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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969857

ABSTRACT

In 2006, 2014 and 2020, the positive rates of HBsAg in 560, 384 and 402 children aged 1 to 14 years were 4.5%, 2.6% and 2.5%, respectively, with no statistically significant differences (P>0.05). The positive rate of anti-HBs was highest in 2014 (57.8%) and lowest in 2006 (34.1%) (P<0.05). The positive rate of anti-HBc was highest in 2006 (15.7%), and decreased in 2014 (7.8%) and 2020 (5.7%) (P<0.001). The timely rate of the first dose of hepatitis B vaccine for children in Lhasa in 2006, 2014 and 2020 was 7.7% (43/560), 50.3% (193/384) and 94.8% (381/402), respectively. The overall vaccination rates were 15.4% (86/560), 35.2% (135/384) and 96.0% (386/402), respectively, showing a trend of gradual increases (χtrend values were 718.63 and 589.59, both P values<0.001).


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Hepatitis B Vaccines , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis B Antibodies , Vaccination
2.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2686-2693, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007691

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) clearance is vital for a functional cure of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. However, the incidence and predictors of HBsAg seroclearance in patients co-infected with HBV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remain largely unknown in Guangdong, China.@*METHODS@#Between 2009 and 2019, patients co-infected with HBV/HIV undergoing antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Guangzhou Eighth People's Hospital affiliated to Guangzhou Medical University were retrospectively reviewed with the endpoint on December 31, 2020. The incidence and risk factors for HBsAg seroclearance were evaluated using Kaplan-Meier and multivariate Cox regression analyses.@*RESULTS@#A total of 1550 HBV/HIV co-infected patients were included in the study, with the median age of 42 years and 86.0% (1333/1550) males. Further, 98.3% (1524/1550) received ART containing tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) plus lamivudine (3TC). HBV DNA was examined in 1283 cases at the last follow-up. Over the median 4.7 years of follow-up, 8.1% (126/1550) patients achieved HBsAg seroclearance, among whom 50.8% (64/126) obtained hepatitis B surface antibody, 28.1% (137/488) acquired hepatitis B e antigen seroconversion, and 95.9% (1231/1283) undetectable HBV DNA. Compared with patients who maintained HBsAg positive, cases achieving HBsAg seroclearance showed no differences in age, gender, CD4 + T cell count, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level, or fibrosis status; however, they presented lower HBV DNA levels, lower HBsAg levels, and higher rates of HBV genotype B at the baseline. Multivariate analysis showed that baseline HBsAg <1500 cutoff index (COI) (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 2.74, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.48-5.09), ALT elevation >2 × upper limit of normal during the first six months after receiving ART (aHR, 2.96, 95% CI: 1.53-5.77), and HBV genotype B (aHR, 3.73, 95% CI: 1.46-9.59) were independent predictors for HBsAg seroclearance (all P <0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Long-term TDF-containing ART has high anti-HBV efficacy including relatively high overall HBsAg seroclearance in HBV/HIV co-infected patients. Lower baseline HBsAg levels, HBV genotype B, and elevated ALT levels during the first six months of ART are potential predictors of HBsAg seroclearance.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Adult , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV , DNA, Viral , Incidence , Coinfection/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Tenofovir/therapeutic use , Lamivudine/therapeutic use , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy
3.
South Sudan med. j. (Online) ; 16(3): 87-92, 2023. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1452131

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major public health problem affecting 400 million people worldwide, and is a common cause of chronic liver failure (cirrhosis) and hepatocellular carcinoma. Sixty-eight percent of infected people are from the African and Pacific regions. Vertical transmission from mother to newborn baby is one of the mechanisms by which chronic hepatitis virus infection spreads, besides infections from contaminated needles and syringes and sexual contact. Hepatitis B chronic infection is endemic in many poor countries, especially in Africa. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted between July and August 2021. Pregnant women attending the antenatal care (ANC) in Bor State referral hospital, South Sudan, were interviewed to collect information on their socio-demographic characteristics and risk factors for hepatitis B infection. The objective was to determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis B chronic infection through blood testing. Prevalence ratios for certain risk factors were calculated. Results: Two hundred pregnant women were enrolled. The Prevalence Rate for chronic infection with hepatitis B virus, diagnosed using the rapid immune-chromatographic assay for Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), was 8.5%. (95% CI; 4.7% - 12.3%). None of the suspected risk factors studied were found to be significantly associated with testing positive for HBV, except for a history of previous jaundice. Conclusion: The prevalence of HBV chronic infection among pregnant women in Bor, Jonglei State, is high hence there is a need for established public health interventions that can lead to a reduction of HBV vertical transmission. Treatment of pregnant women with HBV chronic infection using anti-viral medications during pregnancy might curb the vertical transmission rates.


Subject(s)
Hepatitis B virus , Risk Factors , Chromatography, Affinity , Pregnant Women , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B Vaccines , Hepatitis B, Chronic
4.
Rwanda Journal of Medicine and Health Sciences ; 6(2): 199-207, 2023. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1509421

ABSTRACT

Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection among pregnant women has a high rate of vertical transmission and consequential effects on fetal and neonatal outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of infection among pregnant women attending antenatal care services in Osogbo, Nigeria. Methodology This hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted among pregnant women attending routine antenatal care clinic between April and June 2021. Systematic random sampling technique was used to recruit 240 pregnant women, their data were collected by face to face interview using a pretested questionnaire, while blood sample was collected aseptically to determine hepatitis B surface antigen by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay test kit. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to examine the association between explanatory variables and outcome variable. Results The mean age and seroprevalence of the study population were 27.50 ± 4.4 years and 5.8% respectively. The significant risk factors for HBV infection were tattooing (aOR = 5.22; 95% CI = 0.52­8.01; p = 0.0000), history of multiple sexual partners (aOR = 2.88; 95% CI = 1.92­12.42; p = 0.0044); and past history of contact with HBV patient (aOR = 2.17; 95% CI = 1.21­15.32; p = 0.0310) were significant predictors of HBV infection. Conclusion The seroprevalence of HBV from this study was of intermediate endemicity. We therefore, advocate for continuous health education programs on the mode of HBV transmission, high-risk behaviors and methods of preventions at antenatal care clinics to raise the awareness of mothers and limit the spread of infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens
5.
Mali méd. (En ligne) ; 38(1): 16-20, 2023. tables
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1427108

ABSTRACT

Objectifs : Déterminer la prévalence de l'infection par le virus de l'hépatite B (VHB) chez les enfants (sujets contact) des sujets porteurs chroniques de l'Ag HBs (sujets index) et rechercher les facteurs associés à cette infection chez ces enfants.Patients et méthodes: il s'est agi d'étude rétrospective transversale portant sur les patients positifs pour l'Ag HBs (sujets index), dont la famille (sujets contact: conjoints et enfants) a été soumise à un dépistage systématique de l'infection par le VHB. Résultats: L'âge médian de nos 44 sujets était de 43,1 ± 7,49 ans. Le nombre moyen d'enfants par sujet index était de 2,3 ± 1,1. L'âge médian des 92 enfants était de 9,3 ± 4,55 (de 1 à 15 ans) et 43 (44,8%) étaient vaccinés contre le VHB. La fréquence de l'infection par le VHB était de 24%. Les facteurs indépendants associés à l'infection par le VHB chez les enfants étaient l'ADN du VHB pour les sujets index> 2000 UI/ml (OR = 11,5; p = 0,001), l'existence du VHB chez les deux parents (OR = 7,9; p = 0,03) et l'absence de vaccination contre le VHB chez les enfants (OR = 30,9; p = 0,003). Conclusion: La couverture vaccinale des enfants des sujets index était insuffisante. Outre la transmission verticale, le risque de transmission intrafamiliale était élevé en présence d'au moins un des trois facteurs associés


Objectives: To determine the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in children (contact subjects) of chronic HBsAg (index subjects) and to investigate the factors associated with this infection in these children. Patients and methods: this was a retrospective cross-sectional study of HBsAg positive patients (index subjects), whose families (contact subjects: spouses and children) were routinely screened for HBV infection. Results: The median age of our 44 subjects was 43.1 ± 7.49 years. The average number of children per index subject was 2.3 ± 1.1. The median age of the 92 children was 9.3± 4.55 (1 to 15 years) and 43 (44.8%) were vaccinated against HBV. The prevalence of HBV infection was 24%. The independent factors associated with HBV infection in children were HBV DNA for index subjects> 2000 IU/ml (OR = 11.5; p = 0.001), the existence of HBV in both parents (OR = 7.9; p = 0.03) and no HBV vaccination in children (OR = 30.9; p = 0.003). Conclusion: Immunization coverage of children of index subjects was insufficient. In addition to vertical transmission, the risk of intrafamilial transmission was high in the presence of at least one of the three associated factors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Mass Screening , Risk Factors , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Disease Transmission, Infectious
6.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 698-704, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986197

ABSTRACT

Objective: To understand ten-year changes in clinical characteristics and antiviral treatment patterns of chronic hepatitis B in China. Methods: Patients with chronic HBV infection:demographic, virologic, hematologic, blood biochemistry, and antiviral treatment data were extracted from the China Registry of Hepatitis B (CR-HepB) database between 2012 and 2022 for descriptive statistics and change trend analysis. Multiple group comparisons were conducted using the Kruskal Wallis H test, while counting data was compared between groups using χ (2) test. Results: A total of 180 012 patients with chronic HBV infection were included, with a median age of 40 years old, and a male proportion accounting for 60.2%. The HBeAg positive rate was 43.3%. Over time, the median age of new patients each year increased from 39 to 47 years, while the HBeAg positive rate decreased from 51.3% to 32.8%. The initial diagnosis of patients was mainly CHB (71.4%), followed by hepatitis B cirrhosis (11.8%), inactive HBsAg carrier status (10.6%), and chronic HBV carrier status (6.2%). Among the newly registered patients every year from 2012 to 2022, the proportion of hepatitis B cirrhosis remained stable, but after 2019, the proportion of CHB increased and the proportion of other diagnoses decreased. The proportion of patients with cirrhosis increased with age in different age groups, with 3.5%, 19.3%, and 30.4% in the < 40, 40-69, and≥70 age groups, respectively. The proportion of women in patients with cirrhosis also increased with age, from 16.1% in those < 30 years old to 44.3% in those≥80 years old. From 2012 to 2022, the proportion of patients receiving first-line nucleos(t)ide analog antiviral treatment increased year by year, from 51.0% in 2012-2013 to 99.8% in 2022. Conclusion: The CR-HepB registration data reflect the changes in clinical characteristics and antiviral treatment patterns in patients with chronic HBV infection in China over the past ten years and can thus provide a reference to promote hepatitis B diagnosis and treatment practice, as well as scientific research.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Hepatitis B, Chronic/epidemiology , Hepatitis B e Antigens , Hepatitis B/drug therapy , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis A , Liver Cirrhosis/drug therapy , China/epidemiology , Registries , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , DNA, Viral
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985465

ABSTRACT

This study followed up the immune memory after 3-dose revaccination among infants with non-and low-response following primary hepatitis B (HepB) vaccination. About 120 children without self-booster doses were finally included who had anti-HBs<10 mIU/ml (anti-HBs negative) at the time of follow-up, of whom 86 children completed blood sampling and anti-HBs testing. Before the challenge dose, all 86 children were negative for anti-HBs, and the GMC of anti-HBs was<10 mIU/ml. The seropositive conversion rate of anti-HBs was 100% and the GMC of anti-HBs was 886.11 (95%CI: 678.15-1 157.84) mIU/ml after the challenge dose. Compared with those with GMC<7 mIU/ml before the challenge dose, infants with GMC>7 mIU/ml had a higher anti-HBs level after the challenge dose. The β value (95%CI) was 0.82 (0.18-1.46) (P=0.012). Compared with those with GMC<1 000 mIU/ml at primary vaccination, infants with GMC≥1 000 mIU/ml had a higher anti-HBs level after the challenge dose. The β value (95%CI) was 0.78 (0.18-1.38)(P=0.012). The results showed a stronger immune memory was found at 9 years after revaccination among infants with non-and low-response to HepB.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Infant , Hepatitis B Vaccines , Immunization, Secondary , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Immunologic Memory , Follow-Up Studies , Vaccination , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Hepatitis B Antibodies
8.
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 1242-1248, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008956

ABSTRACT

The infection of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) can result in severe consequences, including chronic hepatitis, liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, and even liver cancer. Effective antiviral treatment has the potential to slow down the progression of the disease. HBV serum biomarkers play a crucial role in the dynamic management of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. However, the conventional hepatitis B virus markers, such as hepatitis B serologic testing and HBV DNA, are insufficient to meet the clinical requirements. This review provided a comprehensive overview of the current research on the quantification of HBsAg and anti-HBc, HBV RNA and HBV core-associated antigen, which summarized the crucial role these markers play in the administration of antiviral medications, predicting the efficacy of treatment and anticipating the likelihood of virologic rebound following drug cessation, as well as assessing disease progression in CHB patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Clinical Relevance , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Hepatitis B Core Antigens/therapeutic use , Biomarkers , Liver Cirrhosis/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/therapeutic use , DNA, Viral/therapeutic use , Hepatitis B e Antigens/therapeutic use , Hepatitis B/drug therapy
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927667

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to investigate whether cytokine profiles and virological markers might add value in monitoring the effects of peginterferon (PEG-IFN) therapy for hepatitis B e-antigen (HBeAg) positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB).@*Methods@#HBeAg positive patients with CHB were treated with PEG-IFN for 48 weeks. Clinical biochemical, and HBV serological indexes, as well as cytokines, were detected at baseline and every 12 weeks.@*Results@#A total of 116 patients with CHB were enrolled in this study; 100 patients completed the 48-week treatment and follow-up, of whom 38 achieved serum HBeAg disappearance, 25 achieved HBeAg seroconversion, 37 showed HBsAg decreases ≥ 1 log 10 IU/mL, 9 showed HBsAg disappearance, and 8 became HBsAb positive. The cytokine levels at baseline and during treatment were similar between the HBeAg disappearance group and non-disappearance group. The disappearance of HBeAg was independently associated with HBeAg levels at weeks 12 and 24, and with the HBeAg decline at week 24 ( P < 0.05). The HBsAg response was independently associated with HBsAg, the HBsAg decline, HBeAg, the HBeAg decline at week 12, and HBsAg at week 24 ( P< 0.05).@*Conclusion@#There was no significant correlation between the response to interferon (IFN) and cytokines during PEG-IFN treatment. The changes in virological markers predicted the response to IFN after 48 weeks.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biomarkers , Cytokines , DNA, Viral , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B e Antigens , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Interferon-alpha/therapeutic use , Polyethylene Glycols/therapeutic use
10.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 571-583, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927536

ABSTRACT

Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a global health burden. Timely and effective antiviral therapy is beneficial for patients with HBV infection. With existing antiviral drugs, including nucleos(t)ide analogs and interferon-alfa, patients can achieve viral suppression with improved prognosis. However, the rate of hepatitis B surface antigen loss is low. To achieve a functional cure and even complete cure in chronic hepatitis B patients, new antivirals need to be developed. In this review, we summarized the advantages and disadvantages of existing antiviral drugs and focused on new antivirals including direct-acting antiviral drugs and immunotherapeutic approaches.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Hepatitis B/drug therapy , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy
11.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 389-394, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935956

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of nucleos(t)ide analogues in the treatment of HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B with normal alanine aminotransferase and high level of HBV DNA. Methods: Treatment-naïve chronic hepatitis B patients who were followed up at the Center of Infectious Diseases, West China Hospital of Sichuan University from January 2019 to January 2020 were selected as subjects. Demographic characteristics, the results of laboratory examination before treatment and one year after treatment were retrospectively collected. Patients were divided into tenofovir dipivoxil (TDF) and propofol fumurate tenofovir (TAF) treatment group according to different types of medication. The changes of serum HBV DNA level, HBeAg serological conversion and HBsAg quantitative level were analyzed and compared between the two groups. Results: A total of 38 cases were enrolled. Among them, there were 16 and 22 cases in the TDF and TAF group, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in demographic characteristics, baseline HBV DNA levels and HBsAg quantitative levels between the two groups. Virological response was achieved in 60.5% (23/38) of patients after one year of antiviral therapy. Serum HBV DNA levels below the lower limit of detection [68.2% (15/22) vs. 50.0% (8/16), P=0.258] and higher HBeAg seroconversion rate [18.2%] (4/22) vs. 6.3% (1/16), P=0.374] was obtained in TAF than TDF group; however, there was no statistically significant differences between the two. Serum HBsAg quantitative level was significantly reduced with TDF and TAF treatment. In addition, alanine aminotransferase elevation was reduced in TAF than TDF treated group. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that patient age was an independent predictor of a virological response to antiviral therapy. Conclusion: HBeAg-positive CHB patients with normal alanine aminotransferase, and high HBV DNA level can obtain better curative effect after TDF and TAF treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alanine Transaminase , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , DNA, Viral , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B e Antigens , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Retrospective Studies , Tenofovir/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
12.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 316-322, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935944

ABSTRACT

Objective: To dynamically observe the clinical efficacy of entecavir and the changes of PD-1+CXCR5+CD4+T lymphocytes and sPD-1 levels in peripheral blood of HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B virus carriers treated with entecavir, and further explore its clinical significance. Methods: There were 31 cases of chronic hepatitis B virus carriers in the treatment group (A), 32 cases of chronic hepatitis B virus carriers in the treatment group (B), and 15 cases of chronic hepatitis B virus carriers in the non-treatment group (C).Three groups peripheral blood samples and clinical data at 0, 24 and 48 weeks were collected and compared. PD-1+CXCR5+CD4+T lymphocytes were detected by flow cytometry, and the level of sPD-1 was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. ANOVA and Spearman correlation analysis were performed on the measurement data among the three groups. Results: At week 0, the serum levels of HBsAg, HBeAg and HBV DNA were significantly higher in groups A and C than group B. PD-1+CXCR5+CD4+T lymphocytes in peripheral blood were significantly higher in group B (4.70%±1.58%) than group A (3.25%±1.01%) and group C (2.77%±0.67%) (F=16.65, P<0.05). There was no significant difference between group A and group C (P>0.05). Peripheral blood sPD-1 in group B [(1 866.62±1 472.70) pg/ml] was significantly higher than group A [(824.86±538.66) pg/ml] and group C [(618.19±602.62) pg/ml] (F=10.95, P<0.05). There was no significant difference between group A and group C (P>0.05). At 48 weeks, the serum HBsAg did not decrease significantly in groups A and C than baseline (P>0.05), but were significantly higher than group B (P<0.05). Serum HBeAg levels were decreased significantly in groups A and B than baseline (P<0.05). <0.05), but group A was significantly higher than group B (P<0.05), and there was no significant difference between group A and group C (P>0.05). Serum HBV DNA level was significantly lower in groups A and B than group C (P<0.05), and there was no significant difference between group A and group B (P>0.05). Peripheral blood PD-1+CXCR5+CD4+T lymphocytes were significantly lower in Group A (1.56%±0.73%) and group B (1.32%±0.43%) than group C (2.64%±0.85%) (P<0.05). Peripheral blood sPD-1 were significantly lower in group A [(289.05±215.86) pg/ml] and group B [(236.01±173.92) pg/ml] than group C [(650.34±598.46) pg/ml] (P<0.05). There was no significant difference between group A and group B. Correlation analysis results: In group A at 48 weeks, the decreased level of PD-1+CXCR5+CD4+T lymphocyte ratio had no correlation with the decreased level of HBsAg and HBV DNA, but was positively correlated with the decreased level of HBeAg (r=0.376, P<0.05). The decreased level of sPD-1 had no correlation with the changes of HBsAg, but was positively correlated with the decreased levels of HBeAg and HBV DNA (r=0.598 and 0.384, P<0.05). In group B at 48 weeks, the decreased levels of PD-1+CXCR5+CD4+T lymphocytes and sPD-1 were positively correlated with the decreased levels of HBsAg, HBeAg, and HBV DNA (P<0.05). Conclusion: Hepatitis B virus replication and expressions in HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B virus carriers were significantly inhibited after 48 weeks of antiviral treatment, which is related not only to entecavir treatment, but also to the immunological mechanism involved in sPD-1. Moreover, the inhibition of HBeAg expression is associated with a decrease in the number and/or activity of PD-1+CXCR5+CD4+T lymphocytes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , DNA, Viral , Guanine/analogs & derivatives , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B e Antigens , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor , Receptors, CXCR5/analysis , T-Lymphocytes
13.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 52-56, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935907

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the role of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with prior hepatitis B virus infection (HBsAg-negative and anti-HBC-positive). Methods: 1605 hospitalized patients who were first diagnosed with HCC at Nanfang Hospital between 2015 to 2017 were retrospectively studied. Patients who developed HCC on the basis of active HBV infection (HBsAg-positive, anti-HBc positive) were used as control. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to analyze the relationship between NAFLD and HCC in patients with prior hepatitis B virus infection. Results: Among HCC patients with both HBsAg and anti-HCV negative, the proportion of prior HBV infection accounted for 86.7%. NAFLD prevalence was higher in patients with HCC based on prior HBV infection than active HBV infection (19.7% vs. 8.5%, P < 0.001). After adjusting for gender, age, hypertension, alanine aminotransferase, and liver cirrhosis, patients with HCC based on prior HBV infection were more likely to develop NAFLD (OR: 2.29, 95% CI: 1.40-3.74), and this phenomenon was observed only in patients with non-cirrhosis (OR: 5.26, 95% CI: 2.53-10.96) and aged≥50 years (OR: 2.36, 95% CI: 1.33-4.20). Conclusion: NAFLD may be a risk factor for HCC in a previously infected patients with HBV, especially in non-cirrhotic and population aged≥50 years.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/epidemiology , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B virus , Liver Neoplasms/epidemiology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
14.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 728-733, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935451

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the type, length, and CG loci of HBV DNA CpG islands in HBsAg positive maternal C genotype and its relationship with intrauterine HBV transmission, so as to provide a new perspective for the study of intrauterine transmission of HBV. Methods: From June 2011 to July 2013, HBsAg-positive mothers and their newborns who delivered in the obstetrics and gynecology department of the Third People's Hospital of Taiyuan were collected. Epidemiological data were collected through face-to-face questionnaires and electronic medical records. Serum HBV markers and serum HBV DNA were detected by electrochemiluminescence and quantitative fluorescence PCR, respectively. Intrauterine transmission of HBV was determined by positive HBsAg and/or HBV DNA in femoral venous blood before injection of HBV vaccine/Hepatitis B immunoglobulin within 24 h of birth. A total of 22 mothers and their newborns with HBV DNA load ≥106 IU/ml in intrauterine transmission were selected as the intrauterine transmission group, and 22 mothers with HBV DNA load ≥106 IU/ml without intrauterine transmission were chosen as the control group by random seed method. The distribution prediction of CpG islands of HBV DNA in 39 mothers with genotype C by HBV DNA sequencing was analyzed. Results: Among 39 mothers with HBV C genotype, 19 were in the intrauterine transmission group, and 20 were in the control group. The HBV DNA of 39 patients with genotype C traditional CpG island Ⅱ and Ⅲ, while the control group had traditional CpG island Ⅰ and novel CpG island Ⅳ and Ⅴ. The length of CpG island Ⅱ and Ⅲ and the number of CG loci of CpG island Ⅱ in the intrauterine transmission group differed from those in the control group (P<0.05). The CpG island Ⅱ length ≥518 bp and the number of CG loci ≥40 in the intrauterine transmission group (11/19) were significantly higher than those in the control group (2/20) (P<0.05). The length of CpG island Ⅱ and the number of CG loci in the X gene promoter region (Xp region) were higher than those in the control group (P<0.05). In the HBV intrauterine transmission group, most of maternal (12/19) HBV DNA CpG island Ⅱ completely covered the Xp region, which was significantly higher than that in the control group (5/20), and the number of HBV DNA Xp region CG loci was higher than that in the control group (P<0.05). Conclusions: The distribution of maternal C genotype HBV DNA CpG islands is related to intrauterine transmission. The length of CpG island Ⅱ and the number of CG sites may increase the risk of intrauterine transmission of HBV.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Biomarkers , CpG Islands , DNA, Viral/genetics , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Mothers , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious
15.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 696-701, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935446

ABSTRACT

Objective: To study the non/hypo-response to hepatitis B vaccination in HIV-infected patients, identify the influencing factors and provide evidence for the development of hepatitis B prevention and control strategies and measures for special population. Methods: On the basis of the randomized controlled trial of 20 µg hepatitis B vaccine immunization at 0-1-6 month, 0-1-2-6 month and 60 µg hepatitis B vaccine immunization at 0-1-2-6 month, the HIV-infected patients who completed one-month follow-up after the full course vaccination were selected as study subjects. Quantification of antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) in serum samples was performed by using chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA) and demographic characteristics, disease history, HIV infection and treatment status of the study subjects were collected. Statistical analysis was conducted by χ2 test, t test, unconditional logistic regression and interaction analyses. Results: The non/hypo-response rates to hepatitis B vaccination were 34.65% (35/101), 24.49% (24/98) and 10.99% (10/91) in 20 µg group at 0-1-6 month or 0-1-2-6 month and 60 µg group at 0-1-2-6 month (P<0.001), respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that after controlling for confounding factors, the risk for non/hypo-response was 0.22 times higher in HIV-infected patients receiving 60 µg hepatitis B vaccine at 0-1-2-6 month than in patients receiving 20 µg hepatitis B vaccine at 0-1-6 month (95%CI: 0.10-0.50), the risk for non/hypo-response was higher in men than in women (OR=3.65, 95%CI: 1.88-7.07), and the risk for non/hypo-response was 2.64 times higher in those without hepatitis B vaccination history than in those with hepatitis B vaccination history (95%CI: 1.10-6.32). Moreover, there were multiplicative interactions between immunization schedule and gender (OR=2.49, 95%CI: 1.24-5.00). Conclusion: The non/hypo-response rate to hepatitis B vaccination was significantly lower in HIV-infected patients receiving 60 µg hepatitis B vaccine at 0-1-2-6 month than in those receiving 20 µg hepatitis B vaccine at 0-1-6 month and 0-1-2-6 month. Gender, vaccination schedule and history of hepatitis B vaccination were the influencing factors of the non/hypo-response to hepatitis B vaccination. There was a multiplicative interaction between vaccination schedule and gender, and men receiving 20 µg hepatitis B vaccines had a higher risk for non/hypo-response to hepatitis B vaccination.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Follow-Up Studies , HIV Infections/immunology , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Hepatitis B Antibodies , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B Vaccines/administration & dosage , Immunization Schedule
16.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 560-565, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935427

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the effect and mechanism of activation of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) Toll-like receptor (TLR3) signaling pathway in recombinant HBsAg (rHBsAg) immune response. Methods: White blood cells were collected from peripheral blood of 13 healthy donors in the preparation of blood products. PBMC was isolated and treated with Poly I:C (Poly I:C group) and PBS (control group) respectively. 48 h later, some cells were collected and the expressions of TLR3 signaling pathway proteins were detected by flow cytometry. After activating (Poly I:C group)/inactivating (control group) TLR3 signaling pathway, rHBsAg was given to both groups for 72 h, and the proportions of DC, T, B cells and their subsets in PBMC were detected by flow cytometry. Paired t-test, paired samples wilcoxon signed-rank test and canonical correlation analyses were used for statistical analysis. Results: The percentage of TLR3 protein-positive cells (19.21%) and protein expression (8 983.95), NF-κB protein expression (26 193.13), the percentage of pNF-κB protein-positive cells (13.73%) and its proportion in NF-κB (16.03%), and the percentage of pIRF3 protein-positive cells (12.64%) and its proportion in IRF3 (21.80%) in Poly I:C group were higher than those in control group (11.54%, 8 086.00, 22 340.66, 8.72%, 9.71%, 9.57%, 19.12%) (P<0.05), and the percentage of TRIF protein-positive cells (89.75%) and protein expression (304 219.54) were higher in Poly I:C group than in the control group (89.64%, 288 149.72) (P>0.05). After PBMC stimulation by rHBsAg, the proportions of mDC (2.90%), pDC (1.80%), B cell (5.31%) and plasma cell (67.71%) in Poly I:C group were significantly higher than those in the control group (1.83%, 0.81%, 4.23%, 58.82%) (P<0.05). Results of canonical correlation analysis showed that the expression of TLR3 protein was positively correlated with the proportions of plasma cells, the expression of pIRF3 protein was positively correlated with the proportions of plasma cells and mDC, and the percentage of pNF-κB protein-positive cells and the percentage of pIRF3 protein-positive cells were positively correlated with the proportion of CD4+T cells. Conclusions: Poly I:C can activate TLR3/TRIF/NF-κB and TLR3/TRIF/IRF3 signaling pathway, promote the function of downstream signaling molecules, and then promote the maturation of DC, induce the immune responses of CD4+T cell, and promote the maturation and activation of B cells and the immune response of rHBsAg.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport/pharmacology , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Immunity , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , NF-kappa B , Poly I-C/pharmacology , Signal Transduction , Toll-Like Receptor 3/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptors
17.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 241-247, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935377

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the immunogenicity and influencing factors of hepatitis B vaccination based on different vaccination schedules among chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Methods: CKD patients who participated in randomized controlled trials in four hospitals in Shanxi province and completed three doses of 20 µg vaccination (at months 0, 1 and 6) and four doses of 20 µg or 60 µg vaccination (at months 0, 1, 2, and 6) were surveyed from May 2019 to July 2020.According to the ratio of 1∶1∶1, 273 CKD patients were divided into 3 groups randomly. Quantification of the anti-hepatitis B surface antigen-antibody (anti-HBs) in serum samples was performed using chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay at months 1 and 6 after the entire course of the vaccinations. The positive rate, high-level positive rate, geometric mean concentration (GMC) of anti-HBs, and the influencing factors were analyzed by χ2 tests, analysis of variance, unconditional logistic regression analysis. Results: A total of 273 CKD patitents were participants.The positive rates in the CKD patients with four doses of 20 µg vaccination (92.96%,66/71) or 60 µg vaccination (93.15%, 68/73) were higher than that in the CKD patients with three doses of 20 µg vaccination (81.69%, 58/71) at month one after the full course of the vaccinations (P<0.05). The GMCs of anti-HBs showed similar results (2 091.11 mIU/ml and 2 441.50 mIU/ml vs. 1 675.21 mIU/ml) (P<0.05). The positive rate was higher in the CKD patients with four doses of 60 µg vaccination (94.83%,55/58) than in those with three doses of 20 µg vaccination (78.79%,52/66) (P<0.05) at month six after the full course of the vaccinations. And the GMC of anti-HBs in the patients with four doses of 60 µg vaccination (824.28 mIU/ml) was significantly higher than those in the patients with 3 or 4 doses of 20 µg vaccination (639.74 mIU/ml and 755.53 mIU/ml) (P<0.05). After controlling the confounding factors, the positive rate in the CKD patients with four doses of 60 µg vaccination were 3.19 (95%CI: 1.02-9.96) and 5.32 (95%CI: 1.27-22.19) times higher than those in the patients with three doses of 20 µg vaccination at months 1 and 6 after the full course of the vaccinations, respectively. The positive rate in CKD patients without immune suppression or hormone therapy was 3.33 (95%CI: 1.26-8.80) and 4.78 (95%CI: 1.47-15.57) times higher than those in the patients with such therapy, respectively. Conclusions: Four doses of 20 µg or 60 µg hepatitis B vaccination could improve the immunogenicity in patients with CKD. And four doses of 60 µg vaccination might play a positive role in maintaining anti-HBs in this population. The immunogenicity in the CKD patients with immune suppression or hormone therapy was poor.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cricetinae , Humans , CHO Cells , Cricetulus , Follow-Up Studies , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Hepatitis B Antibodies , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B Vaccines , Immunization, Secondary , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Vaccination
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935354

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the influencing factors of HBV intrauterine transmission and their interaction effects by integrating logistic regression model and Chi-squared automatic interaction detector (CHAID) decision tree model. Methods: A total of 689 pairs of HBsAg-positive mothers and their neonates in the obstetrics department of the Third People's Hospital of Taiyuan from 2007 to 2013 were enrolled, and the basic information of mothers and their neonates were obtained by questionnaire survey and medical record review, such as the general demographic characteristics, gestational week and delivery mode. HBV DNA and HBV serological markers of the mothers and newborns were detected by fluorescence quantitative PCR and electrochemiluminescence immunoassay respectively. The CHAID decision tree model and unconditional logistic regression analysis were used to explore the factors influencing HBV intrauterine transmission in neonates of HBsAg-positive mothers. Results: Among the 689 neonates, the incidence of HBV intrauterine transmission was 11.47% (79/689). After adjusted for confounding factors, the first and second logistic multivariate analysis showed that cesarean delivery was a protective factor for HBV intrauterine transmission (OR=0.25, 95%CI: 0.14-0.43; OR=0.27, 95%CI: 0.15-0.46); both models indicated that maternal HBeAg positivity and HBV DNA load ≥2×105 IU/ml before delivery were risk factors of HBV intrauterine transmission (OR=3.89, 95%CI: 2.32-6.51; OR=3.48, 95%CI: 2.12-5.71), respectively. The CHAID decision tree model screened three significant factors influencing HBV intrauterine transmission, the most significant one was maternal HBeAg status, followed by delivery mode and maternal HBV DNA load. There were interactions between maternal HBeAg status and delivery modes, as well as delivery mode and maternal HBV DNA load before delivery. The rate of HBV intrauterine transmission in newborns of HBeAg-positive mothers by vaginal delivery increased from 19.08% to 29.37%; among HBeAg-positive mothers with HBV DNA ≥2×105 IU/ml, the rate of HBV intrauterine transmission increased to 33.33% in the newborns by vaginal delivery. Conclusions: Maternal HBeAg positivity,maternal HBV DNA ≥2×105 IU/ml and vaginal delivery could be risk factors for HBV intrauterine transmission in newborns. Interaction effects were found between maternal HBeAg positivity and vaginal delivery, as well as vaginal delivery and high maternal HBV DNA load. Logistic regression model and the CHAID decision tree model can be used in conjunction to identify the high-risk populations and develop preventive strategies accurately.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , DNA, Viral/genetics , Decision Trees , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B e Antigens , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Logistic Models , Mothers , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology
19.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 347-353, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935219

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the influence of HBsAg expression in peritumoral tissue of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients on their postoperative recurrence. Methods: The HCC patients treated in Shanghai Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital from October 2009 to August 2010 were selected. The clinicopathological data and adjacent tissues of 718 patients were collected, and dextran polymer immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the expression of HBsAg in adjacent tissues. According to the expression of HBsAg in adjacent tissues, the tissues were divided into HBsAg positive group and HBsAg negative group. Kaplan-Meier method and Log rank test were used for survival analysis, and Cox regression model was used for multivariate analysis. Results: Among the 718 patients in the whole group, 153 were HBsAg negative and 565 were HBsAg positive. There was a statistically significant difference in serum HBV DNA level between HBsAg-positive and HBsAg-negative patients (P<0.001). The number of patients with serum DNA≥2 000 IU/ml and<2 000 IU/ml in HBsAg negative group were 52 and 93, while the patients in HBsAg positive group were 325 and 205. The cumulative recurrence rates of all patients at 1, 3, and 5 years after surgery were 30.2%, 54.3%, and 62.7%, respectively. The expression of HBsAg was related to the recurrence (P=0.038). Multivariate analysis showed that γ-GT, PT, multiple tumors, tumor length, and portal vein invasion were independent risk factors for recurrence of HCC (P<0.05). In HBeAg-negative patients with low viral load (HBV DNA <2 000 IU/ml) and without cirrhosis, the recurrence rates of HBsAg-positive patients were 14.3% and 31.0% at 3 and 5 years, respectively, compared with HBsAg negative patients (all 0), the difference was statistically significant (P=0.021). Conclusion: The positive expression of HBsAg in peritumoral tissue increases the postoperative recurrence risk of HCC patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , China , DNA, Viral/analysis , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B virus/metabolism , Liver Neoplasms/pathology
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928704

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the risk of reentry in HBV reactive blood donors and feasibility of HBV reentry strategy.@*METHODS@#HBsAg+ or HBV DNA+ donors who had been quarantined for more than 6 months in Jiangsu Province could propose for reentry application. Blood samples were routinely screened by dual-ELISA for HBsAg, anti-HCV, HIV Ab/Ag, and anti- Treponema pallidum and those non-reactive ones were tested by minipool nucleic acid testing (NAT) for three times. To identify occult HBV donors, samples of NAT non-reactive were further tested by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) for HBV seromarkers (including HBsAg, HBsAb, HBeAg, HBeAb, and HBcAb). Donors of only 4 ECLIA patterns were accepted to reentry, including all 5 HBV seromarkers negative, anti-HBs only but having history of hepatitis B vaccine injection, HBcAb only, HBsAb+ / HBcAb+ with HBsAb more than 200 IU/L. Additionally, the detection rate of HBV infection was compared between routine screening mode and ECLIA, as well as the reentry qualified rate of HBsAg+ and HBV DNA+ blood donors.@*RESULTS@#From Oct. 2016 to Aug. 2019, a total of 737 HBV reactive donors had applied for reentry, including 667 HBsAg+ reactive and 70 HBV DNA+ reactive donors. Among 3 screening methods, the highest HBV detection rate (43.15%, 318/737) was observed on ECLIA, while only 4.75% (35/737) on ELISA and 3.12% (23/737) on NAT, respectively. Among 4 qualified patterns of HBV serological markers, the highest proportion was found in the all negative group (22.90%, 155/677), followed by the group with HBsAb+ only and history of hepatitis B vaccine injection (19.35%, 131/677), and the median concentration of HBsAb was 237.7 IU/L. The unqualified rate of HBV DNA+ donors was 82.86%, which was significantly higher than 47.98% of HBsAg+ donors.@*CONCLUSION@#Routine screening tests merely based on ELISA and NAT could miss occult HBV donors and may not be sufficient for blood safety. HBsAb concentration and vaccine injection history should be included in the evaluation of HBV reactive donors who intend to apply for reentry. There is a relatively larger residual risk of occult HBV infection in blood donors quarantined for HBV DNA reactive.


Subject(s)
Humans , Blood Donors , DNA, Viral , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B virus/genetics
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