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1.
Medisan ; 25(4)2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1340218

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Hoy día, las enfermedades infecciosas constituyen una de las causas de muerte más frecuentes, de ahí que la actual epidemia de hepatitis es un problema de salud a escala mundial. Las hepatitis B y C se propagan por medio del contacto con la sangre, el semen u otro líquido corporal de una persona infectada. Objetivo: Actualizar algunos elementos sobre las hepatitis virales crónicas como un problema de salud. Desarrollo: Se analizan aspectos de las hepatitis virales crónicas relacionados con las estadísticas globales, regionales y locales; también se abordan los indicadores de impacto, la epidemiología, las características de los virus y las formas de trasmisión. Conclusiones: Esta problemática se ha convertido en un grave problema de salud en todo el orbe y Cuba no está exenta de esta situación. El principal eslabón para prevenir y reducir el número de pacientes y la trasmisión de estas enfermedades es la atención primaria, donde el trabajo educativo y preventivo que se desarrolla en la comunidad es fundamental.


Introduction: Nowadays, infectious diseases constitute one of the most frequent causes of death, with the result that current hepatitis epidemic is a health problem worldwide. The hepatitis B and C are spread by means of the blood contact, semen or another body fluid of an infected person. Objective: To update some elements on the chronic viral hepatitis as a health problem. Development: Some aspects of the chronic viral hepatitis related to the global, regional and local statistics are analysed; the impact indicators, epidemiology, characteristics of the virus and the ways of transmission are also approached. Conclusions: This question has become a serious health problem worldwide and Cuba is not exempt of this situation. The main link to prevent and reduce the number of patients and the transmission of these diseases is the primary health care, where the educational and preventive work that is developed in the community is fundamental.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Hepatitis, Viral, Human/epidemiology , Hepatitis B virus , Hepacivirus
2.
Vaccimonitor (La Habana, Print) ; 30(1)ene.-abr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1150249

ABSTRACT

The aim of this work is the expression of the PreS2-S region of surface antigen of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in yeast Pichia pastoris. A cDNA fragment encoding the Pres2-S protein of HBV was cloned to yeast transfer vectors. Based on cloned new plasmids pPIC3.5-PreS2-S (8707 bp) and pPIC9-PreS2-S (8980 bp) the recombinant strains of P. pastoris producing the PreS2-S region of surface antigen of HBV were obtained. The PAGE electrophoresis and immunoblotting of obtained recombinant PreS2-S protein confirm the molecular weight (34 kDa) and high specificity to the HBV antibodies)AU)


El objetivo de este trabajo es la expresión de la región PreS2-S del antígeno de superficie del virus de la hepatitis B en la levadura Pichia pastoris. Se clonó un fragmento de ADNc que codifica la proteína PreS2-S del VHB en vectores de transferencia de levadura. A partir de los nuevos plásmidos clonados pPIC3.5-PreS2-S (8707 pb) y pPIC9-PreS2-S (8980 pb) se obtuvieron las cepas recombinantes de P. pastoris productoras de la región PreS2-S del antígeno de superficie del VHB. La electroforesis PAGE y la inmunotransferencia de la proteína PreS2-S recombinante obtenida confirman el peso molecular (34 kDa) y la alta especificidad a los anticuerpos contra el VHB(AU)


Subject(s)
Recombinant Proteins , Hepatitis B virus , Vaccines, DNA/therapeutic use
3.
Vaccimonitor (La Habana, Print) ; 30(1)ene.-abr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1150248

ABSTRACT

Frente a la creciente demanda de producción de la vacuna Antihepatitis B recombinante, constituye un reto para el Centro Nacional de Biopreparados aumentar la fabricación del producto, para lo cual el proceso de llenado aséptico requirió de una inversión. En el trabajo se presenta la selección de la nueva máquina llenadora y se calculan los indicadores económicos asociados a la inversión, la que se recupera en el cuarto año con una ganancia de $2.655.300. Luego de la inversión se evaluó el desempeño de la nueva máquina y se comparó con los resultados anteriores a la inversión. Se compararon los valores de volumen dispensado por vial, velocidad de llenado, rendimiento operacional, principales defectos detectados en los lotes de llenado, tiempo promedio de llenado de un lote, costo de producción y comportamiento del monto resarcido al cliente por rechazos de producto. El volumen dispensado por vial resulta más exacto, reduciendo las pérdidas de producto. La velocidad de llenado aumenta 1,7 veces respecto a la máquina anterior. El rendimiento operacional aumenta en un 13,63 percent. Disminuyen los rechazos de producto en 40.897 viales, representando un ahorro de $24.538 ingresados en 73 lotes producidos. Se ahorra en energía eléctrica un total de $14.718 en un mes. El costo unitario del proceso de llenado disminuye en 0,0648 $/vial(AU)


National Center for Biopreparations must increase the production of the recombinant hepatitis B vaccine because of its growing demand. In order to fulfill this challenge, the aseptic filling process required an investment. This work, presents the selection of the new filling machine and the economic indicators that support the investment. Inversion cost is recovered in the fourth year with a profit equivalent to $2,655,300. After the investment, the performance of the new machine was compared with the previous one. Volume dispensed per vial, filling speed, operational performance, major defects detected in filling batches, average filling time for a batch, production cost and payments to customers due to rejected products were compared. The control of the volume dispensed per vial is more accurate, reducing product losses. The filling speed increases 1.7 times compared to the previous machine. Operational performance increases by 13.63 percent. Product rejections are reduced by 40,897 vials, saving $24,538 for the 73 batches. Electricity consumption diminished, saving $14,718 monthly. The unit cost of the filling process decreases by $0.0648/vial(AU)


Subject(s)
Pichia , Recombinant Proteins , Hepatitis B virus , Vaccines
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879952

ABSTRACT

The pathogenesis of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is complicated with the crosstalk of multiple factors and the multi-step processes. The main mechanisms underlying the HBV-induced HCC include:①integration of HBV DNA into the host hepatocyte genome to alter gene function at the insertion site,resulting in host genome instability and expression of carcinogenic truncated proteins;②HBV gene mutations at S,C,and X coding regions in the genome;③HBV X gene-encoded HBx protein activates proto-oncogenes and inhibits tumor suppressor genes,leading to the HCC occurrence. In this article,the recent research progress on the molecular mechanism of HBV-induced HCC is comprehensively reviewed,so as to provide insights into the prevention,early prediction and postoperative adjuvant therapy of HCC.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Hepatitis B/complications , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatocytes , Humans , Liver Neoplasms
5.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 313-318, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879637

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization (WHO) has set the goal of eliminating viral hepatitis as a threat to public health by 2030. Blocking mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the key step for eliminating viral hepatitis, at the same time, it is the hotspot in the field of hepatitis B prevention and control as well. The China Foundation of Hepatitis Prevention and Control (CFHPC) organized a team of specialists to develop an algorithm for preventing MTCT of HBV, based on the most recent hepatitis B guidelines and the latest evidence. The algorithm covers 10 continuous steps from pregnant management to follow-up postpartum. Among the 10 steps, screening, antiviral therapy during pregnancy, and infant's immunization are the core components in the algorithm.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Child , China , Female , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B e Antigens , Hepatitis B virus , Humans , Infant , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control
6.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 301-311, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878563

ABSTRACT

Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is a global epidemic disease caused by hepatitis B virus that can lead to hepatic failure, even liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The occurrence and development of CHB are closely related to the changes in the gut microbiota communities. To explore the relationship between the structure of gut microbiota and liver biochemical indicators, 14 CHB patients (the CHB group) and 11 healthy people (the CN group) were randomly enrolled in this study. Our results demonstrate that CHB caused changes in the gut microbiota communities and biochemical indicators, such as alanine transaminase, total bilirubin and gamma glutamyl transferase. Furthermore, CHB induced imbalance of the gut microbiota. Prevotella, Blautia, Ruminococcus, Eubacterium eligens group, Bacteroides uniformis and Ruminococcus sp. 5_1_39BFAA were associated with the critical biochemical indicators and liver injury, suggesting a new approach to CHB treatment.


Subject(s)
Bacteroides , Eubacterium , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis , Liver Neoplasms
7.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 27: e20200154, 2021. graf
Article in English | ID: biblio-1287093

ABSTRACT

Inflammation is closely related to renal diseases. This is particularly true for renal diseases caused by infections as in viral diseases. In this review, we highlight the inflammatory mechanisms that underlie kidney dysfunction in SARS-CoV-2, human immunodeficiency (HIV), hepatitis C (HCV), and hepatitis B (HBV) infections. The pathophysiology of renal involvement in COVID-19 is complex, but kidney damage is frequent, and the prognosis is worse when it happens. Virus-like particles were demonstrated mostly in renal tubular epithelial cells and podocytes, which suggest that SARS-CoV-2 directly affects the kidneys. SARS-CoV-2 uses the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor, which is found in endothelial cells, to infect the human host cells. Critical patients with SARS-CoV-2-associated acute kidney injury (AKI) show an increase in inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-8, IFN-γ, TNF-α), known as cytokine storm that favors renal dysfunction by causing intrarenal inflammation, increased vascular permeability, volume depletion, thromboembolic events in microvasculature and persistent local inflammation. Besides AKI, SARS-CoV-2 can also cause glomerular disease, as other viral infections such as in HIV, HBV and HCV. HIV-infected patients present chronic inflammation that can lead to a number of renal diseases. Proinflammatory cytokines and TNF-induced apoptosis are some of the underlying mechanisms that may explain the virus-induced renal diseases that are here reviewed.(AU)


Subject(s)
Hepatitis B virus , HIV , Hepacivirus , COVID-19 , Glomerulonephritis , Inflammation , Kidney Diseases
8.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1160-1167, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878100

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) is a promising disease-monitoring marker for chronic hepatitis B (CHB). We investigated correlations between HBcrAg with antiviral efficacy and virological and histological variables.@*METHODS@#One hundred and forty-five CHB patients from the mainland of China between August 2013 and September 2016 who underwent liver biopsy received entecavir therapy and had paired liver biopsy at 78 weeks. We analyzed correlations between HBcrAg and virological and histological variables in hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive and HBeAg-negative patients. We also explored the predictors of HBeAg loss after 78 weeks of antiviral therapy. Pearson correlation analysis and logistic forward stepwise regression were the main statistic methods.@*RESULTS@#HBeAg-positive patients (n = 93) had higher baseline HBcrAg (median 7.4 vs. 5.3 log10 U/mL P < 0.001) and greater HBcrAg declines (median 1.6 vs. 0.9 log10 U/mL P = 0.007) than HBeAg-negative patients after 78 weeks of therapy. At baseline, HBcrAg correlated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in both HBeAg-positive (r = 0.641, P < 0.001) and -negative patients (r = 0.616, P < 0.001), with hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in HBeAg-positive patients (r = 0.495, P < 0.001), but not with anti-hepatitis B virus core antibody (anti-HBc). Weak correlations existed between HBcrAg, histology activity index (HAI; r = 0.232, P = 0.025), and Ishak fibrosis score (r = -0.292, P = 0.005) in HBeAg-positive patients. At 78 weeks, significant correlations existed only between HBcrAg and anti-HBc in HBeAg-positive (r = -0.263, P = 0.014) and HBeAg-negative patients (r = -0.291, P = 0.045). Decreased HBcrAg significantly correlated with reduced HBV DNA (r = 0.366, P = 0.001; r = 0.626, P < 0.001) and HBsAg (r = 0.526, P = 0.001; r = 0.289, P = 0.044) in HBeAg-positive and -negative patients, respectively, and with reduced HAI in HBeAg-positive patients (r = 0.329, P = 0.001). Patients with HBeAg loss (n = 29) showed a larger reduction in HBcrAg than those without (median 2.3 vs. 1.3 log10 U/mL, P = 0.001). In multivariate analysis, decreased HBcrAg was an independent predictor of HBeAg loss (P = 0.005).@*CONCLUSIONS@#HBcrAg reflects viral replication and protein production. Decreased HBcrAg could predict HBeAg loss after antiviral therapy.@*TRIAL REGISTRATION@#Clinical Trials.gov: NCT01962155; https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01962155?term=NCT01962155&draw=2&rank=1.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biomarkers , China , DNA, Viral , Hepatitis B Core Antigens/therapeutic use , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B e Antigens , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Humans , Virus Replication
9.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 72(2): e522, mayo.-ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1149912

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los ensayos para cuantificar el ADN del virus de la hepatitis B (VHB) o carga viral son imprescindibles en el diagnóstico y en el seguimiento de los pacientes con hepatitis B crónica; de ahí que estén disponibles estuches diagnósticos para esta función. En el presente estudio se muestra la validación de SUMASIGNAL VHB (un paso), el cual es un sistema de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa en tiempo real (RCP-TR) para la cuantificación del genoma del VHB, propuesto por el Centro de Inmunoensayo. Objetivo: Evaluar el desempeño analítico de SUMASIGNAL VHB (un paso). Métodos: Se utilizó un panel de 80 muestras de suero bien caracterizadas y el Tercer Estándar Internacional de la OMS para las técnicas de amplificación de ácidos nucleicos del virus de la hepatitis B. Se determinaron las características del ensayo como especificidad clínica, especificidad analítica (reactividad cruzada), rango lineal o linealidad y exactitud, precisión intraensayo y comparación con un ensayo de referencia. Resultados: La especificidad analítica y clínica fue del 100 por ciento. Al evaluar la linealidad y exactitud con un estándar de referencia de la OMS, se obtuvo que la totalidad de las diferencias entre los Log10 del valor obtenido y el de referencia resultaron inferiores a 0,5 Log10 (r= 0,9977 y r2= 0,9954). Además, se obtuvieron bajos coeficientes de variación intraensayo. La evaluación comparativa con el estuche comercial Artus HBV RG PCR kit mostró una correlación fuerte (r= 0,8882). Conclusiones: SUMASIGNAL VHB (un paso) es un ensayo fácil de realizar manualmente, es rápido e incluye reactivos de extracción de ácidos nucleicos. Teniendo en cuenta la validez del método para el uso previsto, puede ser recomendado para su introducción en el diagnóstico, la vigilancia y la indicación de tratamiento en los pacientes con hepatitis B crónica(AU)


Introduction: Assays to quantify hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA or viral load are indispensable for the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with chronic hepatitis B, hence the availability of diagnostic kits for this purpose. The present study deals with the validation of HBV SUMASIGNAL (one step), a real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) system for quantification of the HBV genome proposed by the Immunoassay Center. Objective: Evaluate the analytical performance of HBV SUMASIGNAL (one step). Methods: Use was made of a panel of 80 well characterized serum samples and the Third WHO International Standard for hepatitis B virus nucleic acid amplification techniques. Determination was performed of assay characteristics such as clinical specificity, analytical specificity (cross-reactivity), linear range or linearity and accuracy, intra-assay precision and comparison with a reference assay. Results: Analytical and clinical specificity was 100 percent. Evaluation of linearity and accuracy with a WHO reference standard revealed that all the differences between the log10 of the value obtained and the reference value were lower than 0.5 log10 (r= 0.9977 and r2= 0.9954). The intra-assay variation coefficients obtained were low. Comparative evaluation with the commercial Artus HBV RG PCR kit showed a strong correlation (r= 0.8882). Conclusions: The assay HBV SUMASIGNAL (one step) is easy to conduct manually, fast and includes reagents for nucleic acid extraction. Based on the validity of the method for the use in mind, it may be recommended for incorporation into the diagnosis, surveillance and treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis B(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Hepatitis B virus/isolation & purification , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Validation Study
10.
Rev. cuba. hematol. inmunol. hemoter ; 36(1): e1076, ene.-mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126544

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La incidencia de la hepatitis B en Cuba se redujo notablemente desde la incorporación de la vacuna cubana Heberbiovac HB. Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de marcadores del virus de la hepatitis B en donantes de sangre de tres provincias y la persistencia de los anticuerpos contra el antígeno de superficie de este virus en donantes nacidos posterior a la introducción de la vacuna cubana en el Programa Nacional de Inmunización. Métodos: Se aplicó el diseño de un estudio de prevalencia. Se incluyeron 433 donantes que acudieron a los bancos de sangre de las provincias La Habana, Villa Clara y Santiago de Cuba, entre enero y diciembre de 2018. Se detectaron los marcadores HBsAg, anti-HBc y anti-HBs; este último en donantes con edades entre 18 a 26 años. Se realizó la proteína C reactiva (PCR) en tiempo real para identificar la replicación viral en individuos positivos al HBsAgo al anti-HBc. Resultados: La prevalencia de HBsAg y de anti-HBc fue de 1,15 por ciento (5/433) y 7,85 por ciento (38/433), respectivamente. En los individuos nacidos después de la introducción de la vacuna, la prevalencia de HBsAg y anti-HBc fue 0 por ciento y 0,95 por ciento, respectivamente. El 36,1 9 por ciento (38/105) de estos donantes tenían niveles protectores de anti-HBs (≥ 10 UI/L). El ADN viral se detectó en un donante positivo al HBsAg y anti-HBc; no se identificó infección oculta por el virus de la hepatitis B. Conclusiones: La prevalencia del HBsAg es baja en donantes de sangre cubanos, con tendencia a ser nula en donantes nacidos después de la aplicación de la vacuna cubana Heberbiovac HB(AU)


Introduction: The incidence of hepatitis B in Cuba has decreased significantly since incorporation of Cuban vaccine Heberbiovac HB. Objective: To determine the prevalence of hepatitis B virus markers in blood donors from three provinces and the persistence of antibodies against surface antigen of this virus in blood donors born after introduction of Cuban vaccine in the National Immunization Program. Methods: The design of a prevalence study was applied. We included 433 donors who attended the blood banks of the provinces of Havana, Villa Clara and Santiago de Cuba, between January and December 2018.The HBsAg, anti-HBc and anti-HBs markers were detected; the latter was detected in donors aged 18-26 years. The real-time analysis of C-reactive protein (CRP) was performed to identify viral replication in individuals positive to HBsAg-positive and to anti-HBc. Results: The prevalence of HBsAg and anti-HBc was 1.15 percen t (5/433) and 7.85 percent (38/433), respectively. In individuals born after introduction of the vaccine, the prevalence of HBsAg and anti-HBc was 0 percent and 0.95 percent, respectively. 36.19 percent (38/105) of these donors had protective levels of anti-HBs (≥10UI/L). Viral DNA was detected in a donor positive to HBsAg and to anti-HBc. Hidden infection with the hepatitis B virus was not identified. Conclusions: The prevalence of HBsAg is low among Cuban blood donors, with a tendency to be null in donors born after application of Cuban vaccine Heberbiovac HB(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Blood Donors , Biomarkers/blood , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Cuba
11.
Rev. epidemiol. controle infecç ; 10(1): 38-45, jan.-mar. 2020. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177777

ABSTRACT

Justificativa e Objetivo: O vírus da hepatite B tem alta prevalência mundial, com forte impacto na saúde pública, o que justifica as estratégias de vigilância e prevenção dos possíveis agravos. O risco da exposição ao vírus entre os estudantes e profissionais de saúde constitui uma grande preocupação mostrando-se baixa a adesão desse público as medidas de biossegurança. O objetivo foi avaliar o conhecimento, imunização contra hepatite B e uso das medidas de biossegurança por estudantes da área da saúde em uma universidade no interior de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Métodos: Estudo transversal, descritivo, com aplicação de questionário, de autopreenchimento, a estudantes da área da saúde composto por variáveis sociodemográficas e referentes ao tema biossegurança. Resultados: Dentre os 540 estudantes que participaram do estudo, 37,2% declararam não ter conhecimento sobre biossegurança, e desse total, 28,9% não foram vacinados contra a hepatite B, 32,4% dos estudantes consideraram que não estavam expostos ao vírus da hepatite B, e desses 25,7% não eram vacinados. Ainda o estudo mostrou que 13,3% dos estudantes não usavam luvas e destes 41,7% não eram vacinados. Conclusão: Verificou-se que existem lacunas em relação ao conhecimento e uso das medidas de biossegurança, entre estas, a falha da imunização contra hepatite B. Neste sentido, faz-se necessária a adoção de políticas de educação permanente com inclusão sistemática do tema biossegurança e adoção de mecanismos que garantirão a imunização desses estudantes.(AU)


Rationale and Objective: The hepatitis B virus has a high global prevalence, with a strong impact on public health, which justifies strategies for surveillance and prevention of possible diseases. The risk of exposure to the virus among students and health professionals is a major concern showing that public adherence to biosafety measures is low. The objective was to evaluate knowledge, immunization against hepatitis B and use of biosafety measures by students of the health area at a university in the interior of Minas Gerais. Methods: Cross - sectional, descriptive study with self - filling questionnaires to health students composed of sociodemographic variables and about biosafety. Results: Of the 540 students who participated in the study, 37.2% declared that they did not know about biosafety, and of that total, 28.9% were not vaccinated against hepatitis B, 32.4% of the students considered that they were not exposed to biosafety hepatitis B virus, and of these 25.7% were not vaccinated. Still the study showed that 13.3% of the students did not use gloves and of these 41.7% were not vaccinated. Conclusion: It was verified that there are gaps in the knowledge and use of biosafety measures, among them, the failure of immunization against hepatitis B. In this sense, it is necessary to adopt policies of permanent education with systematic inclusion of biosafety and the adoption of mechanisms that will guarantee the immunization of these students.(AU)


Justificación y Objetivos: El virus de la hepatitis B tiene alta prevalencia mundial, con fuerte impacto en la salud pública, lo que justifica las estrategias de vigilancia y prevención de los posibles agravios. El riesgo de exposición al virus entre los estudiantes y los profesionales de la salud constituye una gran preocupación por la baja de la adhesión de este público a las medidas de bioseguridad. El objetivo fue evaluar el conocimiento, inmunización contra hepatitis B y el uso de las medidas de bioseguridad por estudiantes del área de la salud en una universidad en el interior de Minas Gerais. Métodos: Estudio transversal, descriptivo, con aplicación de cuestionario, de auto-relleno, a estudiantes del área de salud compuesto por variables sociodemográficas y sobre el tema bioseguridad. Resultados: Entre los 540 estudiantes que participaron en el estudio, el 37,2% declaró no tener conocimiento sobre bioseguridad, y de ese total, el 28,9% no fueron vacunados contra la hepatitis B, el 32,4% de los estudiantes consideró que no estaban expuestos al riesgo, virus de la hepatitis B, y de ese 25,7% no eran vacunados. Aún el estudio mostró que el 13,3% de los estudiantes no usaban guantes y de los 41,7% no eran vacunados. Conclusión: Se verificó que existen lagunas en relación al conocimiento y uso de las medidas de bioseguridad, entre éstas, el fallo de la inmunización contra hepatitis B. En este sentido, se hace necesaria la adopción de políticas de educación permanente con inclusión sistemática del tema bioseguridad y la adopción de mecanismos que garantizarán la inmunización de esos estudiantes.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Students, Health Occupations , Immunization , Containment of Biohazards , Education, Continuing , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis B virus , Public Health , Disease Prevention
12.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130030

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has been declining nationwide throughout Brazil since the introduction of universal child vaccination. The vaccine is currently available for all ages. However, most of the adult population has not been vaccinated and may still be susceptible to it. Most of the cases reported to the Brazilian Notifiable Diseases Information System (Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação - SINAN) are chronic, a consequence of early exposure in life. However, acute cases are the result of current transmission and may reveal the current dynamics of HBV circulation. Objective: To evaluate whether there is a change in the age distribution of acute hepatitis B in Brazil. Methods: To analyze the historical series of reported cases and incidence rates of acute hepatitis B by age group between 2007 and 2018, based on data reported to SINAN. Temporal trend was tested with non-parametric Cusick test. Results: The incidence rate fell from 1.02 (/ 100,000 inhabitants) in 2007 to 0.67 in 2018 (p=0.01). The drop was significant at all ages, except under 15 and over 60. The highest incidences (@1.0 / 100,000 inhab.) occurred between 20 and 59 years old. Conclusion: There is a progressive "aging" of acute hepatitis B cases in the country, probably due to the vaccine protection of younger people. A considerable portion of the older population is susceptible to HBV and may be exposed, especially by sexual route. Control measures such as vaccination and guidance for safe sex are needed.


Introdução: A prevalência da infecção pelo vírus da hepatite B (HBV) vem diminuindo em todo o Brasil desde a introdução da vacinação universal de crianças. Atualmente a vacina está disponível para todas as idades, porém a maior parte da população brasileira não foi vacinada e pode ainda ser suscetível. A maioria dos casos notificados ao Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN) é crônica, consequência de contágio antigo. Contudo os casos agudos são fruto de transmissão atual e podem revelar-nos a dinâmica atual da circulação do HBV. Objetivo: Avaliar se há mudança na distribuição etária da incidência da hepatite B aguda no Brasil. Métodos: Analisar a série histórica de casos notificados e as taxas de incidência de hepatite B aguda por faixa etária entre 2007 e 2018, tendo como base os dados notificados ao SINAN. Testar tendência temporal pelo teste não paramétrico de Cusick. Resultados: Houve queda da taxa de incidência de 1,02 (/100.000 hab.), em 2007, para 0,67, em 2018 (p=0,01). A queda foi significativa em todas as idades, exceto abaixo dos 15 e acima dos 60 anos. As maiores incidências (@1,0/100.000 hab.) ocorreram entre 20 e 59 anos. Conclusão: Há progressivo "envelhecimento" dos casos agudos de hepatite B no país, provavelmente pela proteção dos mais jovens por vacina. Parcela considerável da população mais idosa é suscetível ao HBV e continua exposta, principalmente por via sexual. São necessárias medidas de controle, como vacinação e orientação para prática de sexo seguro.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hepatitis B virus , Acute Disease , Hepatitis B , Vaccination , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Infections
13.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190559, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136898

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Brazil's western Amazon basin has the highest prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in the country. Coinfection with hepatitis D virus (HDV) is also endemic. To estimate the prevalence of HBV and HDV markers in a population inhabiting the northwest portion of Mato Grosso state in the western Amazon. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of the seroprevalence of antibodies against HBV core antigen (anti-HBc) in the Três Fronteiras District northwest of Mato Grosso. Anti-HBc-positive subjects were tested for HBV surface antigen (HBsAg). Those positive for this marker were tested for HDV antibodies. Anti-HBc-negative participants were tested for anti-HBsAg. All tests were performed by EIA. RESULTS: A total of 623 individuals in the community were assessed; the majority (67.6%) were male, with a mean age of 30.8 ± 15.4 years. Two hundred and fourteen individuals (34.3%) were anti-HBc-positive, and 47 (7.5%) were HBsAg carriers. Only one individual was anti-HDV-positive. Among the 409 individuals without HBV infection, 18.3% were anti-HBsAg-positive. There was no association between HBV infection and known risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: The study area had intermediate-to-high endemicity for HBV infection, but a low prevalence of HDV. Our serological results suggesting low vaccination-induced protection indicate a need for reinforced immunization programs in the populations of northwest Mato Grosso.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis D/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hepatitis B Antibodies , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Middle Aged
14.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(11): e9728, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1132496

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to propose a stem cell therapy for hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) based on plasma exchange (PE) for peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) collection and examine its safety and efficacy. Sixty patients (n=20 in each group) were randomized to PE (PE alone), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) (PE after G-CSF treatment), and PBSC transplantation (PBSCT) (G-CSF, PE, PBSC collection and hepatic artery injection) groups. Patients were followed-up for 24 weeks. Liver function and adverse events were recorded. Survival analysis was performed. PBSCT improved blood ammonia levels at 1 week (P<0.05). The level of total bilirubin, international normalized ratio, and creatinine showed significant differences in the 4th week of treatment (P<0.05). The survival rates of the PE, G-CSF, and PBSCT groups were 50, 65, and 85% at 90 days (P=0.034). There was a significant difference in 90-day survival between the PE and PBSCT groups (P=0.021). The preliminary results suggested that PBSCT was safe, with a possibility of improved 90-day survival in patients with HBV-ACLF.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Hepatitis B virus , Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor , Hepatitis B/complications , Plasma Exchange , Stem Cell Transplantation
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786182

ABSTRACT

The kidneys are closely connected with several organs, including the liver, and can therefore be negatively affected when the liver is damaged. The most common cause of chronic liver disease is chronic viral hepatitis, resulting from either a hepatitis B virus (HBV) or a hepatitis C virus (HCV). Chronic viral hepatitis often progresses to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. However, it can also lead to viral-associated glomerulopathies that can cause chronic kidney disease (CKD), which can then progress to end stage renal disease (ESRD). Additionally, patients with ESRD on hemodialysis are at risk for viral infections because HBV and HCV are hematogenously transmitted. Recently, treatments with oral nucleoside/nucleotide analogues and direct-acting antivirals have yielded excellent results in HBV- and HCV-infected patients with CKD. As a result, a new paradigm for the treatment of chronic viral infections in CKD patients has emerged. This review discusses viral-associated glomerulopathies, antiviral treatments of HBV and HCV infections in patients with CKD, and prevention strategies for the transmission of HBV and HCV in patients with ESRD.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Chronic Disease , Fibrosis , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis , Hepatitis B virus , Humans , Kidney Diseases , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Kidney , Liver Diseases , Liver , Renal Dialysis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878291

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Despite the remarkable progress in efforts to control disease spread, the nationwide elimination of hepatitis B in China is still hindered by the persistently high rate of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Western China. This study aimed to evaluate the strategy of hepatitis B prevention and control in Western China and identify potential areas and strategies for improvement.@*Methods@#Susceptible population vaccination, health education, professional training of doctors, and other prevention and control measures have been implemented in Wuwei city since 2010. Data were obtained from three representative cross-sectional serosurveys conducted in 2010, 2013, and 2015. The serum samples were subjected to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to detect the following seromarkers: HBV surface antigen (HBsAg), antibody against hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs), and antibody against hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc). Estimates of variance were determined using Taylor series linearization methods.@*Results@#The three serosurveys revealed decreases in the prevalence of HBsAg (7.19% in 2010 @*Conclusion@#Although vaccine-based prevention and control measures reduced the rate of HBV infection in Wuwei City over time, the hepatitis B infection rate in children younger than 10 years was still higher than the national average level. Therefore, the prevention and control of mother-to-child transmission and the management of the infected should be the focus of future prevention and control work.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Hepatitis B virus/isolation & purification , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Young Adult
18.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200006, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135222

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) - characterized by the absence of detectable HBsAg in the presence of HBV DNA - represents a potential threat for blood safety. OBJECTIVES This study was conducted with the aim to investigate the serological and molecular characterization of occult HBV infection (OBI) among blood donors in Mozambique. METHODS 1,502 blood donors were tested for HBsAg. All HBsAg-negative individuals were tested for HBV DNA. Antibodies against HBV core, surface and HBe antigen (anti-HBc, anti-HBs, HBeAg) were measured in HBV DNA positive individuals. FINDINGS 1435 serum samples were HBsAg negative and 16 positive for HBV DNA, 14 confirmed to have OBI, corresponding to a frequency of 0.98%. Of the 14 OBI infections identified, 13/14 (92.8%) were positive for anti-HBc, 4/14 (28.5%) for anti-HBs, and no samples were reactive for HBeAg. Of the 14 OBI cases, nine samples (64.2%) were sequenced for the S/P region. Eight samples (88.9%) belonged to genotype A1 and one (11.1%) to genotype E. One escape mutation (T123A) associated with OBI and various amino acid substitutions for genotype A1 and E were observed. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Our results show the importance of using nucleic acid amplification test to detect occult hepatitis B infection in blood donors in Mozambique.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Blood Donors , Hepatitis B virus/isolation & purification , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/genetics , Phylogeny , DNA, Viral , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Cross-Sectional Studies , Mozambique
19.
São Paulo; s.n; 2020. 142 p. graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP, CONASS, SESSP-CTDPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-TESESESSP, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1146173

ABSTRACT

Para avaliar o impacto das coinfecções pelos vírus T-linfotrópicos humanos 1 e 2 (HTLV-1/-2) e vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV) nas hepatites virais B e C, e analisar estratégias para melhoria e expansão do diagnóstico das infecções por HTLV-1/2, realizou-se este estudo. O impacto nas hepatites foi analisado pelas medianas de carga viral (CV) e clareamento viral obtidos em cada grupo de indivíduos infectados pelos vírus das hepatites B (HBV, n=1.910) e C (HCV, n=1.315), separados quanto à positividade para as coinfecções. A menor CV de HBV foi detectada nos HBV/HTLV-2, independente do status HIV (p<0,05). Enquanto os coinfectados HCV/HIV, HCV/HIV/HTLV-1/-2, apresentaram as maiores CV de HCV (p<0,05), e a menor foi detectada nos pacientes HCV/HTLV-2. No início do estudo 61,1% dos HBV/HTLV-2 e 21,4% dos HBV/HTLV-1 tinham CV indetectável. Contrapondo as porcentagens de CV indetectável nos HCV/HTLV-1 e HCV/HTLV-2, que eram inicialmente similares e, durante o acompanhamento, ocorreu mais depuração do HCV em pacientes HCV/HTLV-2 [OR 2,65; IC 95% (1,17­5,99)]. A busca por marcadores genéticos virais que pudessem interferir nos testes diagnósticos para HTLV-1/2, avaliou 69 amostras de DNA de indivíduos de SP [HTLV-1 (n=44) e HTLV-2 (n=25)] e, encontrou os subtipos HTLV-1aA e HTLV-2c e os respectivos genótipos TaxA e TaxC entre as estirpes circulantes. Ainda, mutações pontuais (LTR), sinônimas e não sinônimas (env e tax) e deleção de segmentos genômicos de HTLV-1/-2 (provírus defectivos), foram associados com pior desempenho dos testes de triagem e confirmatórios...(AU)


Subject(s)
Hepatitis B virus , HIV , Health Strategies , Hepatitis Viruses
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827196

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the expression and clinical significance of EZH2 in DLBCL patients accompanied by HBV infection.@*METHODS@#The clinicopathological data of 59 patients with DLBCL accompanied by HBV infection in our hospital from February 2015 to October 2017 were analyzed retrospectively. The patients were divided into HBV negative and HBV positive groups by serological testing before surgery. The expression of EZH2 was detected by immumohistochemical staining, and the clinicopathological characteristics and survival were analyzed and compared between these two groups.@*RESULTS@#There were 30 patients (50.8%) in the HBV negative group and 29 patients (49.2%)in the HBV positive group. The differences of age, LDH level and IPI score between two groups were statistically significant (P<0.05). The expression of EZH2 in HBV- positive group was significantly higher than that in the HBV- negative group (P<0.05), where the expression of EZH2 correlated with the expression of the BCL-6 (r=0.282, P<0.05), especially in the GCB-DLBCL (r=0.549, P<0.05). PFS was not significantly different between two groups of HBV (P>0.05), while the PFS in the R-CHOP regimen group was higher than that in the CHOP regimen group (P<0.05). COX multivariate analysis showed that both the chemotherapy regimen without R and the increased level of LDH were the risk factors affecting the prognosis of DLBCL patients (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#EZH2 highly expresses in HBV positive group, suggesting that the significance of EZH2 in DLBCL with HBV infection is worth further explore.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Cyclophosphamide , Doxorubicin , Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 Protein , Genetics , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis B virus , Humans , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse , Genetics , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Rituximab , Vincristine
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