous or Forrest IB bleeding and treatment was satisfactory. Therapy was unsatisfactory in patients with active bleeding. The direct mortality related to bleeding was infrequent, and related to arterial bleeding. It was showed that endoscopic injectotherapy is still an efficacious option if other endoscopic therapies are not available (AU).

Middle Aged , Aged , Peptic Ulcer/diagnosis , Endoscopy/statistics & numerical data , Hemorrhage/therapy , Peptic Ulcer/etiology , Behavior , Epinephrine/therapeutic use , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prospective Studies , Hemorrhage/complications , Hemorrhage/diagnosis , Hemorrhage/epidemiology
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 46(6): e20192324, 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057191


RESUMO Objetivo: apresentar um modelo de baixo custo para treinamento de controle de sangramento com o uso de torniquete e os resultados da avaliação do treinamento. Método: foram utilizados materiais de fácil aquisição e de baixo custo, como espuma de estofado, placa de etileno-acetato de vinila (EVA), bomba plástica de propulsão, recipiente de soro fisiológico, água, tinta escolar, equipos de soro, tubo de látex para garrote e manequins comerciais de perna e de braço. Na montagem, foi criado um sistema de simulação de sangramento ativo que só podia ser controlado com aplicação correta do torniquete. O modelo foi submetido à avaliação de profissionais e acadêmicos. Resultados: o modelo teve semelhança com a anatomia humana, mostrou-se prático no treinamento da contenção de sangramento com uso de torniquete e teve baixo custo financeiro. Conclusão: o modelo para treinamento de controle de sangramento teve excelente aceitabilidade, foi considerado viável para fins educacionais do uso de torniquete e teve baixo custo.

ABSTRACT Objective: to present a low-cost model for bleeding control training with the use of a tourniquet and the results of the training evaluation. Method: low-cost and easy-to-purchase materials, such as upholstery foam, ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) sheet, plastic propulsion pump, saline container, water, school paint, serum equipment, rubber tubing for tourniquet, and a leg and an arm of a ghost mannequin, were used. In the model assembly, we created an active bleeding simulation system, which could only be controlled with the correct application of the tourniquet. The model was submitted to professional and academic evaluation. Results: the model was similar to human anatomy, proved to be practical in the bleeding control training with the use of a tourniquet, and had low cost. Conclusion: the model for bleeding control training had excellent acceptability, was considered viable for educational purposes of tourniquet use, and had low cost.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Tourniquets/economics , Health Personnel/education , Equipment Design/instrumentation , Simulation Training/methods , Hemorrhage/therapy , Surveys and Questionnaires , Equipment Design/economics , Simulation Training/economics
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(1): 73-82, 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-991375


Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs), including the direct thrombin inhibitor dabigatran and the direct factor Xa inhibitors rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban have at least comparable efficacy as vitamin K antagonists along with a better safety profile, reflected by a lower incidence of intracranial hemorrhage. Specific reversal agents have been developed in recent years. Namely, idarucizumab, a specific antidote for dabigatran, is currently approved in most countries. Andexanet, which reverses factor Xa inhibitors, has been recently approved by the FDA, and ciraparantag, a universal antidote targeted to reverse all DOACs, is still under investigation. In this review we provide an update on the pharmacology of DOACs, the risk of hemorrhagic complications associated with their use, the measurement of their anticoagulant effect and the reversal strategies in case of DOAC-associated bleeding.

Humans , Blood Coagulation Factors/therapeutic use , Antithrombins/administration & dosage , Antithrombins/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hemorrhage/therapy , Pyrazoles/administration & dosage , Pyrazoles/adverse effects , Pyridines/administration & dosage , Pyridines/adverse effects , Pyridones/administration & dosage , Pyridones/adverse effects , Thiazoles/administration & dosage , Thiazoles/adverse effects , Administration, Oral , Risk Factors , Rivaroxaban/administration & dosage , Rivaroxaban/adverse effects , Dabigatran/administration & dosage , Dabigatran/adverse effects , Antidotes/therapeutic use
Rev. cuba. cir ; 57(4): e705, oct.-dic. 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-991054


RESUMEN Según las evidencias científicas actuales, la administración de un tratamiento simple y económico con propiedades antifibrinolíticas, como el ácido tranexámico pudiera reducir la pérdida sanguínea luego de un trauma y disminuir el riesgo asociado a transfusiones sanguíneas. El ácido tranexámico es un derivado sintético de la lisina con una actividad antifibrinolítica pura. Su mecanismo de acción se basa en la unión al enlace de la lisina del plasminógeno, lo que bloquea la unión de la fibrina al complejo activador del plasminógeno-plasmina.Ante tal evidencia, esta revisión se propone describir los resultados del empleo del ácido tranexámico según la evidencia disponible. Para ello se realizó una búsqueda en bases de datos como PubMed, SciELO y ClinicalKeys(AU)

ABSTRACT According to the present scientific evidence, the administration of a simple economic treatment with anti-fibrinolytic properties such as the tranexamic acid can reduce the blood loss after trauma, and decrease the risk associated to blood transfusions. Tranexamic acid is a synthetic derivative of lysine with pure anti-fibrinolytic activity. Its mechanism of action is based on the joining to the plasminogen lysine bond, which blocks the binding of fibrin to the activating complex of plasminogen-plasmin. This review was aimed at describing the results of the use of tranexamic acid based on available evidence. To this end, a literature search was made in PubMed, SciELO and Clinical Keys databases(AU)

Humans , Tranexamic Acid/therapeutic use , Evidence-Based Practice/methods , Hemorrhage/therapy , Tranexamic Acid/administration & dosage , Databases, Bibliographic/statistics & numerical data
J. vasc. bras ; 17(4): 348-352, out.-dez. 2018. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-969242


A fístula do tronco arterial braquiocefálico-traqueal é uma complicação pouco frequente da traqueostomia, com incidência entre 0,1 e 1%, porém com alta mortalidade nos casos não tratados. Sinais precoces incluem desde sangramento autolimitado a hemorragia maciça com choque hipovolêmico. A espessura da cânula de traqueostomia, seu posicionamento junto à parede traqueal e a pressão do balonete traqueal podem lesionar a mucosa e precipitar seu desenvolvimento. Descrevemos o caso de paciente do sexo feminino, 14 anos, traqueostomizada aos oito anos após traumatismo craniencefálico. Evoluiu após esse período com estenose subglótica e necessidade de sessões de dilatação por seis anos. No quinto ano das sessões, apresentou hemoptise de repetição, inicialmente tratada por cirurgia com prótese de politetraflouroetileno expandido. Um ano depois, apresentou novo sangramento com repercussão hemodinâmica, controlada pela técnica endovascular, e nova cirurgia foi programada em caráter eletivo. Após a segunda cirurgia, houve seis meses de acompanhamento clínico ambulatorial, sem novas complicações

Tracheo-innominate artery fistula (TIF) is a rare complication of tracheostomy, with incidence ranging from 0.1 to 1%, but mortality is high in untreated cases. Early signs range from self-limited bleeding to massive hemorrhage with hypovolemic shock. The caliber of the tracheostomy cannula, its position in contact with the tracheal wall, and tracheal cuff pressure can traumatize the mucosa and trigger development of a TIF. We describe the case of a 14-year-old female patient who had been tracheostomized at the age of eight because of head trauma. She later developed subglottic stenosis requiring dilation sessions for six years. During the fifth year of these sessions, she presented repetitive hemoptysis, initially treated by surgery to implant an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene graft. One year later, she had an intense hemorrhage, which was controlled using endovascular techniques followed by definitive surgery, performed electively. The patient was followed up for six months, without complications

Humans , Female , Child , Truncus Arteriosus , Tracheostomy/methods , Endovascular Procedures/methods , Fistula , Hemorrhage/diagnosis , Angiography/methods , Stents , Treatment Outcome , Emergency Treatment/methods , Ambulatory Care , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/complications , Hemorrhage/therapy
Rev. cuba. cir ; 57(3): e696, jul.-set. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-985519


Introducción: la hemorragia digestiva alta constituye un problema de salud frecuente en todo el mundo y es una de las urgencias que determina gran número de ingresos en los servicios de Cirugía General en nuestro medio, por lo que reviste gran importancia clínica y sanitaria. Objetivo: determinar la utilidad de las escalas de Rockall y Baylor modificado para pronosticar resangrado en pacientes con hemorragia digestiva alta. Método: se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo prospectivo, incluyendo a los pacientes ingresados por hemorragia digestiva alta por úlcera péptica en el Hospital Enrique Cabrera, desde el 1ro. de enero del 2012 hasta el 30 de septiembre del 2015. Resultados: de 300 pacientes ingresados por hemorragia digestiva alta por úlcera péptica, se tomó una muestra de 71 enfermos. El tratamiento endoscópico se realizó a todos los pacientes, y el tratamiento quirúrgico en 8,4 por ciento. Nueve pacientes presentaron resangrado (12,7 por ciento). Las escalas de Rockall y Baylor modificado presentaron una especificidad de 82 por ciento y 86 por ciento, respectivamente con baja sensibilidad en ambos casos a pesar de esto la escala de Rockall es la de mayor sensibilidad. Conclusiones: las dos escalas fueron altamente específicas, pero la de Rockall fue más sensible para identificar los pacientes con riesgo alto de resangrado(AU)

Introduction: Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage is a common health problem worldwide and one of the emergencies determining a huge number of admissions into general surgery services in our scenario, it is therefore of great clinical and sanitary importance. Objective: To determine the usefulness of the modified Rockall and Baylor scores in predicting rebleeding in patients with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Method: A prospective, descriptive, observational study was carried out, including patients admitted for upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage due to peptic ulcer in Enrique Cabrera, from January 1st, 2015 to September 30, 2015. Results: Among the 300 patients admitted for upper digestive hemorrhage due to peptic ulcer, we took a sample of 71 patients. All patients were performed endoscopic treatment, while 8.4 percent were performed surgical treatment. Nine patients presented with rebleeding (12.7 percent). The modified Rockall and Baylor scores showed a specificity of 82 percent and 86 percent, respectively, with low sensitivity in both cases. Despite this, the Rockall score is the one with the highest sensitivity. Conclusions: The two score were highly specific, but the Rockall score was more sensitive for identifying patients at high risk of rebleeding(AU)

Humans , Peptic Ulcer/surgery , Endoscopy/methods , Hemorrhage/therapy , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prospective Studies , Observational Study
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 45(1): e1709, fev. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-956543


ABSTRACT In a current scenario where trauma injury and its consequences account for 9% of the worlds causes of death, the management of non-compressible torso hemorrhage can be problematic. With the improvement of medicine, the approach of these patients must be accurate and immediate so that the consequences may be minimal. Therefore, aiming the ideal method, studies have led to the development of Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta (REBOA). This procedure has been used at select trauma centers as a resuscitative adjunct for trauma patients with non-compressible torso hemorrhage. Although the use of this technique is increasing, its effectiveness is still not clear. This article aims, through a detailed review, to inform an updated view about this procedure, its technique, variations, benefits, limitations and future.

RESUMO Em um cenário atual onde a lesão traumática e suas consequências representam 9% das causas de morte no mundo, o manejo da hemorragia não compressível do tronco pode ser problemático. Com a melhoria da medicina, a abordagem desses pacientes deve ser precisa e imediata, para que as consequências possam ser mínimas. Portanto, visando o método ideal de manejo, estudos levaram ao desenvolvimento da técnica de oclusão ressuscitativa por balão endovascular da aorta (Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta - REBOA). Este procedimento foi utilizado em centros de trauma selecionados como um complemento durante a reanimação para pacientes vítimas de trauma com hemorragia não compressível do tronco. Embora o uso dessa técnica esteja aumentando, sua eficácia ainda não é clara. Este artigo objetiva, por meio de uma revisão detalhada, trazer uma visão atualizada sobre este procedimento, sua técnica, variações, benefícios, limitações e futuro.

Humans , Aorta , Resuscitation/methods , Balloon Occlusion , Hemorrhage/therapy , Endovascular Procedures
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 45(6): e1974, 2018. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-976946


RESUMO O manejo de pacientes que se recusam a receber transfusões de sangue e de seus produtos, como as Testemunhas de Jeová, apresenta-se frequentemente como desafio médico, não só pelo dilema ético, mas porque cria um importante obstáculo ao rápido controle de hemorragias num cenário de trauma. Este artigo explora as razões deste conflito entre o dever de cuidado do médico e o respeito à autonomia do paciente, e desenha um panorama dos entendimentos majoritários do Judiciário sobre o tema. Por fim, conclui-se que a manifestação de vontade do paciente, embora livre, não é suficiente para afastar o médico do seu dever de cuidado. Constatando perigo à vida, o médico deverá proceder a transfusão de sangue, independentemente de consentimento do paciente ou de seus responsáveis.

ABSTRACT The management of patients, such as Jehovah's Witnesses, who refuse to receive blood transfusions, is often a medical challenge, not only because of the ethical dilemma, but also because it creates a major obstacle to rapid hemorrhage control in a setting of trauma. This article explores the reasons for this conflict between the physician's duty of care and the respect for the patient's autonomy, and draws a panorama of the main understandings of the Judiciary on the subject. Finally, it is concluded that the manifestation of the patient's will, although free, is not enough to release the doctor from his (her) duty of care. In case of danger to life, the doctor must carry out a blood transfusion, regardless of the patient's consent or the permission of those responsible for the patient.

Humans , Physician's Role , Blood Transfusion/ethics , Multiple Trauma/therapy , Personal Autonomy , Jehovah's Witnesses , Hemorrhage/therapy , Patient Advocacy/legislation & jurisprudence , Ethics, Medical , Informed Consent/legislation & jurisprudence
Rev. gaúch. enferm ; 39: e20170257, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-960827


Abstract OBJECTIVE Randomized clinical trial protocol to evaluate the incidence of radial artery occlusion with two different arterial compression devices after transradial procedures. METHODS Barbeau's test will be performed in adults scheduled to undergo transradial interventional procedures. Those with A, B, or C plethysmographic patterns will be selected. At the end of the procedure, patients will be randomly assigned (1:1) to receive patent haemostasis with TR Band™ device or conventional haemostasis with an elastic adhesive bandage. The primary outcome is the incidence of radial artery occlusion. Secondary outcomes are Barbeau's test curve change, additional time to achieve haemostasis, incidence of bleeding at the puncture site, pain severity, development of arteriovenous fistula, radial pseudo aneurysm, any access-site complication requiring vascular surgery intervention and costs between the two devices. DISCUSSION The results of this trial should provide valuable additional information on the best approach for haemostasis after transradial percutaneous cardiovascular interventions.

Resumen OBJETIVO Protocolo de ensayo clínico randomizado para evaluar la incidencia de oclusión de la arteria radial con dos dispositivos de compresión arterial después de pasar por procedimientos transradiales. MÉTODO Se realizará el test de Barbeau en adultos que están esperando una intervención transradial. Se seleccionarán aquellos con padrones pletismográficos A, B o C. Al final del procedimiento, se dividirán a los pacientes de forma aleatoria (1:1) para recibir la hemostasia patente con dispositivo TR Band™ o hemostasia convencional con vendaje elástico adhesivo. El resultado primario es la incidencia de oclusión de la arteria radial. Los resultados secundarios son la alteración de la curva del test de Barbeau, tiempo adicional para alcanzar la hemostasia, incidencia de sangrado en el local de la punción, intensidad del dolor, desarrollo de una fístula arteriovenosa, pseudoaneurisma, cualquier complicación en el lugar de acceso que necesite intervención quirúrgica vascular y costos entre ambos dispositivos. DISCUSIÓN Los resultados de este estudio deben proporcionar informaciones adicionales valiosas sobre un mejor enfoque para la hemostasia luego de intervenciones cardiovasculares percutáneas transradiales.

Resumo OBJETIVO Protocolo de ensaio clínico randomizado para avaliar a incidência de oclusão da artéria radial com dois dispositivos diferentes de compressão arterial após procedimentos transradiais. MÉTODOS O teste de Barbeau será realizado em adultos que serão submetidos a procedimentos de intervenção transradial previamente agendados. Aqueles com padrões pletismográficos A, B ou C serão selecionados. No final do procedimento, os pacientes serão distribuídos aleatoriamente (1:1) para receber hemostasia patente com dispositivo TR Band™ ou hemostasia convencional com bandagem elástica adesiva. O desfecho primário é a incidência da oclusão da artéria radial. Os desfechos secundários são alteração da curva do teste de Barbeau, tempo adicional para atingir a hemostasia, incidência de sangramento no local da punção, intensidade da dor, desenvolvimento de fístula arteriovenosa, pseudoaneurisma, qualquer complicação no local de acesso que necessite intervenção cirúrgica vascular e custos entre os dois dispositivos. DISCUSSÃO: Os resultados deste estudo devem fornecer informações adicionais valiosas sobre a melhor abordagem para a hemostasia após intervenções cardiovasculares percutâneas transradiais.

Humans , Cardiac Catheterization/adverse effects , Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary/adverse effects , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic/methods , Hemostatic Techniques/instrumentation , Compression Bandages , Hemorrhage/therapy , Brazil , Oximetry , Cardiac Catheterization/methods , Punctures , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic/ethics , Clinical Protocols , Radial Artery/injuries , Collateral Circulation , Patient Selection , Hand/blood supply , Hemorrhage/etiology
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 26: e3102, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-978597


Objective to identify the predictive variables or the massive transfusion triggers in severely traumatized patients through the existing scales. Method a review of the literature was carried out using the Scoping Review method across the electronic databases CINAHL, MEDLINE, LILACS, the Cochrane and IBECS libraries, and the Google Scholar search tool. Results in total, 578 articles were identified in the search and the 36 articles published in the last ten years were included, of which 29 were original articles and 7 review articles. From the analysis, scales for massive transfusion and their predictive triggers were examined. Conclusion the absence of universal criteria regarding the massive transfusion triggers in traumatized patients has led to the development of different scales, and the studies on their validation are considered relevant for the studies about when to initiate this strategy.

Objetivo identificar as variáveis preditivas ou os desencadeantes de transfusão maciça em pacientes com trauma grave através das escalas existentes. Método foi realizada uma revisão da literatura utilizando o método Scoping Review, nas bases de dados eletrônicas CINAHL, MEDLINE, LILACS, nas bibliotecas Cochrane e IBECS, e a ferramenta de busca do Google Scholar. Resultados foram identificados 578 artigos na pesquisa no total, dos quais foram incluídos os 36 artigos publicados nos últimos dez anos, sendo 29 artigos originais e 7 artigos de revisão. A partir da análise, foram examinadas as escalas de transfusão maciça e seus desencadeantes preditivos. Conclusão a falta de critérios universais com relação aos desencadeadores de transfusão em maciça em pacientes traumatizados levou à criação de diferentes escalas, sendo os estudos sobre sua validação considerados importantes para as estudos sobre quando iniciar essa estratégia.

Objetivo identificar las variables predictivas o los triggers de transfusión masiva en el paciente traumatizado grave a través de las escalas existentes. Método se realizó una revisión de la literatura mediante el método Scoping Review, en las bases de datos electrónicas CINAHL, MEDLINE, LILACS, las bibliotecas Cochrane e IBECS, y el buscador Google Scholar. Resultados un total de 578 artículos fueron identificados en la búsqueda, de los cuales, se incluyeron un total de 36 publicados en los últimos diez años, distribuidos en 29 originales y 7 de revisión. Del análisis, se examinaron las escalas de transfusión masiva y sus triggers predictivos. Conclusión la inexistencia de criterios universales respecto a los triggers de transfusión masiva en el paciente traumatizado ha traído consigo la creación de diferentes escalas, donde los estudios de validación de las mismas se detectan como relevantes para la investigación sobre cuando iniciar esta estrategia.

Humans , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Blood Transfusion/methods , Emergency Medical Services , Hemorrhage/therapy
Prensa méd. argent ; 103(7): 414-420, 20170000. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1372852


Reportamos el caso de un hombre de 74 años de edad padeciendo una enfermedad renal terminal, actualmente en terapia de reemplazo crónica, tomando warfarina en dosis regulares, quien presentó síntomas de debilidad y dolor agudo en el flanco derecho durante una sesión de diálisis. Fue enviado al Departamento de Emergencias donde una tomografía computada abdominal con administración intravenosa de contraste reveló la presencia de un amplio hematoma que se desarrollaba en el riñón derecho, con extensión continua al tejido graso perirrenal, fascia de Gerota y al espacio pararrenal posterior. Brindándosele monitoreo hemodinámico y estabilidad imagenológica seriada, el paciente se sometió a tratamiento conservador con reposo en cama, administración de antibióticos y terapia de reemplazo de sangre. La warfarina se interrumpió inmediatamente. No fue requerido ningún procedimiento quirúrgico. Posteriormente a la consulta con hematólogos, se sugirió el reemplazo a largo término de la warfarina por heparina cálcica. La hemorragia retroperitoneal espontánea, de origen ya sea renal o de otras estructuras sangrantes, es un evento relativamente raro, aunque potencial amenaza para la vida. Puede deberse a varias condiciones subyacentes. Entre ellas, el paciente que estamos reportando estaba padeciendo una enfermedad renal quística adquirida y estaba tanto en diálisis a largo plazo como en terapia anticoagulante oral. En el caso de hemorragia renal con condiciones hemodinámicas estables y sin otros elementos sospechosos, el tratamiento conservador debe ser tomado en consideración.

We report the case of a 74-year-old man afflicted with end-stage renal disease, currently in chronic repla wea cement therapy, taking warfarin on a regular basis, who presented feelings of kness and acute right flank pain during a dialysis session. He was sent to the Emergency Department where an abdominal computed tomography with intravenous contrast administration revealed the presence of a wide hematoma developing in the right kidney, with continuous extension to perirenal fat tissue, Gerota's fascia and posterior pararenal space. Given hemodynamic monitoring and serial imaging stability, the patient underwent conservative management with bed rest, antibiotic administration and blood replacement therapy. Warfarin was immediately interrupted. No operative treatment was required. After a consultation with hematologists, long term replace ment of warfarin by heparin calcium was suggested. Spontaneous retroperitoneal hemorrhage , related to either renal or other structures bleeding , is a relatively rare event, though potentially life-threatening . It can be due to several undelying conditions. Among them, the patient we are reporting about was afflicted with acquired cystic kidney disease and he was on both long-term dialysis and oral anticoagulant therapy. In the case of renal hemorrhage with stable hemodynamic conditions and no further suspicious elements, conservative management should be considered.

Humans , Male , Aged , Retroperitoneal Space , Warfarin/therapeutic use , Conservative Treatment , Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy , Hemorrhage/therapy , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 27(3): 238-242, jul.-set. 2017. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-875568


Os pacientes com doença renal crônica (DRC) têm tendências hemorrágicas e trombóticas e, por isso, a indicação de anticoagulantes é complexa nos indivíduos com fibrilação atrial (FA). A FA é a arritmia mais frequente na DRC, sendo o tromboembolismo e o ictus suas principais complicações. A introdução de novos anticoagulantes orais diretos (DOACs) tem se mostrado superior aos antagonistas da vitamina K, tanto na prevenção de tromboembolismos sistêmicos como no risco de sangramento. Contudo, devem ser prescritos com cautela nesse grupo de pacientes. Para os indivíduos com DRC e clearance renal entre 30 e 50 ml/min, as doses da dabigatrana e da rivaroxabana devem ser reduzidas, no caso de pacientes com elevado risco de sangramento, não havendo necessidade de reduzir as doses de apixabana e edoxabana. Em pacientes com clearance renal entre 15 e 29 ml/min o uso da dabigatrana é contraindicado, a rivaroxabana e a edoxabana não exigem ajuste terapêutico e a dose de apixabana deve ser ajustada. Nenhum dos DOACs é indicado em pacientes com clearance renal < 15 mg/min. Outro problema da terapêutica com os DOACs é o custo do medicamento, muito superior aos dos antagonistas da vitamina K, trazendo algumas implicações clínicas relevantes: suspensão terapêutica por restrições econômicas, que mesmo quando transitória, coloca o paciente em risco de eventos tromboembólicos devido à perda rápida de seus efeitos anticoagulantes e pela possibilidade de hipercoagulabilidade paradoxal. A maior parte da população é tratada em hospitais públicos e recebe os antagonistas de vitamina K. Por isso, enquanto a relação custo-efetividade dos DOACs não for esclarecida, a prevenção e o tratamento de pacientes com DRC e FA com os antagonistas de vitamina K estão consagrados e podem trazer benefícios para esse grupo de pacientes

Patients with chronic renal disease (CRD) have hemorrhagic and thrombotic tendencies, therefore the indication of anticoagulants is complex in individuals with atrial fibrillation (AF). AF is the most frequent arrhythmia in CRD, and thromboembolism and cerebral stroke are its main complications. The introduction of new oral anticoagulants (DOACs) has proven to be superior to vitamin K antagonists in preventing systemic thromboembolisms and bleeding risk. However, they should be prescribed with caution in this group of patients. For individuals with CRD and renal clearance between 30 and 50 ml/min, the doses of dabigatran and rivaroxaban should be reduced, in the case of patients with high risk of bleeding, and it is not necessary to reduce the doses of apixaban and edoxaban. In patients with renal clearance between 15 and 29 ml/min, the use of dabigatran is contraindicated, rivaroxaban and edoxaban do not require therapeutic adjustment, and the dose of apixaban should be adjusted. No DOACs is indicated in patients with renal clearance < 15 mg/min. Another problem with DOACs therapy is the cost of the medication, which is much higher than that of vitamin K antagonists, with some important clinical implications: therapeutic suspension due to economic restrictions, even if temporary, place the patient at risk of thromboembolic events due to the rapid loss of anticoagulant effects and the possibility of paradoxical hypercoagulability. Most of the population is treated in public hospitals, and receives vitamin K antagonists. Therefore, while the cost-effectiveness ratio of DOACs has not been clarified, prevention and treatment of patients with CRD and AF with vitamin K antagonists is consecrated, and can bring benefits for this group of patients

Humans , Male , Female , Risk Factors , Stroke/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Atrial Fibrillation/therapy , Thromboembolism/therapy , Warfarin/adverse effects , Factor X , Prevalence , Electrocardiography, Ambulatory/methods , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Rivaroxaban/therapeutic use , Dabigatran/adverse effects , Dabigatran/therapeutic use , Hemorrhage/therapy