Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 291
Filter
1.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(1): 45-52, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001502

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in patients with pre-existing liver disease has shown high morbidity and lethality. The consequences of HEV superinfection in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are not fully understood. This study aimed to evaluate the association between the presence of anti-HEV antibodies, liver cirrhosis, and insulin resistance. Methods: A total of 618 patients chronically infected with HCV were included from three reference centers for viral hepatitis in São Paulo, Brazil. Presence of anti-HEV IgG was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (WANTAI HEV-IgG ELISA). Results: The seroprevalence of anti-HEV in patients with cirrhosis was significantly higher than in patients without cirrhosis (13.2% vs 8%, OR = 1.74, p = 0.04). Seropositivity for anti-HEV, adjusted for sex, age, and HCV genotype showed an association trend with hepatic cirrhosis (aOR = 1.75, p = 0.059). Presence of HEV antibodies, adjusted for age, body mass index and cirrhosis, was shown to be independently associated with insulin resistance (aOR: 4.39; p = 0.045). Conclusion: Patients with chronic hepatitis C are under risk of hepatitis E virus superinfection in Brazil. The trend toward association between cirrhosis and previous HEV infection suggests that it may accelerate liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C. In addition, previous infection by HEV is independently associated with insulin resistance in the studied population, which may be an extra-hepatic manifestation of hepatitis E that persists after resolution of the active infection, and may contribute to fibrosis progression.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Insulin Resistance/immunology , Hepatitis Antibodies/analysis , Hepatitis E/immunology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/immunology , Liver Cirrhosis/immunology , Brazil/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Body Mass Index , Logistic Models , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , ROC Curve , Hepatitis E virus/isolation & purification , Hepatitis E/epidemiology , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Hepatitis C, Chronic/epidemiology , Genotype , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology
2.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180465, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041598

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION We evaluated the anti-hepatitis E virus (HEV) antibody prevalence and HEV-RNA in archived serum samples of non-A-C hepatitis, or suspected cases of HEV infection from the Eastern Brazilian Amazon from 1993 to 2014. METHODS Serum samples (n = 318) were tested using ELISA and immunoblotting, and screened for HEV-RNA by RT-qPCR. RESULTS Anti-HEV IgM and IgG were detected in 3.4% (11/318) and 5.9% (19/318) of the samples, respectively. All samples were HEV-RNA negative. CONCLUSIONS HEV was detected at a low prevalence. Broader serological and molecular evaluation of HEV infection in the Amazon region should be carried out.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Hepatitis Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis E virus/immunology , Hepatitis E/epidemiology , Brazil , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , RNA, Viral/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Immunoblotting , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Hepatitis E/diagnosis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
3.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20190302, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041520

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION Solid-organ transplant recipients are at risk of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection. We analyzed the seroprevalence/risk factors of HEV in Croatian liver transplant recipients. METHODS Two hundred forty-two serum samples were tested for HEV immunoglobuline IgG/IgM and HEV RNA. Sociodemographic data and risk factors were collected using a questionnaire. RESULTS HEV IgG seroprevalence rate was 24.4%. Positive/equivocal HEV IgM were found in two patients. HEV RNA was not detected. Logistic regression showed that older age, female gender, rural area/farm, water well, and septic tank were associated with HEV seropositivity. CONCLUSIONS This study revealed a high exposure rate to HEV in Croatian liver recipients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Liver Transplantation/adverse effects , Hepatitis E virus/immunology , Hepatitis E/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , RNA, Viral/blood , Hepatitis Antibodies/genetics , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Hepatitis E/immunology , Croatia/epidemiology , Middle Aged
4.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e190074, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020080

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infections in hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers are the most severe form of viral hepatitis. HDV prevalence is high in the Brazilian Amazon, but studies in other regions of the country are still scarce and often underestimated its prevalence by including a small numbers of individuals. OBJECTIVE This study aimed to determine the serological prevalence of hepatitis D, the genotypes circulating and to evaluate the associated risk factors for acquisition of HDV in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. METHODS We screened plasma samples (n = 498) from HBV chronic carriers for anti-HD antibodies using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. For those samples that were positive for anti-HD antibodies, we performed a reverse transcriptase (RT) nested-polymerase chain reaction (nested-PCR) in order to detect the viral genome and identify the viral genotypes circulating in the state. FINDINGS The prevalence was 6.22% (31/498). Blood transfusion was the only risk factor associated with HDV infection [risk ratio: 3.73; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.44 to 9.65]. For 26 anti-HD positive patients, HDAg gene sequences were determined and in all patients HDV genotype 1 was found. CONCLUSIONS This study confirmed the circulation of HDV in Minas Gerais, an area previously considered non-endemic for hepatitis D in Brazil. The prevalence found in this study is much higher when compared to other studies performed in Brazil, probably because the population in our study was selected with minimal bias. Furthermore, in 26 anti-HD positive plasma samples, we were also able to detect the viral genome, indicating that these patients were experienced an active infection at the time of sample collection. These findings emphasise the importance of anti-HD testing in HBV infected individuals, which may contribute to this disease control in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , RNA, Viral/genetics , Hepatitis Antibodies/blood , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Hepatitis B, Chronic/epidemiology , Hepatitis B/complications , Brazil , Genotype
5.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(6): 803-807, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041495

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION The prevalence, public health impact, and epidemiological characteristics of hepatitis E virus (HEV) are poorly understood in Brazil. METHODS Serum samples from 535 individuals from three rural Afro-descendant communities located in eastern Brazilian Amazon were collected in October 2015 and tested for presence of anti-HEV IgM and IgG antibodies. Serologically positive samples were also tested for HEV-RNA. RESULTS Two cases were confirmed for anti-HEV IgM (0.3 %) and two cases for anti-HEV IgG (0.3 %). No sample was positive for HEV-RNA. CONCLUSIONS Results indicated low prevalence of HEV infection in Afro-descendant rural communities from the eastern Brazilian Amazon.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Aged, 80 and over , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , RNA, Viral/blood , Hepatitis E virus/immunology , Hepatitis E/epidemiology , African Continental Ancestry Group , Rural Population , Brazil/epidemiology , Hepatitis Antibodies/blood , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hepatitis E/diagnosis , Middle Aged
6.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(4): 455-457, ago. 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042650

ABSTRACT

Resumen En Chile, existen escasos estudios de seroprevalencia de anticuerpos IgG anti virus hepatitis E (VHE) en bancos de sangre, entre 4 y 8%. El desarrollo de nuevas técnicas con mayor sensibilidad y especificidad, dan cuenta de un aumento de la seroprevalencia de VHE en diversos países, siendo desconocido el estado actual en Chile. En el presente estudio, determinamos la seroprevalencia de IgG anti VHE en donantes de sangre del Hospital Clínico Universidad de Chile, con técnicas de ELISA de última generación. De un total de 186 muestras, recolectadas el año 2014, 56 (30,1%) resultaron positivas, sin diferencias de género, pero con un incremento significativo con la edad (p < 0,001). Estos resultados muestran un aumento en la seroprevalencia de VHE en donantes de sangre realizados con inmunoensayos de mayor sensibilidad.


In Chile, there are few studies about seroprevalence of IgG antibodies against hepatitis E virus (HEV) in blood banks, between 4 and 8%. The development of new techniques with greater sensitivity and specificity, account for an increase in the seroprevalence of HEV in various countries, the current status in Chile being unknown. In the present study, we determined the seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG in blood donors of the Clinical Hospital University of Chile, with last generation ELISA techniques. Out of a total of 186 samples, collected in 2014, 56 (30.1%) were positive, without gender differences, but with a significant increase with age (p < 0.001). These results show an increase in the seroprevalence of HEV in blood donors performed with immunoassays of greater sensitivity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Blood Donors , Hepatitis Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis E/epidemiology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Chile/epidemiology , Prevalence , Sensitivity and Specificity , Hepatitis E virus/immunology , Hepatitis E/diagnosis , Hospitals, University
7.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(2): 85-91, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951634

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background and aims: Hepatitis E virus infection in patients with underlying chronic liver disease is associated with liver decompensation and increased lethality. The seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus in patients with chronic hepatitis C in Brazil is unknown. This study aims to estimate the seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus in patients with chronic hepatitis C and to describe associated risk factors. Methods: A total of 618 patients chronically infected with hepatitis C virus from three reference centers of São Paulo, Brazil were included. Presence of anti-HEV IgG was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (WANTAI HEV-IgG ELISA). Results: Out of the 618 patients tested, 10.2% turned out positive for anti-HEV IgG (95% CI 8.0-12.8%). Higher seroprevalence was found independently associated with age over 60 years (OR = 2.04; p = 0.02) and previous contact with pigs (OR = 1.99; p = 0.03). Conclusions: Patients with chronic hepatitis C are under risk of hepatitis E virus superinfection in São Paulo. Contact with pigs is a risk factor for the infection, suggesting a possible zoonosis with oral transmission.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Hepatitis Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis E virus/immunology , Hepatitis E/epidemiology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Hepatitis C, Chronic/virology
8.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 21(5): 535-539, Sept.-Oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888907

ABSTRACT

Abstract Brazil is a non-endemic country for hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection with seroprevalence from 1% to 4% in blood donors and the general population. However, data on seroprevalence of HEV in the country are still limited. This study evaluated the prevalence of past or present HEV infection in a group of blood donors representative of the general population of the city of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. Serum samples from 500 blood donors were tested from July to September 2014 by serological and molecular methods. Anti-HEV IgG antibodies were detected in 49 (9.8%) subjects and categorized age groups revealed an age-dependent increase of HEV seroprevalence. Among the anti-HEV IgG positive subjects, only 1 had anti-HEV IgM while none tested positive for HEV-RNA. The present data demonstrate a higher seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG than previously reported in the region.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , Hepatitis E virus/immunology , Hepatitis E/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , RNA, Viral/blood , Hepatitis Antibodies/blood , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Prevalence , Hepatitis E/diagnosis
9.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(5): 675-679, Sept.-Oct. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041425

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Prevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection and associated factors were investigated in rural settlements in Central Brazil. METHODS: A total of 464 settlers were interviewed, and serum samples were tested for anti-HEV IgG/IgM. Positive samples were tested for HEV RNA. RESULTS: Sixteen participants (3.4%; 95% CI 2.0-5.7) were positive for anti-HEV IgG. None was positive for anti-HEV IgM. HEV RNA was not detected. Dwelling in a rural settlement for >5 years was associated with HEV seropositivity. CONCLUSIONS: The results revealed the absence of acute infection and a low prevalence of previous exposure to HEV.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Rural Population/statistics & numerical data , Hepatitis E/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Hepatitis Antibodies/blood , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hepatitis E/surgery , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Middle Aged
10.
Ann. hepatol ; 16(1): 63-70, Jan.-Feb. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838087

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Approximately 10% of individuals do not respond to hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination, i.e. non-responders (NRs). We aimed to investigate the association of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-12B gene polymorphisms with responsiveness to the HBV vaccine in Korean infants. Among 300 healthy infants (9-12 month), SNPs for the IL-4 gene (rs2243250, rs2070874, and rs2227284) and for the IL-12B gene (rs3213094 and rs17860508) were compared between subgroups in terms of the response to HBV vaccination. The percentages of NRs (< 10 mIU/mL), low-titer responders (LRs, 10-100 mIU/mL), and high-titer responders (HRs, ≥ 100 mIU/mL) were 20.3%, 37.7% and 42.0%, respectively. No SNPs differed in frequency between NRs and responders or between LRs and HRs. We divided the subjects into two groups according to the time interval from the 3rd dose of HBV vaccination to Ab quantification: > 6 months from the 3rd dose (n = 87) and ≤ 6 months from the 3rd dose (n = 213). In the ≤ 6 month subjects, rs2243250C and rs2227284G were significantly frequent in the lower-titer individuals (NRs + LR) than HRs (40.1 vs. 25.9%, p = 0.014 and 45.1 vs. 33.0%, p = 0.018, respectively), and the rs2243250C and rs2227284G frequencies were significantly different among the three subgroups (13.2 vs. 26.9 vs. 25.9%, p = 0.040 and 15.5 vs. 29.6 vs. 33.0%, p = 0.038, respectively). In conclusion, those results suggest that IL-4 gene polymorphisms may play a role in the response to the HBV vaccine in Korean infants.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Interleukin-4/genetics , Hepatitis B Vaccines/administration & dosage , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Interleukin-12 Subunit p40/genetics , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Pharmacogenetics , Phenotype , Time Factors , Biomarkers/blood , Hepatitis Antibodies/blood , Immunization Schedule , Vaccination , Treatment Outcome , Republic of Korea , Gene Frequency , Hepatitis B/genetics , Hepatitis B/immunology , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/blood
11.
Ann. hepatol ; 16(1): 57-62, Jan.-Feb. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838086

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Background. There are only few reports about travel-associated, imported tropical hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype 1 infections within Western travellers. We describe the clinical course of a single outbreak of hepatitis E in a German travellers group returning from India and compare the results of two commercial HEV-seroassays. Material and methods. After identifying hepatitis E in an index patient returning from a journey to India all 24 members of this journey were tested for anti-HEV-IgG and IgM using two commercial seroassays (Wantai and Mikrogen), for HEV-RNA by PCR and HEV-Ag by an antigen-assay (Wantai). Results. 5/24 (21%) individuals were viraemic with viral loads between 580-4,800,000 IU/mL. Bilirubin and ALT levels in these patients ranged from 1.3-14.9 mg/dL (mean 7.3 mg/dL, SD 5.6 mg/dL) and 151-4,820 U/L (mean 1,832U/L, SD 1842U/L), respectively and showed significant correlations with viral loads (r = 0.863, p < 0.001; r = 0.890, p < 0.001). No risk factor for food-borne HEV-transmission was identified. All viraemic patients (5/5) tested positive for anti-HEV-IgG and IgM in the Wantai-assay but only 4/5 in the Mikrogen-assay. Wantai-HEV-antigen-assay was negative in all patients. Six months later all previously viraemic patients tested positive for anti-HEV-IgG and negative for IgM in both assays. However, two non-viremic individuals who initially tested Wantai-IgM-positive stayed positive indicating false positive results. Conclusions. Despite the exact number of exposed individuals could not be determined HEV genotype 1 infections have a high manifestation rate of more than 20%.The Wantai-antigen-test failed, the Wantai-IgMrapid-test and the Mikrogen-IgM-recomblot showed a better performance but still they cannot replace real-time PCR for diagnosing ongoing HEV-infections.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Travel , Disease Outbreaks , Hepatitis E virus/genetics , Hepatitis E/virology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , RNA, Viral/genetics , Serologic Tests , Biomarkers/blood , Hepatitis Antibodies/blood , Predictive Value of Tests , Reproducibility of Results , Risk Factors , Hepatitis E virus/immunology , Hepatitis E virus/pathogenicity , Hepatitis E/diagnosis , Hepatitis E/transmission , Hepatitis E/epidemiology , Viral Load , False Positive Reactions , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Genotype , Germany/epidemiology , India/epidemiology
12.
Clin. biomed. res ; 37(1): 11-17, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-833269

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Blood donation should be voluntary, anonymous and altruistic, and the donor should not, directly or indirectly, receive any remuneration or benefit by virtue of donating blood. Like any other therapeutic method, transfusion procedures are not risk free and can expose the patient to a several complications. Serological screening is of great importance to ensure transfusion safety. The present study aimed to estimate the prevalence of serological ineligibility among blood donors from a Hemotherapy Center in Caxias do Sul (RS). Method: An exploratory, descriptive and quantitative study was conducted on data from July 2010 to December 2015 collected at a Hemotherapy Center in Caxias do Sul (RS). Results: During the study period, 14,267 blood donors attended the Hemotherapy Center, of which 9,332 (65.40%) were males and 4,935 (34.60%) were female. Considering only the suitable donors, 12,702 blood donations were performed, 144 (1.13%) presented positive serological tests. The most prevalent positive serology was for hepatitis B (anti-HBc) with 98 cases (0.77%), followed by syphilis with 19 cases (0.15%); Chagas disease, with 10 (0.08%); hepatitis C, with nine (0.07%); and HIV and HTLV, with four (0.03%) reactive samples each. Conclusion: The results presented are important for health surveillance and make it possible to take measures to ensure safe blood stocks (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , Communicable Disease Control , Communicable Diseases/blood , Chagas Disease/blood , Deltaretrovirus Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis Antibodies , HIV Seropositivity/blood , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Syphilis Serodiagnosis
13.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 111(11): 692-696, Nov. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-829249

ABSTRACT

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection has a worldwide distribution and represents an important cause of acute hepatitis. This study aims to investigate the occurrence of HEV infection and factors associated with this infection in patients with acute non-A, non-B, non-C hepatitis in Central Brazil. From April 2012 to October 2014, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 379 patients with acute non-A, non-B, non-C hepatitis in the City of Goiania, Central Brazil. Serum samples of all patients were tested for serological markers of HEV infection (anti-HEV IgM and IgG) by ELISA. Positive samples were confirmed using immunoblot test. Anti-HEV IgM and IgG positive samples were tested for HEV RNA. Of the 379 serum samples, one (0.3%) and 20 (5.3%) were positive for anti-HEV IgM and IgG, respectively. HEV RNA was not found in any sample positive for IgM and/or IgG anti-HEV. After multivariate analysis, low education level was independently associated with HEV seropositivity (p = 0.005), as well as living in rural area, with a borderline p-value (p = 0.056). In conclusion, HEV may be responsible for sporadic self-limited cases of acute hepatitis in Central Brazil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Hepatitis E virus/immunology , Hepatitis E/epidemiology , Acute Disease , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Hepatitis Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis E/immunology , Immunoblotting , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Prevalence , Seroepidemiologic Studies
14.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 20(3): 262-266, May.-June 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-789476

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Hepatitis E virus (HEV) can cause chronic infection with rapid progression to liver cirrhosis in immunocompromised patients. HEV seroprevalence in patients with Schistosoma mansoni in Brazil is unknown. We evaluated the prevalence of past or present HEV infection in schistosomiasis patients in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. A total of 80 patients with Schistosoma mansoni were consecutively enrolled in a cross-sectional study. Serum samples were tested for the presence of anti-HEV IgG antibodies by enzyme immunoassay (Wantai anti-HEV IgG, Beijing, China) and for the presence of HEV RNA using real time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction with primers targeting the HEV ORF2 and ORF3. Clinical and laboratory tests as well as abdominal ultrasound were performed at the same day of blood collection. Results Anti-HEV IgG was positive in 18.8% (15/80) of patients with SM. None of the samples tested positive for anti-HEV IgM or HEV-RNA. Patients with anti-HEV IgG positive presented higher levels of alanine aminotranferase (p = 0.048) and gama-glutamil transferase (p = 0.022) when compared to patients without anti-HEV IgG antibodies. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the seroprevalence of HEV is high in patients with Schistosoma mansoni in Northeastern of Brazil. Past HEV infection is associated with higher frequency of liver enzymes abnormalities. HEV infection and its role on the severity of liver disease should be further investigated among patients with Schistosoma mansoni.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Schistosomiasis mansoni/epidemiology , Hepatitis E virus/immunology , Hepatitis E/epidemiology , Schistosomiasis mansoni/complications , Brazil/epidemiology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Hepatitis Antibodies/blood , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hepatitis E/complications , Hepatitis E/diagnosis
15.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 48(4): 468-470, July-Aug. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755971

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION:

Data on hepatitis E virus (HEV) in Brazil are limited. We analyzed 15 years of HEV surveillance data in a major clinical laboratory in São Paulo, Brazil.

METHODS:

The seroprevalence of HEV of 2,271 patients subjected to anti-HEV tests from 1998 to 2013 were analyzed.

RESULTS:

HEV seroprevalence was 2.1%, and the anti-HEV IgM positivity rate was 4.9%. Six hepatitis E patients were identified.

CONCLUSIONS:

HEV seroprevalence and detection rates appear to have increased in recent years. Hepatitis E should be investigated further and included in the differential diagnosis of hepatitis in Brazil.

.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Hepatitis E virus , Hepatitis E/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Hepatitis Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis E virus/genetics , Hepatitis E virus/immunology , Hepatitis E/diagnosis , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Retrospective Studies , RNA, Viral/analysis , Seroepidemiologic Studies
16.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 244-247, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-327391

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To analyze the development of liver damage and reactivation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) during the treatment of extremely severe burn injury in HBsAg positive patients, in order to provide reference for prevention and treatment of liver damage in patients with HBV infection after extremely severe burn.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Medical records of 54 HBsAg positive patients after extremely severe burn injury admitted from January 2004 to December 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. Development of liver damage and HBV reactivation of these patients during the treatment were analyzed according to the classification of their gender, results of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and HBV DNA examinations on admission, and development of sepsis in the process of treatment. Data were processed with chi-square test.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>(1) The incidence of liver damage in the process of treatment of these patients was 85.2% (46/54). Among all the patients, the proportion of liver damage was 35/38 in male, which was significantly higher than that in female (11/16, χ² = 4.867, P<0.05). Liver damage was found in all of 26 patients who were HBeAg positive on admission, 34 patients who were HBV DNA positive on admission, and 36 patients who developed sepsis in the process of treatment; the proportions were significantly higher than those in patients who were HBeAg negative on admission (20/28), patients who were HBV DNA negative on admission (12/20), and patients who did not develop sepsis in the process of treatment (10/18), with χ² values respectively 11.801, 18.384, and 20.574, P values below 0.01. (2) The incidence of HBV reactivation in these patients was 29.6% (16/54). Among all the patients, the proportion of HBV reactivation was 13/38 in male and 3/16 in female, with no statistically significant difference between them (χ² = 0.656, P>0.05). The proportions of HBV reactivation in patients who were HBeAg positive on admission, patients who were HBV DNA positive on admission, and patients who developed sepsis in the process of treatment were respectively 13/26, 16/34, and 15/36, and they were significantly higher than those in patients who were HBeAg negative on admission (3/28), patients who were HBV DNA negative on admission (0/20), and patients who did not develop sepsis in the process of treatment (1/18), with χ² values respectively 9.979, 18.615, and 5.873, P<0.05 or P<0.01.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Patients who are HBsAg positive, HBeAg positive, HBV DNA positive on admission, and develop sepsis in the process of treatment of extremely severe burn injury are more likely to develop liver damage and HBV reactivation. It is necessary to dynamically monitor the changes in HBV DNA and liver function, in order to identity the reactivation of virus.</p>


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase , Blood , Burns , Drug Therapy , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , DNA, Viral , Female , Hepatitis Antibodies , Blood , Hepatitis B , Drug Therapy , Epidemiology , Virology , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Blood , Allergy and Immunology , Hepatitis B virus , Allergy and Immunology , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Blood , Pathology , Virology , Humans , Incidence , Liver , Pathology , Male , Retrospective Studies
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-280304

ABSTRACT

The lack of effective in vitro infection model for hepatitis E virus (HEV) has greatly hindered the quantitative analysis of neutralizing titers of anti-HEV antibodies and human sera, thus impeding further studies of HEV-stimulated antibody responses and the immunological mechanisms. In order to improve this situation, the infection of HepG2 cells that are inefficient for HEV replication was continuously monitored until the viral load reached the limit of detection on day 13, the results of which confirmed the feasibility of using this cell line to establish the infection model. Then, neutralization assays of five anti-HEV murine monoclonal antibodies and serum samples collected from four HEV vaccine recipients (collected before and after vaccination) were performed by 96 multi-channel parallel infections, nucleic acid extraction, and qPCR. The results showed that the cell model can be applied for quantitative evaluation of the neutralizing capacity of different antibodies and antiserum samples from HEV vaccine recipients. In this study, we have successfully established a high-throughput in vitro HEV replication model, which will prove to be useful for the evaluation of HEV vaccines and studies of HEV epitopes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies, Viral , Allergy and Immunology , Hepatitis Antibodies , Allergy and Immunology , Hepatitis E , Allergy and Immunology , Virology , Hepatitis E virus , Chemistry , Allergy and Immunology , Physiology , High-Throughput Screening Assays , Methods , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Neutralization Tests , Methods , Virus Replication
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-99605

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) among high-risk groups overseas is high, but studies in these groups are rare in South Korea. We conducted the present study from April to November 2012 to obtain data on the seroprevalence and associated risk factors for HEV among slaughterhouse workers in South Korea. METHODS: Slaughterhouse workers from 80 workplaces nationwide were surveyed in South Korea in 2012. The subjects comprised 1848 cases: 1434 slaughter workers and 414 residual products handlers. By visiting 80 slaughterhouses, which were mixed with 75 of which also performed residual products handling, we conducted a questionnaire survey for risk factors and obtained blood samples in order to determine the seropositivity and seroprevalence of HEV. Anti-HEV IgG and IgM were measured using HEV IgG and IgM enzyme-linked immunospecific assay kits and HEV antigen was measured by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: The seropositivity of anti-HEV IgG was 33.5% (slaughter workers 32.8% and residual products handlers 36.2%), and among the seropositive individuals the seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgM was 0.5% (slaughter workers 0.5%, residual products handlers 0.7%). The response rate of HEV-antigen as measured by RT-PCR was 0.2%. Risk factors significantly related to anti-HEV IgG seropositivity were age, sex , and working duration (slaughter workers only). CONCLUSIONS: There were significant risk factors (sex, age, and working duration) for HEV identified in our study. All three positive cases for HEV-antigen by RT-PCR were related to pig slaughter but without statistical significance. To prevent HEV, an educational program and working guidelines may be needed for high risk groups.


Subject(s)
Abattoirs , Adult , Aged , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Hepatitis Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis E/diagnosis , Hepatitis E virus/genetics , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Prevalence , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Risk Factors , Workplace
19.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 34(3): 354-365, July-Sept. 2014. mapas, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-726785

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El virus de la hepatitis E (HEV), agente etiológico de casos esporádicos y epidemias de hepatitis, es un virus emergente de importancia global. En Colombia se desconoce la epidemiología de la infección causada por este virus. Objetivo. Determinar la seropositividad para el virus de la hepatitis E en muestras de suero de pacientes con diagnóstico clínico de hepatitis viral en Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Se estudiaron muestras de pacientes remitidas al Instituto Nacional de Salud en el periodo 2005-2010 provenientes de 15 departamentos de Colombia (grupo 1) y muestras remitidas al Laboratorio Departamental de Salud Pública de Antioquia en el periodo 2008-2009 (grupo 2). Las muestras de suero se analizaron por inmunoensayo con estuches comerciales. Resultados. La frecuencia de seropositividad para el virus de la hepatitis E en las 344 muestras analizadas fue de 8,7 % (30/344); de estas, 1,74 % (6/344) presentó IgM anti-HEV y 7,5 % (26/344), IgG anti-HEV. Se observó una diferencia en el resultado positivo entre el grupo 1 (6,3 %) y el grupo 2 (15,3 %). Los casos provenían de nueve departamentos del país. Conclusiones. Este es el primer estudio de infección por el virus de la hepatitis E en muestras de pacientes con diagnóstico de hepatitis en Colombia. La seropositividad descrita en esta población de pacientes es similar a la descrita en otros países de América Latina, como Brasil, Perú y Uruguay. Teniendo en cuenta estos resultados, se debe considerar la inclusión de los marcadores de la infección por el virus de la hepatitis E en el diagnóstico diferencial de la hepatitis viral en Colombia.


Introduction: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emergent virus of global importance; it is the etiological agent of sporadic cases and outbreaks of hepatitis. The epidemiology of this infection in Colombia is unknown. Objective: To determine the seropositivity for hepatitis E virus in Colombia in cases with clinical diagnosis of viral hepatitis. Materials and methods: Serum samples from patients that were sent to the Instituto Nacional de Salud during the period 2005-2010 (group 1) and samples sent to the Laboratorio Departamental de Salud Pública de Antioquia during the 2008-2009 period were included in this study (group 2). Serum samples were analyzed by immunoassay with commercial kits. Results: From the 344 analyzed samples, 8.7% were positive for anti-HEV; the frequency of anti-HEV IgM was 1.74% (6/344) and the frequency of anti-HEV IgG was 7.5% (26/344). A difference in frequency of anti-HEV between group 1 (6.3%) and group 2 (1.3%) was observed. The cases were identified in nine departments of Colombia. Conclusions: This is the first study of hepatitis E virus infection in patients with diagnosis of hepatitis in Colombia. The frequency of anti-HEV described in this population of patients in Colombia is similar to that described in other Latin American countries like Brazil, Perú and Uruguay. Considering the results of this study, it could be necessary to include hepatitis E virus infection serological markers in the differential diagnosis of viral hepatitis in Colombia.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Hepatitis E/epidemiology , Academies and Institutes , Colombia/epidemiology , Hepatitis Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis E virus/immunology , Hepatitis E/diagnosis , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Laboratories , Retrospective Studies , Seroepidemiologic Studies
20.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 45(6): 691-695, Nov.-Dec. 2012. mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-661068

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: A decline in hepatitis D virus (HDV) occurrence was described in Europe and Asia. We estimated HDV prevalence in the Brazilian Amazon following hepatitis B vaccination. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional survey of HDV measured by total antibodies to HDV (anti-HD T). RESULTS: HDV prevalence was 41.9% whiting HBsAg carries and was associated with age (PR = 1.96; 95% CI 1.12-3.42; p = 0.01), hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (PR = 4.38; 95% CI 3.12-6.13; p < 0.001), and clinical hepatitis (PR =1.44; 95% CI 1.03-2.00; p = 0.03). Risk factors were related to HDV biology, clinical or demographic aspects such as underlying HBV infection, clinical hepatitis and age. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated that HDV infection continues to be an important health issue in the Brazilian Amazon and that the implementation of the HBV vaccination in rural Lábrea had little or no impact on the spread of HDV. This shows that HDV has not yet disappeared from HBV hyperendemic areas and reminding that it is far from being a vanishing disease in the Amazon basin.


INTRODUÇÃO: É descrito declínio na ocorrência do vírus da hepatite D (VHD) na Europa e Ásia. Estimamos a prevalência de infecção pelo VHD na Amazônia Ocidental, após a introdução da vacinação contra hepatite B. MÉTODOS: Este é um estudo de corte transversal da prevalência do VHD medido pela ocorrência de anticorpos totais (anti-HD T). RESULTADOS: A prevalência do VHD encontrada foi 41,9% entre os portadores do HBsAg, e esteve associado à idade (RP = 1,96; IC 95% 1,12-3,42; p = 0,01), infecção pelo HBV (RP = 4,38; IC 95% 3,12-6,13; p < 0,001) e história clínica de hepatite (RP =1,44; IC 95% 1,03-2,00; p = 0,03). Fatores de risco mostraram-se associados à biologia do HDV, aspectos clínicos e demográficos como infecção prévia pelo VHB e idade. CONCLUSÕES: O estudo demonstra que a infecção pelo VHD continua sendo um importante problema de saúde pública na região, e que a implantação da vacinação contra o VHB na área rural de Lábrea teve um impacto pouco significativo no controle do VHD, percebe-se que este ainda não desapareceu de áreas hiperendêmicas do VHB, e está longe de poder ser classificado como uma doença em declínio na bacia Amazônica.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Hepatitis Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis D/epidemiology , Hepatitis Delta Virus/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Brazil/epidemiology , Hepatitis B Vaccines/administration & dosage , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Hepatitis D/diagnosis , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Rural Population/statistics & numerical data
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL