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1.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 83: e0003, 2024. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1529931

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Identificar o perfil dos doadores de tecidos oculares humanos na área de atuação do Banco de Olhos da Paraíba, destacando o impacto da sorologia positiva para hepatite B no descarte dos tecidos para transplante. Métodos: O estudo é transversal e utilizou dados do Banco de Olhos da Paraíba entre janeiro de 2013 e dezembro de 2022. Dados sobre procedência, idade, sexo, causa do óbito, tempo entre óbito e enucleação, resultados sorológicos e motivo de descarte das córneas dos doadores foram coletados. Resultados: O maior motivo de descarte foi por sorologia positiva (56,5%), sendo positivadas as sorologias positivas para hepatite B e HBsAg em 11,1% e 4,75% dos pacientes, respectivamente. Conclusão: A sorologia positiva para hepatite B como um critério de descarte absoluto é responsável por grande parcela de descartes, apesar da pouca informação sobre suas repercussões e representação de infectividade nos receptores do transplante.


ABSTRACT Objective: To identify the profile of human ocular tissue donors in the area covered by the Eye Bank of Paraíba (PB), highlighting the impact of positive serology for hepatitis B (anti-HBc) in the disposal of tissues for transplantation. Methods: This is a cross-sectional that uses data from the Eye Bank of Paraíba (PB) between January 2013 and December 2022. Data on origin, age, sex, cause of death, time between death and enucleation, serological results, and reason for discarded donor corneas were collected. Results: The main reason for discarding was due to positive serology (56.5%), with positive anti-HBc and HBsAg serology in 11.1% and 4.75% of patients, respectively. Conclusion: Anti-HBc positive serology as an absolute disposal criterion is responsible for great part of disposals, despite little information about its repercussions and representation of infectivity in transplant recipients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Tissue Donors/statistics & numerical data , Corneal Transplantation/standards , Corneal Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Donor Selection/standards , Eye Banks/standards , Hepatitis B Antibodies/analysis , Serologic Tests/standards , Hepatitis B virus , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Disease Transmission, Infectious/legislation & jurisprudence , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Disease Transmission, Infectious/statistics & numerical data , Eye Banks/statistics & numerical data , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Hepatitis B/transmission , Hepatitis B Core Antigens/analysis
2.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 31: e3765, Jan.-Dec. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1424037

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: to identify the vaccination and serological status against hepatitis B among community health workers; to vaccinate against hepatitis B virus and to evaluate the immune response of susceptible workers. Method: phase I, cross-sectional and descriptive study, among community health workers in a capital city of the Midwest region, through a self-administered questionnaire, checking of vaccination cards, and blood collection for testing of serological markers for hepatitis B. Phase II, cohort study carried out in vaccinated non-immune workers identified in phase I. They received one dose of vaccine (challenge dose) and serological testing. Results: a total of 109 workers participated in the study. Most had vaccination record (97; 89.0%) and vaccination completeness (75; 77.3%), while the isolated anti-HBs (Antibodies against hepatitis B virus) marker was detected in 78 (71.6%) workers. The prevalence of hepatitis B virus exposure was 8.2%. Of the ten non-immune vaccinated workers, after challenge dose, one remained susceptible. Conclusion: although most workers are vaccinated and show immunological response to hepatitis B, susceptibility after challenge dose was identified. Therefore, it is necessary to have a surveillance program of the vaccination situation and serological status for this virus, to promote these workers' safety.


Resumo Objetivo: identificar a situação vacinal e sorológica contra hepatite B entre agentes comunitários de saúde; vacinar contra o vírus da hepatite B e avaliar a resposta imunológica dos agentes susceptíveis. Método: fase I, estudo transversal e descritivo, entre agentes comunitários de saúde de uma capital da região Centro-oeste, por meio de questionário autoaplicável, conferência do cartão vacinal e coleta de sangue para testagem dos marcadores sorológicos para hepatite B. Fase II, estudo de coorte realizado em trabalhadores vacinados não imunes e identificados na fase I. Estes receberam uma dose da vacina (dose desafio) e teste sorológico. Resultados: participaram do estudo 109 agentes. A maioria tinha registro de vacinação (97; 89,0%) e completude vacinal (75; 77,3%), já o marcador anti-HBs (anticorpos contra o vírus da hepatite B) isolado foi detectado em 78 (71,6%) agentes. A prevalência de exposição ao vírus da hepatite B foi de 8,2%. Dos dez agentes vacinados não imunes, após a dose desafio, um permaneceu susceptível. Conclusão: apesar da maioria dos trabalhadores estarem vacinados e apresentarem resposta imunológica para hepatite B, a suscetibilidade após a dose desafio foi identificada. Portanto, é necessário que haja um programa de vigilância da situação vacinal e estado sorológico para este vírus, para promover a segurança destes trabalhadores.


Resumen Objetivo: identificar la situación de la vacunación y serología contra la hepatitis B entre agentes comunitarios de la salud, vacunar contra el virus de la hepatitis B y evaluar la respuesta inmunológica de los agentes susceptibles. Método: fase I, estudio transversal y descriptivo, entre agentes comunitarios de la salud de una capital de la región centro oeste, por medio de cuestionario autoadministrado, verificación del carné de vacunación y extracción de sangre para comprobar los marcadores serológicos para la hepatitis B. Fase II, estudio de cohorte realizado en trabajadores vacunados no inmunes e identificados en la Fase I; estos recibieron una dosis de la vacuna (dosis de desafío) y realizaron el test serológico. Resultados: participaron del estudio 109 agentes. La mayoría tenía registro de vacunación (97; 89,0%) y de cobertura de vacunación (75; 77,3%); el marcador anti-HBs (Anticuerpos contra el virus de la hepatitis B) aislado fue detectado en 78 (71,6%) de los agentes. La prevalencia de exposición al virus de la hepatitis B fue de 8,2%. De los diez agentes vacunados no inmunes, después de la dosis desafío, uno permaneció susceptible. Conclusión: a pesar de que la mayoría de los trabajadores estaban vacunados y presentaron respuesta inmunológica para la hepatitis B, la susceptibilidad, después de la dosis desafío, fue identificada. Por tanto, es necesario que exista un programa de vigilancia de la situación de vacunación y estado serológico para este virus, para promover la seguridad de estos trabajadores.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hepatitis B virus , Occupational Exposure , Occupational Health , Community Health Workers , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Hepatitis B Antibodies
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985465

ABSTRACT

This study followed up the immune memory after 3-dose revaccination among infants with non-and low-response following primary hepatitis B (HepB) vaccination. About 120 children without self-booster doses were finally included who had anti-HBs<10 mIU/ml (anti-HBs negative) at the time of follow-up, of whom 86 children completed blood sampling and anti-HBs testing. Before the challenge dose, all 86 children were negative for anti-HBs, and the GMC of anti-HBs was<10 mIU/ml. The seropositive conversion rate of anti-HBs was 100% and the GMC of anti-HBs was 886.11 (95%CI: 678.15-1 157.84) mIU/ml after the challenge dose. Compared with those with GMC<7 mIU/ml before the challenge dose, infants with GMC>7 mIU/ml had a higher anti-HBs level after the challenge dose. The β value (95%CI) was 0.82 (0.18-1.46) (P=0.012). Compared with those with GMC<1 000 mIU/ml at primary vaccination, infants with GMC≥1 000 mIU/ml had a higher anti-HBs level after the challenge dose. The β value (95%CI) was 0.78 (0.18-1.38)(P=0.012). The results showed a stronger immune memory was found at 9 years after revaccination among infants with non-and low-response to HepB.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Infant , Hepatitis B Vaccines , Immunization, Secondary , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Immunologic Memory , Follow-Up Studies , Vaccination , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Hepatitis B Antibodies
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969857

ABSTRACT

In 2006, 2014 and 2020, the positive rates of HBsAg in 560, 384 and 402 children aged 1 to 14 years were 4.5%, 2.6% and 2.5%, respectively, with no statistically significant differences (P>0.05). The positive rate of anti-HBs was highest in 2014 (57.8%) and lowest in 2006 (34.1%) (P<0.05). The positive rate of anti-HBc was highest in 2006 (15.7%), and decreased in 2014 (7.8%) and 2020 (5.7%) (P<0.001). The timely rate of the first dose of hepatitis B vaccine for children in Lhasa in 2006, 2014 and 2020 was 7.7% (43/560), 50.3% (193/384) and 94.8% (381/402), respectively. The overall vaccination rates were 15.4% (86/560), 35.2% (135/384) and 96.0% (386/402), respectively, showing a trend of gradual increases (χtrend values were 718.63 and 589.59, both P values<0.001).


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Hepatitis B Vaccines , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis B Antibodies , Vaccination
5.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 696-701, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935446

ABSTRACT

Objective: To study the non/hypo-response to hepatitis B vaccination in HIV-infected patients, identify the influencing factors and provide evidence for the development of hepatitis B prevention and control strategies and measures for special population. Methods: On the basis of the randomized controlled trial of 20 µg hepatitis B vaccine immunization at 0-1-6 month, 0-1-2-6 month and 60 µg hepatitis B vaccine immunization at 0-1-2-6 month, the HIV-infected patients who completed one-month follow-up after the full course vaccination were selected as study subjects. Quantification of antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) in serum samples was performed by using chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA) and demographic characteristics, disease history, HIV infection and treatment status of the study subjects were collected. Statistical analysis was conducted by χ2 test, t test, unconditional logistic regression and interaction analyses. Results: The non/hypo-response rates to hepatitis B vaccination were 34.65% (35/101), 24.49% (24/98) and 10.99% (10/91) in 20 µg group at 0-1-6 month or 0-1-2-6 month and 60 µg group at 0-1-2-6 month (P<0.001), respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that after controlling for confounding factors, the risk for non/hypo-response was 0.22 times higher in HIV-infected patients receiving 60 µg hepatitis B vaccine at 0-1-2-6 month than in patients receiving 20 µg hepatitis B vaccine at 0-1-6 month (95%CI: 0.10-0.50), the risk for non/hypo-response was higher in men than in women (OR=3.65, 95%CI: 1.88-7.07), and the risk for non/hypo-response was 2.64 times higher in those without hepatitis B vaccination history than in those with hepatitis B vaccination history (95%CI: 1.10-6.32). Moreover, there were multiplicative interactions between immunization schedule and gender (OR=2.49, 95%CI: 1.24-5.00). Conclusion: The non/hypo-response rate to hepatitis B vaccination was significantly lower in HIV-infected patients receiving 60 µg hepatitis B vaccine at 0-1-2-6 month than in those receiving 20 µg hepatitis B vaccine at 0-1-6 month and 0-1-2-6 month. Gender, vaccination schedule and history of hepatitis B vaccination were the influencing factors of the non/hypo-response to hepatitis B vaccination. There was a multiplicative interaction between vaccination schedule and gender, and men receiving 20 µg hepatitis B vaccines had a higher risk for non/hypo-response to hepatitis B vaccination.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Follow-Up Studies , HIV Infections/immunology , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Hepatitis B Antibodies , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B Vaccines/administration & dosage , Immunization Schedule
6.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 241-247, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935377

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the immunogenicity and influencing factors of hepatitis B vaccination based on different vaccination schedules among chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Methods: CKD patients who participated in randomized controlled trials in four hospitals in Shanxi province and completed three doses of 20 µg vaccination (at months 0, 1 and 6) and four doses of 20 µg or 60 µg vaccination (at months 0, 1, 2, and 6) were surveyed from May 2019 to July 2020.According to the ratio of 1∶1∶1, 273 CKD patients were divided into 3 groups randomly. Quantification of the anti-hepatitis B surface antigen-antibody (anti-HBs) in serum samples was performed using chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay at months 1 and 6 after the entire course of the vaccinations. The positive rate, high-level positive rate, geometric mean concentration (GMC) of anti-HBs, and the influencing factors were analyzed by χ2 tests, analysis of variance, unconditional logistic regression analysis. Results: A total of 273 CKD patitents were participants.The positive rates in the CKD patients with four doses of 20 µg vaccination (92.96%,66/71) or 60 µg vaccination (93.15%, 68/73) were higher than that in the CKD patients with three doses of 20 µg vaccination (81.69%, 58/71) at month one after the full course of the vaccinations (P<0.05). The GMCs of anti-HBs showed similar results (2 091.11 mIU/ml and 2 441.50 mIU/ml vs. 1 675.21 mIU/ml) (P<0.05). The positive rate was higher in the CKD patients with four doses of 60 µg vaccination (94.83%,55/58) than in those with three doses of 20 µg vaccination (78.79%,52/66) (P<0.05) at month six after the full course of the vaccinations. And the GMC of anti-HBs in the patients with four doses of 60 µg vaccination (824.28 mIU/ml) was significantly higher than those in the patients with 3 or 4 doses of 20 µg vaccination (639.74 mIU/ml and 755.53 mIU/ml) (P<0.05). After controlling the confounding factors, the positive rate in the CKD patients with four doses of 60 µg vaccination were 3.19 (95%CI: 1.02-9.96) and 5.32 (95%CI: 1.27-22.19) times higher than those in the patients with three doses of 20 µg vaccination at months 1 and 6 after the full course of the vaccinations, respectively. The positive rate in CKD patients without immune suppression or hormone therapy was 3.33 (95%CI: 1.26-8.80) and 4.78 (95%CI: 1.47-15.57) times higher than those in the patients with such therapy, respectively. Conclusions: Four doses of 20 µg or 60 µg hepatitis B vaccination could improve the immunogenicity in patients with CKD. And four doses of 60 µg vaccination might play a positive role in maintaining anti-HBs in this population. The immunogenicity in the CKD patients with immune suppression or hormone therapy was poor.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cricetinae , Humans , CHO Cells , Cricetulus , Follow-Up Studies , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Hepatitis B Antibodies , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B Vaccines , Immunization, Secondary , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Vaccination
7.
West Indian med. j ; 69(2): 81-85, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1341882

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of hepatitis B vaccination and factors associated with vaccine unresponsiveness in healthy children. Methods: A total of 141 healthy children aged between two and five years were included in the study. All of the cases had received 20 μg of recombinant DNA vaccine for hepatitis B (0, 1 and 6 months). Demographic features and factors such as duration of breastfeeding, exposure to HBsAg-positive family members, administration of concomitant vaccines and exposure to smoke were determined. Hepatitis B vaccination serological markers were evaluated. Post-vaccination serologic evaluation was performed one month after the last dose of primary vaccination, one month after the booster dose. Human leukocyte antigens typing was performed in non-responders. Results: Only 87.9% of the children achieved seroprotection antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBsAG titers ≥ 10 mIU/ml) one month after primary vaccination. No difference was observed between vaccine responsiveness and age, gender, birthweight, maturity, duration of breastfeeding, exposure to HBsAg-positive family members, and mid-upper arm circumference (p > 0.05). HLA types, DRB 111 (64.7%), B5 (52.9%), DRB 104 (52.9%) and DRB 11001 (47%) were detected at increased frequency in non-responders. The antibody titers were significantly higher in children who breastfed for the first six months and longer and who were vaccinated concomitantly with other common vaccines. Conclusion: The seroprotection antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen correlated with breast feeding and hepatitis B vaccination concomitant with other common vaccines. HLA types DRB 111, B5, DRB 104 and DRB 11001 had increased frequency in non-responders.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Hepatitis B Vaccines/administration & dosage , Hepatitis B Vaccines/immunology , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Hepatitis B Antibodies/immunology , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/immunology
8.
Salud pública Méx ; 62(3): 237-245, May.-Jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377309

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Objetivo: Conocer el resultado de la vacunación contra la hepatitis B en las comunidades hiperendémicas Kandozi y Chapra de la Amazonia Peruana a partir de la prevalencia de infecciones por los virus de la hepatitis B (VHB) y Delta (VHD), ocho años después de iniciada la vacunación. Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal en 2 944 pobladores de 67 comunidades indígenas Kandozi y Chapra en abril de 2010. El tamizaje serológico para el antígeno de superficie del VHB (HBsAg), anticuerpos anti-HBc IgM e IgG, anticuerpos anti-HBs y anti-VHD se determinaron mediante pruebas de ELISA. Resultados: Las tasas de prevalencia del HBsAg, anti-HBc IgG, anti-HBs ≥10 mlUI/ml y anti-VHD fueron 2.3, 39.13, 50.95 y 2.11%, respectivamente. La prevalencia del HBsAg en niños <11 años fue cero. Entre los portadores del HBsAg, las tasas de prevalencia de sobreinfeccion por el VHD e infección aguda por el VHB fueron 2.11% (todos fueron >14 años) y 11.94%, respectivamente. Conclusiones: Estos hallazgos muestran la eliminación de portadores de VHB en niños <11 años, ocho años después de iniciada la vacunación contra el VHB.


Abstract: Objective: To determine the outcome of the vaccination against hepatitis, we determined the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis D virus (HDV) infections, eight years after introduction of the vaccination. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was performed in 2 944 participants of 67 Kandozi and Chapra indigenous peoples in April 2010. Serological screening for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibody anti-HBc IgM and IgG, antibody anti-HBs and anti-HDV were determined by ELISA tests. Results: The prevalence rates of HBsAg, anti-HBc total, anti-HBs ≥10 mlUI/ml and anti-HDV were 2.3, 39.13, 50.95 and 2.11%, respectively. The prevalence rate of HBsAg in children <11 years was 0%. Among carriers of HBsAg, the prevalence rates of HDV and acute HBV infections were 2.11% (all were >14 years) and 11.94%, respectively. HBsAg and anti-HBc total were associated with individuals ≥10 years (p<0.001). Conclusions: These findings show the elimination of HBV carriers in children <11 years, eight years following introduction of the vaccination against HBV.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Hepatitis D/epidemiology , Indians, South American/statistics & numerical data , Hepatitis Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis B Vaccines/administration & dosage , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Peru/epidemiology , Hepatitis D/immunology , Hepatitis D/prevention & control , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Hepatitis Delta Virus/immunology , Indians, South American/ethnology , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Hepatitis B/immunology , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Hepatitis B Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis B e Antigens/blood , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/blood
10.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(1): 69-73, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098064

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) vaccinated for hepatitis B have a low success rate in achieving protective antibody levels. The main factors suggested for this are IBD itself and the use of immunosuppressive drugs. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the concentration of anti-HBs antibodies and to verify factors associated with the effectiveness of hepatitis B vaccination in patients with IBD. METHODS: This is a prospective, consecutive, observational, descriptive and analytical, non-randomized, qualitative study that evaluated the levels of anti-HBs antibodies in IBD patients at the Interdisciplinary Inflammatory Bowel Disease Clinic of the Family and Community Health Unit of UNIVALI - Itajaí, Santa Catarina. RESULTS: Thirty-six patients were vaccinated against hepatitis B virus (HBV), of which 29 were female. The average age was 46.2 years. Regarding the type of IBD, twenty-four patients had Crohn's disease and the duration of inflammatory bowel disease was 74 months. Fifteen patients were on concomitant immunosuppressive therapy. The effective response rate to HBV vaccine was 72.2%, verified by anti-HBs titration ≥10 UI/L. Statistical analysis revealed a negative response to vaccination in patients with Crohn's disease and immunosuppressive drugs. CONCLUSION: The success rate of HBV immunization in IBD patients is low compared to the general population. Type of disease and use of immunosuppressive drugs appear to influence the vaccine response.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Os pacientes com doenças inflamatórias intestinais (DII) vacinados para hepatite B possuem baixa taxa de sucesso em alcançar níveis protetores de anticorpos. Os principais fatores sugeridos para isso são a própria DII e o uso de medicamentos imunossupressores. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a titulação de anticorpos anti-HBs e verificar fatores associados a efetividade da vacinação contra hepatite B em pacientes com DII. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo prospectivo e consecutivo, de caráter observacional, descritivo e analítico, não-randomizado, qualiquantitativo, que avaliou a titulação de anticorpos anti-HBs em pacientes portadores de DII no Ambulatório Interdisciplinar de Doença Inflamatória Intestinal da Unidade de Saúde da Família e Comunitária da UNIVALI - Itajaí, Santa Catarina. RESULTADOS: Trinta e seis pacientes foram vacinados contra o vírus da hepatite B (VHB), destes, 29 eram do sexo feminino. A média de idade foi de 46,2 anos. Em relação ao tipo de DII, 24 pacientes eram portadores de doença de Crohn e o tempo médio de doença inflamatória intestinal encontrado foi de 74 meses. Quinze pacientes estavam em uso de terapia imunossupressora concomitante à vacinação. A taxa de resposta à vacina contra o VHB foi de 72,2%, verificada através de titulação de anti-HBs ≥10 UI/L. A análise estatística revelou uma resposta negativa à vacinação em pacientes em uso de medicamentos imunossupressores e portadores de doença de Crohn. CONCLUSÃO: A taxa de sucesso na imunização contra o VHB em pacientes com DII é baixo quando comparado à população em geral. Tipo de doença e uso de medicamentos imunossupressores parecem desempenhar influência na resposta vacinal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Colitis, Ulcerative/immunology , Crohn Disease/immunology , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Hepatitis B Vaccines/immunology , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Hepatitis B Antibodies/blood , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Crohn Disease/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , Hepatitis B Vaccines/administration & dosage , Qualitative Research , Seroconversion , Hepatitis B/immunology , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/immunology , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Middle Aged
11.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190559, 2020. tab
Article in English | SES-SP, ColecionaSUS, LILACS | ID: biblio-1136898

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Brazil's western Amazon basin has the highest prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in the country. Coinfection with hepatitis D virus (HDV) is also endemic. To estimate the prevalence of HBV and HDV markers in a population inhabiting the northwest portion of Mato Grosso state in the western Amazon. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of the seroprevalence of antibodies against HBV core antigen (anti-HBc) in the Três Fronteiras District northwest of Mato Grosso. Anti-HBc-positive subjects were tested for HBV surface antigen (HBsAg). Those positive for this marker were tested for HDV antibodies. Anti-HBc-negative participants were tested for anti-HBsAg. All tests were performed by EIA. RESULTS: A total of 623 individuals in the community were assessed; the majority (67.6%) were male, with a mean age of 30.8 ± 15.4 years. Two hundred and fourteen individuals (34.3%) were anti-HBc-positive, and 47 (7.5%) were HBsAg carriers. Only one individual was anti-HDV-positive. Among the 409 individuals without HBV infection, 18.3% were anti-HBsAg-positive. There was no association between HBV infection and known risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: The study area had intermediate-to-high endemicity for HBV infection, but a low prevalence of HDV. Our serological results suggesting low vaccination-induced protection indicate a need for reinforced immunization programs in the populations of northwest Mato Grosso.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis D/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hepatitis B Antibodies , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Middle Aged
12.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20180533, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057270

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: HBV and HIV have identical transmission routes. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HBV in HIV patients and to detect the presence of occult HBV infection. METHODS: All samples were tested for serology markers and using qPCR. RESULTS: This study included 232 individuals, out of which 36.6% presented with HBV markers and 11.8% presented with HBsAg or HBV-DNA, including 3 patients that showed OBI. CONCLUSIONS: We observed a high prevalence of HBV among HIV patients. In addition, the results suggest that OBI can occur in patients with serological profiles that are indicative of past infection. Therefore, the application of molecular tests may enable the identification of infections that are not evident solely based on serology.


Subject(s)
Humans , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis B Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis B Core Antigens/blood , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/blood , Brazil/epidemiology , DNA, Viral/blood , HIV Infections/complications , Prevalence , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Hepatitis B/complications , Hepatitis B/diagnosis
13.
Araçatuba; s.n; 2020. 99 p. tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1445026

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A AIDS e a Hepatite B são doenças virais de grande impacto epidemiológico e social, que repercutem de maneira negativa em todas as conjunturas, instâncias e práxis da saúde pública mundial. Na perspectiva odontológica, a alta infectividade, a patogenicidade e a estigmatização do vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV) e da hepatite B (VHB), além de deixarem os profissionais mais expostos às suas vulnerabilidades laborais, podem fomentar práticas e presunções discriminatórias. Objetivo: A presente tese foi dividida em dois capítulos, com objetivos diferentes. Capítulo 1 - mapear o perfil de imunização dos cirurgiões-dentistas da rede pública de saúde por meio do teste imunocromatográfico Anti-HBsAg e identificar seus fatores associativos. Capítulo 2 - comparar o conhecimento, a presença e a manifestação de atos discriminatórios e estigmatizantes de cirurgiões-dentistas, auxiliares e acadêmicos de Odontologia a respeito das representações sociais do HIV/AIDS e da hepatite B. Metodologia: Tratam-se de dois estudos epidemiológicos transversais quantitativos. Para a condução metodológica do primeiro capítulo, fizeram parte do universo amostral cirurgiões-dentistas da Atenção Primária à Saúde (APS) de 40 municípios pertencentes ao Departamento Regional de Saúde ­ II (DRS-II), do estado de São Paulo. A coleta dos dados foi feita em três etapas: aplicação do inquérito semiestruturado; investigação do protocolo vacinal contra o VHB; e análise da imunização pelo teste rápido imunocromatográfico AntHbsAg. Para o processamento estatístico, foi utilizada a análise bivariada em subsequência à análise de regressão logística binomial. No segundo capítulo, fizeram parte do universo amostral cirurgiões-dentistas e auxiliares em saúde bucal da APS dos 40 municípios da DRS-II e acadêmicos de Odontologia de uma universidade pública. Para a condução do estudo foi construído um instrumento de pesquisa que tinha como objetivo identificar de maneira ampla e objetiva as atitudes e os comportamentos potencialmente profusos de ações discriminantes. Para análise dos dados utilizou-se o Teste Z de proporção para comparação entre os grupos. Resultados: No capítulo 1, do total da amostra (219), 74,9% afirmou ter tomado as três doses da vacina e 35,6% não estava imune contra o VHB. Foram verificadas associações entre a variável dependente e o tempo de trabalho no serviço público; o conhecimento da temática em estudo; o desconhecimento do número de doses da vacina que foram administradas; e ter tomado menos de três doses da vacina. No capítulo 2, participaram da pesquisa 550 sujeitos. Foram verificadas associações significativas no conhecimento dos participantes do estudo sobre o HIV/AIDS e hepatite B, com maior representatividade de cirurgiões-dentistas. Dentre as doenças infecciosas analisadas, foi observado, de modo geral, um maior receio perante o HIV/AIDS. Por outro lado, quando inqueridos sobre o risco de infectividade, houve maior representatividade da hepatite B. Além disso, 30,7% e 42,2% dos indivíduos aceitariam ser atendidos por um profissional com HIV/AIDS e hepatite B, respectivamente, com maiores proporções de recusas pelos auxiliares e acadêmicos. Sobre a existência de distinções nas condutas clínicas de atendimento ao paciente com AIDS e hepatite B, o grupo de auxiliares teve as maiores proporções. Conclusão: No primeiro capítulo, parte dos cirurgiões-dentistas da APS não eram imunes contra o VHB. Já sobre os fatores de risco analisados, foi verificado que o conhecimento, o tempo de trabalho e a completude do esquema vacinal foram influentes para a não imunização. No segundo capítulo, foi possível concluir que o conhecimento sobre a temática ainda é obstáculo a ser enfrentada pelos auxiliares e acadêmicos. Em relação à presença e à manifestação de atitudes discriminatórias e estigmatizantes, foi constatado que elas existem de maneira velada e oculta pelos grupos dos acadêmicos e auxiliares, principalmente em relação ao HIV/AIDS(AU)


Introduction: AIDS and hepatitis B are viral diseases of great epidemiological and social impact. They negatively affect all conjunctures, instances, and praxis of global public health. From the dental perspective, the high infectivity, pathogenicity, and stigmatization of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) expose professionals to their work vulnerability and may foster discriminatory practices and presumptions. Objective: the main objective was addressed in two chapters, with different purposes. In chapter 1, we aimed to map the immunization profile of dental surgeons in the public health system and to identify its associative factors. To this end, we employed the anti-HBsAg immunochromatographic test. In chapter 2, we aimed to compare the knowledge, presence, and manifestation of discriminatory and stigmatizing acts of dental surgeons, dental assistants, and dental students concerning the social representations of HIV/AIDS and hepatitis B. Methodology: Two quantitative cross-sectional epidemiological studies were conducted. In the first chapter, the sample comprised dental surgeons working at the Primary Health Care (PHC) of 40 municipalities belonging to the Regional Health Department II (DRS-II) of the state of São Paulo. Data collection was performed in three stages: a semistructured interview; an investigation into the vaccine protocol against HBV; and an immunization analysis through the anti-HBsAg immunochromatographic rapid test. A binomial logistic regression analysis and a bivariate analysis provided the statistical data. In the second chapter, the sample comprised dental surgeons and dental assistants working at the PHC of 40 municipalities belonging to the DRS-II and dental students of a pubic university. We built a research instrument to broadly and objectively identify the potentially profuse attitudes and behaviors of discriminating actions. For data analysis, we performed the proportion Z-test to compare groups. Results: In chapter 1, 74.9% of the sample (219) claimed to have taken the three doses of the vaccine, while 35.6% were not immune against HBV. We verified associations between the dependent variable and the working time in the public service, the knowledge about the subject under study, the unawareness of the number of vaccine doses taken, and the fact of having taken less than three doses. In chapter 2, 550 subjects participated in the study. We found significant associations regarding participants' knowledge of HIV/AIDS and hepatitis B, with a greater representation of dental surgeons. Among the diseases investigated, HIV/AIDS raised the greatest concern. On the other hand, concerning the risk of infectivity, hepatitis B had a greater representativeness. In general, 30.7% and 42.2% of participants would accept receiving care from professionals with HIV/AIDS and hepatitis B, respectively; assistants and students had a higher proportion of refusal of care. Dental assistants had greater representativeness regarding distinctions in the clinical conduct of care for patients with AIDS or hepatitis B. Conclusion: In the first chapter, some of the dental surgeons were not immune to HBV. Regarding the risk factors, we verified that the knowledge, the working time, and the completeness of the vaccination schedule affected non-immunization. In the second chapter, we concluded that knowledge about the subject is still an impediment to be faced by dental assistants and students. Regarding the presence and manifestation of discriminatory and stigmatizing behaviors, we verified that they are veiled and hidden by groups of dental students and assistants, especially concerning HIV/AIDS(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Hepatitis B Vaccines , Social Discrimination , Social Stigma , Hepatitis B Antibodies
14.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 28: e3278, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | BDENF, LILACS | ID: biblio-1101736

ABSTRACT

Objective: to compare the direct cost, from the perspective of the Unified Health System, of assessing the post-vaccination serological status with post-exposure management for hepatitis B among health care workers exposed to biological material. Method: cross-sectional study and cost-related, based on accident data recorded in the System of Information on Disease Notification between 2006 and 2016, where three post-exposure and one pre-exposure management scenarios were evaluated: A) accidents among vaccinated workers with positive and negative serological status tests for hepatitis B, exposed to known and unknown source-person; B) handling unvaccinated workers exposed to a known and unknown source-person; C) managing vaccinated workers and unknown serological status for hepatitis B and D) cost of the pre-exposure post-vaccination test. Accidents were assessed and the direct cost was calculated using the decision tree model. Results: scenarios where workers did not have protective titles after vaccination or were unaware of the serological status and were exposed to a positive or unknown source-person for hepatitis B. Conclusion: the direct cost of hepatitis B prophylaxis, including confirmation of serological status after vaccination would be more economical for the health system.


Objetivo: comparar o custo direto, sob a perspectiva do Sistema Único de Saúde, da avaliação do status sorológico pós-vacinação com o manejo pós-exposição para hepatite B entre trabalhadores da área da saúde expostos ao material biológico. Método: estudo transversal e de custo, realizado a partir dos dados de acidentes registrados no Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação entre 2006 e 2016, em que foram avaliados três cenários de manejo pós-exposição e um de pré-exposição: A) acidentes entre trabalhadores vacinados com status sorológico positivo e negativo para hepatite B, expostos à pessoa-fonte conhecida e desconhecida; B) manejo dos trabalhadores não vacinados expostos à pessoa-fonte conhecida e desconhecida; C) manejo dos trabalhadores vacinados e status sorológico desconhecido para hepatite B e D) custo do teste pós vacinação pré-exposição. Os acidentes foram avaliados e o custo direto foi calculado utilizando o modelo árvore de decisão. Resultados: apresentaram maior custo os cenários em que os trabalhadores não possuíam títulos protetores após a vacinação ou desconheciam o status sorológico e foram expostos à pessoa-fonte positivo ou desconhecida para hepatite B. Conclusão: o custo direto da profilaxia para hepatite B, incluindo a confirmação do status sorológico após vacinação seria mais econômico para o sistema de saúde.


Objetivo: comparar el costo directo, desde la perspectiva del Sistema Único de Salud, de la evaluación del status serológico post-vacunación con el manejo post-exposición para la hepatitis B entre los trabajadores de la salud expuestos a material biológico. Método: estudio transversal y de costos, basado en datos de accidentes registrados en el Sistema de Información de Enfermedades Notificables entre 2006 y 2016, en el que se evaluaron tres escenarios de gestión posteriores a la exposición y uno previo a la exposición: A) accidentes entre trabajadores vacunados con status serológico positivo y negativo para hepatitis B, expuestos a una fuente de origen conocida y desconocida; B) manejo de trabajadores no vacunados expuestos a una fuente conocida y desconocida; C) manejo de trabajadores vacunados y estado serológico desconocido para hepatitis B y D) costo de la prueba de pre-exposición post-vacunación. Se evaluaron los accidentes y se calculó el costo directo utilizando el modelo de árbol de decisión. Resultados: los escenarios en los que los trabajadores no tenían títulos de protección después de la vacunación o desconocían el status serológico y estaban expuestos a una persona fuente positiva o desconocida para la hepatitis B reflejaron un costo más alto. Conclusión: el costo directo de la profilaxis para la hepatitis B, incluida la confirmación del status serológico después de la vacunación sería más económico para el sistema de salud.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Occupational Exposure , Vaccination/economics , Health Care Costs , Health Personnel , Hepatitis B Vaccines , Costs and Cost Analysis , Hepatitis B Antibodies , Antibodies, Viral/blood
15.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(1): 40-44, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001500

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is one of the major public health problems in developing countries. HEV can cause chronic infections in immunocompromised individuals e.g. thalassemic patients with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. In addition there is possibility of HEV transmission through blood transfusion. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the seroprevalence and risk factors of HEV infection in β-thalassemic children. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 140 Egyptian children suffering from β-thalassemia, attending the hematology outpatient clinic from April to October 2016. Serum samples from patients were collected and anti-HEV antibodies; Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and Immunoglobulin M (IgM)were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: The seroprevalence of HEV in β-thalassemic chidren was relatively high (27.15%). Anti-HEV IgG prevalence was 24.29% while that of IgM was 2.86%. There was significant association between HEV infection and age, residence, liver enzymes and amount of blood transfusion per year. Conclusions: Thalasemic patients are vulnerable to chronicity and increased risk of morbidity and mortality from HEV infection. Frequent assessment of liver enzymes in thalassemic patients to monitor subclinical HEV is recommended. Close monitoring and HEV screening of blood donations should be taken in consideration. Public awareness about HEV endemicity, modes of transmission, and risk hazards especially in high risk group should be done to reduce the disease burden.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Blood Transfusion , Hepatitis E/transmission , Hepatitis E/epidemiology , beta-Thalassemia/epidemiology , beta-Thalassemia/virology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Multivariate Analysis , Risk Factors , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Egypt/epidemiology , Hepatitis B Antibodies/blood , Immunocompetence
16.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180132, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041500

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION Medical students have an occupational risk for hepatitis B (HB). This study sought to determine anti-HBs and anti-HBc IgG levels in vaccinated students, check their seroconversion, and correlate this with vaccination. METHODS One hundred and forty-three students' blood samples and their vaccination schedules were analyzed. RESULTS: 65.7% were positive for anti-HBs; however, anti-HBs was absent in 34.3%. Only two samples were positive for anti-HBc IgG. CONCLUSIONS More than 30% of students did not have minimum protective levels. Comparing HBV vaccination and anti-HBs reactivity, the majority of reactive individuals received their last dose within the past 16 years.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Students, Medical , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Hepatitis B Vaccines/immunology , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hepatitis B Antibodies/immunology , Hepatitis B Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis B Core Antigens/immunology , Hepatitis B Core Antigens/blood , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/immunology , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/blood
17.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1856-1861, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-781528

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the conversion rate from negative to positive (positive rate) of HBsAb in lymphoma patients inoculated with different dose of hepatitis B vaccine, to evaluate the immune efficacy of different dose of hepatitis B vaccine, and to analyze the influencing factors.@*METHODS@#Two hundred thirty six patients with lymphoma were selected, whose 5 indexes of hepatitis B (HBsAg, HBsAb, HBeAg, HBeAb and HBcAb) were all negative confirmed by ELISA. The hepatitis B vaccine was inoculated according to 0, 1 and 6 months immune procedures at 1-2 weeks before chemotherapy. The HBsAb level was detected at 1 month after the immunization, the differences in each indexes between HBeAb and HBeAb patients were compared.@*RESULTS@#The positive rate of HBsAb was 75% in all patients with lymphoma.The positive rate of high dose (20 μg) group was 81.4%, which was significantly higher than that of the low dose (10μg) group with 68.6% (χ=5.09, P<0.05). The positive conversion rate of HBsAb significantly higher in the patients of young, female, B-cell (except DLBCL subtype), early Ann Arbor stage, and the treatment regimens without glucocorticoid and rituximab. There were no statistical significances in systemic symptoms or no and treatment regimens with or without lenalidomide. Two doses of hepatitis B vaccine not displayed obvious adverse reactions.@*CONCLUSION@#The high dose of hepatitis B vaccine can achieve better immune efficacy than that of the low dose in the patients with lymphoma.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis B Antibodies , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B Vaccines , Hepatitis B virus , Lymphoma , Therapeutics
18.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 55(3): 267-273, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973883

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B and C are diseases with high morbimortality and constitute a global public health problem. In Brazil, the prevalence is not homogeneous, oscillating among different regions, but it is estimated that currently about 1% of the population present chronic disease related to the B virus and that there are 1.5 million infected with the C virus. Despite the development of hepatitis B vaccine, improvement in diagnostic methods and therapeutic advances in the field of viral hepatitis, there is still a large number of people who continues to be infected by these viruses, especially in populations at risk and also due to several factors, including vaccination and migration policies. Vertical and perinatal transmissions are of great importance in the epidemiology of viral hepatitis and the blood tests performed during prenatal care constitute a great opportunity for screening and identifying these viruses. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the seroprevalence of markers for B and C viruses in women who underwent prenatal care at the Hospital Universitário Antônio Pedro (Antonio Pedro University Hospital) from 2006 to 2013 and to compare the results found with regional data and those described in the specific literature. METHODS: A descriptive, cross-sectional, quantitative study with retrospective data collected from 635 records of pregnant women attended at the Prenatal Service of the Hospital Universitário Antônio Pedro, Niterói, state of Rio de Janeiro, from March 2006 until December 2013. The database was built in the Microsoft Office Access program and was later exported to Microsoft Office Excel. For the processing and analysis of the data, it was used the SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science, IBM) version 22.0, for Windows. RESULTS: Twelve cases with positive HBsAg (1.9%), 189 cases with positive anti-HBs (35.9%) and seven positive anti-HCV patients (1.3%) were observed. There was no significant association between age and positivity for HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HCV (P =0.205, 0.872 and 0.676, respectively). There was a direct relationship between the anti-HBs positivity and the last four years of the study (P<0.0001). CONCLUSION: A high prevalence of HBsAg was observed, higher than the expected for the evaluated region; there was a prevalence of anti-HCV, consistent with the current Brazilian reality; and a likely low rate of hepatitis B immunization, with a relatively high rate of susceptibility to this infection and no case of co-infection between B and C viruses and HIV. It is emphasized not only the need to trace hepatitis B and C, without exceptions, during prenatal care, since even though the current advances in therapy may not cure, at least they may allow a better quality of life for patients with chronic disease and the mandatory completion of immunoprophylaxis in all newborns. Special attention should be given to those patients susceptible to HBV, with prompt diagnosis and referral for specific vaccination.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: As hepatites pelo vírus B e C são doenças com elevada morbimortalidade e um problema de saúde pública global. No Brasil a prevalência não é homogênea, variando entre as diferentes regiões, mas estima-se que atualmente cerca de 1% da população apresente doença crônica relacionada ao vírus B e que haja 1,5 milhões de infectados pelo vírus C. Apesar do desenvolvimento da vacina contra a hepatite B, da melhoria nos métodos diagnósticos e dos avanços terapêuticos no campo das hepatites virais, ainda é grande o número de pessoas que continuam sendo infectadas por esses vírus, principalmente nas populações sob algum tipo de risco e devido a vários fatores incluindo políticas de vacinação e migração. A transmissão vertical e também a perinatal têm grande importância na epidemiologia das hepatites virais e os exames realizados durante o pré-natal constituem uma oportunidade única de rastreio e identificação destes vírus. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a soroprevalência de marcadores para os vírus B e C em mulheres que realizaram a assistência pré-natal no Hospital Universitário Antônio Pedro no período de 2006 a 2013 e comparar os resultados encontrados com os dados regionais e os descritos na literatura específica. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, descritivo, do tipo quantitativo, com coleta retrospectiva de dados em 635 prontuários de gestantes atendidas no Serviço de pré-natal do Hospital Universitário Antônio Pedro, Niterói, estado do Rio de Janeiro no período de março de 2006 a dezembro de 2013. O banco de dados foi construído no programa Microsoft Office Access, sendo posteriormente exportado para Microsoft Office Excel. Para o processamento e análise dos dados, foi utilizado o pacote estatístico SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science, IBM) versão 22.0, para Windows. RESULTADOS: Foram observados 12 casos com HBsAg positivo (1,9%), 189 casos com anti-HBs positivo (35,9%) e sete pacientes positivas para o anti-HCV (1,3%). Não foi observada associação significativa entre a faixa etária e a positividade do HBsAg, anti-HBs e anti-HCV (P=0, 205, 0,872 e 0,676 respectivamente). Houve relação direta entre a positividade do anti-HBs e os últimos quatro anos da pesquisa (P<0,0001). CONCLUSÃO: Foi observada uma prevalência alta do HBsAg, acima daquela esperada para a região avaliada; uma prevalência para o anti-HCV concordante com a realidade brasileira atual; um índice provavelmente baixo de imunização contra a hepatite B, com índice relativamente alto de susceptibilidade para esta infecção e nenhum caso de coinfecção entre o vírus B, C e o HIV. Enfatiza-se não só a necessidade da triagem das hepatites B e C, sem exceções, durante o pré-natal, já que os avanços atuais na terapêutica poderão se não curar, pelo menos possibilitar uma melhor qualidade de vida para as pacientes com doença crônica e da realização mandatória da imunoprofilaxia em todos os recém-natos. Atenção especial deverá ser dada àquelas pacientes susceptíveis ao HBV, com pronto diagnóstico e encaminhamento para a realização da vacinação específica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Prenatal Care/statistics & numerical data , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/blood , Time Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Biomarkers/blood , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Hepatitis C/blood , Age Distribution , Statistics, Nonparametric , Hepatitis C Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis B/blood , Hepatitis B Antibodies/blood , Hospitals, University , Middle Aged
19.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(1): 62-65, Jan. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040579

ABSTRACT

In occult hepatitis B infection (OBI), hepatitis B virus DNA (HBV DNA) can be detected in serum samples; however, oral fluid collection for detection of HBV DNA has not yet been explored, despite the availability of collection devices. Serum and oral fluid samples from 45 hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc)-positive patients were collected for the amplification of the HBV polymerase gene. HBV DNA was detected in five serum and four oral fluid samples (the detection limit for oral fluid was 1.656 log IU/mL in paired serum). In conclusion, simple methodologies of sample collection and in-house polymerase chain reaction (PCR) allowed detection of HBV DNA, and these could be used to improve the diagnosis of OBI, especially in locations with limited resources.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Saliva/virology , DNA, Viral/analysis , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Hepatitis B Antibodies/analysis , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/analysis , DNA, Viral/blood , Hepatitis B virus/isolation & purification , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Viral Load , Middle Aged
20.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 26: e3085, 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-978614

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: to estimate the prevalence of serological markers for hepatitis B and C in patients with diabetes mellitus and analyze potential associated factors. Method: a cross-sectional study with 255 patients with diabetes mellitus. Demographic, clinical, and risk behavior factors for hepatitis B and C were selected. The markers HBsAg, Anti-HBc IgG, Anti-HBc IgM, Anti-HBs, and Anti-HCV were investigated. A questionnaire and venous blood collection and inferential statistical analysis were used. Results: 16.8% of the patients had a total reactive Anti-HBc marker, 8.2% an isolated Anti-HBs, and 75% were non-reactive for all hepatitis B markers. No case of reactive HBsAg was found and 3.3% of the patients had a reactive anti-HCV marker. The prevalence of prior hepatitis B virus infection was directly associated with the time of diabetes mellitus and the prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection was not associated with the investigated variables. The prevalence of hepatitis B and C infection in patients with diabetes mellitus was higher when compared to the national, with values of 16.8% and 3.3%, respectively. Conclusion: the results suggest that patients with diabetes are a population of higher vulnerability to hepatitis B and C, leading to the adoption of preventive measures of their occurrence.


RESUMO Objetivo: estimar a prevalência de marcadores sorológicos para hepatite B e C em pacientes com diabetes mellitus e analisar potenciais fatores associados. Método: estudo transversal com 255 pacientes com diabetes mellitus. Elegeram-se variáveis demográficas, clínicas e comportamentos de risco para hepatite B e C. Investigou-se os marcadores HBsAg, Anti-HBc IgG, Anti-HBc IgM, Anti-HBs e Anti-HCV. Utilizou-se um questionário e coleta de sangue venoso e análise por estatística inferencial. Resultados: 16,8% pacientes apresentaram marcador Anti-HBc total reagente, 8,2% Anti-HBs isolado e 75% foram não reagentes para todos os marcadores de hepatite B. Nenhum caso de HBsAg reagente foi encontrado, 3,3% dos pacientes apresentaram marcador anti-HCV reagente. A prevalência de infecção pregressa pelo vírus da hepatite B mostrou-se diretamente associado ao tempo de diabetes mellitus, e a prevalência de infecção pelo vírus da hepatite C não teve associação com as variáveis investigadas. A prevalência de infecção por hepatite B e C em pacientes com diabetes mellitus foi superior a nacional, 16,8% e 3,3% respectivamente. Conclusão: os resultados sugerem que pacientes com diabetes sejam uma população de maior vulnerabilidade às hepatites B e C, ensejando à adoção de medidas preventivas de sua ocorrência.


RESUMEN Objetivo: estimar la prevalencia de marcadores serológicos para la hepatitis B y C en pacientes con diabetes mellitus y analizar potenciales factores asociados. Método: estudio transversal con 255 pacientes con diabetes mellitus. Se eligieron variables demográficas, clínicas y comportamientos de riesgo para hepatitis B y C. Se investigaron los marcadores HBsAg, Anti-HBc IgG, Anti-HBc IgM, Anti-HBs y Anti-HCV. Se utilizó un cuestionario, colecta de sangre venosa y análisis por estadística inferencial. Resultados: 16,8% de los pacientes presentaron marcador Anti-HBc total reactivo, 8,2% Anti-HBs aislado y 75% fueron no reactivos para todos los marcadores de hepatitis B. Ningún caso de HBsAg reactivo fue encontrado, 3,3% de los pacientes presentaron marcador anti-HCV reactivo. La prevalencia de infección previa por el virus de la hepatitis B se mostró directamente asociado al tiempo de diabetes mellitus, y la prevalencia de infección por el virus de la hepatitis C no tuvo asociación con las variables investigadas. La prevalencia de infección por hepatitis B y C en pacientes con diabetes mellitus fue superior al nacional, 16,8% y 3,3% respectivamente. Conclusión: los resultados sugieren que pacientes con diabetes son una población de mayor vulnerabilidad a las hepatitis B y C, lo que da lugar a la adopción de medidas preventivas de su ocurrencia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Biomarkers/blood , Hepatitis C/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Hepatitis B/blood , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis B Antibodies/blood , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies
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