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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981988

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the effect of procalcitonin (PCT) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression of the pyroptosis-related proteins nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) and caspase-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs).@*METHODS@#HUVECs were induced by LPS to establish a model of sepsis-induced inflammatory endothelial cell injury. The experiment was divided into two parts. In the first part, HUVECs were randomly divided into four groups: normal control, LPS (1 μg/mL), PCT (10 ng/mL), and LPS+PCT (n=3 each). In the second part, HUVECs were randomly grouped: normal control, LPS, and LPS+PCT of different concentrations (0.1, 1, 10, and 100 ng/mL) (n=3 each). Quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot were used to measure the mRNA and protein expression levels of NLRP3 and caspase-1 in each group.@*RESULTS@#In the first experiment: compared with the normal control group, the PCT, LPS, and LPS+PCT groups had significantly upregulated mRNA and protein expression levels of NLRP3 and caspase-1 (P<0.05); compared with the LPS group, the LPS+PCT group had significantly downregulated mRNA and protein expression levels of NLRP3 and caspase-1 (P<0.05). In the second experiment: compared with those in the LPS group, the mRNA and protein expression levels of NLRP3 and caspase-1 in the LPS+PCT of different concentrations groups were significantly downregulated in a concentration-dependent manner (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#LPS can promote the expression of the pyroptosis-related proteins NLRP3 and caspase-1 in HUVECs, while PCT can inhibit the LPS-induced expression of the pyroptosis-related proteins NLRP3 and caspase-1 in HUVECs in a concentration-dependent manner.


Subject(s)
Humans , Caspase 1/metabolism , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Procalcitonin , Nucleotides/pharmacology
2.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 1291-1297, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010942

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of microRNA-509-3p (miR-509-3p) on the apoptosis of atherosclerotic vascular endothelial cells.@*METHODS@#Mouse aortic endothelial cells (MAECs) were divided into normal control group, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) group, miR-509-3p overexpression group, miR-509-3p overexpression control group, miR-509-3p inhibitor + ox-LDL group, and miR-509-3p inhibitor control + ox-LDL group. MAEC were induced with 100 mg/L ox-LDL for 24 hours, and then transfected with miR-509-3p overexpression/inhibitor and corresponding control for 48 hours. The miR-509-3p expression in MAECs exposed to ox-LDL was detected using real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Flow cytometry was used to detect the level of apoptosis, and cell counting kit (CCK-8) was used to detect the proliferation activity of MAECs. The direct gene targets of miR-509-3p were predicted using bioinformatics analyses and confirmed using a dual luciferase reporter assay. The expression of Bcl-2 mRNA and protein was detected by RT-qPCR and Western blotting, respectively.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the normal control group, miR-509-3p was significantly upregulated in ox-LDL-stimulated MAECs (1.68±0.85 vs. 1.00±0.30, t = 2.398, P < 0.05). After transfection of MAECs with miR-509-3p overexpression, the luciferase activity of the BCL2 3'UTR WT reporter gene was significantly lower than that of miR-509-3p overexpression control group (0.83±0.06 vs. 1.00±0.07, t = 4.531, P = 0.001). The luciferase activity of the BCL2 3'-UTR mutant (MUT) reporter gene was not significantly different from that of miR-509-3p overexpression control group (0.94±0.05 vs. 1.00±0.08, t = 1.414, P = 0.188). Compared with the normal control group and miR-509-3p mimics control group, the cell proliferation activity was decreased [(0.60±0.06)% vs. (1.00±0.09)%, (0.89±0.04)%, both P < 0.01], the percentage of apoptotic cells were increased [(23.46±2.02)% vs. (7.66±1.52)%, (10.40±0.78)%, both P < 0.05], and the mRNA and protein expression of Bcl-2 were significantly downregulated (Bcl-2 mRNA: 0.52±0.13 vs. 1.00±0.36, 1.10±0.19, Bcl-2 protein: 0.42±0.07 vs. 1.00±0.11, 0.93±0.10, both P < 0.01) in miR-509-3p overexpression group. Compared with the ox-LDL group, inhibition of miR-509-3p expression could increase the proliferation activity of MAECs induced by ox-LDL [(0.64±0.35)% vs. (0.34±0.20%)%, P < 0.05], and reduce the apoptosis rate [(13.59±2.22)% vs. (29.84±5.19)%, P < 0.01], and up-regulated the expression of Bcl-2 mRNA and protein in MAECs induced by ox-LDL (Bcl-2 mRNA relative expression: 0.82±0.09 vs. 0.52±0.10, Bcl-2 protein relative expression: 0.83±0.17 vs. 0.40±0.07, both P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Bcl-2 was one of the target genes of miR-509-3p. miR-509-3p can reduce the proliferation activity of endothelial cells, reduce the expression of Bcl-2, and promote cell apoptosis, thereby promoting the occurrence and development of atherosclerosis. Inhibition of miR-509-3p expression may be a potential therapeutic target for atherosclerosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Humans , Endothelial Cells , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Lipoproteins, LDL/metabolism , Apoptosis , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/pharmacology , Atherosclerosis/metabolism , Luciferases/pharmacology , Cell Proliferation , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells
3.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 317-327, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981008

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to investigate the protective effect of S-propargyl-cysteine (SPRC) on atherosclerosis progression in mice. A mouse model of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque was created in ApoE-/- mice by carotid artery tandem stenosis (TS) combined with a Western diet. Macrophotography, lipid profiles, and inflammatory markers were measured to evaluate the antiatherosclerotic effects of SPRC compared to atorvastatin as a control. Histopathological analysis was performed to assess the plaque stability. To explore the protective mechanism of SPRC, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured in vitro and challenged with oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL). Cell viability was determined with a Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8). Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation and mRNA expression were detected by Western blot and RT-qPCR respectively. The results showed that the lesion area quantified by en face photographs of the aortic arch and carotid artery was significantly less, plasma total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were reduced, plaque collagen content was increased and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) was decreased in 80 mg/kg per day SPRC-treated mice compared with model mice. These findings support the role of SPRC in plaque stabilization. In vitro studies revealed that 100 μmol/L SPRC increased the cell viability and the phosphorylation level of eNOS after ox-LDL challenge. These results suggest that SPRC delays the progression of atherosclerosis and enhances plaque stability. The protective effect may be at least partially related to the increased phosphorylation of eNOS in endothelial cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Atherosclerosis , Cholesterol/metabolism , Cysteine/pharmacology , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Lipoproteins, LDL/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/metabolism , Phosphorylation , Plaque, Atherosclerotic/pathology
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971527

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the molecular mechanisms of Porphyromonas gingivalis infection-induced umbilical vein endothelial barrier dysfunction in vitro.@*METHODS@#Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured in vitro, and after the formation of the endothelial barrier, the cells were infected with P. gingivals at a multiplicity of infection (MOI). The transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) of the cell barrier was measured, and FITC-dextran trans-endothelial permeability assay and bacterial translocation assay were performed to assess the endothelial barrier function. The expression levels of cell junction proteins including ZO-1, occludin and VE-cadherin in the cells were examined by qRT-PCR and Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#In freshly seeded HUVECs, TEER increased until reaching the maximum on Day 5 (94 Ωcm2), suggesting the formation of the endothelial barrier. P. gingivals infection caused an increase of the permeability of the endothelial barrier as early as 0.5 h after bacterial inoculation, and the barrier function further exacerbated with time, as shown by significantly lowered TEER, increased permeability of FITC-dextran (40 000/70 000), and increased translocation of SYTO9-E. coli cross the barrier. MTT assay suggested that P. gingivals infection did not significantly affect the proliferation of HUVECs (P>0.05), but in P. gingivalsinfected cells, the expressions of ZO-1, occludin and VE-cadherin increased significantly at 24 and 48 h after bacterial inoculation (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#P. gingivals may disrupt the endothelial barrier function by down-regulating the expressions of the cell junction proteins (ZO-1, occludin, VE-cadherin) and increasing the permeability of the endothelial barrier.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cadherins/metabolism , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Occludin , Porphyromonas gingivalis/metabolism , Umbilical Veins/metabolism
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971491

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the differentially phosphorylated proteins in DENV-2-infected human umbilical venous endothelial cells (HUVECs) and explore the possible pathogenic mechanism of DENV-2 infection.@*METHODS@#The total proteins were extracted from DENV-2-infected HUVECs and blank control HUVEC using SDT lysis method. The phosphorylated proteins were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed using tandem mass spectrometry (TMT). The identified differentially phosphorylated proteins were analyzed by bioinformatics analyses such as subcellular localization analysis, GO enrichment analysis, KEGG pathway analysis and protein-protein interaction (PPI) analysis. Western blotting was used to detect the expressions of phosphorylated Jun, map2k2 and AKT1 proteins in DENV-2-infected HUVECs.@*RESULTS@#A total of 2918 modified peptides on 1385 different proteins were detected, and among them 1346 were significantly upregulated (FC > 1.2, P < 0.05) and 1572 were significantly downregulated (FC < 0.83, P < 0.05). A total of 49 phosphorylated conserved motifs were obtained by amino acid conservative motif analysis. The most abundant differentially phosphorylated peptides in protein domain analysis included RNA recognition motif, protein kinase domain and PH domain. Subcellular localization analysis showed that the differentially modified peptides were mainly localized in the nucleus and cytoplasm. GO enrichment and KEGG pathway analysis showed that the differential peptides were mainly enriched in the regulation of stimulation response, biosynthesis of small molecules containing nuclear bases, and migration of phagosomes and leukocytes across the endothelium. PPI and KEGG joint analysis showed that the up-regulated and down-regulated differentially phosphorylated proteins were enriched in 15 pathways. In DENV-2-infected HUVECs, Western blotting detected differential expressions of phosphorylated proteins related with the autophagy pathway, namely JUN, MAP2K2 and AKT1, and among them p-JUN was significantly down-regulated and p-AKT1 and p-MAP2K2 were significantly upregulated (P < 0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#DENV-2 infected HUVECs show numerous differentially expressed proteins. The downregulation of p-JUN and upregulation of p-MAP2K2 and p-AKT1 suggest their potential roles in regulating autophagy, which is probably involved in the mechanism of DENV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Autophagy , Cell Death , Cell Nucleus , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells/virology , Dengue , Proteome
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971340

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the anti-angiogenic activity of Kunxian Capsule (KX) extract and explore the underlying molecular mechanism using zebrafish.@*METHODS@#The KX extract was prepared with 5.0 g in 100 mL of 40% methanol followed by ultrasonication and freeze drying. Freeze dried KX extract of 10.00 mg was used as test stock solution. Triptolide and icariin, the key bioactive compounds of KX were analyzed using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography. The transgenic zebrafish Tg(flk1:GFP) embryos were dechorionated at 20-h post fertilization (hpf) and treated with PTK 787, and 3.5, 7, 14 and 21 µg/mL of KX extract, respectively. After 24-h post exposure (hpe), mortality and malformation (%), intersegmental vessels (ISV) formation, and mRNA expression level of angiogenic pathway genes including phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (AKT), extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) were determined. Further, the embryos at 72 hpf were treated with KX extract to observe the development of sub-intestinal vein (SIV) after 24 hpe.@*RESULTS@#The chromatographic analysis of test stock solution of KX extract showed that triptolide and icariin was found as 0.089 mg/g and 48.74 mg/g, respectively, which met the requirements of the national drug standards. In zebrafish larvae experiment, KX extract significantly inhibited the ISV (P<0.01) and SIV formation (P<0.05). Besides, the mRNA expression analysis showed that KX extract could significantly suppress the expressions of PI3K and AKT, thereby inhibiting the mRNA levels of ERKs and MAPK. Moreover, the downstream signaling cascade affected the expression of VEGF and its receptors (VEGFR and VEGFR-2). FGF-2, a strong angiogenic factor, was also down-regulated by KX treatment in zebrafish larvae.@*CONCLUSION@#KX extract exhibited anti-angiogenic effects in zebrafish embryos by regulating PI3K/AKT-MAPK-VEGF pathway and showed promising potential for RA treatment.


Subject(s)
Animals , Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism , Zebrafish
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008640

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to analyze the effect of matrine on tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α)-induced inflammatory response in human umbilical vein endothelial cells(HUVECs) and explore whether the underlying mechanism was related to the miR-25-3p-mediated Krüppel-like factor 4(Klf4) pathway. The HUVEC cell inflammation model was induced by TNF-α stimulation. After 24 or 48 hours of incubation with different concentrations of matrine(0.625, 1.25, and 2.5 mmol·L~(-1)), CCK-8 assay was used to detect cell proliferation. After treatment with 2.5 mmol·L~(-1) matrine for 48 h, the expression of TNF-α, interleukin-6(IL-6), interleukin-1β(IL-1β), and Klf4 mRNA and miR-25-3p was detected by real-time fluorescence-based quantitative PCR, and the protein expression of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, and Klf4 was detected by Western blot. The anti-miR-25-3p was transfected into HUVECs, and the effect of anti-miR-25-3p on TNF-α-induced cell proliferation and inflammatory factors was detected by the above method. The cells were further transfected with miR-25-3p and incubated with matrine to detect the changes in proliferation and expression of related inflammatory factors, miR-25-3p, and Klf4. The targeting relationship between miR-25-3p and Klf4 was verified by bioinformatics analysis and dual luciferase reporter gene assay. The results displayed that matrine could inhibit TNF-α-induced HUVEC proliferation, decrease the mRNA and protein expression of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β, increase the mRNA and protein expression of Klf4, and reduce the expression of miR-25-3p. Bioinformatics analysis showed that there were specific complementary binding sites between miR-25-3p and Klf4 sequences. Dual luciferase reporter gene assay confirmed that miR-25-3p negatively regulated Klf4 expression in HUVECs by targeting. The inhibition of miR-25-3p expression can reduce TNF-α-induced cell proliferation and mRNA and protein expression of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β. MiR-25-3p overexpression could reverse the effect of matrine on TNF-α-induced cell proliferation and the mRNA and protein expression of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, and Klf4. This study shows that matrine inhibits the inflammatory response induced by TNF-α in HUVECs through miR-25-3p-mediated Klf4 pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Matrines , Interleukin-6/genetics , Signal Transduction , Antagomirs , Inflammation/metabolism , Luciferases/pharmacology , RNA, Messenger , Apoptosis
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982335

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Endothelium-dependent vasodilation dysfunction is the pathological basis of diabetic macroangiopathy. The utilization and adaptation of endothelial cells to high glucose determine the functional status of endothelial cells. Glycolysis pathway is the major energy source for endothelial cells. Abnormal glycolysis plays an important role in endothelium-dependent vasodilation dysfunction induced by high glucose. Pyruvate kinase isozyme type M2 (PKM2) is one of key enzymes in glycolysis pathway, phosphorylation of PKM2 can reduce the activity of pyruvate kinase and affect the glycolysis process of glucose. TEPP-46 can stabilize PKM2 in its tetramer form, reducing its dimer formation and phosphorylation. Using TEPP-46 as a tool drug to inhibit PKM2 phosphorylation, this study aims to explore the impact and potential mechanism of phosphorylated PKM2 (p-PKM2) on endothelial dependent vasodilation function in high glucose, and to provide a theoretical basis for finding new intervention targets for diabetic macroangiopathy.@*METHODS@#The mice were divided into 3 groups: a wild-type (WT) group (a control group, C57BL/6 mice) and a db/db group (a diabetic group, db/db mice), which were treated with the sodium carboxymethyl cellulose solution (solvent) by gavage once a day, and a TEPP-46 group (a treatment group, db/db mice+TEPP-46), which was gavaged with TEPP-46 (30 mg/kg) and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose solution once a day. After 12 weeks of treatment, the levels of p-PKM2 and PKM2 protein in thoracic aortas, plasma nitric oxide (NO) level and endothelium-dependent vasodilation function of thoracic aortas were detected. High glucose (30 mmol/L) with or without TEPP-46 (10 μmol/L), mannitol incubating human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) for 72 hours, respectively. The level of NO in supernatant, the content of NO in cells, and the levels of p-PKM2 and PKM2 protein were detected. Finally, the effect of TEPP-46 on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation was detected at the cellular and animal levels.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control group, the levels of p-PKM2 in thoracic aortas of the diabetic group increased (P<0.05). The responsiveness of thoracic aortas in the diabetic group to acetylcholine (ACh) was 47% lower than that in the control group (P<0.05), and that in TEPP-46 treatment group was 28% higher than that in the diabetic group (P<0.05), while there was no statistically significant difference in the responsiveness of thoracic aortas to sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Compared with the control group, the plasma NO level of mice decreased in the diabetic group, while compared with the diabetic group, the phosphorylation of PKM2 in thoracic aortas decreased and the plasma NO level increased in the TEPP-46 group (both P<0.05). High glucose instead of mannitol induced the increase of PKM2 phosphorylation in HUVECs and reduced the level of NO in supernatant (both P<0.05). HUVECs incubated with TEPP-46 and high glucose reversed the reduction of NO production and secretion induced by high glucose while inhibiting PKM2 phosphorylation (both P<0.05). At the cellular and animal levels, TEPP-46 reversed the decrease of eNOS (ser1177) phosphorylation induced by high glucose (both P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#p-PKM2 may be involved in the process of endothelium-dependent vasodilation dysfunction in Type 2 diabetes by inhibiting p-eNOS (ser1177)/NO pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium/pharmacology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Glucose/metabolism , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/metabolism , Phosphorylation , Pyruvate Kinase/metabolism , Vasodilation
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986992

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the regulatory role of the long non-coding RNA LINC00926 in pyroptosis of hypoxia-induced human umbilical vein vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) and explore the molecular mechanism.@*METHODS@#HUVECs were transfected with a LINC00926-overexpressing plasmid (OE-LINC00926), a siRNA targeting ELAVL1, or both, followed by exposure to hypoxia (5% O2) or normoxia. The expression of LINC00926 and ELAVL1 in hypoxia-treated HUVECs was detected using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and Western blotting. Cell proliferation was detected using Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), and the levels of IL-1β in the cell cultures was determined with ELISA. The protein expression levels of pyroptosis-related proteins (caspase-1, cleaved caspase-1 and NLRP3) in the treated cells were analyzed using Western blotting, and the binding between LINC00926 and ELAVL1 was verified with RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) assay.@*RESULTS@#Exposure to hypoxia obviously up-regulated the mRNA expression of LINC00926 and the protein expression of ELAVL1 in HUVECs, but did not affect the mRNA expression of ELAVL1. LINC00926 overexpression in the cells significantly inhibited cell proliferation, increased IL-1β level and enhanced the expressions of pyroptosis-related proteins (all P < 0.05). LINC00926 overexpression further up-regulated the protein expression of ELAVL1 in hypoxia-exposed HUVECs. The results of RIP assay confirmed the binding between LINC00926 and ELAVL1. ELAVL1 knockdown significantly decreased IL-1β level and the expressions of pyroptosis-related proteins in hypoxia-exposed HUVECs (P < 0.05), while LINC00926 overexpression partially reversed the effects of ELAVL1 knockdown.@*CONCLUSION@#LINC00926 promotes pyroptosis of hypoxia-induced HUVECs by recruiting ELAVL1.


Subject(s)
Humans , Caspase 1 , ELAV-Like Protein 1 , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Pyroptosis , RNA, Messenger , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , Cell Hypoxia
10.
Biol. Res ; 56: 20-20, 2023. graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1513733

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Ischemia-reperfusion (IR) induces increased release of extracellular vesicles in the heart and exacerbates myocardial IR injury. We have previously shown that propofol attenuates hypoxia/reoxygenation (HR)-induced injury in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and that microvesicles derived from propofol-treated HUVECs inhibit oxidative stress in endothelial cells. However, the role of microvesicles derived from propofol post-treated HUVECs ((HR + P)-EMVs) in IR-injured cardiomyocytes is unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of (HR + P)-EMVs in cardiac IR injury compared to microvesicles derived from hypoxic/reoxygenated HUVECs (HR-EMVs) and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Hypoxia/reoxygenation (HR) models of HUVECs and AC16 cells and a mouse cardiac IR model were established. Microvesicles from HR-injured HUVECs, DMSO post-treated HUVECs and propofol post-treated HUVECs were extracted by ultra-high speed centrifugation, respectively. The above EMVs were co-cultured with HR-injured AC16 cells or injected intracardially into IR mice. Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence were used to determine the levels of oxidative stress and apoptosis in cardiomyocytes. Apoptosis related proteins were detected by Western blot. Echocardiography for cardiac function and Evans blue-TTC staining for myocardial infarct size. Expression of lncCCT4-2 in EMVs and AC16 cells was analysed by whole transcriptome sequencing of EMVs and RT-qPCR. The molecular mechanism of inhibition of myocardial injury by (HR + P)-EMVs was elucidated by lentiviral knockdown of lncCCT4-2, plasmid overexpression or knockdown of CCT4, and actinomycin D assay. RESULTS: In vitro and in vivo experiments confirmed that HR-EMVs exacerbated oxidative stress and apoptosis in IR-injured cardiomyocytes, leading to increased infarct size and worsened cardiac function. Notably, (HR + P)-EMVs induced significantly less oxidative stress and apoptosis in IR-injured cardiomyocytes compared to HR-EMVs. Mechanistically, RNA sequencing of EMVs and RT-qPCR showed that lncCCT4-2 was significantly upregulated in (HR + P)-EMVs and cardiomyocytes co-cultured with (HR + P)-EMVs. Reduction of lncCCT4-2 in (HR + P)-EMVs enhanced oxidative stress and apoptosis in IR-injured cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, the anti-apoptotic activity of lncCCT4-2 from (HR + P)-EMVs was achieved by increasing the stability of CCT4 mRNA and promoting the expression of CCT4 protein in cardiomyocytes. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that (HR + P)-EMVs uptake by IR-injured cardiomyocytes upregulated lncCCT4-2 in cardiomyocytes and promoted CCT4 expression, thereby inhibiting HR-EMVs induced oxidative stress and apoptosis. Highlights Microvesicles from hypoxic/reoxygenated HUVECs (HR-EMVs) exacerbated oxidative stress and apoptosis in IR-injured cardiomyocytes. Microvesicles from propofol post-treated HUVECs ((HR + P)-EMVs) induced diminished oxidative stress and apoptosis in IR-injured cardiomyocytes compared with microvesicles from hypoxic/reoxygenated HUVECs (HR-EMVs). lncCCT4-2 was significantly highly expressed in (HR + P)-EMVs and cardiomyocytes co-cultured with (HR + P)-EMVs, and reduction of lncCCT4-2 in (HR + P)-EMVs enhanced oxidative stress and apoptosis in IR-injured cardiomyocytes. lncCCT4-2 inhibited HR-EMVs induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in HR-injured AC16 cells by increasing the stability of CCT4 mRNA and promoting the expression of CCT4 protein in AC16 cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Mice , Propofol/pharmacology , Apoptosis/physiology , Oxidative Stress , Myocytes, Cardiac , Chaperonin Containing TCP-1 , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Hypoxia
11.
Biol. Res ; 56: 7-7, 2023. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1429908

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The distinct arterial and venous cell fates are dictated by a combination of various genetic factors which form diverse types of blood vessels such as arteries, veins, and capillaries. We report here that YULINK protein is involved in vasculogenesis, especially venous formation. METHODS: In this manuscript, we employed gene knockdown, yeast two-hybrid, FLIM-FRET, immunoprecipitation, and various imaging technologies to investigate the role of YULINK gene in zebrafish and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). RESULTS: Knockdown of YULINK during the arterial-venous developmental stage of zebrafish embryos led to the defective venous formation and abnormal vascular plexus formation. Knockdown of YULINK in HUVECs impaired their ability to undergo cell migration and differentiation into a capillary-like tube formation. In addition, the phosphorylated EPHB4 was decreased in YULINK knockdown HUVECs. Yeast two-hybrid, FLIM-FRET, immunoprecipitation, as well as imaging technologies showed that YULINK colocalized with endosome related proteins (EPS15, RAB33B or TICAM2) and markers (Clathrin and RHOB). VEGF-induced VEGFR2 internalization was also compromised in YULINK knockdown HUVECs, demonstrating to the involvement of YULINK. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that YULINK regulates vasculogenesis, possibly through endocytosis in zebrafish and HUVECs. Key points Knockdown of YULINK with morpholino in embryos of double transgenic zebrafish exhibited abnormal venous formation. Tube formation and phosphorylated EPHB4 were decreased in YULINK knockdown HUVECs. FLIM-FRET, immunoprecipitation, as well as other imaging technologies showed that YULINK colocalized with endosome related proteins (EPS15, RAB33B and TICAM2) and endosome markers (Clathrin and RHOB). Knockdown of YULINK decreased the internalization of VEGF and VEGFR2 in HUVECs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Zebrafish/genetics , Cell Differentiation , Cell Movement , Neovascularization, Physiologic , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929256

ABSTRACT

Angiogenesis inhibitors targeting the VEGF signaling pathway are developed into drugs for the treatment of vaious diseases, such as cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, and age-related macular degeneration. Recent studies have revealed that oleanolic acid (OA), a natural pentacyclic triterpenoid, inhibited the VEGF/VEGFR2 signaling pathway and angiogenesis in HUVECs, which may represent an attractive VEGF inhibitor. In this paper, rational structural modification towards OA was performed in order to improve its inhibitory effects aganist VEGF and anti-angiogenesis potential. As a result, a series of novel OA derivatives, possessing α,β-unsaturated ketone system in ring A and amide functional group at C-28, were prepared and evaluated for cytotoxicity and their ability to inhibit VEGF-induced abnormal proliferation of HUVECs. The results showed that two promising derivatives, OA-1 and OA-16, exhibited no in vitro cytotoxicity against HUVECs but showed more potent inhibitory activity against VEGF-induced proliferation and angiogenesis in HUVECs, compared with OA. The results of Western blot indicated that OA-1 and OA-16 inhibited VEGF-induced VEGFR2 activation. Furthermore, small interfering RNA experiments were performed to confirm that both compounds inhibited VEGF-induced angiogenesis via VEGFR2. Thus, the present study resulted in the discovery of new promising OA-inspired VEGF inhibitors, which can serve as potential lead compounds for the treatment of angiogenesis-related diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cell Movement , Cell Proliferation , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Oleanolic Acid/pharmacology , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941048

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of JAG1 on the malignant phenotype of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and its role in angiogenesis in breast cancer microenvironment.@*METHODS@#The expressions of Notch molecules were detected in human TNBC 231 and 231B cells using RT-qPCR. Five female nude mice were inoculated with 231 cells and another 5 with 231B cells into the mammary fat pads, and 4-6 weeks later, the tumors were collected for immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence tests. 231 cells and 231B cells were treated with recombinant JAG (rJAG) protein and DAPT, respectively, and changes in their malignant phenotypes were assessed using CCK-8 assay, Hoechst 33258 staining, wound healing assay, Transwell chamber assay and endothelial cell adhesion assay. Western blotting was used to detect the changes in the expressions of proteins related with the malignant phenotypes of 231 and 231B cells. The effects of conditioned medium (CM) derived from untreated 231 and 231 B cells, rJAG1-treated 231 cells and DAPT-treated 231B cells on proliferation and tube formation ability of cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were evaluated using CCK-8 assay and tube-forming assay.@*RESULTS@#The expression of JAG1 was higher in 231B cells than in 231 cells (P < 0.05). Tumor 231B showed higher expression of VEGFA and CD31. Compared with 231-Blank group, the migration, invasion and adhesion of 231 cells in 231-rJAG1 were significantly enhanced (P < 0.05). Protein levels of Twist1 and Snail increased (P < 0.01), anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 increased (P < 0.05), while DAPT inhibited the related phenomena and indicators of 231B. The 231-rJAG1-CM increased the cell number and tubule number of HUVEC (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#JAG1 may affect the malignant phenotype of TNBC and promote angiogenesis in the tumor microenvironment.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Mice , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement , Cell Proliferation , Culture Media, Conditioned , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Jagged-1 Protein/metabolism , Mice, Nude , Neovascularization, Pathologic/metabolism , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors , Sincalide/metabolism , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms/metabolism , Tumor Microenvironment
14.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 520-531, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940955

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effects and mechanism of negative pressure microenvironment on the neogenesis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Methods: The experimental research methods were adopted. The third to the fifth passage of HUVECs in the logarithmic growth stage were used for the subsequent experiments. Three batches of cells were taken, with each batch of cells being divided into normal control group and negative pressure treatment alone group (both routinely cultured for 24 h), and 17-allylamino-17-demethoxy-geldanamycin (17-AAG) alone group and 17-AAG+negative pressure treatment group (both cultured with 17-AAG for 24 h). In addition, the intermittent negative pressure suction, with the negative pressure value of -5.33 kPa (suction for 30 s, pause for 10 s) was continuously applied for 8 h on cells in the two negative pressure treatment groups using an automatic three-dimensional cell gradient negative pressure loading device designed and developed by ourselves. After the treatment of the first batch of cells, the cell proliferation level was detected by cell counting kit 8 method at 0 (immediately), 24, 48, and 72 h of culture, with the number of samples being 6. After the treatment of the second batch of cells, the scratch experiment was performed. At 12 h after scratching, the cell migration was observed under an inverted phase contrast microscope and the cell migration rate was calculated, with the number of samples being 3. After the treatment of the third batch of cells, the tubule formation experiment was conducted. After 6 h of culture, the tubulogenesis was observed under an inverted phase contrast microscope and the total tubule length and the number of branch nodes of cells were calculated, with the number of samples being 3. The cells were taken and divided into normal control group, negative pressure treatment alone group, and 17-AAG+negative pressure treatment group. The cells were treated the same as in the previous corresponding group. After the treatment, Western blotting was used to detect the protein expressions of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), caveolin 1, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and eNOS phosphorylation site 1177 in the cells, and the eNOS phosphorylation site 1177/eNOS ratio was calculated, with the number of samples being 3; co-immunoprecipitation (co-precipitating HSP90 and caveolin 1, caveolin 1 and eNOS) and Western blotting were used to detect the protein expressions of caveolin 1 and eNOS in the cells, with the number of samples being 3; the protein co-localization of HSP90 and caveolin 1 and that of caveolin 1 and eNOS in the cells was assessed by immunofluorescence double staining. The molecular docking prediction of caveolin 1 and eNOS was processed by HADDOCK 2.4 protein-protein docking program. Data were statistically analyzed with analysis of variance for factorial design, one-way analysis of variance, and least significant difference method. Results: Compared with that in normal control group, the cell proliferation level in 17-AAG alone group was significantly decreased at culture hour of 24, 48, and 72 after the treatment (P<0.01), while the cell proliferation level in negative pressure treatment alone group was significantly increased at culture hour of 24, 48, and 72 after the treatment (P<0.01). Compared with that in 17-AAG alone group, the cell proliferation level in 17-AAG+negative pressure treatment group was significantly increased at culture hour of 48 and 72 after the treatment (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Compared with that in negative pressure treatment alone group, the cell proliferation level in 17-AAG+negative pressure treatment group was significantly decreased at culture hour of 24, 48, and 72 after the treatment (P<0.01). At 12 h after scratching, compared with (39.9±2.7)% in normal control group, the cell migration rate in 17-AAG alone group was significantly decreased ((10.7±2.7)%, P<0.01), while the cell migration rate in negative pressure treatment alone group was significantly increased ((61.9±2.4)%, P<0.01). Compared with those in 17-AAG alone group, the cell migration rate in 17-AAG+negative pressure treatment group was significantly increased ((37.7±3.7)%, P<0.01). Compared with that in negative pressure treatment alone group, the cell migration rate in 17-AAG+negative pressure treatment group was significantly decreased (P<0.01). At culture hour of 6 after the treatment, compared with those in normal control group, the total length of the tube formed by the cells in 17-AAG alone group was significantly shortened (P<0.05) and the number of branch nodes was significantly reduced (P<0.05), while the total length of the tube formed by the cells in negative pressure treatment alone group was significantly prolonged (P<0.01) and the number of branch nodes was dramatically increased (P<0.01). Compared with that in 17-AAG alone group, the number of branch nodes of the tube formed by the cells was significantly increased in 17-AAG+negative pressure treatment group (P<0.05). Compared with those in negative pressure treatment alone group, the total length of the tube formed by the cells in 17-AAG+negative pressure treatment group was significantly shortened (P<0.01) and the number of branch nodes was significantly reduced (P<0.01). Western blotting detection showed that after treatment, the overall comparison of eNOS and caveolin 1 protein expressions among the three groups of cells showed no statistically significant differences (P>0.05). The expression of HSP90 protein and the eNOS phosphorylation site 1177/eNOS ratio in the cells of negative pressure treatment alone group were significantly increased (P<0.01) compared with those in normal control group. Compared with those in negative pressure treatment alone group, the HSP90 protein expression and the eNOS phosphorylation site 1177/eNOS ratio in the cells of 17-AAG+negative pressure treatment group were significantly decreased (P<0.01). Co-immunoprecipitation and Western blotting detection after the treatment showed that compared with those in normal control group, the expression of caveolin 1 protein in the cells of negative pressure treatment alone group was significantly increased (P<0.01), while the protein expression of eNOS was significantly decreased (P<0.05). Compared with those in negative pressure treatment alone group, the expression of caveolin 1 protein in the cells of 17-AAG+negative pressure treatment group was significantly decreased (P<0.01), while the protein expression of eNOS was significantly increased (P<0.01). After the treatment, compared with those in normal control group, the co-localization of HSP90 and caveolin 1 protein in the cells of negative pressure treatment alone group was significantly increased, while the co-localization of caveolin 1 and eNOS protein was significantly decreased. Compared with those in negative pressure treatment alone group, the co-localization of HSP90 and caveolin 1 protein in the cells of 17-AAG+negative pressure treatment group was significantly decreased, while the co-localization of caveolin 1 and eNOS protein was significantly increased. Molecular docking prediction suggested that caveolin 1 interacted strongly with eNOS and inhibited the 1177 site phosphorylation of eNOS. Conclusions: The negative pressure microenvironment may inhibit the binding of caveolin 1 to eNOS by promoting the binding of HSP90 to caveolin 1 in HUVECs, so as to relieve the inhibition of 1177 site phosphorylation of eNOS by caveolin 1, thereby promoting the proliferation, migration, and tubulogenesis of HUVECs, and ultimately promoting the neogenesis of HUVECs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Caveolin 1/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins/metabolism , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Molecular Docking Simulation , Phosphorylation
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928102

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to observe the intervention effect of Jianpi Huogu Formula(JPHGF) on the functional damage of vascular endothelial cells caused by glucocorticoid, and explore its action mechanism from the PI3 K/Akt and mitogen activated protein kinase(MAPK) signaling pathways. The extracted thoracic aorta ring of normal SD rats were intervened first with vascularendothelial growth factor(VEGF, 20 μg·L-1) and/or sodium succinate(MPS, 0. 04 g·L-1) in vitro and then with JPHGF(8, 16, and 32 μg·L-1) for five mcontinuous ethylpdays, rednisolofollowed nebythe statistics of the number, length, and area of microvessels budding fromvascular rings. In addition, the human umbilical vein endothelial cells(HUVECs) induced by VEGF(20 μg·L-1) were added with MPS(0. 04 g·L-1) and then with JPHGF(8, 16, and 32 μg·L-1) for observing the migration, invasion, and luminal formation abilities of HUVECs in the migration, invasion and luminal formation experiments. The protein expression levels of PI3 K, p-Akt, p-JN K, and p-ERK in HUVECs were assayed by Western blot. The results showed that JPHGF dose-dependently improved the num-ber,length, and area of microvessels in MPS-induced rat thoracic aortic ring, reversed the migration, invasion and lumen formation abiliti es of HUVECs reduced by MPS, and up-regulated the protein expression levels of PI3 K, p-Akt, and p-JNK in HUVECs. All thesehave suggested that JPHGF exerts the protective effect against hormone-induced damage to the angiogenesis of vascular endothelial cells by activating the PI3 K/Akt and MAPK signaling pathways, which has provided reference for exploring the mechanism of JPHGF in treating s teroid-induced avascular necrosis of femoral head(SANFH) and also the experimental evidence for enriching the scientific connotationof spleen-invigorating and blood-activating therapy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Rats , Glucocorticoids/pharmacology , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Neovascularization, Pathologic/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927957

ABSTRACT

The present study investigated the mechanism of components in stasis-resolving and collateral-dredging Chinese herbal medicines, including scutellarin(Scu), paeonol(Pae), and hydroxy safflower yellow A(HSYA), in the treatment of psoriasis by regulating angiogenesis and inflammation. The human umbilical vein endothelial cells(HUVECs) cultured in vitro were divided into a normal group, a model group, a VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor Ⅱ(VRI) group, and Scu, Pae, and HSYA groups with low, me-dium, and high doses. Cell viability was detected by the CCK-8 assay. Cell migration was detected by wound healing assay. Tube formation assay was used to measure the tube formation ability. Western blot was used to detect the protein expression of the VEGFR2/Akt/ERK1/2 signaling pathway. The secretion levels of inflammatory cytokines IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α were detected by ELISA. The results showed that compared with the model group, all the Scu, Pae, and HSYA groups could reduce cell viability, inhibit cell migration and tube formation(P<0.05, P<0.01), and down-regulated the protein expression of VEGFR2, p-VEGFR2, Akt, p-Akt, ERK1/2, and p-ERK1/2. Scu and Pae could down-regulate VEGFR2 expression(P<0.05, P<0.01), while other groups only showed a downward trend. Scu and Pae significantly reduced IFN-γ and IL-6 levels(P<0.01), and HSYA significantly reduced the levels of IFN-γ, IL-1β, and IL-6(P<0.01). Scu, Pae, and HSYA had no significant effect on TNF-α. The results suggested that Scu, Pae, and HSYA may exert a therapeutic role in psoriasis-related angiogenesis and inflammation by inhibiting VEGFR2/Akt/ERK1/2 signaling pathway and inhibiting the secretion of IFN-γ, IL-1β, and IL-6.


Subject(s)
Humans , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/pharmacology , China , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Neovascularization, Pathologic/drug therapy , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936296

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the expression of microRNA-132 (miR-132) and its potential role in the development of atherosclerosis (AS).@*METHODS@#Thirty AS samples and 30 samples of normal peripheral vessels were collected from atherosclerotic patients undergoing peripheral angiostomy in our hospital for detecting the expression level of miR-132 using RT-qPCR. The expression of miR-132 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) was up-regulated by liposome transfection, and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), localization relationship between ROS and mitochondria, functional changes of mitochondrial reactive oxygen superoxide species (mtROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) were analyzed by flow cytometry and laser confocal microscopy. The activity of mitochondrial redox respiratory chain complex (type I, II, III, IV and V) in HUVECs was detected using ELISA, and the expression levels of key iron death proteins were detected with Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#RT-qPCR results showed that miR-132 was significantly up-regulated in atherosclerotic plaques compared with normal vascular samples (P < 0.001). Compared with control HUVECs, HUVECs overexpressing miR-132 showed a significantly increased level of intracellular ROS (P < 0.001), and most of ROS was colocalized with mitochondria. HUVECs overexpressing miR-132 also showed significantly decreased MMP (P < 0.001) and obviously increased mtROS (P < 0.001) and opening of mPTP (P < 0.001), which led to mitochondrial REDOX respiratory chain stress disorder. The key iron death protein GPX4 was significantly down-regulated and the oxidized protein NOX4 was significantly increased in miR-132-overexpressing HUVECs (P < 0.001).@*CONCLUSION@#MiR-132 promotes atherosclerosis by inducing mitochondrial oxidative stress-mediated ferroptosis, which may serve as a promising therapeutic target for AS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Apoptosis , Atherosclerosis/genetics , Ferroptosis , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Mitochondria/metabolism , Oxidation-Reduction , Oxidative Stress , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism
18.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 147-155, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935989

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the changes of heparin-binding protein (HBP) in severe burn patients during shock stage and its effects on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and neutrophils in vitro. Methods: Prospective observational and experimental research methods were used. Twenty severe burn patients who met the inclusion criteria and were admitted to the Department of Burns and Plastic Surgery of Affiliated Suzhou Hospital of Nanjing Medical University from August to November 2020 were included in severe burn group (12 males and 8 females, aged 44.5 (31.0, 58.0) years). During the same period, 20 healthy volunteers with normal physical examination results in the unit's Physical Examination Center were recruited into healthy control group (13 males and 7 females, aged 39.5 (26.0, 53.0) years). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method was used to detect the protein expression levels of HBP and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) in plasma of patients within 48 hours after injury in severe burn group and in plasma of volunteers in healthy control group. The correlation between protein expression of HBP and that of TIMP-1 in the plasma in the two groups was analyzed by Pearson correlation analysis. The fourth passage of HUVECs in logarithmic growth phase were used for the experiment. The HUVECs were divided into normal control group with routine culture (the same treatment below) and recombinant HBP (rHBP)-treated 12 h group, rHBP-treated 24 h group, and rHBP-treated 48 h group with corresponding treatment according to the random number table (the same grouping method below), and the mRNA expression of TIMP-1 in cells was detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The HUVECs were divided into normal control group and rHBP-treated 48 h group with corresponding treatment, and the protein expression of TIMP-1 in the cells was detected by Western blotting. The HUVECs were divided into normal control group, rHBP alone group, aprotinin alone group, and rHBP+aprotinin group treated with the corresponding reagents (with the final molarity of rHBP being 200 nmol/L and the final concentration of aprotinin being 20 μg/mL, respectively), cultured for 48 h, and ELISA was used to detect the protein expression of TIMP-1 in the culture supernatant of cells. The neutrophils were isolated from the peripheral venous blood of the aforementioned 10 healthy volunteers by immunomagnetic bead sorting, and the cells were divided into normal control group, recombinant TIMP-1 (rTIMP-1) alone group, phorbol acetate (PMA) alone group, and rTIMP-1+PMA group treated with corresponding reagents (with the final concentration of rTIMP-1 being 500 ng/mL and the final molarity of PMA being 10 nmol/L, respectively). After being cultured for 1 h, the expression of CD63 protein in cells was detected by immunofluorescence method, the positive expression rate of CD63 protein in cells was detected by flow cytometry, and the protein expression levels of HBP and myeloperoxidase (MPO) in the culture supernatant of cells were detected by ELISA. The normal control group underwent the above-mentioned related tests at appropriate time points. The number of samples was 3 in each group of cell experiment. Data were statistically analyzed with chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis H test, and Tamhane's T2 test. Results: The protein expression levels of HBP and TIMP-1 in the plasma of patients in severe burn group were 404.9 (283.1, 653.2) and 262.1 (240.6, 317.4) ng/mL, respectively, which were both significantly higher than 61.6 (45.0, 68.9) and 81.0 (66.3, 90.0) ng/mL of volunteers in healthy control group (with Z values of -5.41 and -5.21, respectively, P<0.01). The correlation between the protein expression of HBP and that of TIMP-1 in the plasma of volunteers in healthy control group was not strong (P>0.05). The protein expression of HBP was significantly positively correlated with that of TIMP-1 in the plasma of patients in severe burn group (r=0.64, P<0.01). Compared with that in normal control group, the mRNA expression of TIMP-1 in HUVECs was significantly increased in rHBP-treated 12 h group, rHBP-treated 24 h group, and rHBP-treated 48 h group (with t values of -3.58, -2.25, and -1.26, respectively, P<0.05). Western blotting detection showed that compared with that in normal control group, the protein expression of TIMP-1 in HUVECs in rHBP-treated 48 h group was significantly enhanced. After 48 h of culture, compared with that in normal control group, the protein expression level of TIMP-1 in the culture supernatant of HUVECs in rHBP alone group was significantly increased (t=9.43, P<0.05), while the protein expression level of TIMP-1 in the culture supernatant of HUVECs didn't change significantly in aprotinin alone group or rHBP+aprotinin group (P>0.05); compared with that in rHBP alone group, the protein expression level of TIMP-1 in the culture supernatant of HUVECs in rHBP+aprotinin group was significantly decreased (t=4.76, P<0.01). After 1 h of culture, the trend of CD63 protein expression in neutrophils detected by immunofluorescence method and that by flow cytometry were consistent in each group. After 1 h of culture, compared with that in normal control group, the positive expression rate of CD63 protein in the neutrophils and the protein expression levels of HBP and MPO in the culture supernatant of cells in rTIMP-1 alone group all had no significant changes (P>0.05), while the positive expression rate of CD63 protein in the neutrophils and the protein expression levels of HBP and MPO in the culture supernatant of cells were all significantly increased in PMA alone group and rTIMP-1+PMA group (with t values of 2.41, 3.82, 5.73, 1.05, 4.16, and 1.08, respectively, P<0.05 or P<0.01); compared with that in PMA alone group, the positive expression rate of CD63 protein in the neutrophils and the protein expression levels of HBP and MPO in the culture supernatant of cells in rTIMP-1+PMA group were all significantly decreased (with t values of 5.26, 2.83, and 1.26, respectively, P<0.05 or P<0.01). Conclusions: The expression level of HBP in the plasma of severe burn patients is increased during shock stage. HBP can induce HUVECs to secrete TIMP-1 in vitro, and TIMP-1 can reduce the expression of CD63 molecule in human neutrophils.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides , Blood Proteins , Burns , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Neutrophils , Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1
19.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19660, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394027

ABSTRACT

Abstract In an attempt to increase molecular stability and provide controlled release, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was encapsulated into polycaprolactone (PCL) nanoparticles. Both VEGF-free and VEGF-loaded PCL nanoparticles were formulated by w/o/w double emulsion of the dichloromethane-water system in the presence of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and rat serum albumin. To achieve the optimal formulation concerning particle size and monodispersity, studies were carried out with different formulation parameters, including PVA concentration, homogenization time and rate. Scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering analysis showed respectively that particles had a spherical shape with a smooth surface and particle size varying between 58.68-751.9 nm. All of the formulations were negatively charged according to zeta potential analysis. In vitro release study was performed in pH 7.4 phosphate-buffered saline at 37°C and released VEGF amount was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. At the end of the 35th day, 10% of total encapsulated VEGF was released with a sustained-release profile, which fitted the Korsmeyer-Peppas kinetic model. The bioactivation of the nanoparticles was evaluated using XTT and ELISA methods. As a result, the released VEGF was biologically active and also VEGF loaded PCL nanoparticles enhanced proliferation of the human umbilical vein endothelial cells in cell culture.


Subject(s)
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Nanoparticles/classification , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/methods , Cell Culture Techniques/methods , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells
20.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19473, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1384023

ABSTRACT

Abstract RGX-365 is the main fraction of black ginseng conmprising protopanaxatriol (PPT)-type rare ginsenosides (ginsenosides Rg4, Rg6, Rh4, Rh1, and Rg2). No studies on the antiseptic activity of RGX-365 have been reported. High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is recognized as a late mediator of sepsis, and the inhibition of HMGB1 release and recovery of vascular barrier integrity have emerged as attractive therapeutic strategies for the management of sepsis. In this study, we examined the effects of RGX-365 on HMGB1-mediated septic responses and survival rate in a mouse sepsis model. RGX-365 was administered to the mice after HMGB1 challenge. The antiseptic activity of RGX-365 was assessed based on the production of HMGB1, measurement of permeability, and septic mouse mortality using a cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis mouse model and HMGB1-activated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). We found that RGX-365 significantly reduced HMGB1 release from LPS- activated HUVECs and CLP-induced release of HMGB1 in mice. RGX-365 also restored HMGB1-mediated vascular disruption and inhibited hyperpermeability in the mice. In addition, treatment with RGX-365 reduced sepsis-related mortality in vivo. Our results suggest that RGX- 365 reduces HMGB1 release and septic mortality in vivo, indicating that it is useful in the treatment of sepsis.


Subject(s)
HMGB1 Protein/analysis , Panax/adverse effects , Permeability , Sepsis/pathology , Ginsenosides , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells/classification , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/adverse effects
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