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1.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 72(5): 1265-1270, Sep.-Oct. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1042147

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze clinical, serological, biochemical and hematological aspects in patients infected with the hepatitis B (HBV) and Delta (HDV) viruses. Method: cross-sectional, descriptive and retrospective study, performed with patients chronically infected with HBV and superinfected with HDV. Results: among the 112 patients selected, 74% were monoinfected with HBV (Group HBV) and 26% were superinfected with HDV (Group HBV+HDV). There was no difference in gender distribution. The average age was 36 years with standard deviation of ±12 years. The symptoms and signs presented a higher proportion in Group HBV+HDV (p=0.001). In both groups, most patients had non-reactive AgHBe. The records of biochemical and hematologic changes showed highest proportion in Group VHB+VHD Group (p<0.05). Conclusion: the study found that patients were in clinical stages of the disease different from those in the initial examination for monitoring their chronic condition. The clinical profile suggests greater severity of liver disease among the patients superinfected with HDV.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Analizar los aspectos clínicos, serológicos, bioquímicos y hematológicos de pacientes infectados por el virus de las hepatitis B (VHB) y Delta (VHD). Método: Se trata de un estudio transversal, descriptivo, retrospectivo, realizado entre pacientes crónicos infectados de VHB y sobre infectados de VHD. Resultados: Entre los 112 pacientes seleccionados, el 74% estaba mono infectado por VHB (Grupo VHB) y el 26%, sobre infectado por VHD (Grupo VHB+VHD). No se encontró diferencia en la distribución por género. La edad promedio era 36 años, con desviación típica de ±12 años. Los síntomas y signos sobresalían en mayor proporción en el grupo VHB+VHD (p=0,001). Para ambos grupos, la mayoría de los pacientes estaba con AgHBe no reactivo. El registro de alteraciones bioquímicas y hematológicas atribuyó proporción más grande al grupo VHB+VHD (p<0,05). Conclusión: El estudio demostró que los pacientes, en la consulta inicial para el seguimiento de la condición crónica, estaban en diferentes estadios clínicos de la enfermedad. El perfil clínico sugiere que la gravedad de la enfermedad hepática es mayor entre pacientes sobre infectados de VHD.


RESUMO Objetivo: Analisar aspectos clínicos, sorológicos, bioquímicos e hematológicos entre pacientes infectados por vírus das hepatites B (VHB) e Delta (VHD). Método: Estudo transversal, descritivo, retrospectivo, realizado com pacientes cronicamente infectados por VHB e superinfectados por VHD. Resultados: Entre os 112 pacientes selecionados, 74% estavam monoinfectados por VHB (Grupo VHB) e 26% superinfectados por VHD (Grupo VHB+VHD). Não houve diferença na distribuição por gênero. A idade média foi de 36 anos, com desvio padrão de ±12 anos. Os sintomas e sinais apresentaram maior proporção no grupo VHB+VHD (p=0,001). Para ambos os grupos, a maioria dos pacientes estava com AgHBe não reagente. O registro de alterações bioquímicas e hematológicas apresentou maior proporção no grupo VHB+VHD (p<0,05). Conclusão: O estudo revelou que os pacientes estavam em diferentes estágios clínicos da doença na consulta inicial para acompanhamento de condição crônica. O perfil clínico sugere maior gravidade da doença hepática entre os pacientes superinfectados por VHD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Hepatitis D/classification , Hepatitis B/classification , Hepatitis D/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Hepatitis Delta Virus/classification , Hepatitis B virus/classification , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Middle Aged
2.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180289, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-985161

ABSTRACT

Abstract Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) has been associated with acute or chronic hepatitis in Latin America, but there is no prevalence study covering South American countries. This meta-analysis aimed to estimate anti-HDV prevalence through a systematic review of published articles in English, Portuguese and Spanish until December 2017. Searches were conducted in Health Virtual Library, Capes, Lilacs, PubMed, and SciELO, according to defined criteria regarding participant selection and geographical setting. Study quality was assessed using the GRADE guidelines. Pooled anti-HDV prevalence was calculated using the DerSimonian-Laird random-effects model with Freeman-Tukey double arcsine transformation. Out of the 405 identified articles, only 31 met the eligibility criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis. In South America, pooled anti-HDV prevalence among hepatitis B virus carriers was 22.37% (95% confidence interval: 13.72-32.26), though it appeared less frequently in some countries and populations, according to the data collection date. The findings indicated significant successive reductions in anti-HDV prevalence over thirty years. However, there was a scarcity of HDV epidemiological studies outside the Amazon Basin, notably in the Southwest continent and absence of target population standardization. There was a high HDV prevalence in South American countries, despite differences in methodological characteristics and outcomes, highlighting a drastic decline in the last decades. Future studies should identify HDV prevalence estimates in other regions of the continent and identify risk factors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hepatitis D/epidemiology , Hepatitis Delta Virus/genetics , Hepatitis Delta Virus/immunology , Phylogeny , South America/epidemiology , Prevalence , Genotype
3.
An. bras. dermatol ; 93(2): 277-278, Mar.-Apr. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887187

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Crusted scabies is a less common variant of scabies that is highly contagious, difficult to treat and involves infestation by Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis. The classical clinical presentation includes crusted, scaly and generally non-pruritic lesions usually located on the head, neck, palmar, plantar and periungual region. It was first described in Norway in 1848 in patients with leprosy who presented with crusted lesions. In this study, we report the case of a patient with crusted scabies with florid clinical manifestations and chronic liver disease due to hepatitis B and delta virus infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Scabies/pathology , Scabies/drug therapy , Hepatitis Delta Virus , Hepatitis B virus , End Stage Liver Disease/virology , Scabies/immunology , Treatment Outcome , End Stage Liver Disease/complications , Antiparasitic Agents/therapeutic use
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-43204

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Mongolia has one of the highest hepatitis A, C, B and D infection incidences worldwide. We sought to investigate changes in the proportion of acute viral hepatitis types in Mongolia over the last decade. METHODS: The cohort comprised 546 consecutive patients clinically diagnosed with acute viral hepatitis from January 2012 to December 2014 in Ulaanbaatar Hospital, Mongolia. A time trend analysis investigating the change in proportion of acute hepatitis A virus, hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection among the cohort with respect to a previous published study was undertaken. RESULTS: Acute hepatitis A, B and C was diagnosed in 50.9%, 26.2% and 6.0% of the cohort. Notably, 16.8% of the cohort had a dual infection. The etiologies of acute viral hepatitis were varied by age groups. The most common cause of acute viral hepatitis among 2-19 year olds was hepatitis A, HBV and superinfection with HDV among 20-40 year olds, and HCV among 40-49 year olds. Patients with more than one hepatitis virus infection were significantly older, more likely to be male and had a higher prevalence of all risk factors for disease acquisition. These patients also had more severe liver disease at presentation compared to those with mono-infection. CONCLUSIONS: Acute viral hepatitis is still prevalent in Mongolia. Thus, the need for proper infection control is increasing in this country.


Subject(s)
Cohort Studies , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis A virus , Hepatitis A , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis C , Hepatitis D , Hepatitis Delta Virus , Hepatitis Viruses , Hepatitis , Humans , Incidence , Infection Control , Liver Diseases , Male , Mongolia , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Superinfection
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-258804

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>Hepatitis Delt a Virus (HDV) antigen is widely used as a capture antigen in ELISAs for the identification of HDV infection; large amounts of recombinant HDV antigen with active antigenicity are required for this purpose.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Reconstruct the gene of HDV antigen based on the bias code of Escherichia coli, the recombinant protein expresses by high-density fermentation with fed-batch feeding strategy, and purify by immobilized metal chromatography. The sensitivity and specificity of this antigen detect by ELISA method.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The expression of HDV antigen can reach 20% of the total cell mass in the soluble form. The recombinant HDV antigen can be conveniently purified (98%) by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) using the interaction between a His-tag and nickel ions. Production of recombinant HDV antigen can reach 0.5 g/L under conditions of high-density cell fermentation. Applied to the diagnostic ELISA method, the recombinant HDV antigen shows excellent sensitivity (97% for IgM and 100% for IgG) and specificity (100% for IgG and IgM) for the detection of anti-HDV antibodies.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Expression and purification the recombinant HDV antigen as a candidate protein for application in a diagnostic ELISA for HDV infection. Large-scale production of the protein can be achieved using the high-density fermentation strategy.</p>


Subject(s)
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Escherichia coli , Genetics , Metabolism , Fermentation , Hepatitis D , Diagnosis , Allergy and Immunology , Virology , Hepatitis Delta Virus , Allergy and Immunology , Hepatitis delta Antigens , Allergy and Immunology , Recombinant Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism
6.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-225513

ABSTRACT

Chronic hepatitis B affects 400 million people worldwide and is one of the leading causes of liver-related morbidity and mortality. All clinically available hepatitis B virus (HBV) drugs are nucleoside or nucleotide analogs that inhibit viral reverse transcriptase (RT) activity. Resistance to these HBV drugs has been widely reported, and is due to specific mutations in the viral RT domain. Therefore, the development of new, non-polymerase targeting anti-HBV agents is urgently needed. A potential drug target, the HBV receptor that mediates the viral entry process, has been recently identified using human primary hepatocytes, northern tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri) hepatocytes, and HepaRG cells. A transporter of bile acids, sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP), was identified as the receptor for HBV and hepatitis D virus, and the transport function of NTCP was correlated with HBV entry. Therefore, functional inhibitors of NTCP may inhibit HBV infection, and viral entry was blocked by several NTCP receptor-targeting compounds. The HBV receptor is an attractive target for development of entry inhibitors, and serves as a model for the mechanistic study of HBV entry and infection. This review will summarize the characteristics and clinical importance of NTCP, and will discuss the potential therapeutic use of NTCP inhibitors to prevent HBV entry.


Subject(s)
Bile Acids and Salts , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Hepatitis Delta Virus , Hepatocytes , Humans , Mortality , RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase , Taurocholic Acid , Tupaiidae
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-632859

ABSTRACT

Chorinic hepatitis B virus (CHB) infection is a serious problem that affects over 300 million people worldwide and is highly prevalent in the Asia Pacific region. In the Philippines an estimate 7.3 million Filipinos or 16.7% of adults are chronically infected with HBV, more than twice the average prevalence in the Western Pacific region. In view of the above, the Hepatology Society of the Philippines (HSP) embarked on the development of consensus statements on the management of hepatitis B with the primary objectives of standardizing approach to management, empowering other physicians involved in the management of hepatitis B and advancing treatment subsidy by the Philippine Health Insurance Corporation (PhilHealth). The local guidelines include screening and vaccination general management, indications for assessment of fibrosis in those who did not meet treatment criteria. indications for treatment, on-treatment and post-treatment monitoring and duration of antiviral treatment. Recommendations on the management of antiviral drug resistance, management of special populations including patients with concurrent HIV or hepatitis C infection, women of child-bearing age (pregnancy and breastfeeding), patients with decompensated liver disease, patients receiving immunosuppressive medications or chemotherapy and patients in the setting of hepatocellular carcinoma are also included. However, the guidelines did not include management for patients with liver and other solid organ transplantation, patients on renal replacement therapy, and children. The consensus statements will be amended accordingly as new therapies become available.


Subject(s)
Hepatitis B , Consensus , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Hepatitis B virus , Fibrosis , Drug Therapy , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Liver Cirrhosis , Hepatitis Delta Virus , HIV
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-18375

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The aims of the present study were to determine the outcomes of inactive hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg) carriers over a 10-year study period and to elucidate the HBV serological profile of their family members. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the medical files of inactive HBsAg carriers followed up at the Department of Infectious Diseases of Kocatepe University Medical Faculty Hospital between March 2001 and January 2011. RESULTS: In total, 438 inactive HBsAg carriers were enrolled in this trial. The follow-up period was 33.7+/-22.5 months (mean+/-SD). Anti-hepatitis-B surface antibody seroconversion occurred in 0.7% of cases, while chronic hepatitis B was found in 0.5%. The anti-hepatitis-D virus (HDV) status was evaluated in 400 patients and anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) in 430. It was found that 1% and 0.2% were positive for anti-HDV and anti-HCV, respectively. HBV serology was investigated in at least 1 family member of 334/438 (76.3%) patients. The HBsAg positivity rate was 34.6% in 625 family members of 334 patients. A comparison of the HBsAg positivity rates in terms of HBV DNA levels in index cases revealed that HBsAg seropositivity rates were higher in family members of HBV DNA-negative patients than in family members of HBV DNA-positive cases (P=0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The HBsAg positivity rate was higher in family members of inactive HBsAg carriers than in the general population; these family members therefore have a higher risk of HBV transmission. Furthermore, despite negative HBV DNA levels, transmission risk was not reduced in these patients, and horizontal transmission seems to be independent of the HBV DNA value.


Subject(s)
Adult , Antibodies/blood , Carrier State , DNA, Viral/analysis , Family Health , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hepatitis B Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/blood , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis B, Chronic/diagnosis , Hepatitis Delta Virus/immunology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
9.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2013. xvi,92 p. ilus, mapas, graf, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-695563

ABSTRACT

O vírus da hepatite D (Hepatitis D Virus ou HDV) é um vírus defectivo que necessita da presença do vírus da hepatite B (HBV) para completar seu ciclo infeccioso. A infecção pelo HDV está associada a uma forma mais grave de hepatite e com aumento do risco de progressão para complicações, tais como, cirrose e carcinoma hepatocelular. No Brasil, a Bacia Amazônica é uma área endêmica para a infecção pelo HDV, no entanto, poucos dados foram avaliados em outras regiões do país. Este estudo avaliou a prevalência de HDV em pacientes com infecção aguda ou crônica pelo HBV, acompanhados no Ambulatório Hepatites Virais, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, entre 2006 e 2011. Um total de 368 amostras de soro de pacientes positivos para o antígeno de superfície do vírus da hepatite B (HBsAg) foi testado para a presença de anticorpos anti-HD utilizando o ensaio comercial ETI-AB-DELTAK-2, de acordo com as instruções do fabricante. Amostras com resultados reagentes ou indeterminados foram retestadas em duplicata, para confirmação ou não do resultado. Amostras anti-HD positivos foram testadas por PCR para amplificar um fragmento da região genômica do antígeno delta (HDAg). As amostras positivas para HDV RNA foram submetidas ao sequenciamento de nucleotídico, a fim de identificar o genótipo do HDV. As sequências obtidas foram alinhadas utilizando o programa Clustal X e a análise filogenética foi realizada usando o programa MEGA v.5. A carga viral do HBV foi quantificada por meio do ensaio comercial COBAS ® TaqMan ® HBV e o genótipo do HBV foi determinado pelo ensaio INNO-LIPA. Nossa população de estudo consistiu de 243 homens e 125 mulheres, com média de idade de 43 anos (1-82 anos), sendo 138 e 230 pacientes com infecção aguda e crônica pelo HBV, respectivamente. Cinco pacientes foram positivos para anticorpos anti-HD (infecção aguda pelo HBV, n = 1; infecção crônica pelo HBV, n = 4) e um dos pacientes com infecção crônica pelo HBV apresentou amostras com HDV RNA detectável. A análise filogenética mostrou que a sequência do HDV se agrupou com o genótipo 3. Dos quatro pacientes que tiveram HBV DNA detectado, três apresentaram baixos níveis de HBV DNA. Em relação ao genótipo de HBV, o genótipo A foi mais prevalente (n = 4). A fim de caracterizar a variabilidade genética de todo o genoma de HDV, o genoma completo foi sequenciado e as sequências de aminoácidos deduzidas foram inferidas utilizando o programa MEGA v.5. O genoma da amostra identificado no presente estudo é constituído por 1673 nucleotídeos e mostrou apenas 88,7% de similaridade com as sequências de genótipo 3 caracterizadas até o momento. A região LHDAg (large HDAg) da amostra brasileira contém múltiplas substituições de aminoácidos, que são conservadas em todas as sequências completas de genótipo 3, cujo significado ainda não foi estabelecido. Este trabalho constitui o primeiro estudo sobre a caracterização da variabilidade genética do genoma completo do HDV no Brasil. Em conclusão, apesar da soroprevalência de HDV ser considerada baixa em nossa coorte, este resultado destacou a importância da investigação infecção pelo HDV em áreas não endêmicas.


Subject(s)
Genome , Hepatitis D , Hepatitis Delta Virus
10.
PJMR-Pakistan Journal of Medical Research. 2013; 52 (1): 8-11
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-146868

ABSTRACT

Hepatitis is an escalating problem in Pakistan due to lack of awareness about its risk factors. To create awareness about risk factors for hepatitis in patients coming for its treatment at a tertiary care hospital using a counseling intervention. The study was conducted at civil hospital, Karachi. Patients having hepatitis B or C were enrolled. Each patient filled a pre and post counseling questionnaire [after 6 months]. A total of 153 hepatitis positive patients were counseled. There were 108 females and 45 males. Majority [83] had hepatitis C virus, 56 had hepatitis B virus, 08 had co-infection of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis D virus and 06 had hepatitis B virus with hepatitis C virus. Counseling was done on multiple parameters. Pre counseling figures for using brand new syringes were 32% which improved to 81% after counseling, for using screened blood these changed from 22% to 81%, for sterilized dental instruments they improved from 21% to 65% and for avoiding road side barbers they improved from 58% to 78%. The figures for hepatitis B virus vaccination in hepatitis C virus patients rose from 3% to 36.6% and for families rose from 2.6% to 43.1%. Great improvements were seen in the awareness and health seeking behavior of hepatitis cases following behavior change communication. More stress should be given on preventive strategies through mass awareness and counseling programs to control disease spread


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Patient Education as Topic , Counseling , Tertiary Care Centers , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis C , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis D , Hepatitis Delta Virus , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 45(6): 691-695, Nov.-Dec. 2012. mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-661068

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: A decline in hepatitis D virus (HDV) occurrence was described in Europe and Asia. We estimated HDV prevalence in the Brazilian Amazon following hepatitis B vaccination. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional survey of HDV measured by total antibodies to HDV (anti-HD T). RESULTS: HDV prevalence was 41.9% whiting HBsAg carries and was associated with age (PR = 1.96; 95% CI 1.12-3.42; p = 0.01), hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (PR = 4.38; 95% CI 3.12-6.13; p < 0.001), and clinical hepatitis (PR =1.44; 95% CI 1.03-2.00; p = 0.03). Risk factors were related to HDV biology, clinical or demographic aspects such as underlying HBV infection, clinical hepatitis and age. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated that HDV infection continues to be an important health issue in the Brazilian Amazon and that the implementation of the HBV vaccination in rural Lábrea had little or no impact on the spread of HDV. This shows that HDV has not yet disappeared from HBV hyperendemic areas and reminding that it is far from being a vanishing disease in the Amazon basin.


INTRODUÇÃO: É descrito declínio na ocorrência do vírus da hepatite D (VHD) na Europa e Ásia. Estimamos a prevalência de infecção pelo VHD na Amazônia Ocidental, após a introdução da vacinação contra hepatite B. MÉTODOS: Este é um estudo de corte transversal da prevalência do VHD medido pela ocorrência de anticorpos totais (anti-HD T). RESULTADOS: A prevalência do VHD encontrada foi 41,9% entre os portadores do HBsAg, e esteve associado à idade (RP = 1,96; IC 95% 1,12-3,42; p = 0,01), infecção pelo HBV (RP = 4,38; IC 95% 3,12-6,13; p < 0,001) e história clínica de hepatite (RP =1,44; IC 95% 1,03-2,00; p = 0,03). Fatores de risco mostraram-se associados à biologia do HDV, aspectos clínicos e demográficos como infecção prévia pelo VHB e idade. CONCLUSÕES: O estudo demonstra que a infecção pelo VHD continua sendo um importante problema de saúde pública na região, e que a implantação da vacinação contra o VHB na área rural de Lábrea teve um impacto pouco significativo no controle do VHD, percebe-se que este ainda não desapareceu de áreas hiperendêmicas do VHB, e está longe de poder ser classificado como uma doença em declínio na bacia Amazônica.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Hepatitis Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis D/epidemiology , Hepatitis Delta Virus/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Brazil/epidemiology , Hepatitis B Vaccines/administration & dosage , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Hepatitis D/diagnosis , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Rural Population/statistics & numerical data
12.
Medical Forum Monthly. 2012; 23 (11): 52-54
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-154131

ABSTRACT

To find out the frequency of delta virus [HDV] in HBV positive patients. Observational Study. This study was conducted at the Department of Medicine PUMHS Nawabshah form 01-01-2011 to 31-12-2011. 200 adult patents of conformed Hepatitis B were included in the study blood samples of all the patients were screened for HDV by Elisa method / PCR during period of one yare. Clinical status of positive and negative patients was also compared. Anti HDV was found in 32 patients [15%1] among them 20 [62%] were male and 12 [38%] were female. The prevalence of HDV infection in HBV +ve patients is significant our area. Primary eradication of Hepatitis B virus is required


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Hepatitis Delta Virus , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis B virus
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-305050

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the distribution of hepatitis delta virus (HDV) marker among hepatitis B virus (HBV) infected patients and to reveal its clinical significance.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>To collect the clinical data and sera samples of HBV infected patients and to detect HDAg, Anti-HDV as well as HBV infection markers by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbnent assay. These data combined with clinical diagnostic results and biochemical index were then analyzed.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>462 samples of HBV infected patients were collected including 210 HBV carriers without symptom, 175 chronic HBV infections, 35 acute HBV infections and 42 liver fibrosis. The HDV infection rate was 4.8% overall. The highest infection rate of 9.5% was found in the group of liver fibrosis whereas the lower rate of 6.9% was found in HBV chronic carriers. HDV infection rate was 7.8% among the population of 40-60 years old, obviously higher than any other age groups.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>HDV infection was significantly higher in the chronic HBV patients and liver fibrosis patients. Because HDV infection was highly associated with the progress of liver disease, we suggest the screen of HDV markers among hepatitis patients and discriminate whether the patient was co-infected with HDV.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers , Blood , Child , Coinfection , Blood , Diagnosis , Allergy and Immunology , Virology , Female , Hepatitis Antibodies , Allergy and Immunology , Hepatitis B , Blood , Diagnosis , Allergy and Immunology , Virology , Hepatitis B Antigens , Blood , Hepatitis B virus , Allergy and Immunology , Physiology , Hepatitis D , Blood , Diagnosis , Allergy and Immunology , Virology , Hepatitis Delta Virus , Allergy and Immunology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
14.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 123-133, 2012.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-28607

ABSTRACT

Hepatitis viruses are most important cause of acute and chronic hepatitis. In past, hepatitis B virus was one of the major causes of acute hepatitis. Recently, around 60-70% of acute hepatitis is attributed to hepatitis A virus infection. In this article, we will discuss the route of hepatitis virus infection, how to prevent transmission of viral hepatitis and who should be immunized to each hepatitis viruses.


Subject(s)
Hepacivirus , Hepatitis , Hepatitis A virus , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis Delta Virus , Hepatitis E virus , Hepatitis Viruses , Hepatitis, Chronic , Vaccination
15.
Iatreia ; 24(1): 76-86, mar. 2011. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-599275

ABSTRACT

Las infecciones por los virus de las hepatitis A (VHA), B (VHB), C (VHC), D (VHD) y E (VHE) producen cuadros clínicos y bioquímicos similares, por lo que es necesario recurrir a pruebas de laboratorio diferentes a las de función hepática para identificar con certeza los agentes etiológicos; entre ellas se encuentran: las serológicas, con la que se pueden detectar antígenos virales y los correspondientes anticuerpos, y las moleculares que permiten detectar el genoma viral. Para diagnosticar la existencia de una infección actual por cualquiera de estos virus basta con las pruebas serológicas, excepto en el caso de la infección por VHC para la que es necesario detectar el genoma viral. Las pruebas moleculares son de gran utilidad para el seguimiento y la toma de decisiones terapéuticas en los pacientes con infección crónica por VHB o VHC. El presente artículo es una revisión de las pruebas de laboratorio disponibles para el diagnóstico de cada una de las hepatitis virales.


Infections due to hepatitis viruses A (HAV), B (HBV), C (HCV), D (HDV), and E (HEV) result in similar clinical and biochemical manifestations. Consequently, in order to identify with certainty the etiologic agents of hepatitis, it is necessary to carry out laboratory tests different from those used to assess liver function. Two kinds of tests are available for that purpose, namely: serological and molecular. The former are useful to detect viral antigens and the corresponding antibodies. The latter allow the detection of viral genomes. In order to diagnose current infections with any such viruses, except HCV, serological tests are sufficient. For HCV it is necessary to detect the viral genome. Molecular tests are very useful for follow-up purposes, and to fundament therapeutic decisions in patients with either HBC or HCV chronic infections. This article presents a review of the tests available to diagnose the different agents of viral hepatitis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hepatitis , Hepatitis A , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis C , Hepatitis D , Hepatitis E , Infections/transmission , Serology , Viral Load , Viruses , Hepatitis Delta Virus
16.
São Paulo; s.n; 2011. 162 p. ilus, mapas, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-620002

ABSTRACT

As hepatites virais estão entre as mais importantes pandemias mundiais da atualidade. Existem várias causas de hepatite, entre elas, o vírus da hepatite B (HBV), o vírus da hepatite C (HCV) e o vírus da Hepatite Delta (HDV). Da mesma forma, o vírus GB-C (GBV-C) é importante na coinfecção com outros vírus, como o HIV. Nesse estudo, várias regiões da América do Sul foram analisadas. Na Colômbia, os estados do Amazonas e Magdalena foram encontradas como regiões hiperendêmicas para HBV. O genótipo F3 (75%) foi o mais prevalente. Determinou-se que o subgenótipo F3 é o mais antigo dos subgenótipos F. No estado de Chocó, encontrou-se o subgenótipo A1 (52,1%) como o mais prevalente. Surpreendentemente, nesse mesmo estado foram encontrados nove casos autóctones de infecção pelo genótipo E (39,1%). Para o HCV, em Bogotá, encontrou-se o subtipo 1b (82,8%) como o mais prevalente. Da mesma forma, estimou-se que esse subtipo foi introduzido por volta de 1950 e se propagou exponencialmente entre 1970 a 1990. O HDV foi identificado em casos de hepatite fulminante do estado de Amazonas, todos classificados como genótipo 3. Se determinou que o HDV/3 se espalhou exponencialmente a partir de 1950 a 1970 na América do Sul e depois desta época, esta infecção deixou de aumentar, provavelmente devido a introdução de vacinação contra o HBV. GBV-C foi procurado em doadores de sangue colombianos infectados com HCV e/ou HBV de Bogotá e em povos indígenas com infecção pelo HBV no Amazonas. A análise filogenética revelou a presença do genótipo 2a como o mais prevalente entre os doadores de sangue e o 3 nos povos indígenas estudados. A presença do genótipo 3 na população indígena foi previamente relatada na região de Santa Marta, na Colômbia e nos povos indígenas da Venezuela e da Bolívia. No Chile, foi realizado um estudo com 21 pacientes cronicamente infectados pelo HBV sem tratamento antiviral prévio...


Viral hepatitis are among the major pandemics in the world nowadays. There are many causes of hepatitis, including hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis delta virus (HDV). Similarly, GB virus C (GBV-C) is a relevant agent in co-infection with HIV. In this study, several regions of South America were studied. In Colombia, the states of Amazonas and Magdalena were identified as highly endemic areas for HBV. Genotype F3 (75%) was the most prevalent. It was determined that subgenotype F3 is the oldest among all F subgenotypes. In the state of Chocó, subgenotype A1 (52.1%) was the most prevalent. Surprisingly, nine indigenous cases of infection by genotype E (39.1%) were found in this state. For HCV, in Bogotá, subtype 1b (82.8%) was the most frequent. Likewise, it was estimated that this subtype was introduced around 1950 and spread exponentially from 1970 to 1990. HDV has been identified in cases of fulminant hepatitis in the state of Amazonas, all of them classified as genotype 3. It was determined that the HDV/3 spread exponentially from 1950 to 1970 in South America and after this time, this infection stopped to increase, probably due to introduction of vaccination against HBV. GBV-C was sought in Colombian blood donors infected with HCV and/or HBV in Bogotá and indigenous peoples with HBV infection in the Amazon. The phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of genotype 3 as the most prevalent among blood donors and in three studied indigenous people. The presence of genotype 3 in the indigenous population has been previously reported in the region of Santa Marta, Colombia, and in the indigenous peoples of Venezuela and Bolivia. In Chile, a study was carried out with 21 patients chronically infected with HBV without any prior antiviral treatment...


Subject(s)
Humans , Blood Donors , Epidemiology , GB virus C , Hepatitis Delta Virus , Hepatitis B/virology , Hepatitis C/virology , Population Groups
17.
JCPSP-Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan. 2011; 21 (1): 23-25
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-112813

ABSTRACT

To determine the frequency of HDV among hepatitis B surface antigen [HBsAg]-positive liver disorders. An observational cross-sectional study. Medical Unit I, Chandka Medical College Hospital, Larkana, from July 2003 to June 2008. Adult patients with HBs liver related disorders were evaluated for the presence of delta antibodies using commercially available ELISA kits. Descriptive statistcs were used for describing data. Proportions of anti D antibodies between gender and age were compared using chi-square test with significance at p < 0.05. Of the 774 cases, 438 were males [60.4%] and 336 were females [39.6%]. The mean age was 36.5 +/- 14.39 for males and 34.03 +/- 13.16 years for females ranging from 15 to 60 years. Anti-HDV was positive in 183 patients [23.6%].The frequency of HDV was not significantly different between the gender groups [p=0.718]. HDV infection was markedly higher in chronic than acute liver disorders. The HBV/HDV co-infection is frequent in the studied area. Therefore, practitioners and health care managers should be made aware of the risk of dual infection with HBV and HDV


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Hepatitis Delta Virus , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/metabolism , Liver Diseases/immunology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies
18.
JCPSP-Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan. 2011; 21 (12): 735-740
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-122872

ABSTRACT

To determine the response of one-year interferon-alpha therapy in hepatitis delta virus [HDV] infection in children and young adults at a tertiary care hospital, Karachi, Pakistan. An observational study. Sarwar Zuberi Liver Centre [SZLC], Medical Unit IV, Civil Hospital, Karachi / Dow University of Health Sciences [DUHS], from June 2009 to July 2010. Paediatric patients [< 18 years age] and young adults [18-35 years] presenting were screened for hepatitis B virus [HBV] and HDV sero-markers. HDV anti-body positive by ELISA were further screened for hepatitis D ribonucleic acid [HDV-RNA] by real time PCR. HDV RNA PCR positive patients were treated with INF- alpha [children 6 MIU/m2/day and adults 5 MIU/day] for a period of one year. Patients were assessed monthly. Haematological parameters and ALT were monitored during treatment. Clinical progress [side effects] and negative HDV RNA were used as response criteria. Overall 49 patients were HDV RNA positive [children: n=15, mean age 15 +/- 2.92 years adults: n=34, mean age 27 +/- 4 years]. Eighty percent were male. Treatment was given to 25 patients [children: n=11, adults: n=14]. HBV genotype D was the predominant in all HDV RNA positive patients [73%]. Eighty percent [20/25] were HDV-RNA negative after one year of treatment, and remaining patients are still under treatment. Side effects were tolerated well and children continued regular activity. Haematological parameters were unremarkable. Children maintained their pre-treatment centile for height and weight [growth parameters]. ALT levels were significantly decreased post-treatment. Conventional INF- was safe in children with HDV infection in terms of side effects and growth parameters. Eighty percent were HDV-RNA negative one year after treatment. Further follow-up 2 years post-treatment will give conclusive results


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Hepatitis D, Chronic/drug therapy , Child , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult , Hepatitis Delta Virus
19.
Prensa méd. argent ; 97(2): 111-115, abr. 2010.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-601739

ABSTRACT

The aim of this report was to determine retrospectively the prevalence of hepatitis viruses infection by both HBV and HDV, and to identify the genotype in a population of blood donors. From 42,055 sample of donors, the authors study the hepatitis B virus and hepatitis D virus prevalence and molecular analysis in an Argentinean population. The results obtained are detailed in the article.


Subject(s)
Humans , Blood Chemical Analysis , Blood Donors , Genotype , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis Delta Virus , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Serologic Tests , Virology
20.
JDUHS-Journal of the Dow University of Health Sciences. 2009; 3 (1): 1-3
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-93784
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