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Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 181-189, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007654


BACKGROUND@#Liver cancer is largely resistant to chemotherapy. This study aimed to identify the effective chemotherapeutics for β-catenin-activated liver cancer which is caused by gain-of-function mutation of catenin beta 1 ( CTNNB1 ), the most frequently altered proto-oncogene in hepatic neoplasms.@*METHODS@#Constitutive β-catenin-activated mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) were established by deleting exon 3 ( β-catenin Δ(ex3)/+ ), the most common mutation site in CTNNB1 gene. A screening of 12 widely used chemotherapy drugs was conducted for the ones that selectively inhibited β-catenin Δ(ex3)/+ but not for wild-type MEFs. Untargeted metabolomics was carried out to examine the alterations of metabolites in nucleotide synthesis. The efficacy and selectivity of methotrexate (MTX) on β-catenin-activated human liver cancer cells were determined in vitro . Immuno-deficient nude mice subcutaneously inoculated with β-catenin wild-type or mutant liver cancer cells and hepatitis B virus ( HBV ); β-catenin lox(ex3)/+ mice were used, respectively, to evaluate the efficacy of MTX in the treatment of β-catenin mutant liver cancer.@*RESULTS@#MTX was identified and validated as a preferential agent against the proliferation and tumor formation of β-catenin-activated cells. Boosted nucleotide synthesis was the major metabolic aberration in β-catenin-active cells, and this alteration was also the target of MTX. Moreover, MTX abrogated hepatocarcinogenesis of HBV ; β-catenin lox(ex3)/+ mice, which stimulated concurrent Ctnnb1- activated mutation and HBV infection in liver cancer.@*CONCLUSION@#MTX is a promising chemotherapeutic agent for β-catenin hyperactive liver cancer. Since repurposing MTX has the advantages of lower risk, shorter timelines, and less investment in drug discovery and development, a clinical trial is warranted to test its efficacy in the treatment of β-catenin mutant liver cancer.

Mice , Animals , Humans , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , Mice, Nude , beta Catenin/metabolism , Fibroblasts/metabolism , Liver Neoplasms/metabolism , Hepatitis B virus , Nucleotides
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 24: e20230091, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1529390


Abstract Objectives: to analyze the trend and spatial distribution of hepatitis B in pregnant women in Brazil. Methods: ecological study based on all notified cases of hepatitis B in pregnant women through the Information System for Notifiable Diseases - Sinan between 2009 and 2018. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) detection rates were calculated in all municipalities. Spatial analysis was performed using the Global Moran Index for global data and local indicators of spatial association (Lisa) for the 5,570 municipalities. For trend analysis by State, the Prais-Winsten generalized linear regression model was used. Results: 15,253 pregnant women with HBV were reported. High detection rates were observed in the municipalities of São Miguel da Boa Vista-SC (68.96/1000 live births (LB)), Araguaiana-MT (68.18/1000 LB), Reserva do Cabaçal-MT (80, 00/1,000 LB), São Geraldo da Piedade-MG (75/1000 LB), Porto Mauá-RS (111, 11/1000 LB), in the respective bienniums. Moran (I) (I=0.056) showed a positive spatial association. In Lisa, 78 municipalities were included in the high-high cluster, 51.28% in the South region and 48 in the low-low cluster with 72.91% in the Southeast. There was an increasing trend in Maranhão (p=0.004) and Pernambuco (p=0.007) and a decrease in Mato Grosso (p=0.012), Paraná (p=0.031) and Santa Catarina (p=0.008). Conclusion: the detection of hepatitis B in pregnant women was observed in most Brazilian municipalities, with an increasing trend in two states and a decrease in three others.

Resumo Objetivos: analisar a tendência e distribuição espacial da hepatite B em gestantes no Brasil. Métodos: estudo ecológico a partir de todos os casos notificados de hepatite B em gestantes pelo Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação - Sinan entre 2009 e 2018. Foram calculadas as taxas de detecção do vírus da hepatite B (HBV) em todos os municípios. A análise espacial foi realizada por meio do Índice Global de Moran para os dados globais e os indicadores locais de associação espacial (Lisa) para os 5.570 municípios. Para análise de tendências por Estado, utilizou-se o modelo de regressão linear generalizada de Prais-Winsten. Resultados: foram notificadas 15.253 gestantes com HBV. Observou-se altas taxas de detecção nos municípios de São Miguel da Boa Vista-SC (68,96/1000 Nascidos vivos (NV)), Araguaiana-MT (68,18/1000 NV), Reserva do Cabaçal-MT(80,00/1.000 NV), São Geraldo da Piedade-MG (75/1000 NV), Porto Mauá-RS (111,11/1000 NV), nos respectivos biênios. Moran (I) (I=0,056) apresentou associação espacial positiva. No Lisa observou-se 78 municípios inserido no cluster alto-alto, sendo 51,28%na região Sul e 48 no cluster baixo-baixo com 72,91% no Sudeste. Verificou-se tendência crescente no Maranhão (p=0,004) e Pernambuco (p=0,007) e diminuição no Mato Grosso (p=0,012), Paraná (p=0,031) e Santa Catarina (p=0,008). Conclusão: Observou-se a detecção de hepatite B em gestantes na maioria dos municípios brasileiros, com tendência crescente em dois estados e diminuição em outros três.

Female , Pregnancy , Demography , Hepatitis B virus , Pregnant Women , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Disease Notification , Ecological Studies
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 83: e0003, 2024. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1529931


RESUMO Objetivo: Identificar o perfil dos doadores de tecidos oculares humanos na área de atuação do Banco de Olhos da Paraíba, destacando o impacto da sorologia positiva para hepatite B no descarte dos tecidos para transplante. Métodos: O estudo é transversal e utilizou dados do Banco de Olhos da Paraíba entre janeiro de 2013 e dezembro de 2022. Dados sobre procedência, idade, sexo, causa do óbito, tempo entre óbito e enucleação, resultados sorológicos e motivo de descarte das córneas dos doadores foram coletados. Resultados: O maior motivo de descarte foi por sorologia positiva (56,5%), sendo positivadas as sorologias positivas para hepatite B e HBsAg em 11,1% e 4,75% dos pacientes, respectivamente. Conclusão: A sorologia positiva para hepatite B como um critério de descarte absoluto é responsável por grande parcela de descartes, apesar da pouca informação sobre suas repercussões e representação de infectividade nos receptores do transplante.

ABSTRACT Objective: To identify the profile of human ocular tissue donors in the area covered by the Eye Bank of Paraíba (PB), highlighting the impact of positive serology for hepatitis B (anti-HBc) in the disposal of tissues for transplantation. Methods: This is a cross-sectional that uses data from the Eye Bank of Paraíba (PB) between January 2013 and December 2022. Data on origin, age, sex, cause of death, time between death and enucleation, serological results, and reason for discarded donor corneas were collected. Results: The main reason for discarding was due to positive serology (56.5%), with positive anti-HBc and HBsAg serology in 11.1% and 4.75% of patients, respectively. Conclusion: Anti-HBc positive serology as an absolute disposal criterion is responsible for great part of disposals, despite little information about its repercussions and representation of infectivity in transplant recipients.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Tissue Donors/statistics & numerical data , Corneal Transplantation/standards , Corneal Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Donor Selection/standards , Eye Banks/standards , Hepatitis B Antibodies/analysis , Serologic Tests/standards , Hepatitis B virus , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Disease Transmission, Infectious/legislation & jurisprudence , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Disease Transmission, Infectious/statistics & numerical data , Eye Banks/statistics & numerical data , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Hepatitis B/transmission , Hepatitis B Core Antigens/analysis
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 31: e3765, Jan.-Dec. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1424037


Abstract Objective: to identify the vaccination and serological status against hepatitis B among community health workers; to vaccinate against hepatitis B virus and to evaluate the immune response of susceptible workers. Method: phase I, cross-sectional and descriptive study, among community health workers in a capital city of the Midwest region, through a self-administered questionnaire, checking of vaccination cards, and blood collection for testing of serological markers for hepatitis B. Phase II, cohort study carried out in vaccinated non-immune workers identified in phase I. They received one dose of vaccine (challenge dose) and serological testing. Results: a total of 109 workers participated in the study. Most had vaccination record (97; 89.0%) and vaccination completeness (75; 77.3%), while the isolated anti-HBs (Antibodies against hepatitis B virus) marker was detected in 78 (71.6%) workers. The prevalence of hepatitis B virus exposure was 8.2%. Of the ten non-immune vaccinated workers, after challenge dose, one remained susceptible. Conclusion: although most workers are vaccinated and show immunological response to hepatitis B, susceptibility after challenge dose was identified. Therefore, it is necessary to have a surveillance program of the vaccination situation and serological status for this virus, to promote these workers' safety.

Resumo Objetivo: identificar a situação vacinal e sorológica contra hepatite B entre agentes comunitários de saúde; vacinar contra o vírus da hepatite B e avaliar a resposta imunológica dos agentes susceptíveis. Método: fase I, estudo transversal e descritivo, entre agentes comunitários de saúde de uma capital da região Centro-oeste, por meio de questionário autoaplicável, conferência do cartão vacinal e coleta de sangue para testagem dos marcadores sorológicos para hepatite B. Fase II, estudo de coorte realizado em trabalhadores vacinados não imunes e identificados na fase I. Estes receberam uma dose da vacina (dose desafio) e teste sorológico. Resultados: participaram do estudo 109 agentes. A maioria tinha registro de vacinação (97; 89,0%) e completude vacinal (75; 77,3%), já o marcador anti-HBs (anticorpos contra o vírus da hepatite B) isolado foi detectado em 78 (71,6%) agentes. A prevalência de exposição ao vírus da hepatite B foi de 8,2%. Dos dez agentes vacinados não imunes, após a dose desafio, um permaneceu susceptível. Conclusão: apesar da maioria dos trabalhadores estarem vacinados e apresentarem resposta imunológica para hepatite B, a suscetibilidade após a dose desafio foi identificada. Portanto, é necessário que haja um programa de vigilância da situação vacinal e estado sorológico para este vírus, para promover a segurança destes trabalhadores.

Resumen Objetivo: identificar la situación de la vacunación y serología contra la hepatitis B entre agentes comunitarios de la salud, vacunar contra el virus de la hepatitis B y evaluar la respuesta inmunológica de los agentes susceptibles. Método: fase I, estudio transversal y descriptivo, entre agentes comunitarios de la salud de una capital de la región centro oeste, por medio de cuestionario autoadministrado, verificación del carné de vacunación y extracción de sangre para comprobar los marcadores serológicos para la hepatitis B. Fase II, estudio de cohorte realizado en trabajadores vacunados no inmunes e identificados en la Fase I; estos recibieron una dosis de la vacuna (dosis de desafío) y realizaron el test serológico. Resultados: participaron del estudio 109 agentes. La mayoría tenía registro de vacunación (97; 89,0%) y de cobertura de vacunación (75; 77,3%); el marcador anti-HBs (Anticuerpos contra el virus de la hepatitis B) aislado fue detectado en 78 (71,6%) de los agentes. La prevalencia de exposición al virus de la hepatitis B fue de 8,2%. De los diez agentes vacunados no inmunes, después de la dosis desafío, uno permaneció susceptible. Conclusión: a pesar de que la mayoría de los trabajadores estaban vacunados y presentaron respuesta inmunológica para la hepatitis B, la susceptibilidad, después de la dosis desafío, fue identificada. Por tanto, es necesario que exista un programa de vigilancia de la situación de vacunación y estado serológico para este virus, para promover la seguridad de estos trabajadores.

Humans , Hepatitis B virus , Occupational Exposure , Occupational Health , Community Health Workers , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Hepatitis B Antibodies
Enferm. foco (Brasília) ; 14: 1-7, mar. 20, 2023. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1433708


Objetivo: A pesquisa visa determinar o perfil bioquímico e sorológico das hepatites B e C em internos de um centro de recuperação, Ananindeua, Pará, Brasil. Métodos: Estudo transversal, descritivo e quantitativo, desenvolvido entre 2015 e 2018. Os dados foram coletados com o uso de Ficha de Inquérito e entrevista. Os participantes foram submetidos à coleta de sangue para realização de testes sorológicos para as hepatites virais B e C e bioquímicos. Resultados: Participaram 125 internos, com frequência de 97,6% para o sexo masculino, prevalecendo a faixa etária de 31 a 40 anos (38,4%). Os marcadores bioquímicos que mais sofreram alterações: ácido úrico, alanina aminotransferase e lipoproteína de alta densidade. O HBsAg não foi detectado, porém houve detecção de anti-HBc total reagente isolado em 1,6% dos indivíduos. Em 20,8% pode-se observar resposta vacinal contra o vírus da hepatite B. A pesquisa detectou prevalência de 3,2% de anti-VHC reagente. Conclusão: É baixa prevalência da infecção pelos vírus das hepatites B e C, apesar dessa população ser considerada de elevado risco para a transmissão desses vírus, os examinados na sua maioria referiu utilizar apenas drogas inaláveis. A baixa cobertura vacinal encontrada entre os examinados demonstrou a vulnerabilidade em adquirir a hepatite B e a importância de estudos entre usuários de drogas no Pará. (AU)

Objective: The research aims to determine the biochemical and serological profile of hepatitis B and C in inmates of a recovery center, Ananindeua, Pará, Brazil. Methods: Cross-sectional, descriptive and quantitative study, developed between 2015 and 2018. Data were collected using an Inquiry Form and an interview. Participants underwent blood collection to perform serological tests for viral hepatitis B and C and biochemicals. Results: 125 inmates participated, with a frequency of 97.6% for males, with the age group of 31 to 40 years old prevailing (38.4%). The biochemical markers that suffered the most changes: uric acid, Alanine aminotransferase and High density lipoprotein. HBsAg was not detected, but total anti-HBc reagent isolated was detected in 1.6% of individuals. In 20.8%, a vaccine response against the hepatitis B virus can be observed. The survey found a 3.2% prevalence of anti-HCV reagent. Conclusion: The prevalence of infection by the hepatitis B and C viruses is low, although this population is considered to be at high risk for the transmission of these viruses, the majority of those examined reported using only inhalable drugs. The low vaccination coverage found among those examined demonstrated the vulnerability to acquire hepatitis B and the importance of studies among drug users in Pará. (AU)

Objetivo: La investigación tiene como objetivo determinar el perfil bioquímico y serológico de la hepatitis B y C en los reclusos de un centro de recuperación, Ananindeua, Pará, Brasil. Métodos: Estudio transversal, descriptivo y cuantitativo, desarrollado entre 2015 y 2018. Los datos se recopilaron mediante el Formulario de encuesta y la entrevista. Los participantes se sometieron a extracción de sangre para pruebas serológicas de hepatitis viral B y C y bioquímicos. Resultados: Participaron 125 reclusos, con una frecuencia del 97,6% para los hombres, prevaleciendo el grupo de edad de 31 a 40 años (38,4%). Los marcadores bioquímicos que sufrieron más cambios: ácido úrico, Alanina aminotransferasa y Lipoproteínas de alta densidad. No se detectó HBsAg, pero se detectó el reactivo anti-HBc total aislado en el 1,6% de los individuos. En 20.8%, se puede observar una respuesta de vacuna contra el virus de la hepatitis B. La encuesta encontró una prevalencia del 3.2% Del reactivo anti-VHC. Conclusiones: La prevalencia de infección por los virus de la hepatitis B y C es baja, aunque se considera que esta población tiene un alto riesgo de transmisión de estos virus, la mayoría de los examinados informaron que usaban solo medicamentos inhalables. La baja cobertura de vacunación encontrada entre los examinados demostró la vulnerabilidad a contraer hepatitis B y la importancia de los estudios entre usuarios de drogas en Pará. (AU)

Drug Users , Hepatitis B virus , Hepacivirus , Vaccination Coverage
South Sudan med. j. (Online) ; 16(3): 87-92, 2023. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1452131


Introduction: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major public health problem affecting 400 million people worldwide, and is a common cause of chronic liver failure (cirrhosis) and hepatocellular carcinoma. Sixty-eight percent of infected people are from the African and Pacific regions. Vertical transmission from mother to newborn baby is one of the mechanisms by which chronic hepatitis virus infection spreads, besides infections from contaminated needles and syringes and sexual contact. Hepatitis B chronic infection is endemic in many poor countries, especially in Africa. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted between July and August 2021. Pregnant women attending the antenatal care (ANC) in Bor State referral hospital, South Sudan, were interviewed to collect information on their socio-demographic characteristics and risk factors for hepatitis B infection. The objective was to determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis B chronic infection through blood testing. Prevalence ratios for certain risk factors were calculated. Results: Two hundred pregnant women were enrolled. The Prevalence Rate for chronic infection with hepatitis B virus, diagnosed using the rapid immune-chromatographic assay for Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), was 8.5%. (95% CI; 4.7% - 12.3%). None of the suspected risk factors studied were found to be significantly associated with testing positive for HBV, except for a history of previous jaundice. Conclusion: The prevalence of HBV chronic infection among pregnant women in Bor, Jonglei State, is high hence there is a need for established public health interventions that can lead to a reduction of HBV vertical transmission. Treatment of pregnant women with HBV chronic infection using anti-viral medications during pregnancy might curb the vertical transmission rates.

Hepatitis B virus , Risk Factors , Chromatography, Affinity , Pregnant Women , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B Vaccines , Hepatitis B, Chronic
Rwanda Journal of Medicine and Health Sciences ; 6(2): 199-207, 2023. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1509421


Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection among pregnant women has a high rate of vertical transmission and consequential effects on fetal and neonatal outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of infection among pregnant women attending antenatal care services in Osogbo, Nigeria. Methodology This hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted among pregnant women attending routine antenatal care clinic between April and June 2021. Systematic random sampling technique was used to recruit 240 pregnant women, their data were collected by face to face interview using a pretested questionnaire, while blood sample was collected aseptically to determine hepatitis B surface antigen by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay test kit. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to examine the association between explanatory variables and outcome variable. Results The mean age and seroprevalence of the study population were 27.50 ± 4.4 years and 5.8% respectively. The significant risk factors for HBV infection were tattooing (aOR = 5.22; 95% CI = 0.52­8.01; p = 0.0000), history of multiple sexual partners (aOR = 2.88; 95% CI = 1.92­12.42; p = 0.0044); and past history of contact with HBV patient (aOR = 2.17; 95% CI = 1.21­15.32; p = 0.0310) were significant predictors of HBV infection. Conclusion The seroprevalence of HBV from this study was of intermediate endemicity. We therefore, advocate for continuous health education programs on the mode of HBV transmission, high-risk behaviors and methods of preventions at antenatal care clinics to raise the awareness of mothers and limit the spread of infection.

Humans , Male , Female , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens
Rwanda Journal of Medicine and Health Sciences ; 6(2): 143-153, 2023. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1509396


Background Blood transfusion saves human lives, but also it can be a route for TransfusionTransmissible Infections (TTIs) including Human Immuno-Deficiency Virus (HIV), Hepatitis B virus (HBV), Hepatitis C virus (HCV), and syphilis. Objective This study aimed to explore the risk factors associated with TTIs among blood donors at Regional Centre for Blood Transfusion (RCBT) of Karongi, Rwanda. Methods This was a retrospective cross-sectional study design conducted among 36,708 blood donors from 2015 to 2019. Data were extracted from the system known as eProgesaused and the outcome variable were TTIs including HBV, HCV and HIV (measured using Enzyme Immuno-Assay/Chemiluminescence Immunoassay) and syphilis (determined by Rapid Reagin Plasma). Descriptive statistics was computed to describe the characteristics of the blood donors. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression were performed to assess the risk factors associated with TTIs. P value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The study found that the overall prevalence of TTIs was 2.1%, while the prevalences of HBV, HCV, HIV, and syphilis were 1.3%, 0.4%, 0.06%, and 0.34%, respectively. Multivariable analysis showed that the factors associated with HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis were being male, age more than 25 years, being married, living in urban areas, first time blood donors and blood donors living in Rusizi, Rusizi, Nyamasheke and Karongi districts. Conclusion This study revealed that the most frequent TTI was HBV among blood donors and the main risk groups were males, age group of 26-35 years, married and first time donors. Hence, while developing health policies to reduce the effects of HBV infection on safe blood transfusion, these study findings should be taken into account.

Blood Transfusion , HIV Infections , Hepatitis B virus , Hepacivirus , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Syphilis
Afr. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol ; 6(1): 19-35, 2023. tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1512670


Background Hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) infection remains significant public health problem worldwide. Unfortunately, the Democratic Republic of Congo is in an area of high endemicity, and its population remains poorly informed about these viral infections. Therefore, this study aims to determine Lubumbashi's knowledge, attitudes, and practices toward HBV and HCV. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study from March to August 2022 in Lubumbashi. A total of 704 participants were enrolled. We targeted all people of both sexes and ages. The participants' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices (KAP) survey was assessed using online and printed or paper questionnaires. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 22 software. Results Of the 704 participants, 70.9% had poor knowledge of viral hepatitis B and C, whereas 28.6% had terrible attitudes towards these infections and preferred to consult traditional healers instead of going to the hospital. A minority of the participants (12.2%) had good practices, those as being screened regularly to exclude any possible infection and being willing to be vaccinated depending on the availability of the HBV vaccine. Most participants (69.2%) needed to be aware of drugs that could effectively treat these infections. Conclusion Knowledge and practice about HBV and HCV in the Congolese population living in Lubumbashi have proven wrong. Similarly, the attitudes of the people towards these infections were negative. Therefore, an extensive health education program should be given to increase the awareness of this part of the Congolese population about HBV and HCV infection to provide better care.

Humans , Male , Female , Hepatitis B virus , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Education , Hepacivirus , Diagnosis
J. Public Health Africa (Online) ; 14(12): 1-6, 2023. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1530891


Despite the availability for nearly twenty years of an effective vaccine, hepatitis B remains one of the most frequent viral diseases throughout the world. Mother to child transmission is one of the primary routes of transmission in children. To assess the vaccine response in children born to HBV infected mothers. HBsAg positive consenting mothers registered in the antenatal care (ANC) service database of Centre Hospitalier Dominicain St Martin de Porres, Yaounde were enrolled with their children. Socio demographic char acteristics were collected using a tested questionnaire. The 5 markers of hepatitis B were tested and the quantification of anti HBsAg antibodies was done by indirect ELISA method. The data collected was analyzed using Microsoft excel and Epi info softwares. Out of 5,996 women registered, 143 were identified as HBsAg positive (2.38% prevalence) and none was HBeAg positive. Of these 143 HBsAg positive women, 50 were enrolled in the study. Of the 50 positive mothers, 78 children were included with a mean age ± standard deviation of 2.33±2.86 years. No child was infected with HBV, but all have been exposed to the virus (HBeAb positive). Overall 64 (82.05%) received at birth both anti HBs immunoglobulin (HBIG) and a dose of vaccine, while 14 (17.95%) received only the birth dose of vaccine. 72 (92.31%) children received all three recommended doses of vaccine. Vaccine responders were 62.82% (above 10 IU/ml), while 37.18% of children were non responders; representing a higher risk group if not boosted. The coverage of the anti HBV vaccine in children in this study was 92.31%. The protection level of 62.82% is below the 95% recommended rate by WHO. The factors sustaining this suboptimal protection should be investigated

Hepatitis B , Hepatitis B virus
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010992


Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infections caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) continue to pose a significant global public health challenge. Currently, the approved treatments for CHB are limited to interferon and nucleos(t)ide analogs, both of which have their limitations, and achieving a complete cure remains an elusive goal. Therefore, the identification of new therapeutic targets and the development of novel antiviral strategies are of utmost importance. Natural products (NPs) constitute a class of substances known for their diverse chemical structures, wide-ranging biological activities, and low toxicity profiles. They have shown promise as potential candidates for combating various diseases, with a substantial number demonstrating anti-HBV properties. This comprehensive review focuses on the current applications of NPs in the fight against HBV and provides a summary of their antiviral mechanisms, considering their impact on the viral life cycle and host hepatocytes. By offering insights into the world of anti-HBV NPs, this review aims to furnish valuable information to support the future development of antiviral drugs.

Humans , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biological Products/therapeutic use , Hepatocytes
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2686-2693, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007691


BACKGROUND@#Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) clearance is vital for a functional cure of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. However, the incidence and predictors of HBsAg seroclearance in patients co-infected with HBV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remain largely unknown in Guangdong, China.@*METHODS@#Between 2009 and 2019, patients co-infected with HBV/HIV undergoing antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Guangzhou Eighth People's Hospital affiliated to Guangzhou Medical University were retrospectively reviewed with the endpoint on December 31, 2020. The incidence and risk factors for HBsAg seroclearance were evaluated using Kaplan-Meier and multivariate Cox regression analyses.@*RESULTS@#A total of 1550 HBV/HIV co-infected patients were included in the study, with the median age of 42 years and 86.0% (1333/1550) males. Further, 98.3% (1524/1550) received ART containing tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) plus lamivudine (3TC). HBV DNA was examined in 1283 cases at the last follow-up. Over the median 4.7 years of follow-up, 8.1% (126/1550) patients achieved HBsAg seroclearance, among whom 50.8% (64/126) obtained hepatitis B surface antibody, 28.1% (137/488) acquired hepatitis B e antigen seroconversion, and 95.9% (1231/1283) undetectable HBV DNA. Compared with patients who maintained HBsAg positive, cases achieving HBsAg seroclearance showed no differences in age, gender, CD4 + T cell count, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level, or fibrosis status; however, they presented lower HBV DNA levels, lower HBsAg levels, and higher rates of HBV genotype B at the baseline. Multivariate analysis showed that baseline HBsAg <1500 cutoff index (COI) (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 2.74, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.48-5.09), ALT elevation >2 × upper limit of normal during the first six months after receiving ART (aHR, 2.96, 95% CI: 1.53-5.77), and HBV genotype B (aHR, 3.73, 95% CI: 1.46-9.59) were independent predictors for HBsAg seroclearance (all P <0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Long-term TDF-containing ART has high anti-HBV efficacy including relatively high overall HBsAg seroclearance in HBV/HIV co-infected patients. Lower baseline HBsAg levels, HBV genotype B, and elevated ALT levels during the first six months of ART are potential predictors of HBsAg seroclearance.

Male , Humans , Adult , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV , DNA, Viral , Incidence , Coinfection/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Tenofovir/therapeutic use , Lamivudine/therapeutic use , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 445-451, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969926


Objective: To investigate the association between physical exercise and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in people infected with HBV. Methods: The information about the 3 813 participants infected with HBV, including the prevalence of NAFLD, prevalence of physical exercise and other covariates, were collected from the National Science and Technology Major Project of China during 2016-2020. The logistic regression model was used to evaluate the association between physical exercise and NAFLD in HBV infected patients, and subgroup analysis was performed to identify the effect modifiers. Results: A total of 2 259 HBV infected participants were included in the final analysis and 454 (20.10%) had NAFLD. After adjusting for covariates, we found that moderate physical exercise was a protective factor for NAFLD (OR=0.66, 95%CI: 0.46-0.94). Subgroup analysis suggested that the protective effect of moderate physical exercise on NAFLD might be stronger in women (OR=0.61, 95%CI: 0.36-1.01), those <45 years old (OR=0.24, 95%CI: 0.06-0.80), those who had low education level (OR=0.16, 95%CI: 0.04-0.49), those who had low annual income (OR=0.39, 95%CI: 0.16-0.89 for <30 000 yuan RMB; OR=0.64, 95%CI: 0.40-1.00 for 30 000-80 000 yuan RMB), those who had hypertension (OR=0.45, 95%CI: 0.21-0.88), those with BMI ≥24.0 kg/m2 (OR=0.66, 95%CI: 0.43-1.01), those who had more daily fruit or vegetable intake (OR=0.61, 95%CI: 0.38-0.97), those who had more daily meat intake (OR=0.49, 95%CI: 0.23-0.97), and those who had no smoking history (OR=0.66, 95%CI: 0.45-0.95) or passive smoking exposure (OR=0.61, 95%CI: 0.37-0.97). Conclusions: Among HBV infected patients, moderate physical exercise was negatively associated with the prevalence of NAFLD. Women, young people, those who had low education level, those who had low annual income, those with hypertension, those with high BMI, those who had more daily fruit or vegetable and meat intakes, and those who had no smoking history or passive smoking exposure might be more sensitive to the protective effect.

Humans , Female , Adolescent , Middle Aged , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Hepatitis B virus , Risk Factors , Tobacco Smoke Pollution , Exercise , Hypertension
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969857


In 2006, 2014 and 2020, the positive rates of HBsAg in 560, 384 and 402 children aged 1 to 14 years were 4.5%, 2.6% and 2.5%, respectively, with no statistically significant differences (P>0.05). The positive rate of anti-HBs was highest in 2014 (57.8%) and lowest in 2006 (34.1%) (P<0.05). The positive rate of anti-HBc was highest in 2006 (15.7%), and decreased in 2014 (7.8%) and 2020 (5.7%) (P<0.001). The timely rate of the first dose of hepatitis B vaccine for children in Lhasa in 2006, 2014 and 2020 was 7.7% (43/560), 50.3% (193/384) and 94.8% (381/402), respectively. The overall vaccination rates were 15.4% (86/560), 35.2% (135/384) and 96.0% (386/402), respectively, showing a trend of gradual increases (χtrend values were 718.63 and 589.59, both P values<0.001).

Child , Humans , Hepatitis B Vaccines , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis B Antibodies , Vaccination
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 389-400, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981866


Hepatitis B virus biomarkers are mainly used in clinical practice to diagnose infection, monitor disease progression, evaluate response to chronic hepatitis B treatment, and evaluate the efficacy of novel antiviral drugs in clinical trials. In combination with the recent research progress of antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis B and the actual needs of clinical diagnosis and treatment, the expert consensus was formulated by the Cooperative Group of Basic Research and Experimental Diagnosis of Liver Diseases, Chinese Society of Hepatology, Chinese Medical Association. It summarized the evidence and recommended the key points for the clinical application of classic and novel hepatitis B virus related biomarkers in order to guide the standardized and reasonable clinical application for these biomarkers.

Humans , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Consensus , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biomarkers , Hepatitis B/drug therapy
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 799-806, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980841


BACKGROUND@#The hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine has been efficiently used for decades. However, hepatocellular carcinoma caused by HBV is still prevalent globally. We previously reported that interferon (IFN)-induced tripartite motif-containing 25 (TRIM25) inhibited HBV replication by increasing the IFN expression, and this study aimed to further clarify the anti-HBV mechanism of TRIM25.@*METHODS@#The TRIM25-mediated degradation of hepatitis B virus X (HBx) protein was determined by detecting the expression of HBx in TRIM25-overexpressed or knocked-out HepG2 or HepG2-NTCP cells via Western blotting. Co-immunoprecipitation was performed to confirm the interaction between TRIM25 and HBx, and colocalization of TRIM25 and HBx was identified via immunofluorescence; HBV e-antigen and HBV surface antigen were qualified by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit from Kehua Biotech. TRIM25 mRNA, pregenomic RNA (pgRNA), and HBV DNA were detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and pgRNA interaction was verified by RNA-binding protein immunoprecipitation assay.@*RESULTS@#We found that TRIM25 promoted HBx degradation, and confirmed that TRIM25 could enhance the K90-site ubiquitination of HBx as well as promote HBx degradation by the proteasome pathway. Interestingly, apart from the Really Interesting New Gene (RING) domain, the SPRY domain of TRIM25 was also indispensable for HBx degradation. In addition, we found that the expression of TRIM25 increased the recognition of HBV pgRNA by interacting with RIG-I, which further increased the IFN production, and SPRY, but not the RING domain is critical in this process.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The study found that TRIM25 interacted with HBx and promoted HBx-K90-site ubiquitination, which led to HBx degradation. On the other hand, TRIM25 may function as an adaptor, which enhanced the recognition of pgRNA by RIG-I, thereby further promoting IFN production. Our study can contribute to a better understanding of host-virus interaction.

Humans , Hepatitis B virus , DEAD Box Protein 58/metabolism , RNA , Liver Neoplasms , Virus Replication , Tripartite Motif Proteins/genetics , Transcription Factors , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/genetics
Protein & Cell ; (12): 37-50, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971609


The twenty-first century has already recorded more than ten major epidemics or pandemics of viral disease, including the devastating COVID-19. Novel effective antivirals with broad-spectrum coverage are urgently needed. Herein, we reported a novel broad-spectrum antiviral compound PAC5. Oral administration of PAC5 eliminated HBV cccDNA and reduced the large antigen load in distinct mouse models of HBV infection. Strikingly, oral administration of PAC5 in a hamster model of SARS-CoV-2 omicron (BA.1) infection significantly decreases viral loads and attenuates lung inflammation. Mechanistically, PAC5 binds to a pocket near Asp49 in the RNA recognition motif of hnRNPA2B1. PAC5-bound hnRNPA2B1 is extensively activated and translocated to the cytoplasm where it initiates the TBK1-IRF3 pathway, leading to the production of type I IFNs with antiviral activity. Our results indicate that PAC5 is a novel small-molecule agonist of hnRNPA2B1, which may have a role in dealing with emerging infectious diseases now and in the future.

Animals , Mice , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Hepatitis B virus , Interferon Type I/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein Group A-B/antagonists & inhibitors
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 84-89, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970956


Objective: To identify the predisposing factors, clinical characteristics, and risk factors of disease progression to establish a novel predictive survival model and evaluate its application value for hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver failure. Methods: 153 cases of HBV-ACLF were selected according to the guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of liver failure (2018 edition) of the Chinese Medical Association Hepatology Branch. Predisposing factors, the basic liver disease stage, therapeutic drugs, clinical characteristics, and factors affecting survival status were analyzed. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to screen prognostic factors and establish a novel predictive survival model. The receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was used to evaluate predictive value with the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) and the Chronic Liver Failure Consortium Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure score (CLIF-C ACLF). Results: 80.39% (123/153) based on hepatitis B cirrhosis had developed ACLF. HBV-ACLF's main inducing factors were the discontinuation of nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) and the application of hepatotoxic drugs, including Chinese patent medicine/Chinese herbal medicine, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, anti-tuberculosis drugs, central nervous system drugs, anti-tumor drugs, etc. 34.64% of cases had an unknown inducement. The most common clinical symptoms at onset were progressive jaundice, poor appetite, and fatigue. The short-term mortality rate was significantly higher in patients complicated with hepatic encephalopathy, upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage, hepatorenal syndrome, and infection (P < 0.05). Lactate dehydrogenase, albumin, the international normalized ratio, the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, hepatic encephalopathy, and upper gastrointestinal bleeding were the independent predictors for the survival status of patients. The LAINeu model was established. The area under the curve for evaluating the survival of HBV-ACLF was 0.886, which was significantly higher than the MELD and CLIF-C ACLF scores (P < 0.05), and the prognosis was worse when the LAINeu score ≥ -3.75. Conclusion: Discontinuation of NAs and the application of hepatotoxic drugs are common predisposing factors for HBV-ACLF. Hepatic decompensation-related complications and infection accelerate the disease's progression. The LAINeu model can predict patient survival conditions more accurately.

Humans , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatic Encephalopathy/complications , Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure/diagnosis , End Stage Liver Disease/complications , Severity of Illness Index , Risk Factors , ROC Curve , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 42-48, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970950


Objective: To investigate the demographic characteristics and clinical influencing factors which associates with the occurrence probability of persistent or intermittent hypoviremia (LLV) in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) treated with nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs). Methods: A single-center retrospective analysis was performed on patients with CHB who received outpatient NAs therapy for≥48 ± 2 weeks. According to the serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA load at 48±2 weeks treatment, the study groups were divided into LLV (HBV DNA < 20 IU/ml and < 2 000 IU/ml) and MVR group (sustained virological response, HBV DNA < 20 IU/ml). Demographic characteristics and clinical data at the start of NAs treatment (considered as baseline) were retrospectively collected for both patient groups. The differences in the reduction of HBV DNA load during treatment was compared between the two groups. Correlation and multivariate analysis were further conducted to analyze the associated factors influencing the LLV occurrence. Statistical analysis was performed using the independent samples t-test, c2 test, Spearman analysis, multivariate logistic regression analysis, or area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Results: A total of 509 cases were enrolled, with 189 and 320 in the LLV and MVR groups, respectively. Compared to patients with MVR group at baseline: (1) the demographics characteristics of patients showed that LLV group was younger in age (39.1 years, P = 0.027), had a stronger family history (60.3%, P = 0.001), 61.9% received ETV treatment, and higher proportion of compensated cirrhosis (20.6%, P = 0.025) at baseline; (2) the serum virological characteristics of patients showed that LLV group had higher HBV DNA load, qHBsAg level, qHBeAg level, HBeAg positive rate, and the proportion of genotype C HBV infection but decreased HBV DNA during treatment (P < 0.001) at baseline; (3) the biochemical characteristics of patients showed that LLV group had lower serum ALT levels (P = 0.007) at baseline; (4) the noninvasive fibrosis markers of patients showed that LLV group were characterized by high aspartate aminotransferase platelet ratio index (APRI) (P = 0.02) and FIB-4 (P = 0.027) at baseline. HBV DNA, qHBsAg and qHBeAg were positively correlated with LLV occurrence (r = 0.559, 0.344, 0.435, respectively), while age and HBV DNA reduction were negatively correlated (r = -0.098, -0.876, respectively). Logistic regression analysis showed that ETV treatment history, high HBV DNA load at baseline, high qHBsAg level, high qHBeAg level, HBeAg positive, low ALT and HBV DNA level were independent risk factors for patients with CHB who developed LLV with NAs treatment. Multivariate prediction model had a good predictive value for LLV occurrence [AUC 0.922 (95%CI: 0.897 ~ 0.946)]. Conclusion: In this study, 37.1% of CHB patients treated with first-line NAs has LLV. The formation of LLV is influenced by various factors. HBeAg positivity, genotype C HBV infection, high baseline HBV DNA load, high qHBsAg level, high qHBeAg level, high APRI or FIB-4 value, low baseline ALT level, reduced HBV DNA during treatment, concomitant family history, metabolic liver disease history, and age < 40 years old are potential risk factors for developing LLV in patients with CHB during the therapeutic process.

Humans , Adult , Hepatitis B, Chronic/complications , Retrospective Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hepatitis B e Antigens , DNA, Viral , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Demography
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 20-31, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970940


Objective: To investigate the potential function and related mechanism of microRNA-223 (miRNA-223) in the podocyte pyroptosis of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated glomerulonephritis induced by HBV X protein (HBx). Methods: HBx-overexpressing lentivirus was transfected into human renal podocytes to mimic the pathogenesis of HBV-GN. Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR and Western blotting experiments were used to detect the mRNA and protein expression of pyroptosis-related proteins [nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3), apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC) and caspase-1], and inflammatory factors (interleukin-1β and interleukin-18), respectively.TUNEL staining and flow cytometry were used to detect the number of pyroptosis cells. Immunofluorescence staining was used to detect the expression of podocytes biomarkers desmin and nephrin; Hoechst 33342 staining was used to observe the morphological and quantitative changes of podocyte nuclei. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure caspase-1 activity. The dual luciferase reporter gene assay was used to verify the downstream target of miRNA-223. Podocytes were divided into the following nine groups: control group (no special treatment), empty plasmid group (transfected with empty plasmid), HBx overexpression group (transfected with HBx overexpression lentivirus), HBx overexpression+miRNA-223 mimic group (transfected with HBx overexpression lentivirus and miRNA-223 mimic), HBx overexpression+miRNA-223 inhibitor group (transfected with HBx overexpression lentivirus and miRNA-223 inhibitor), HBx overexpression+miRNA-223 mimic+NLRP3 group (transfected with HBx overexpression lentivirus, miRNA-223 mimic and NLRP3 overexpression plasmid), HBx overexpression+miRNA-223 mimic+ NLRP3 siRNA group (transfected with HBx overexpression lentivirus, miRNA-223 mimic and NLRP3 siRNA), HBx overexpression+miRNA-223 inhibitor+NLRP3 group (transfected with HBx overexpression lentivirus, miRNA-223 inhibitor and NLRP3 overexpression plasmid), HBx overexpression+miRNA-223 inhibitor+NLRP3 siRNA group (transfected with HBx overexpression lentivirus, miRNA-223 inhibitor and NLRP3 siRNA). Results: miRNA-223 was down-regulated in HBx overexpression group compared with the control group (P < 0.05). TUNEL and immunofluorescence staining showed that NLRP3 knockdown attenuated podocyte injury and pyroptosis induced by HBx overexpression (P < 0.05). Dual luciferase reporter gene assay demonstrated that NLRP3 was one of the downstream targets of miRNA-223. Rescue experiments revealed that NLRP3 overexpression weakened the protective effect of miRNA-223 in podocyte injury (P < 0.05). The addition of miRNA-223 mimic and NLRP3 siRNA decreased the expression of NLRP3 inflammasome and cytokines, and reduced the number of pyroptosis cells induced by HBx overexpression (all P < 0.05); The addition of miRNA-223 inhibitor and NLRP3 overexpression plasmid significantly increased the expression of NLRP3 inflammasome and cytokines, caspase-1 activity, and the number of pyroptosis cells (all P < 0.05). Conclusion: HBx may promote podocyte pyroptosis of HBV-GN via downregulating miRNA-223 targeting NLRP3 inflammasome, suggesting that miRNA-223 is expected to be a potential target for the treatment of HBV-GN.

Humans , Inflammasomes/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Pyroptosis , Podocytes/metabolism , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Caspase 1/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Carrier Proteins/metabolism , MicroRNAs/genetics , Glomerulonephritis/metabolism , RNA, Small Interfering