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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009353

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To develop a genotyping method for the Junior blood type and report on a rare blood type with Jr(a-).@*METHODS@#Healthy O-type RhD+ volunteer donors of the Shenzhen Blood Center from January to May 2021 (n = 1 568) and a pedigree with difficult cross-matching (n = 3) were selected as the study subjects. Serological methods were used for proband's blood type identification, unexpected antibody identification, and antibody titer determination. Polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific primer (PCR-SSP) method was used for typing the proband's RhD gene. ABCG2 gene coding region sequencing and a PCR-SSP genotyping method were established for determining the genotypes of the proband and his family members and screening of Jra antigen-negative rare blood type among the 1 568 blood donors.@*RESULTS@#The proband's ABO and RhD blood types were respectively determined as B and partial D (RHDDVI.3/RHD01N.01), Junior blood type Jra antigen was negative, and plasma had contained anti-D and anti-Jra. Sequencing of the ABCG2 gene revealed that the proband's genotype was ABGG201N.01/ABGG201N.01 [homozygous c.376C>T (p.Gln126X) variants], which is the most common Jr(a-) blood type allele in the Asian population. Screening of the voluntary blood donors has detected no Jr(a-) rare blood type. Statistical analysis of the heterozygotes suggested that the allelic frequency for ABCG2*01N.01 (c.376T) was 0.45%, and the frequency of Jr(a-) rare blood type with this molecular background was about 0.2‰.@*CONCLUSION@#A very rare case of partial DVI.3 type and Jr(a-) rare blood type has been identified. And a method for identifying the Junior blood type through sequencing the coding regions of the ABCG2 gene and PCR-SSP has been established.


Subject(s)
Humans , Blood Group Antigens/genetics , Genotype , Genotyping Techniques , Heterozygote , Alleles , Blood Donors , Rh-Hr Blood-Group System/genetics
2.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1133-1137, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009970

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the prevalence, genotype distribution and hematological characteristics of α,β-thalassaemia carriers in Huizhou area of Guangdong Province.@*METHODS@#10 809 carriers of simple β-thalassaemia and 1 757 carriers of α,β-thalassaemia were enrolled as our study cohort. The hematological parameters were detected by automated blood cell counters and automatic capillary electrophoresis. Suspension array technology, gap-polymerase chain reaction (gap-PCR) and PCR-reverse dot blot were used for the genotyping of thalassaemia carriers.@*RESULTS@#The prevalence of α,β-thalassaemia in Huizhou area of Guangdong Province was 1.99%. A total of 62 genotypes were detected, and the most prevalent genotype was --SEA/ αα, βCD41-42/ βN (19.29%), the next was --SEA/ αα, βIVS-II-654/ βN (16.73%). Significant differences in mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) were found between different genotype groups for simple β-thalassaemia and α,β-thalassaemia. Violin plots showed that carriers with co-inheritance of β-thalassaemia and mild α-thalassaemia expressed the lightest anemia, and carriers with co-inheritance of β-thalassaemia and hemoglobin H (Hb H) disease expressed the most severe anemia.@*CONCLUSION@#There is a high prevalence of α,β-thalassaemia in Huizhou area of Guangdong Province. Because of the lack of specific hematological makers for diagnosis of α,β-thalassaemia, it is necessary to distinguish it from simple β-thalassaemia by genotyping of α- and β-thalassaemia in order to correctly guide genetic counseling and prenatal disgnosis.


Subject(s)
Pregnancy , Female , Humans , beta-Thalassemia/genetics , Genotype , Heterozygote , Phenotype , alpha-Thalassemia/genetics , China/epidemiology , Mutation
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009331

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the clinical phenotypes and genetic variants of a Chinese pedigree affected with Hereditary coagulation factor Ⅻ (FⅫ) deficiency.@*METHODS@#A pedigree presented at the First Affiliated Hospital of Air Force Medical University on December 24,2021 was selected as the study subject. Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and coagulation factor Ⅻ activity (FⅫ:C) were determine by a clotting method, and FⅫ antigen was detected with an ELISA assay. Following the extraction of genomic DNA, all exons and flanking regions of the F12 gene were subjected to Sanger sequencing. Clustalx-2.1-win, PROVEAN and Swiss-PDB Viewer software was used to analyze the conservation of amino acids at the variant sites, impact of of the variants on the amino acid substitutions and the protein structure.@*RESULTS@#The APTT of the proband has prolonged to 70.2 s. Her FⅫ:C and FⅫ:Ag have decreased to 12% and 13%, respectively. DNA sequencing revealed that the proband has harbored c.346G>A (p.Gly97Ser) and c.1583C>A (p.Ser509Tyr) heterozygous compound missense variants in exons 5 and 13 of the F12 gene, respectively. Her father and sister were heterozygous carriers for the c.346G>A (p.Gly97Ser) variant, whilst her mother and brother were heterozygous for the c.1583C>A (p.Ser509Tyr) variant.@*CONCLUSION@#The c.346G>A (p.Gly97Ser) and c.1583C>A (p.Ser509Tyr) compound heterozygous variants of the F12 gene probably underlay the pathogenesis of hereditary coagulation FⅫ deficiency in this pedigree.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pedigree , Factor XII/genetics , Mutation , East Asian People , Heterozygote , Mothers , Factor XII Deficiency/genetics
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009311

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the clinical features and genetic variant in a child with Cerebral creatine deficiency syndrome (CCDS).@*METHODS@#A child who had presented at the Affiliated Children's Hospital of Fudan University on March 5, 2021 was selected as the study subject. Whole exome sequencing (WES) was carried out for the child, and candidate variant was verified by Sanger sequencing. The level of creatine in the brain was determined by magnetic resonance spectroscopy.@*RESULTS@#The patient, a 1-year-and-10-month male, had presented with developmental delay and epilepsy. Both his mother and grandmother had a history of convulsions. MRS showed reduced cerebral creatine in bilateral basal ganglia and thalamus. The child was found to harbor a hemizygous splicing variant of the SLC6A8 gene, namely c.1767+1_1767+2insA, which may lead to protein truncation. The variant was not found in the public databases. Both his mother and grandmother were heterozygous carriers for the same variant.@*CONCLUSION@#The hemizygous c.1767+1_1767+2insA variant of the SLC6A8 gene probably underlay the CCDS in this child. Discovery of the novel variant has also expanded the mutational spectrum of the SLC6A8 gene.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant , Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors , Brain , Creatine/genetics , Heterozygote , Mothers , Nerve Tissue Proteins , Plasma Membrane Neurotransmitter Transport Proteins/genetics
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009290

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the diagnosis, treatment and genetic analysis of an infant with Schaaf-Yang syndrome (SYS).@*METHODS@#An infant suspected for SYS at the Hunan Provincial Children's Hospital on June 10, 2022 was subjected to trio-whole exome sequencing, and Sanger sequencing was used to verify the candidate variant. Structure of the wild-type and mutant proteins was constructed to analyze the potential hazard.@*RESULTS@#The infant was found to harbor a heterozygous frameshifting variant of c.1908delG (p.R637Gfs*65) of the MAGEL2 gene, which was found in neither of his parents. The variant has not been recorded by the public databases, and no relevant literature was retrieved. As the result of the variant, the MAGEL2 protein only retained part of its proline domain, which may lead to destruction and/or down-regulation of its function.@*CONCLUSION@#The c.1908delG (p.R637Gfs*65) variant of the MAGEL2 gene probably underlay the pathogenesis in this child. Combined with his clinical characteristics, the child was diagnosed with SYS. Above finding has also enriched the mutational spectrum of the MAGEL2 gene.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Down-Regulation , Heterozygote , Mutation , Parents , Proteins
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009268

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic characteristics of a child with Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and neurodevelopmental syndrome (FSGSNEDS).@*METHODS@#A child with FSGSNEDS who had visited Shengli Oilfield Central Hospital on September 15, 2019 was selected as the study subject. Clinical data of the child was collected, and trio-whole exome sequencing (trio-WES), Sanger sequencing, chromosomal karyotyping analysis, and copy number variation sequencing (CNV-seq) were used to analyze the child and his parents.@*RESULTS@#The child, a 3-year-old boy, had manifested developmental delay, nephrotic syndrome, and epilepsy. Trio-WES and Sanger sequencing showed that he has carried a heterozygous c.1375C>T (p.Q459*) variant of the TRIM8 gene, for which both his parents were of the wild type. Based on guidelines from the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG), the variant was predicted to be pathogenic. No abnormality was found in the chromosomal karyotyping and CNV-seq results of the child and his parents.@*CONCLUSION@#The child was diagnosed with FSGSNEDS, for which the c.1375C>T variant of the TRIM8 gene may be accountable.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Child , Child, Preschool , DNA Copy Number Variations , Glomerulosclerosis, Focal Segmental/genetics , Genomics , Heterozygote , Karyotyping , Carrier Proteins , Nerve Tissue Proteins
7.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 416-432, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982556

ABSTRACT

Approximately 140 million people worldwide are homozygous carriers of APOE4 (ε4), a strong genetic risk factor for late onset familial and sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD), 91% of whom will develop AD at earlier age than heterozygous carriers and noncarriers. Susceptibility to AD could be reduced by targeted editing of APOE4, but a technical basis for controlling the off-target effects of base editors is necessary to develop low-risk personalized gene therapies. Here, we first screened eight cytosine base editor variants at four injection stages (from 1- to 8-cell stage), and found that FNLS-YE1 variant in 8-cell embryos achieved the comparable base conversion rate (up to 100%) with the lowest bystander effects. In particular, 80% of AD-susceptible ε4 allele copies were converted to the AD-neutral ε3 allele in human ε4-carrying embryos. Stringent control measures combined with targeted deep sequencing, whole genome sequencing, and RNA sequencing showed no DNA or RNA off-target events in FNLS-YE1-treated human embryos or their derived stem cells. Furthermore, base editing with FNLS-YE1 showed no effects on embryo development to the blastocyst stage. Finally, we also demonstrated FNLS-YE1 could introduce known protective variants in human embryos to potentially reduce human susceptivity to systemic lupus erythematosus and familial hypercholesterolemia. Our study therefore suggests that base editing with FNLS-YE1 can efficiently and safely introduce known preventive variants in 8-cell human embryos, a potential approach for reducing human susceptibility to AD or other genetic diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Apolipoprotein E4/genetics , Cytosine , Mutation , Blastocyst , Heterozygote , Gene Editing , CRISPR-Cas Systems
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981836

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the clinical features and genotype of a child with Schmid type metaphyseal chondrodysplasia.@*METHODS@#Clinical data of the child and her parents was collected. The child was subjected to high-throughput sequencing, and candidate variant was verified by Sanger sequencing of her family members.@*RESULTS@#Whole exome sequencing revealed that the child has harbored a heterozygous c.1772G>A (p.C591Y) variant of the COL10A1 gene, which was not found in either of her parents. The variant was not found in the HGMD and ClinVar databases, and was rated as likely pathogenic based on the guidelines from the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG).@*CONCLUSION@#The heterozygous c.1772G>A (p.C591Y) variant of the COL10A1 gene probably underlay the Schmid type metaphyseal chondrodysplasia in this child. Genetic testing has facilitated the diagnosis and provided a basis for genetic counselling and prenatal diagnosis for this family. Above finding has also enriched the mutational spectrum of the COL10A1 gene.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Female , Mutation , Osteochondrodysplasias/diagnosis , Heterozygote , Molecular Biology
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981815

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic etiology for a Chinese pedigree affected with Lesch-Nyhan syndrome.@*METHODS@#Members of the pedigree who had visited the Genetic Counseling Clinic of Linyi People's Hospital on February 10, 2022 were selected as the study subjects. Clinical data and family history of the proband were collected, and trio-whole exome sequencing (trio-WES) was carried out for the proband and his parents. Candidate variants were verified by Sanger sequencing.@*RESULTS@#Trio-WES revealed that both the proband and his cousin brother had harbored a hemizygous c.385-1G>C variant in intron 4 of the HPRT1 gene, which was unreported previously. A heterozygous c.385-1G>C variant of the HPRT1 gene was also found in the proband's mother, grandmother, two aunts, and a female cousin, whilst all phenotypically normal males in his pedigree were found to have a wild type for the locus, which has conformed to an X-linked recessive inheritance.@*CONCLUSION@#The heterozygous c.385-1G>C variant of the HPRT1 gene probably underlay the Lesch-Nyhan syndrome in this pedigree.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Female , Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome/genetics , Pedigree , East Asian People , Heterozygote , Introns , Mutation
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981808

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the clinical characteristics and genetic etiology of a child with multiple pterygium syndrome (MPS).@*METHODS@#A child with MPS who was treated at the Orthopedics Department of Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center Affiliated to Guangzhou Medical University on August 19, 2020 was selected as the study subject. Clinical data of the child was collected. Peripheral blood samples of the child and her parents were also collected. Whole exome sequencing (WES) was carried out for the child. Candidate variant was validated by Sanger sequencing of her parents and bioinformatic analysis.@*RESULTS@#The child, an 11-year-old female, had a complain of "scoliosis found 8 years before and aggravated with unequal shoulder height for 1 year". WES results revealed that she has carried a homozygous c.55+1G>C splice variant of the CHRNG gene, for which both of her parents were heterozygous carriers. By bioinformatic analysis, the c.55+1G>C variant has not been recorded by the CNKI, Wanfang data knowledge service platform and HGMG databases. Analysis with Multain online software suggested that the amino acid encoded by this site is highly conserved among various species. As predicted with the CRYP-SKIP online software, the probability of activation and skipping of the potential splice site in exon 1 caused by this variant is 0.30 and 0.70, respectively. The child was diagnosed with MPS.@*CONCLUSION@#The CHRNG gene c.55+1G>C variant probably underlay the MPS in this patient.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Female , Abnormalities, Multiple/genetics , Malignant Hyperthermia/genetics , Skin Abnormalities/genetics , Heterozygote , Mutation , Receptors, Nicotinic/genetics
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981770

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze variant of LDLR gene in a patient with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) in order to provide a basis for the clinical diagnosis and genetic counseling.@*METHODS@#A patient who had visited the Reproductive Medicine Center of the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University in June 2020 was selected as the study subject. Clinical data of the patient was collected. Whole exome sequencing (WES) was applied to the patient. Candidate variant was verified by Sanger sequencing. Conservation of the variant site was analyzed by searching the UCSC database.@*RESULTS@#The total cholesterol level of the patient was increased, especially low density lipoprotein cholesterol. A heterozygous c.2344A>T (p.Lys782*) variant was detected in the LDLR gene. Sanger sequencing confirmed that the variant was inherited from the father.@*CONCLUSION@#The heterozygous c.2344A>T (p.Lys782*) variant of the LDLR gene probably underlay the FH in this patient. Above finding has provided a basis for genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis for this family.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cholesterol, LDL/genetics , Heterozygote , Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II/genetics , Mutation , Pedigree , Phenotype , Receptors, LDL/genetics
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981766

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the sequence of the F12 gene and molecular mechanism for 20 patients with coagulation factor Ⅻ (FⅫ) deficiency.@*METHODS@#The patients were selected from the outpatient department of the Second Hospital of Shanxi Medical University from July 2020 to January 2022. The activity of coagulation factor Ⅷ (FⅧ:C), factor Ⅸ (FⅨ:C), factor Ⅺ (FⅪ:C) and factor Ⅻ (FⅫ:C) were determined by using a one-stage clotting assay. All exons and 5' and 3' UTR of the F12 gene were analyzed by Sanger sequencing to detect the potential variants. Bioinformatic software was used to predict the pathogenicity of the variants, conservation of amino acids, and protein models.@*RESULTS@#The FⅫ:C of the 20 patients has ranged from 0.07% to 20.10%, which was far below the reference values, whilst the other coagulation indexes were all normal. Sanger sequencing has identified genetic variants in 10 patients, including 4 with missense variants [c.820C>T (p.Arg274Cys), c.1561G>A (p.Glu521Lys), c.181T>C (p.Cys61Arg) and c.566.G>C (p.Cys189Ser)], 4 deletional variants c.303_304delCA(p.His101GlnfsX36), 1 insertional variant c.1093_1094insC (p.Lys365GlnfsX69) and 1 nonsense variant c.1763C>A (p.Ser588*). The remaining 10 patients only harbored the 46C/T variant. The heterozygous c.820C>T(p.Arg274Cys) missense variant in patient 1 and the homozygous c.1763C>A (p.Ser588*) nonsense variant in patient 2 were not included in the ClinVar and the Human Gene Mutation Database. Bioinformatic analysis predicted that both variants were pathogenic, and the corresponding amino acids are highly conserved. The protein prediction models suggested that the c.820C>T (p.Arg274Cys) variant may affect the stability of the secondary structure of FⅫ protein by disrupting the original hydrogen bonding force and truncating the side chain, leading to changes in the vital domain. c.1763C>A (p.Ser588*) may produce a truncated C-terminus which may alter the spatial conformation of the protein domain and affect the serine protease cleavage site, resulting in extremely reduced FⅫ:C.@*CONCLUSION@#Among individuals with low low FⅫ:C detected by one-stage clotting assay, 50% have harbored variants of the F12 gene, among which the c.820C>T and c.1763C>A were novel variants underlying the reduced coagulating factor FⅫ.


Subject(s)
Humans , Factor XII/genetics , Pedigree , Mutation , Mutation, Missense , Heterozygote , Factor XII Deficiency/genetics
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981761

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the clinical phenotype and genetic variant of a child with Snijders Blok-Campeau syndrome (SBCS).@*METHODS@#A child who was diagnosed with SBCS in June 2017 at Henan Children's Hospital was selected as the study subject. Clinical data of the child was collected. Peripheral blood samples of the child and his parents were collected and the extraction of genomic DNA, which was subjected to trio-whole exome sequencing (trio-WES) and genome copy number variation (CNV) analysis. Candidate variant was verified by Sanger sequencing of his pedigree members.@*RESULTS@#The main clinical manifestations of the child have included language delay, intellectual impairment and motor development delay, which were accompanied with facial dysmorphisms (broad forehead, inverted triangular face, sparse eyebrows, widely spaced eyes, narrow palpebral fissures, broad nose bridge, midface hypoplasia, thin upper lip, pointed jaw, low-set ears and posteriorly rotated ears). Trio-WES and Sanger sequencing revealed that the child has harbored a heterozygous splicing variant of the CHD3 gene, namely c.4073-2A>G, for which both of his parents were of wild-type. No pathogenic variant was identified by CNV testing.@*CONCLUSION@#The c.4073-2A>G splicing variant of the CHD3 gene probably underlay the SBCS in this patient.


Subject(s)
DNA Copy Number Variations , Heterozygote , Pedigree , Phenotype , RNA Splicing , Mutation
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971121

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the carrier rate, genotype and phenotype of α-thalassemia fusion gene in Huadu district of Guangzhou, Guangdong province of China, and provide data reference for the prevention and control of thalassemia.@*METHODS@#A total of 10 769 samples who were screened for thalassemia in Maternal and Child Health Hospital of Huadu District from July 2019 to November 2020 were analyzed retrospectively. Blood cell analysis and hemoglobin (Hb) electrophoresis were performed. Thalassemia genes were analyzed by gap-PCR and PCR-reverse dot blot hybridization (PCR-RDB).@*RESULTS@#A total of 9 cases with α-thalassemia fusion gene were detected in 10 769 samples (0.08%). There were 7 cases with fusion gene heterozygote, 1 case with compound of α-thalassemia fusion gene and Hb G-Honolulu, 1 case with compound of α-thalassemia fusion gene and Hb QS. The MCV results of 4 samples of blood cell analysis were within the reference range, the Hb A2 value of 1 case was decreased, and there were no other abnormalities found.@*CONCLUSION@#The α-thalassemia fusion gene is common in Huadu district of Guangzhou, and heterozygotes are more common, and current screening methods easily lead to misdiagnosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , alpha-Thalassemia/genetics , Retrospective Studies , beta-Thalassemia/genetics , Genotype , Phenotype , Heterozygote , China , Mutation
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970906

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the clinical phenotype and genetic basis for a Chinese pedigree affected with Oral-facial-digital syndrome type I (OFD1).@*METHODS@#A pedigree with OFD1 who presented at Hebei General Hospital on March 17, 2021 was selected as the subject. Clinical data of the child was collected. Trio-whole exome sequencing (trio-WES) was carried out for the proband and members of her pedigree, and candidate variant was verified by Sanger sequencing.@*RESULTS@#The proband has featured hypotelorism, broad nasal root, flat nasal tip, lobulated tongue, tongue neoplasia, camptodactyly of left fifth finger, syndactyly of right fourth and fifth fingers, and delayed intellectual and language development. Trio-WES revealed that the proband and her daughter, sister and mother have harbored a heterozygous c.224A>G (p.Asn75Ser) variant of the OFD1 gene. The same variant was not found among healthy members from her pedigree.@*CONCLUSION@#The c.224A>G (p.Asn75Ser) variant probably underlay the OFD1 in this pedigree. Above discovery has enriched the spectrum of OFD1 gene variants.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pedigree , Orofaciodigital Syndromes/genetics , East Asian People , Phenotype , Heterozygote , Mutation , China
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970884

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis for a child with Aspartylglucosaminuria (AGU).@*METHODS@#Clinical data of the patient was analyzed. The child was subjected to trio-whole exome sequencing (WES) and copy number variation sequencing (CNV-seq), and candidate variant was verified by Sanger sequencing.@*RESULTS@#The child was found to harbor homozygous c.319C>T (p.Arg107*) nonsense variant of the AGA gene, for which both of his parents were heterozygous carriers. No abnormality was found by CNV-seq analysis. The c.319C>T (p.Arg107*) variant was not found in population database, HGMD and other databases. Based on guidelines of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics, the variant was predicted to be pathogenic (PVS1+PM2+PP3).@*CONCLUSION@#The c.319C>T variant of the AGA gene probably underlay the autosomal recessive AGU in this child. Above finding has enabled genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis for his parents.


Subject(s)
Female , Pregnancy , Humans , Child , Aspartylglucosaminuria , DNA Copy Number Variations , Genetic Counseling , Genomics , Heterozygote , Mutation
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970878

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis for a child with mental retardation.@*METHODS@#Whole exome sequencing was carried out for the child. Candidate variant was screened based on his clinical features and verified by Sanger sequencing.@*RESULTS@#The child was found to harbor a c.995_1002delAGACAAAA(p.Asp332AlafsTer84) frameshift variant in the SYNGAP1 gene. Bioinformatic analysis suggested it to be pathogenic. The same variant was not detected in either parent.@*CONCLUSION@#The c.995_1002delAGACAAAA(p.Asp332AlafsTer84) frameshift variant of the SYNGAP1 gene probably underlay the mental retardation in this child. Above finding has expanded the spectrum of SYNGAP1 gene variants and provided a basis for the diagnosis and treatment for this child.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Intellectual Disability/genetics , Frameshift Mutation , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Computational Biology , Heterozygote , Mutation , ras GTPase-Activating Proteins/genetics
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970877

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the clinical characteristics and genetic etiology of a child with Schaaf-Yang syndrome (SYS).@*METHODS@#Peripheral blood samples of the child and his parents were collected and subjected to whole exome sequencing. Sanger sequencing was used for family constellation verification, and bioinformatic analysis was performed for the candidate variant.@*RESULTS@#The child, a 1-year-and-9-month-old boy, had clinical manifestations of retarded growth, small penis, and unusual facies. Genetic testing revealed that the child has harbored a novel heterozygous variant of c.3078dupG (p.Leu1027Valfs*28) of the MAGEL2 gene. Sanger sequencing showed that neither parent of the child carried the same variant. The c.3078dupG(p.Leu1027Valfs*28) variant of the MAGEL2 gene has not been included in the databases of ESP, 1000 Genomes and ExAC. According to the Standards and Guidelines for the Interpretation of Sequence Variants of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG), the variant was judged to be pathogenic.@*CONCLUSION@#The c.3078dupG (p.Leu1027Valfs*28) variant of the MAGEL2 gene probably underlay the SYS in this child, which has further expanded the spectrum of the MAGEL2 gene variants.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Infant , Male , Exome Sequencing , Genetic Testing , Heterozygote , Mutation , Proteins/genetics , Developmental Disabilities/genetics
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970876

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the clinical and genetic features of a child with autosomal dominant mental retardation type 40 (MRD40) due to variant of the CHAMP1 gene.@*METHODS@#Clinical characteristics of the child were analyzed. Genetic testing was carried out by low-depth high-throughput and whole genome copy number variant sequencing (CNV-seq) and whole exome sequencing (WES). A literature review was also carried out for the clinical phenotype and genetic characteristics of patients with MRD40 due to CHAMP1 gene variants.@*RESULTS@#The child, a 11-month-old girl, has presented with intellectual and motor developmental delay. CNV-seq revealed no definite pathogenic variants. WES has detected the presence of a heterozygous c.1908C>G (p.Y636*) variant in the CHAMP1 gene, which was carried by neither parent and predicted to be pathogenic. Literature review has identified 33 additional children from 12 previous reports. All children had presented with developmental delay and mental retardation, and most had dystonia (94.1%), delayed speech and/or walking (85.2%, 82.4%) and ocular abnormalities (79.4%). In total 26 variants of the CHAMP1 gene were detected, with all nonsense variants being of loss-of-function type, located in exon 3, and de novo in origin.@*CONCLUSION@#The heterozygous c.1908C>G (p.Y636*) variant of the CHAMP1 gene probably underlay the WRD40 in this child. Genetic testing should be considered for children featuring global developmental delay, mental retardation, hypertonia and facial dysmorphism.


Subject(s)
Humans , Intellectual Disability/genetics , Genetic Testing , Phenotype , Exome Sequencing , Heterozygote , Mutation , Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone/genetics , Phosphoproteins/genetics
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970931

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the clinical and genetic characteristics of a patient with STISS syndrome due to variant of PSMD12 gene.@*METHODS@#Clinical data and result of genetic testing of a patient who was admitted to Shanghai Children's Medical Center, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine on October 4, 2020 were analyzed, together with a review of relevant literature.@*RESULTS@#The patient was found to harbor a heterozygous c.601C>T (p.Arg201*) nonsense variant of the PSMD12 gene, which was unreported previously. Clinically, the height of the patient has differed significantly from reported in the literature. An extremely rare case of STISS syndrome due to variant of the PSMD12 gene has been diagnosed.@*CONCLUSION@#Whether the severely short stature is part of the clinical spectrum for PSMD12 gene variants needs to be further explored, and the efficacy and safety of growth hormone therapy has yet to be determined.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , China , Dwarfism , Genetic Testing , Heterozygote , Syndrome
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