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1.
Infectio ; 25(4): 293-295, oct.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1286725

ABSTRACT

Resumen La trombosis venosa cerebral (TVC) es una presentación clínica poco común del tromboembolismo venoso caracterizada por cefalea, crisis convulsivas, déficits neurológicos focales y papiledema. El diagnóstico es confirmado con Tomografía axial computarizada (TAC) de cráneo y Resonancia magnética nuclear (RMN) cerebral. La TVC tiene una relación importante con el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH), ya que los pacientes VIH positivos cursan con hiperviscosidad san guínea, alteraciones de factores anticoagulantes endógenos y riesgo de sobreinfección, entre otros; que predisponen a estados protrombóticos y lesión vascular como lo es la TVC. El tratamiento de la TVC es terapia anticoagulante, por lo general se utiliza heparina no fraccionada o heparina de bajo peso molecular para la fase aguda y anticoagulantes orales como la warfarina para el mantenimiento posterior. Reportamos el primer caso documentado de TVC en un paciente VIH positivo en Colombia.


Abstract Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a rare clinical presentation of venous thromboembolism characterized by headache, seizures, neurological deficits and papi lledema. The diagnosis is confirmed using computed tomography scan (CT scan) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. CVT has an important relationship with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) given that HIV-positive patients may present with blood hyperviscosity, irregular levels of endogenous anticoagulation factors and risk of sepsis among others, that predispose to prothrombotic states and vascular injury such as CVT. The treatment of CVT is anticoagulant therapy, generally unfractionated heparin or low molecular weight heparin for the early phase and oral anticoagulants such as warfarin for the late phase. This case reports the first documented case of CVT in an HIV positive patient in Colombia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Venous Thromboembolism , Skull , Brain , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , HIV , Headache , Hepatitis B
2.
Vaccimonitor (La Habana, Print) ; 30(2)mayo.-ago. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1252328

ABSTRACT

Hepatitis B infection is one of the most important health problems around the world. The high mortality rate of the hepatitis B encouraged research that led to the finding of an effective vaccine against it. The aim of the present study was to find out the use of the Euvax-B vaccine in sectors of Nineveh province. According to the results obtained in this study, in the next five years, the vaccination coverage for the second and third doses needs to improve(AU)


La infección por hepatitis B es uno de los más importantes problemas de salud del mundo. La alta tasa de mortalidad de la hepatitis B impulsó las investigaciones que llevaron a encontrar una vacuna eficaz contra la misma. El objetivo del presente estudio fue conocer el uso de la vacuna Euvax-B en sectores de la provincia de Nínive. De acuerdo con los resultados obtenidos, en los próximos cinco años, se debe incrementar la cobertura de inmunización de la segunda y tercera dosis de la vacuna(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Hepatitis B Vaccines , Hepadnaviridae Infections , Hepatitis B/mortality , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Iraq
3.
Infectio ; 25(2): 114-119, abr.-jun. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1250077

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de sífilis, hepatitis B y virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana en una población privada de la libertad de un establecimiento carcelario masculino de Bogotá D.C.-Colombia en 2019. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio de corte transversal en un establecimiento carcelario masculino de Bogotá, se incluyeron personas privadas de la libertad, mayores de 18 años. Los sujetos fueron sometidos a pruebas de detección de anticuerpos contra el Treponema pallidum, Antígenos de Superficie contra hepatitis B (HBsAg) y Virus de Inmunodeficiencia Humana (VIH) y respondieron un cuestionario estructurado para la descripción de conductas de riesgo. Resultados: Participaron 447 sujetos, ubicados en 7 pabellones del establecimiento carcelario. La prevalencia de sífilis fue del 5.8% (IC95% 3.8 - 8.4), del 1.1% para VIH (IC95% 0.4 - 2.6), y del 0.45% para hepatitis B crónica (IC95% 0.05 - 1.6). Discusión: A pesar de que la prevalencia documentada para estas patologías es más alta que en la población general, los resultados son más bajos que los reporta dos en instituciones de condiciones similares en otras latitudes. Se recomienda que el establecimiento continúe desarrollando políticas de promoción y prevención de estas patologías dentro de su población.


Abstract Objective: To determine the prevalence of syphilis, hepatitis B and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the male prison population in Bogotá, Colombia in 2019. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a male prison center in Bogotá, in which sequential sampling, stratified by ward, included people deprived of liberty, over 18 years of age and who voluntarily agreed to participate in the investigation. Subjects underwent tests for antibodies to Treponema pallidum, Surface Antigens against hepatitis B (HBsAg) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and they answered a structured questionnaire for the description of risk behaviors. Results: A total of 447 subjects were included, belonging to 7 prison wards. The prevalence of syphilis was 5.8% (95% CI 3.8 - 8.4), 0.5% for chronic hepatitis B (95% CI 0.05 - 1.6) and 1.1% for HIV (95% CI 0.4 - 2.6). Discussion: Although the documented prevalence for these pathologies is higher than in the general population, the results are lower than those reported in other institutions with similar conditions in other latitudes. It is recommended that the institution continue to strengthen its policies for the promotion and prevention of these pathologies within its population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Syphilis , Prevalence , HIV , Hepatitis B , Prisons , Colombia , Policy , Antibodies , Antigens, Surface
4.
Babcock Univ. Med. J ; 4(1): 14-22, 2021. Tables, figures
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1291976

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study examined the perception and practices relating to Hepatitis B infection among In-school adolescents in Ogun State, Nigeria.Methods: A cross-sectional study of 300 in-school adolescents selected by a multi-stage sampling method. Data were elicited using a pretested self-administered questionnaire which included questions relating to respondents' risky practices, and a 35-point Hepatitis B perception scale. Descriptive statistics, as well as Chi-square statistics, were generated using IBM SPSS Version 23, and the significance level was set at 0.05.Results: The mean age of the respondents was14.31 ± 1.73years and slightly over half (51.7%) were females. Less than half (45%) of the adolescents perceived themselves to be susceptible to Hepatitis B infection, while 31% perceived Hepatitis B infection to be a serious disease. Almost half (49%) of the adolescents had unfavorable perceptions. The most common risky practices among the respondents were sharing skin-piercing instruments with their family members (79%) and friends (68.7%). There are significant associations between sex (gender) and risky practices such as the practices of unsafe sex (X2= 9.11; p=0.10); having multiple sexual partners (X2= 12.08;p =0.02); and sharing skin-piercing instruments (X2= 5.52;p=0.01) with more males reporting the above practices than females. Conclusion/Recommendation: To minimize the identified risky practices and unfavorable perception, educational intervention programs aimed at promoting Hepatitis B virus preventive behaviors and increasing the level of perception of vulnerability and seriousness of HBV infection among in-school adolescents should be conducted.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Perception , Public Health Practice , Hepatitis B , Adolescent , Nigeria
5.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1292757

ABSTRACT

Lassa fever (LF) coinfection with hepatitis B and HIV has been reported among hospitalized patients in Southwest Nigeria and HIV patients coinfected with COVID-19 have been described among hospitalized patients in North Central Nigeria, no study has reported cases of coinfection of Lassa disease and COVID-19 among health care workers (HCWs) worldwide. A case report of two HCWs who were infected with both LF virus and SARS-CoV-2 virus at same time and were successfully managed without any sequelae. Both cases presented with typical signs of LF with COVID-19 suspected, they were promptly diagnosezd with positive outcomes after treatment. While case 1 became negative for LF virus and SARS-CoV-2 after 6 and 30 days, respectively, case 2 became negative for both viruses after 14 and 32 days, respectively. The diagnosis of LF-COVID-19 coinfection in HCWs is a frightening dimension to the health risks faced by HCWs, therefore, HCWs now more than ever before want to know what comes next and how safe is the practice of medicine


Subject(s)
Humans , HIV , Infectious Disease Transmission, Professional-to-Patient , COVID-19 , Hepatitis B , Lassa Fever
6.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e00892020, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143879

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Viral hepatitis is a major public health problem. It is necessary to understand the epidemic, verifying the combination of biological and demographic characteristics. METHODS: This is an analytical ecological and epidemiological study. Confirmed case data from the Notification Disease Information System (SINAN) were used. RESULTS: From 2009-2018, SINAN confirmed 404,003 viral hepatitis cases in Brazil, with 12.49%, 37.06%, and 48.28% cases of hepatitis A, B, and C, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In Brazil, 4,296 deaths were associated with viral hepatitis, of which 36.66% were associated with acute hepatitis B. The proportional distribution of cases varied among the five Brazilian regions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis, Viral, Human/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Epidemiologic Studies , Incidence
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879952

ABSTRACT

The pathogenesis of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is complicated with the crosstalk of multiple factors and the multi-step processes. The main mechanisms underlying the HBV-induced HCC include:①integration of HBV DNA into the host hepatocyte genome to alter gene function at the insertion site,resulting in host genome instability and expression of carcinogenic truncated proteins;②HBV gene mutations at S,C,and X coding regions in the genome;③HBV X gene-encoded HBx protein activates proto-oncogenes and inhibits tumor suppressor genes,leading to the HCC occurrence. In this article,the recent research progress on the molecular mechanism of HBV-induced HCC is comprehensively reviewed,so as to provide insights into the prevention,early prediction and postoperative adjuvant therapy of HCC.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Hepatitis B/complications , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatocytes , Humans , Liver Neoplasms
8.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 313-318, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879637

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization (WHO) has set the goal of eliminating viral hepatitis as a threat to public health by 2030. Blocking mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the key step for eliminating viral hepatitis, at the same time, it is the hotspot in the field of hepatitis B prevention and control as well. The China Foundation of Hepatitis Prevention and Control (CFHPC) organized a team of specialists to develop an algorithm for preventing MTCT of HBV, based on the most recent hepatitis B guidelines and the latest evidence. The algorithm covers 10 continuous steps from pregnant management to follow-up postpartum. Among the 10 steps, screening, antiviral therapy during pregnancy, and infant's immunization are the core components in the algorithm.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Child , China , Female , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B e Antigens , Hepatitis B virus , Humans , Infant , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control
9.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54(supl.1): e2020834, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250844

ABSTRACT

Abstract This article discusses viral hepatitis, a theme addressed by the Clinical Protocol and Therapeutic Guidelines to Comprehensive Care for People with Sexually Transmitted Infections and, more precisely, by the Clinical Protocols and Therapeutic Guidelines for Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C and Coinfections, published by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Besides the broad spectrum of health impairment, hepatitis A, B, and C viruses also present different transmission forms, whether parenteral, sexual, vertical, or fecal-oral. Among the strategies suggested for the control of viral hepatitis, in addition to behavioral measures, are expanded diagnosis, early vaccination against hepatitis A and hepatitis B viruses, and access to available therapeutic resources. Considering vertical transmission of the hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses, screening for pregnant women with chronic hepatitis B and C is an essential perinatal health strategy, indicating with precision those who can benefit from the prophylactic interventions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/diagnosis , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/prevention & control , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Hepatitis C/prevention & control , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Brazil , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control
10.
Rev Rene (Online) ; 22: e60690, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1250672

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo estimar a adesão à vacina contra a hepatite B em pessoas que vivem em situação de rua. Métodos estudo transversal com 90 pessoas que vivem em situação de rua com a coleta de 5ml de sangue para a detecção do anticorpo contra o antígeno de superfície do vírus da hepatite B. Resultados do total, 89 (98,9%) foram vacinados com a primeira dose; desses, 45 (50,7%) apresentaram anticorpo contra o antígeno de superfície do vírus da hepatite B inferior a 10 UI/mL; 25 (53,3%) receberam a segunda dose da vacina contra a hepatite B e nove (45,8%) participantes receberam a terceira dose de vacina. Indivíduos que mantinham relação com ambos os gêneros tiveram maior chance de aderir ao esquema completo da vacina contra a hepatite B. Conclusão evidenciaram-se a baixa adesão à vacina contra a hepatite B e o número reduzido de participantes com anticorpos que conferem imunidade contra essa infecção.


ABSTRACT Objective to estimate the adherence to hepatitis B vaccine in homeless people. Methods a cross-sectional study with 90 homeless people, with the collection of 5 ml of blood for the detection of antibody against the surface antigen of the hepatitis B virus. Results of the total, 89 (98.9%) were vaccinated with the first dose; of these, 45 (50.7%) had antibodies against hepatitis B virus surface antigen lower than 10 IU/L; 25 (53.3%) received the second dose of hepatitis B vaccine, and nine (45.8%) participants received the third dose of vaccine. Individuals who were related to both genders were more likely to adhere to the full hepatitis B vaccine schedule. Conclusion the low adherence to hepatitis B vaccination and the small number of participants with antibodies that confer immunity against this infection were evidenced.


Subject(s)
Homeless Persons , Immunization Schedule , Vaccination , Hepatitis B
11.
Rev. epidemiol. controle infecç ; 10(2): 100-105, abr.-jun. 2020. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1222344

ABSTRACT

Justificativa e objetivos: A biossegurança é de extrema importância para os profissionais de enfermagem, principalmente em áreas de elevado padrão endêmico para agravos como a infecção por vírus da hepatite B. Nesse sentido, o estudo teve como objetivo descrever aspectos relacionados às medidas de biossegurança e à infecção por vírus da hepatite B entre profissionais de enfermagem na Amazônia ocidental brasileira. Métodos: Estudo transversal, descritivo, realizado com profissionais de enfermagem atuantes no centro obstétrico de um hospital materno infantil. Resultados: 30 profissionais participaram da pesquisa, sendo 33,3% enfermeiros e 66,7% técnicos de enfermagem. A maioria foi do sexo feminino (70%) com média de idade de 40,9 anos. Para toda a amostra, 86,7% dos profissionais declararam esquema vacinal completo contra a hepatite B. Entre os técnicos de enfermagem, 15% declararam não ter realizado o anti-HBs. Quanto ao uso de equipamentos de proteção individual, 60% dos profissionais declararam uso esporádico. Para 80% dos enfermeiros e 60% dos técnicos de enfermagem, não houve oferta de treinamento em biossegurança. Sobre acidentes, 70% dos enfermeiros e 35% dos técnicos de enfermagem declararam ter sofrido algum tipo de exposição. Entre os enfermeiros, 85,7% afirmaram não ter notificado o evento. Entre os que sofreram acidente, 42,9% o relacionaram à carga horária excessiva. Conclusão: Os profissionais de enfermagem reconhecem a hepatite B como uma condição de alta incidência na região amazônica, o que exige medidas mais rígidas de biossegurança devido aos riscos. No entanto, apesar dos grupos investigados, em sua maioria, declararem um esquema completo de vacinação para a doença, foi observado relatos de falta de treinamento, uso esporádico de equipamentos de proteção individual, limitações nos testes de imunização (anti-HBs) e subnotificação de acidentes com risco biológico.(AU)


Background and objectives: Biosafety is extremely important for nursing professionals, especially in areas presenting high endemic pattern for certain diseases, such as the hepatitis B virus. In this sense, this study aimed to describe aspects related to biosecurity measures and infection by the hepatitis B virus among nursing professionals working in the western Brazilian Amazon. Methods: this is a cross-sectional, descriptive study conducted with nursing professionals working in the obstetric center of a maternal and children's hospital in the western Brazilian Amazon. Results: a total of 30 professionals participated in the research, 33.3% nurses and 66.7% nursing technicians. The professionals were mostly female, 70%, with a mean age of 40.9 years. A total of 86.7% of the professionals reported a complete hepatitis B vaccination scheme. Among nursing technicians, 15% stated that they had not received anti-HBs. Regarding the use of personal protective equipment, 60% of the professionals reported sporadic use. No biosafety training was offered for 80% of the nurses and 60% of the nursing technicians. Concerning accidents, 70% of the nurses and 35% of the nursing technicians reported having suffered some type of exposure. Among nurses, 85.7% said they had not notified. Among those who suffered an accident, 42.9% referred the event to an excessive workload. Conclusion: nursing professionals recognize hepatitis b as a condition of high incidence in the Amazon region, which requires stricter biosafety measures due to the risks. However, despite the fact that most of the investigated groups declare a complete vaccination schedule for the disease, there were reports of lack of training, sporadic use of personal protective equipment, limitations on immunization tests (anti-HBs) and underreporting of accidents with biological risk.(AU)


Justificativa y objetivo: la bioseguridad es de extrema importancia para los profesionales de enfermería, principalmente em las áreas de padrón endémico elevado para agravios como la infección por virus de la hepatitis B (VHB). El estudio tuvo como objetivo describir aspectos relacionados a las medidas de bioseguridad y la infección por VHB entre los profesionales de enfermería actuantes en la Amazonía occidental brasileña. Métodos: estudio transversal, descriptivo, realizado con profesionales de enfermería actuantes en un hospital materno infantil. Resultados: el estudio incluyó a 30 profesionales, 33.3% enfermeras y 66.7% técnicos de enfermería. los profesionales eran mayoritariamente del sexo femenino, 70%, con media de edad de 40,9 años. 86,7% de los profesionales declararon esquema vacunal completo contra VHB. Entre los técnicos de enfermería 15% declararon no haber realizado el anti-HBs. En relación al uso de equipo de protección individual 60% de los profesionales declararon el uso esporádico. Para 80% de los enfermeros y 60% de los técnicos no fueron ofertados entrenamientos en bioseguridad. Sobre accidentes, 70% de los enfermeros y 35% de los técnicos de enfermería declararon haber sufrido algún tipo de exposición. Entre los enfermeros 85,7% afirmaron que no notificaron los casos. Entre los que sufrieron accidentes 42,9% relacionaron con a la carga horaria excesiva. Conclusión: los profesionales de enfermería reconocen la hepatitis b como una condición de alta incidencia en la región amazónica, que requiere medidas de bioseguridad más estrictas debido a los riesgos. Sin embargo, a pesar del hecho de que la mayoría de los grupos investigados declaran un calendario completo de vacunación para la enfermedad, hubo informes de falta de capacitación, uso esporádico de equipos de protección personal, limitaciones en las pruebas de inmunización (anti-HBs) y subregistro de accidentes con riesgo biológico.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Containment of Biohazards , Hepatitis B , Nurse Practitioners , Nursing
12.
Rev. medica electron ; 42(3): 1850-1861, mayo.-jun. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1127046

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: la cirrosis es un proceso dinámico y actualmente se conoce que cuando se elimina el agente primario de agresión que ha producido la cirrosis, se puede llegar a remitir la fibrosis. En Cuba la enfermedad representa la décima causa de muerte, con una tendencia ascendente en los últimos 20 años y una tasa de 13,4 por 100 000 habitantes. Objetivo: caracterizar clínica y endoscópicamente a pacientes con diagnóstico de cirrosis hepática. Material y método: se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal, en el período comprendido entre los años 2017 - 19, donde el universo y la muestra quedaron constituidos por todos los pacientes mayores de 18 años ingresados con diagnóstico de cirrosis hepática. Resultados: predominó el sexo masculino en la sexta década de la vida, siento la principal causa el alcoholismo, caracterizado por manifestaciones generales, que en muchos casos debutan por complicaciones, apareciendo várices esofágicas en el 75 % de los casos, aunque gados I y II de Paquet, dependiente a un diagnóstico precoz de la enfermedad. Conclusiones: el alcoholismo crónico es la causa más frecuente de cirrosis hepática, debuta de forma frecuente por sus complicaciones, aunque el diagnóstico se hace en etapas precoces, con varices esofágicas incipientes (AU).


Summary Introduction: liver cirrhosis is a dynamic process and currently it is known that, when the primary agent of aggression that has produced the cirrhosis is eliminated, the fibrosis could remit. In Cuba, this diseases is the tenth cause of death, with an increasing tendency in the last twenty years and a rate of 13.4 per 100 000 inhabitants. Objective: to characterize, clinically and endoscopically, patients with hepatic cirrhosis diagnosis. Material and methods: a cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out, in the period 2017 - 2019, where the universe and the sample were formed by all the patients aged more than 18 years who entered the hospital with diagnosis of liver cirrhosis. Results: in this paper, male patients in their sixties predominated, being alcoholism the main cause of disease, characterized by general manifestations; patients debuted due to complications, appearing esophageal varices in 75 % of the cases, although Paquet I and II grades, in dependence to a disease precocious diagnosis. Conclusions: the authors concluded that chronic alcoholism is the most frequent cause in hepatic cirrhosis, almost always debuting by its complications, though the diagnosis is made in precocious stages, with emerging esophageal varices (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnosis , Ascites/complications , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Alcoholism/complications , Endoscopy , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology
13.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud; 20200300. 96 p. ilus.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, MINSAPERU | ID: biblio-1050085

ABSTRACT

La norma contiene la finalidad, objetivos, ámbito de aplicación, base legal y disposiciones generales y específicas para la prevención de la transmisión materno infantil del VIH, Sífilis y Hepatitis B.


Subject(s)
Syphilis , HIV Infections , Communicable Disease Control , Maternal and Child Health , Technical Standards , Hepatitis B
14.
Rev. epidemiol. controle infecç ; 10(1): 38-45, jan.-mar. 2020. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177777

ABSTRACT

Justificativa e Objetivo: O vírus da hepatite B tem alta prevalência mundial, com forte impacto na saúde pública, o que justifica as estratégias de vigilância e prevenção dos possíveis agravos. O risco da exposição ao vírus entre os estudantes e profissionais de saúde constitui uma grande preocupação mostrando-se baixa a adesão desse público as medidas de biossegurança. O objetivo foi avaliar o conhecimento, imunização contra hepatite B e uso das medidas de biossegurança por estudantes da área da saúde em uma universidade no interior de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Métodos: Estudo transversal, descritivo, com aplicação de questionário, de autopreenchimento, a estudantes da área da saúde composto por variáveis sociodemográficas e referentes ao tema biossegurança. Resultados: Dentre os 540 estudantes que participaram do estudo, 37,2% declararam não ter conhecimento sobre biossegurança, e desse total, 28,9% não foram vacinados contra a hepatite B, 32,4% dos estudantes consideraram que não estavam expostos ao vírus da hepatite B, e desses 25,7% não eram vacinados. Ainda o estudo mostrou que 13,3% dos estudantes não usavam luvas e destes 41,7% não eram vacinados. Conclusão: Verificou-se que existem lacunas em relação ao conhecimento e uso das medidas de biossegurança, entre estas, a falha da imunização contra hepatite B. Neste sentido, faz-se necessária a adoção de políticas de educação permanente com inclusão sistemática do tema biossegurança e adoção de mecanismos que garantirão a imunização desses estudantes.(AU)


Rationale and Objective: The hepatitis B virus has a high global prevalence, with a strong impact on public health, which justifies strategies for surveillance and prevention of possible diseases. The risk of exposure to the virus among students and health professionals is a major concern showing that public adherence to biosafety measures is low. The objective was to evaluate knowledge, immunization against hepatitis B and use of biosafety measures by students of the health area at a university in the interior of Minas Gerais. Methods: Cross - sectional, descriptive study with self - filling questionnaires to health students composed of sociodemographic variables and about biosafety. Results: Of the 540 students who participated in the study, 37.2% declared that they did not know about biosafety, and of that total, 28.9% were not vaccinated against hepatitis B, 32.4% of the students considered that they were not exposed to biosafety hepatitis B virus, and of these 25.7% were not vaccinated. Still the study showed that 13.3% of the students did not use gloves and of these 41.7% were not vaccinated. Conclusion: It was verified that there are gaps in the knowledge and use of biosafety measures, among them, the failure of immunization against hepatitis B. In this sense, it is necessary to adopt policies of permanent education with systematic inclusion of biosafety and the adoption of mechanisms that will guarantee the immunization of these students.(AU)


Justificación y Objetivos: El virus de la hepatitis B tiene alta prevalencia mundial, con fuerte impacto en la salud pública, lo que justifica las estrategias de vigilancia y prevención de los posibles agravios. El riesgo de exposición al virus entre los estudiantes y los profesionales de la salud constituye una gran preocupación por la baja de la adhesión de este público a las medidas de bioseguridad. El objetivo fue evaluar el conocimiento, inmunización contra hepatitis B y el uso de las medidas de bioseguridad por estudiantes del área de la salud en una universidad en el interior de Minas Gerais. Métodos: Estudio transversal, descriptivo, con aplicación de cuestionario, de auto-relleno, a estudiantes del área de salud compuesto por variables sociodemográficas y sobre el tema bioseguridad. Resultados: Entre los 540 estudiantes que participaron en el estudio, el 37,2% declaró no tener conocimiento sobre bioseguridad, y de ese total, el 28,9% no fueron vacunados contra la hepatitis B, el 32,4% de los estudiantes consideró que no estaban expuestos al riesgo, virus de la hepatitis B, y de ese 25,7% no eran vacunados. Aún el estudio mostró que el 13,3% de los estudiantes no usaban guantes y de los 41,7% no eran vacunados. Conclusión: Se verificó que existen lagunas en relación al conocimiento y uso de las medidas de bioseguridad, entre éstas, el fallo de la inmunización contra hepatitis B. En este sentido, se hace necesaria la adopción de políticas de educación permanente con inclusión sistemática del tema bioseguridad y la adopción de mecanismos que garantizarán la inmunización de esos estudiantes.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Students, Health Occupations , Immunization , Containment of Biohazards , Education, Continuing , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis B virus , Public Health , Disease Prevention
15.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 8(1): 1-4, 01/01/2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1103710

ABSTRACT

Introduction: IL-6 is a cytokine that participates in the systemic inflammatory process in Kala-azar, its plasma levels are high during active disease and especially in patients with severe clinical condition. Case reports: Three patients from different age groups, clinical score of severe disease and different plasma levels of IL-6 were reported. Conclusion: The results suggest that only the clinical severity score does not present sensitivity to classify, among critically ill patients, those with imminent risk of death. The IL-6 concentration seems to allow this differentiation, considering that the only fatal case, HBV/Leishmania coinfection, presented an expressively higher plasma level.


Introdução: IL-6 é uma citocina que participa do processo inflamatório sistêmico no calazar. Seus níveis plasmáticos estão elevados durante doença ativa e, principalmente, em pacientes com quadro clínico grave. Relato de casos: foram reportados três pacientes em diferentes faixas etárias, escore clínico de doença grave e diferentes níveis plasmáticos de IL-6. Conclusão: os resultados sugerem que apenas o escore clínico não apresenta sensibilidade para classificar, entre os doentes graves, aquele com risco iminente de óbito. A concentração de IL-6 parece permitir essa diferenciação, considerando que o único caso fatal, coinfecção HBV/Leishmania, mostrou nível plasmático expressivamente mais elevado.


Subject(s)
Coinfection , Interleukin-6 , Hepatitis B , Leishmaniasis, Visceral
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810952

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prophylaxis for hepatitis B virus (HBV) recurrence is essential after liver transplantation (LT) in HBV-associated recipients. We conducted real-world analysis of HBV prophylaxis after LT in the Korean population.METHODS: Korean Organ Transplantation Registry (KOTRY) database and additionally collected data (n = 326) were analyzed with special reference to types of HBV prophylaxis.RESULTS: The study cohort comprised 267 cases of living-donor LT and 59 cases of deceased-donor LT. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was diagnosed in 232 (71.2%) of these subjects. Antiviral agents were used in 255 patients (78.2%) prior to LT. HBV DNA was undetectable in 69 cases (21.2%) and detectable over wide concentrations in the other 257 patients (78.8%) prior to LT. Polymerase chain reaction analysis of the store blood samples detected HBV DNA in all patients, with 159 patients (48.9%) showing concentrations > 100 IU/mL. Post-transplant HBV regimens during the first year included combination therapy in 196 (60.1%), hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) monotherapy in 121 (37.1%), and antiviral monotherapy in 9 (2.8%). In the second post-transplant year, these regimens had changed to combination therapy in 187 (57.4%), HBIG monotherapy in 112 (34.4%), and antiviral monotherapy in 27 (8.3%). Trough antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen titers > 500 IU/mL and >1,000 IU/mL were observed in 61.7% and 25.2%, respectively. The mean simulative half-life of HBIG was 21.6 ± 4.3 days with a median 17.7 days. Up to 2-year follow-up period, HCC recurrence and HBV recurrence developed in 18 (5.5%) and 6 (1.8%), respectively. HCC recurrence developed in 3 of 6 patients with HBV recurrence.CONCLUSION: Combination therapy is the mainstay of HBV prophylaxis protocols in a majority of Korean LT centers, but HBIG was often administered excessively. Individualized optimization of HBIG treatments using SHL is necessary to adjust the HBIG infusion interval.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Cohort Studies , DNA , Follow-Up Studies , Half-Life , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis , Humans , Immunoglobulins , Korea , Liver Transplantation , Liver , Organ Transplantation , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Recurrence , Transplants
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878291

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Despite the remarkable progress in efforts to control disease spread, the nationwide elimination of hepatitis B in China is still hindered by the persistently high rate of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Western China. This study aimed to evaluate the strategy of hepatitis B prevention and control in Western China and identify potential areas and strategies for improvement.@*Methods@#Susceptible population vaccination, health education, professional training of doctors, and other prevention and control measures have been implemented in Wuwei city since 2010. Data were obtained from three representative cross-sectional serosurveys conducted in 2010, 2013, and 2015. The serum samples were subjected to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to detect the following seromarkers: HBV surface antigen (HBsAg), antibody against hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs), and antibody against hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc). Estimates of variance were determined using Taylor series linearization methods.@*Results@#The three serosurveys revealed decreases in the prevalence of HBsAg (7.19% in 2010 @*Conclusion@#Although vaccine-based prevention and control measures reduced the rate of HBV infection in Wuwei City over time, the hepatitis B infection rate in children younger than 10 years was still higher than the national average level. Therefore, the prevention and control of mother-to-child transmission and the management of the infected should be the focus of future prevention and control work.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Hepatitis B virus/isolation & purification , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Young Adult
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876567

ABSTRACT

@#Background: Multiple studies have described the insufficiency in knowledge, attitude and practices of the general population and of healthcare workers towards HBV infection across different countries. Objective: This study aims to assess the knowledge level and correlate it with the attitude and practices of pregnant women towards Hepatitis B infection. Methodology: This is a descriptive study on pregnant women consulting for their first antenatal visit in the outpatient department of a tertiary hospital. A structured self-administered questionnaire, adapted from a study by Han et al, was reviewed and modified by infectious disease experts, and then validated prior to use. 164 pregnant patients, aged 18-45 years old, were recruited. Logistic regression analysis was used to correlate attitude and practice to knowledge scores. Results: Most participants (48.78%) belonged to the 18-25 year old age group. Only 7.32% of the participants answered all knowledge questions correctly while 39.02% answered at least 2/3 of the questions correctly. Knowledge scores were not associated with patient demographic information but were correlated with their attitude and practices towards Hepatitis B infection. Conclusion: A lack of knowledge regarding Hepatitis B infection exists among pregnant patients. Government and private institutions must invest time and effort to bridge this knowledge gap. Health promotion should be directed towards the pregnant population since vertical transmission remains to be the most common route of transmission in our country.


Subject(s)
Hepatitis B , Pregnancy , Female , Knowledge
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827196

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the expression and clinical significance of EZH2 in DLBCL patients accompanied by HBV infection.@*METHODS@#The clinicopathological data of 59 patients with DLBCL accompanied by HBV infection in our hospital from February 2015 to October 2017 were analyzed retrospectively. The patients were divided into HBV negative and HBV positive groups by serological testing before surgery. The expression of EZH2 was detected by immumohistochemical staining, and the clinicopathological characteristics and survival were analyzed and compared between these two groups.@*RESULTS@#There were 30 patients (50.8%) in the HBV negative group and 29 patients (49.2%)in the HBV positive group. The differences of age, LDH level and IPI score between two groups were statistically significant (P<0.05). The expression of EZH2 in HBV- positive group was significantly higher than that in the HBV- negative group (P<0.05), where the expression of EZH2 correlated with the expression of the BCL-6 (r=0.282, P<0.05), especially in the GCB-DLBCL (r=0.549, P<0.05). PFS was not significantly different between two groups of HBV (P>0.05), while the PFS in the R-CHOP regimen group was higher than that in the CHOP regimen group (P<0.05). COX multivariate analysis showed that both the chemotherapy regimen without R and the increased level of LDH were the risk factors affecting the prognosis of DLBCL patients (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#EZH2 highly expresses in HBV positive group, suggesting that the significance of EZH2 in DLBCL with HBV infection is worth further explore.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Cyclophosphamide , Doxorubicin , Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 Protein , Genetics , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis B virus , Humans , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse , Genetics , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Rituximab , Vincristine
20.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1386-1390, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827107

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the reasons causing the false positive of HBsAg single-ELISA-reactive in blood donors of Jiangsu province so as to provide reference data for the return of blood donors.@*METHODS@#Serological test: HBsAg ELISA parallel detection was performed on 319 444 samples of blood donors from 2014 to 2017; the ECLIA was employed to confirm the single-ELISA-reactive (S/CO≥0.5) samples, the nucleic acid test was used to detect the HBV DNA on the all single-ELISA-reactive samples in 6/8 people mixed/single. Reagent evaluation: the Receiver-Operating-Characteristic curve (ROCC) was drawn by the ECLIA/NAT results as the gold standard, and the diagnostic performance of reagents A and B under different cut-off was evaluated.@*RESULTS@#A total of 227 (0.71‰) single-ELISA-reactive samples were detected among 319 444 blood donors, including 39 cases (17.2%) of positive HBsAg and 12 cases (5.3%) of positive HBV DNA; Under the maximum YI, the COI (1.0) employed by the manufacturer recommendation has a better diagnostic value than laboratory COI (0.5), and the capability of reagent A was better than that of reagent B (AUC: 0.661 vs 0.632; Youden: 0.329 vs 0.297), but the specificity of both reagents was restricted (<60%). Under the maximum YI, the best cut-off value of reagents A and B were 2.4 and 1.4 COI, respectively. Compared with the cut-off value of manufacturer, the sensitivity of reagents A decreased by 33% and the false positive rate decreased by 60% while the sensitivity of reagent B increased by 140% and the false positive rate increased by 36%, respectively.@*CONCLUSION@#The false positive of HBsAg single-ELISA-reactive in blood donors is caused by the limited specificity of ELISA reagent and the setting of COI values. According to ROCC maximum YI method, the COI can be set as 2.4 COI and (0.5-1.4) COI for reagent A and B to reduce false positive rate.


Subject(s)
Blood Donors , DNA, Viral , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B virus , Humans , Sensitivity and Specificity
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