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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1011104

ABSTRACT

Hyperlipidemia is characterized by elevated levels of blood lipids. The clinical manifestations are mainly atherosclerosis caused by the deposition of lipids in the vascular endothelium. The link between abnormal lipid metabolism and sudden hearing loss remains unclear. This article presents a case study of sudden hearing loss accompanied by familial hyperlipidemia. Pure tone audiometry indicated intermediate frequency hearing loss in one ear. Laboratory tests showed abnormal lipid metabolism, and genetic examination identified a heterozygous mutation in theAPOA5 gene. Diagnosis: Sudden hearing loss; hypercholesterolemia. The patient responded well to pharmacological treatment. This paper aims to analyze and discuss thepotential connection between abnormal lipid metabolism and sudden hearing loss.


Subject(s)
Humans , Audiometry, Pure-Tone , Deafness/complications , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural/diagnosis , Hearing Loss, Sudden/diagnosis , Hyperlipidemias/complications , Lipids
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010158

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the clinical features of overweight and obese rheumatoid arthritis (RA)patients, and the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and disease characteristics.@*METHODS@#The demographic data, extra-articular manifestations, comorbidities, and disease activity of RA patients admitted to the Rheumatology and Immunology Department of Peking University Third Hospital from January 2015 to December 2020 were collected, and the above characteristics of overweight and obese RA patients were retrospectively analyzed. According to the WHO, BMI≥30 kg/m2 referred to obese individuals, 25≤BMI < 30 kg/m2 referred to overweight individuals, 18.5≤BMI < 25 kg/m2 referred to normal individuals, BMI < 18.5 kg/m2 referred to reduced body mass individuals. t test was used for the quantitative data in accordance with normal distribution. Wilcoxon rank sum test was used for the quantitative data of non-normal distribution. The qualitative data were analyzed by chi square test. But while 1≤theoretical frequency < 5, Chi square test of corrected four grid table was used. And Fisher exact probability method was used when theoretical frequency < 1. Analyzing whether overweight or obesity was associated with comorbidities using Logistic regression adjusted confounding factors.@*RESULTS@#A total of 481 RA patients were included in this study, with an average BMI value of (23.28±3.75) kg/m2.Of the patients, 31 cases (6.5%) were with BMI < 18.5 kg/m2, 309 cases (64.2%) with 18.5≤ BMI < 25 kg/m2, amounting to 340 cases (70.7%). There were 119 overweight individuals (25≤ BMI < 30 kg/m2, 24.7%) and 22 obese individuals (BMI≥30 kg/m2, 4.6%), totaling 141 (29.3%).The proportion of the overweight and obese RA patients suffering from hypertension (57.4% vs. 39.1%, P < 0.001), diabetes (25.5% vs. 15.0%, P=0.006), hyperlipidemia (22.7% vs. 10.9%, P=0.001), fatty liver (28.4% vs. 7.4%, P < 0.001), osteoarthritis (39.0% vs. 29.4%, P=0.040) was significantly higher, and the proportion of the patients with osteoporosis(59.6% vs. 70.9%, P=0.016) and anemia (36.2% vs. 55.6%, P < 0.001) was significantly lower. However, there was no difference between the two groups in coronary heart disease (5.7% vs. 7.6%, P=0.442), cerebrovascular disease (6.4% vs. 8.8%, P=0.372) and peripheral atherosclerosis (9.2% vs. 7.6%, P=0.565).The median C-reactive protein (CRP, 1.52 mg/dL vs. 2.35 mg/dL, P=0.008), median erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, 34.0 mm/h vs. 50.0 mm/h, P=0.003), pain visual simulation score (VAS) (3.66±3.08 vs. 4.40±2.85, P=0.011), and 28 joint disease activity scores (DAS-28, 5.05±1.60 vs. 5.45±1.52, P=0.010) in the overweight and obese RA group were all lower than those in the normal and reduced weight groups. Multivariate regression analysis showed that overweight and obesity was an independent risk factor for hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and fatty liver, and had protective effects on osteoporosis and anemia.@*CONCLUSION@#In RA patients, RA disease activity is lower in overweight and obesity patients. Overweight and obesity is associated with hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidemia, but not with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Body Mass Index , Overweight/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus , Hypertension/complications , Fatty Liver/complications , Hyperlipidemias/complications , Osteoporosis/complications , Anemia
3.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e21820, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439542

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Diabetes is a life-threatening disease, and currently available synthetic medicines for treating diabetes are associated with various side effects. Therefore, there is an unmet need to develop herbal remedies against diabetes as an alternative to synthetic medicines. Although local healers use the roots of Spermadicyton suaveolens (SS) to manage diabetes, there is negligible research to validate its antidiabetic properties. The present investigation aims to the assess the antioxidant, antidiabetic, and antihyperlipidemic potential of the ethanolic extract of S. Suaveolen's roots (EESS) on streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. The extract was screened for in vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic activity. The in vivo antidiabetic potential of EESS (at 200 and 400 mg/kg) was studied on STZ-induced diabetic rats for 20 days. The EESS displayed significant (p<0.05) antidiabetic and antioxidant properties. The administration of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg EESS in STZ-induced diabetic rats significantly reduced hyperglycemia, and restored antioxidant enzymes and lipid profile-a high density lipoprotein (HDL) increased by the administration of a single dose of streptozotocin. Thus, EESS could be a promising herbal medicine in the treatment of diabetes and hyperlipidemia


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Plant Extracts/analysis , Streptozocin/adverse effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/chemically induced , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Antioxidants/pharmacology , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Herbal Medicine/classification , Phytotherapeutic Drugs , Synthetic Drugs/adverse effects , Hyperlipidemias/complications
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927839

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the interaction between abnormal prepregnancy body mass index(pBMI)and high blood lipid level during pregnancy on the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus(GDM). Methods A total of 235 patients with GDM and no blood lipid-related diseases before pregnancy were selected from Hangzhou Women's Hospital during March 2017 to July 2018 as the GDM group.At a ratio of 1∶3,a total of 705 individual age-matched pregnant women with normal glucose metabolism during prenatal examination from the same hospital were selected as the control group.The generalized multifactor dimension reduction(GMDR)method was employed to characterize the possible interaction between pBMI-blood lipid and GDM.The cross-validation consistency,equilibrium test accuracy,and P value were calculated to evaluate the interaction of each model. Results GMDR model analysis showed that the second-order model including pBMI and gestational blood lipid level had the best performance(P=0.001),with the cross-validation consistency of 10/10 and the equilibrium test accuracy of 64.48%,suggesting that there was a potential interaction between pBMI and gestational high blood lipid level.After adjustment of confounding factors,the model demonstrated that overweight/obesity patients with high triglyceride(TG) level had the highest risk of developing GDM(OR=14.349,95%CI=6.449-31.924,P<0.001).Stratified analysis showed that overweight/obesity patients under high TG level group had a higher risk of developing GDM than normal weight individuals(OR=2.243,95%CI=1.173-4.290,P=0.015). Conclusions Abnormal pBMI and high blood lipid level during pregnancy are the risk factors of GDM and have an interaction between each other.Overweight/obese pregnant women with high TG levels are more likely to develop GDM.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Body Mass Index , Diabetes, Gestational , Hyperlipidemias/complications , Obesity/complications , Overweight
5.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e201191, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420495

ABSTRACT

Abstract Obesity and dyslipidemia are conditions often associated with cardiovascular risk, inflammation, oxidative stress, and death. Thus, a new approach has been highlighted to promote research and development of pharmacological tools derived from natural sources. Among the most widely studied groups of substances, polyphenols such as tyramine stand out. This study investigated hypolipidemic and anti-obesity properties of tyramine. Oral toxicity evaluation, models of dyslipidemia and obesity were used. To induce dyslipidemia, Poloxamer-407 (P-407) was administered intraperitoneally. In the hypercholesterolemic and obesity model, specific diet and oral tyramine were provided. After 24h of P-407 administration, tyramine 2 mg/kg (T2) decreased triglycerides (TG) (2057.0 ± 158.5 mg/dL vs. 2838 ± 168.3 mg/dL). After 48h, TG were decreased by T2 (453.0 ± 35.47 vs. 760.2 ± 41.86 mg/dL) and 4 mg/kg (T4) (605.8 ± 26.61 760.2 ± 41.86 mg/dL). T2 reduced total cholesterol (TC) after 24h (309.0 ± 11.17 mg/dL vs. 399.7 ± 15.7 mg/dL); After 48h, 1 mg/kg (T1) (220.5 ± 12.78 mg/dL), T2 (205.8 ± 7.1 mg/dL) and T4 (216.8 ± 12.79 mg/dL), compared to P-407 (275.5 ± 12.1 mg/dL). The treatment decreased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and nitrite in liver, increased superoxide dismutase, reduced the diet-induced dyslipidemia, decreasing TC around 15%. Tyramine reduced body mass, glucose, and TC after hypercaloric feed. Treatment with 5 mg/L (0.46 ± 0.04 ng/dL) and 10 mg/L (0.44 ± 0.02 ng/dL) reduced plasma insulin (1.18 ± 0.23 ng/dL). Tyramine increased adiponectin at 5 mg/L (1.02 ± 0.02 vs. 0.83 ± 0.02 ng/mL) and 10mg/L (0.96 ± 0.04 ng/mL). In conclusion, tyramine has low toxicity in rodents, has antioxidant effect, reduces plasma triglycerides and cholesterol levels. However, further studies should be conducted in rodents and non-rodents to better understand the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties of tyramine


Subject(s)
Tyramine/adverse effects , Hypolipidemic Agents/pharmacology , Obesity/classification , Cholesterol/pharmacology , Hyperlipidemias/complications
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879305

ABSTRACT

Objective This study aimed to determine the association of hyperlipidemia with clinical endpoints among hospitalized patients with COVID-19, especially those with pre-existing cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and diabetes. Methods This multicenter retrospective cohort study included all patients who were hospitalized due to COVID-19 from 21 hospitals in Hubei province, China between December 31, 2019 and April 21, 2020. Patients who were aged < 18 or ≥ 85 years old, in pregnancy, with acute lethal organ injury (e.g., acute myocardial infarction, severe acute pancreatitis, acute stroke), hypothyroidism, malignant diseases, severe malnutrition, and those with normal lipid profile under lipid-lowering medicines (e.g., statin, niacin, fenofibrate, gemfibrozil, and ezetimibe) were excluded. Propensity score matching (PSM) analysis at 1:1 ratio was performed to minimize baseline differences between patient groups of hyperlipidemia and non-hyperlipidemia. PSM analyses with the same strategies were further conducted for the parameters of hyperlipidemia in patients with increased triglyceride (TG), increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Mixed-effect Cox model analysis was performed to investigate the associations of the 28-days all-cause deaths of COVID-19 patients with hyperlipidemia and the abnormalities of lipid parameters. The results were verified in male, female patients, and in patients with pre-existing CVDs and type 2 diabetes. Results Of 10 945 inpatients confirmed as COVID-19, there were 9822 inpatients included in the study, comprising 3513 (35.8%) cases without hyperlipidemia and 6309 (64.2%) cases with hyperlipidemia. Based on a mixed-effect Cox model after PSM at 1:1 ratio, hyperlipidemia was not associated with increased or decreased 28-day all-cause death [adjusted hazard ratio (


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Case-Control Studies , Cause of Death , China/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Hospitalization , Hyperlipidemias/complications , Propensity Score , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
8.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(5): 373-383, oct. 2019. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056734

ABSTRACT

La aterosclerosis subclínica es un potente predictor de eventos cardiovasculares, aunque se desconoce cuál de los puntajes de riesgo es más eficaz para predecir su presencia en una población latinoamericana. El objetivo fué comparar la performance de los puntajes de riesgo: Framingham, Regicor y Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Risk Estimator para predecir la existencia de aterosclerosis subclínica en pacientes asintomáticos sin enfermedad cardiovascular conocida; así como determinar la prevalencia y distribución en los distintos lechos vasculares. Desde 2014 a 2017 se evaluaron pacientes de 35 a 75 años asintomáticos y sin enfermedad cardiovascular conocida, a quienes se les realizó una eco Doppler carotídea y femoral, y score de calcio. Se definió como aterosclerosis subclínica a la presencia de placas en las arterias carótidas y/o femorales o a la presencia de calcio en las coronarias (score de Agatston > 0). Se estudiaron así 212 pacientes, edad media 53 ± 7 años, de los cuales el 60% (128) eran varones. La prevalencia de aterosclerosis subclínica fue 62% (131 casos). De esos 131 con placa en alguno de los territorios, el Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Risk Estimator fue el que identificó el mayor número de casos con riesgo cardiovascular elevado (39%), Framingham detectó 20%, y Regicor 0% (p < 0.01). La reclasificación neta fue del 41%, 50% y 60% respectivamente (< 0.01). La prevalencia de aterosclerosis subclínica en sujetos asintomáticos sin antecedentes de enfermedad cardiovascular fue 62%. El calculador Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Risk Estimator fue el más efectivo para predecir aterosclerosis subclínica en esta población.


Subclinical atherosclerosis is a powerful predictor of cardiovascular events, although it is unknown which of the risk scores is more useful to predict its presence in a Latin American population. The objective was to compare the performance of the risk scores: Framingham, Regicor and Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Risk Estimator to predict the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis in asymptomatic persons without known cardiovascular disease; as well as determining its prevalence and distribution in the different vascular beds. From 2014 to 2017, patients from 35 to 75 years, asymptomatic and without known cardiovascular disease who underwent a carotid and femoral Doppler echo and calcium score were evaluated. Subclinical atherosclerosis was defined as the presence of plaques in the carotid and/or femoral arteries or the presence of calcium in the coronary arteries (Agatston score > 0). A total of 212 patients were included. The mean age was 53 ± 7 years, of which 60% (128) were male. The prevalence of subclinical atherosclerosis was 62% (131 cases). Of these 131 subjects with a plaque in any of the territories, the Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Risk Estimator was the one that identified the highest number of cases with high cardiovascular risk (39%), Framingham detected 20%, and Regicor 0% (p < 0.01). The net reclassification was 41%, 50% and 60% respectively (< 0.01). The prevalence of subclinical atherosclerosis in asymptomatic persons without a history of cardiovascular disease was 62%. The Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Risk Estimator was the most effective predictor of subclinical atherosclerosis in this population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Risk Assessment/methods , Atherosclerosis/etiology , Atherosclerosis/epidemiology , Argentina/epidemiology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Longitudinal Studies , Asymptomatic Diseases , Hyperlipidemias/complications , Hyperlipidemias/epidemiology , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/epidemiology
9.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 34(1): 57-61, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-985249

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To evaluate the association between serum vitamin D (vitD) level and SYNTAX (synergy between percutaneous coronary intervention with taxus and cardiac surgery) score (SS). Methods: The medical records of consecutive patients, who underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery, were retrospectively reviewed. The study group consisted of 158 patients. Biochemical, clinical, and echocardiographic parameters and SS were evaluated in all patients. The patients were divided into 2 groups according to SS (≥23= high, <23= low). Results: The high SYNTAX score (HSS) group was older and had higher body mass index, C-reactive protein (CRP), low-density lipoprotein, and fasting plasma glucose level than the low SYNTAX score (LSS) group. The HSS group had lower high-density lipoprotein and vitD level than the LSS group. The HSS group had a higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension (HT), hyperlipidemia (HL), and current smoking patients than the LSS group. On univariate analysis, age, HT, DM, HL, smoking, CRP, and serum vitD level were associated with HSS. On multivariate analysis, HT, DM, and HL were independent predictors of HSS (odds ratio [OR]: 2.137, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.468-2.935, P<0.001; OR: 3.559, 95% CI: 2.763-5.927, P<0.001; OR: 2.631, 95% CI: 1.529-3.438, P<0.001; respectively). Conclusion: In our study, we have found out that HT, DM, and HL were independent predictors of HSS. Serum vitD level was not found to be an independent predictor of HSS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Vitamin D/blood , Coronary Artery Disease/blood , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Artery Bypass/methods , Coronary Angiography/methods , Risk Assessment/methods , Reference Values , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Coronary Artery Disease/etiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sensitivity and Specificity , Diabetes Complications , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/methods , Hyperlipidemias/complications , Hypertension/complications
10.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 110(3): 211-216, Mar. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888027

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Coronary artery disease (CAD) and osteoporosis (OP) are common diseases in postmenopausal women. In both cross-sectional and longitudinal epidemiologic studies, low bone mass has been related to increased frequency of CAD. However, available data on the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and severity of coronary lesions is limited. Objective: To investigate association between the BMD and severity of coronary lesions assessed by Gensini score in postmenopausal women. Methods: This study included 122 postmenopausal women who were diagnosed with CAD. These patients were divided into two groups according to the severity of coronary lesions assessed by the Gensini score - patients with mild coronary lesions (Gensini score < 25) and patients with severe coronary lesions (Gensini score ≥ 25). Femoral neck mineral density was measured with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Results: The study included postmenopausal women aged 64.31 ± 4.71 years, 85 of whom (69.7%) exhibited severe coronary lesions. Participants with severe coronary lesions had a significantly higher T score than did those with mild coronary lesions at the femoral neck (p < 0.05). The mean T-score was −0.84 ± 1.01 in mild coronary lesions group, −1.42 ± 1.39 in severe coronary lesions group (p < 0.05). Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that osteopenia-osteoporosis at the Femoral neck (odds ratio 2.73; 95% confidence interval 1.06 to 6.13) was associated with an increased risk of developing severe coronary lesions. The multiple regression model showed that T-scores (b = −0.407, SE = 0.151, p=0.007) were the independent predictors of Gensini score. Conclusion: The relationship between severity of coronary lesions and BMD was significant in postmenopausal women. BMD, a low-cost technique involving minimal radiation exposure, widely used for osteoporosis screening, is a promising marker of severity of coronary lesions.


Resumo Fundamento: A doença arterial coronariana (DAC) e a osteoporose são doenças comuns em mulheres pós-menopausa. Tanto em estudos transversais como em estudos epidemiológicos longitudinais, a massa óssea diminuída foi relacionada à frequência aumentada de DAC. No entanto, dados disponíveis sobre a relação entre densidade mineral óssea (DMO) e gravidade das lesões coronarianas são limitados. Objetivo: Investigar a associação entre DMO e gravidade das lesões coronarianas avaliadas pelo escore de Gensini em mulheres pós-menopausa. Métodos: Este estudo incluiu 122 mulheres pós-menopausa diagnosticadas com DAC. As pacientes foram divididas em dois grupos de acordo com a gravidade das lesões coronarianas avaliada pelo escore de Gensini - pacientes com lesões coronarianas leves (escore de Gensini < 25) e pacientes com lesões coronarianas graves (escore de Gensini ≥ 25). A densidade mineral do colo femoral foi medida por absorção de raios-X de dupla energia (DXA). Resultados: O estudo incluiu mulheres pós-menopausa com idade de 64,31 ± 4,71 anos, 85 delas (69,7%) com lesões coronarianas graves. Pacientes com lesões coronarianas graves apresentaram um escore T mais elevado que aquelas com lesões coronarianas leves no colo femoral (p < 0,05). O escore T médio foi -0,84 ± 1,01 no grupo com lesões leves, e -1,42 ± 1,39 no grupo com lesões graves (p < 0,05). A análise de regressão logística multivariada mostrou que a osteopenia-osteoporose no colo femoral (odds ratio 2,73; intervalo de confiança de 95% 1,06 - 6,13) esteve associada com um risco aumentado de se desenvolver lesões coronarianas graves. O modelo de regressão múltipla mostrou que os escores T (b = -0,407; EP= 0,151; p = 0,007) foram preditores independentes do escore de Gensini. Conclusão: Encontrou-se uma relação significativa entre a gravidade das lesões coronarianas e a DMO em mulheres pós-menopausa. DMO, uma técnica de baixo custo que envolve mínima exposição à radiação, e amplamente utilizada no rastreamento de osteoporose, é um marcador promissor da gravidade de lesões coronarianas graves.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Coronary Artery Disease/physiopathology , Bone Density/physiology , Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal/physiopathology , Postmenopause/physiology , Bone Demineralization, Pathologic/physiopathology , Reference Values , Severity of Illness Index , Coronary Artery Disease/etiology , Absorptiometry, Photon/methods , Logistic Models , Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Statistics, Nonparametric , Risk Assessment , Bone Demineralization, Pathologic/complications , Femur Neck/diagnostic imaging , Hyperlipidemias/complications
11.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 31: e110, 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-952111

ABSTRACT

Abstract: This study aimed to assess the impact of hyperlipidemia on healthy and diseased periodontal tissue by evaluating oxidative stress biomarkers in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). Clinical periodontal parameters and blood serum lipid, GCF malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl (PC), and total antioxidant capacity (TAOC) levels were evaluated in six age and sex-matched groups (n = 15 each) of normolipidemic and hyperlipidemic individuals as follows: normolipidemic + periodontally healthy (H), normolipidemic + gingivitis (G), normolipidemic + chronic periodontitis (CP), hyperlipidemic + periodontally healthy (HH), hyperlipidemic + gingivitis (HG), and hyperlipidemic + CP (HCP). GCF MDA, and PC levels varied among groups, with patients with periodontitis having the highest MDA and PC levels [CP > G > H (p < 0.01) and HCP > HG > HH (p < 0.01)] and the lowest TAOC levels [CP < G < H (p < 0.01) and HCP < HG < HH (p < 0.01)]. Furthermore, paired comparisons showed MDA and PC levels to be higher and TAOC levels to be lower in HCP compared with NCP (p < 0.01). In patients with hyperlipidemia, GCF, MDA, and PC levels positively correlated with clinical assessments and serum triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) levels and negatively correlated with serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) levels, whereas GCF TAOC levels negatively correlated with clinical assessments and serum TG, TC, and LDL levels, but positively correlated with serum HDL levels (p < 0.01). In normolipidemic patients, GCF, MDA, and PC levels positively correlated with clinical assessments and serum TG levels and negatively correlated with serum HDL levels, whereas GCF TAOC levels negatively correlated with clinical assessments and serum TG levels and positively correlated with serum HDL levels (p < 0.01). In conclusion, abnormal serum lipid subfractions could be considered a risk factor for enhancing oxidative stress in GCF in the presence of periodontal disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Gingival Crevicular Fluid/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Chronic Periodontitis/blood , Gingivitis/blood , Hyperlipidemias/blood , Reference Values , Triglycerides/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Case-Control Studies , Cholesterol/blood , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Protein Carbonylation/physiology , Chronic Periodontitis/etiology , Gingivitis/etiology , Hyperlipidemias/complications , Malondialdehyde/blood , Middle Aged
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-48341

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Glycated albumin (GA) is a better marker of short-term glycemic control than glycated hemoglobin (A1c). Dyslipidemia is the main cause of cardiovascular complications in diabetes mellitus (DM). Studies on the correlation of GA with lipid indices are sparse. We investigated the diagnostic utility of GA for DM and its relationship with serum lipid profiles compared with that of A1c. METHODS: The GA enzymatic method was used to determine the diagnostic utility of GA for DM by using samples from 163 normal subjects (group 1) and 102 patients newly diagnosed with type 2 DM (T2DM; group 2). To analyze the lipid profiles, 263 patients with T2DM receiving treatment (group 3) were recruited. RESULTS: GA correlated with A1c (r=0.934, P<0.0001). Linear regression analysis indicated that GA levels were about 2.48 folds those of A1c. In the ROC analysis for GA to diagnose DM, the areas under the curve (0.988, 95% confidence interval 0.972-1.004) was excellent. HDL levels were significantly lower in groups 2 and 3. In group 1, positive correlations were observed between A1c and triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), LDL, TG/HDL, TC/HDL, and LDL/HDL levels. A negative correlation was observed between HDL and A1c levels. In group 3, HDL levels (P=0.0124 and P=0.0141, respectively) were significantly higher and LDL levels tended to be lower, not statistically significant, in the well-controlled group categorized using the A1c and GA cut-off values. CONCLUSIONS: GA is a potential diagnostic tool for DM. Compared with A1c, GA seems less relevant to dyslipidemia.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Area Under Curve , Blood Glucose/analysis , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Cholesterol, LDL/blood , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Hyperlipidemias/complications , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Linear Models , Lipids/blood , ROC Curve , Serum Albumin/analysis
13.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 86(3): 315-324, jul.-set. 2014. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: lil-725117

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: aunque se conoce que la hipertensión arterial puede tener su origen desde la infancia y adolescencia, en esta etapa no es tan bien valorada como en el adulto. OBJETIVO: determinar la incidencia de hipertensión arterial en escolares adolescentes, y su relación con hábitos dietéticos, peso elevado, hábito de fumar e hiperlipidemias. MÉTODOS: se realizó un estudio prospectivo y analítico en 532 adolescentes entre 12 y 14 años, de ambos sexos, de la Escuela Secundaria Básica Urbana "Ignacio Agramonte y Loynaz" de San José de las Lajas, durante el curso 2012-2013. Se estableció el riesgo relativo o razón de incidencia para los factores estudiados y la hipertensión arterial. RESULTADOS: se identificaron cifras elevadas de tensión arterial en 21 estudiantes (3,9 %). El 18,6 % eran obesos y sobrepesos, solo el 5,45 % mostró una frecuencia óptima de alimentación posiblemente saludable. Casi la totalidad de obesos y sobrepesos se encontraban entre los que tenían una alimentación no saludable o con riesgo de no serlo. El 95,2 % de los hipertensos recibían alimentación no saludable, o con riesgo de no serlo. El 5 % practicaba el hábito de fumar. El 19,0 y el 14,3 % de los hipertensos tenían cifras elevadas de colesterol y triglicéridos respectivamente, y el 16,1 % de ambos estaban elevados en los obesos.CONCLUSIONES: se estableció la incidencia de hipertensión arterial en adolescentes de una escuela secundaria básica. Se identificaron los hábitos dietéticos inadecuados, el peso elevado y el consumo de tabaco.


INTRODUCTION: although it is known that the origin of blood hypertension may be found in the childhood and adolescence, this disease is not assessed in this phase as adequately as in the adulthood. OBJECTIVE: to determine the incidence of blood hypertension in adolescent students and its association with food habits, high bodyweight, smoking and hyperlipidemias. METHODS: a prospective and analytical study was conducted in 532 adolescents of both sexes aged 12 to 14 years; they studied at "Ignacio Agramonte y Loynaz" urban secondary school in San José de las Lajas municipality in the 2012-2013 academic year. The relative risk or incidence ratio was set for the studied factors and for blood hypertension. RESULTS: high blood pressure figures were detected in 21 students (3.9 %). Obese and overweighed students accounted for 18.6 % of the total number, and just 5.45 % of the sample showed optimal frequency of possibly healthy food. Almost all of them were found to be among those with unhealthy or risk of unhealthy food. As to hypertensive children, 95.2 % showed unhealthy or risk of unhealthy food. Five percent of the group did smoke. In hypertensive children, 19 % and 14.3 % had high cholesterol and triglyceride values, respectively whereas 16.1 % of both lipids showed high values in obese students. CONCLUSIONS: the incidence of blood hypertension in adolescents from an urban secondary school was observed. Inadequate food habits, high bodyweight and smoking were identified in this group.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Weight Gain/physiology , Smoking/adverse effects , Smoking/epidemiology , Feeding Behavior , Hyperlipidemias/complications , Hypertension/epidemiology , Prospective Studies
14.
Rev. AMRIGS ; 58(1): 38-43, jan.-mar. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-878905

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Atualmente, a doença aterosclerótica detém uma posição indiscutível de principal causa de mortalidade nos países desenvolvidos. Mesmo sendo de caráter multifatorial, é determinante a relação direta das dislipidemias e riscos de eventos cardiovasculares e obesidade. O objetivo do estudo foi determinar os níveis séricos do perfil lipídico e prevalência de dislipidemia na população adulta de um município no Sul do Brasil e sua associação com a obesidade. Métodos: Estudo transversal de base populacional com adultos residentes em Tubarão, Santa Catarina, entre novembro de 2011 e junho de 2012. Os participantes foram submetidos à entrevista, coleta de sangue para realização de exames laboratoriais, aferição da pressão arterial e antropometria. Resultados: Foram estudados 369 adultos, com média de idade de 40,6±12,2 anos, 64,0% mulheres. Entre os fatores comportamentais 31,4% eram fumantes/ ex-fumantes, 8,4% eram alcoolistas, 61,0% eram sedentários e 62,1% não apresentavam um padrão alimentar considerado saudável. Quanto às condições clínicas, foi verifi cado que 6,0% eram diabéticos, 36,9% apresentavam hipertensão arterial sistêmica, 27,1% eram obesos e 65% dislipidêmicos. Houve associação positiva entre dislipidemia e idade mais avançada, ter companheiro fixo, baixa escolaridade, tabagismo, obesidade e hipertensão arterial sistêmica. Conclusão: A prevalência de dislipidemia foi de 65%, e obesidade e tabagismo foram fatores associados de forma independente ao desfecho. Os resultados indicam a necessidade de intervenções que promovam um estilo de vida saudável, com ênfase na adoção de hábitos alimentares adequados e exercício físico (AU)


Introduction: At present atherosclerosis holds an undisputed position as the leading cause of death in developed countries. Despite its multifactorial nature, the direct relationship of dyslipidemia and risk of cardiovascular events and obesity is determinant. The aim of the study was to determine serum lipid profiles and prevalence of dyslipidemia in the adult population of a city in south Brazil and their association with obesity. Methods: Cross-sectional population-based study with adults living in Tubarão, Santa Catarina, between November 2011 and June 2012. Participants underwent an interview, blood collection for laboratory tests, blood pressure measurement and anthropometry. Results: We studied 369 adults with a mean age of 40.6 ± 12.2 years, 64.0% women. Among behavioral factors, 31.4 % were smokers/ex-smokers, 8.4% were alcoholics, 61.0 % were sedentary, and 62.1 % did not have an eating pattern considered healthy. Regarding clinical conditions, we found that 6.0% were diabetic , 36.9% had high blood pressure, 27.1% were obese and 65% had dyslipidemia. There was a positive correlation of dyslipidemia with older age, having a steady partner, low education, smoking, obesity and hypertension. Conclusion: The prevalence of dyslipidemia was 65%, and obesity and smoking were independently associated factors with the outcome. The results indicate the need for interventions that promote a healthy lifestyle, with an emphasis on adopting proper eating habits and exercise (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Hyperlipidemias/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Smoking/adverse effects , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Heart Diseases/etiology , Hyperlipidemias/complications , Obesity/complications
15.
Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology. 2014; 44 (1): 187-195
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-154441

ABSTRACT

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease [NAFLD] is currently the most common cause of abnormal liver biochemistry and cryptogenic cirrhosis. Those with NAFLD have a higher prevalence of atherosclerosis, as shown by increased carotid artery intimal media thickness [CIMT]. The aim of this study is to assess the co-incidence and prevalence between NAFLD and carotid atherosclerosis. In this study seventy-two subjects were categorized into 2 groups. QL 52 patients diagnosed as NAFLD with diabetes mellitus type 2 or obesity or hyperlipedemia. Gil: 20 diseased controls diagnosed as NAFLD without other predisposing factor. CIMT and plaque prevalence were estimated by carotid ultrasonography as a single trained operator who was blind to clinical characteristics of participants. The results showed that CIMT by carotid duplex ultrasonography was significantly higher in group A than group B but CIMT did not reveal any significant difference as regards to the etiology of NAFLD. CIMT was significantly higher in cases with bright liver than those with homogenous liver [by abdominal US] in group I and II. CIMT was significantly higher in those with moderate steatosis than those with mild steatosis [in GI and Gil]


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Coronary Disease/etiology , /pathology , Carotid Artery Diseases/complications , Risk Factors , Obesity/complications , Hyperlipidemias/complications , Ultrasonography/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Hypertension/complications
16.
Journal of Gorgan University of Medical Sciences. 2014; 15 (4): 96-100
in English, Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-139737

ABSTRACT

Coronary artery diseases are one of the main causes of mortality and morbidity. This study was done to determine the prevalence of risk factors for coronary artery diseases in patients referred to angiography center in Sari, Northern Iran. This descriptive study was performed on 2540 patients referred to angiography center in Sari city, northern Iran, during 2005-10. Risk factors including diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking, Family history, CRP and also ECG changes, type and number of involved artery and the severity of vascular involvement were recorded for each patient. Hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, smoking were seen in 40.8%, 40.5%, 29.1%, 12.5% of patients, respectively. Positive family history and CRP were found in 10% and 3.4% of the patients, respectively. 23.8% of patients had abnormal ECG. One, two and three vessel diseases were observed in 26.5%, 48.3%, 48.3% of cases, respectively. Left anterior descending artery constriction was seen in 75.8% and 80.4% of males and females, respectively. A significant relationship was found between diabetes and left coronary circumflex [P<0.04] and left anterior descending artery [P<0.03] constriction. Diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking, family history, abnormal ECG are among the risk factors of coronary artery diseases in this area


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Risk Factors , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Electrocardiography , Diabetes Complications , Hypertension/complications , Hyperlipidemias/complications , Smoking/adverse effects
17.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2013 Sept; 51(9): 702-708
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-149373

ABSTRACT

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activities of Allopolyherbal formulation (APHF) consisting of combinations of three well known medicinal plants used in traditional medicines (Trigonella foenum graceum, Momordica charantia, Aegle marmelos) and synthetic oral hypoglycaemic drug (Glipizide-GL). The optimized combination of lyophilized hydro-alcoholic extracts of drugs was 2:2:1 using OGTT model. The optimized PHF was simultaneously administered with GL and optimized using OGTT model in diabetic rats and further studied in STZ-induced diabetic rats for 21 days. The results (serum glucose level, lipid profile, hepatic enzymes and body weight) were compared with the standard drug GL (10 mg/kg body wt). The optimized APHF (500+5 mg/kg body wt) has shown significant antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic activities. The results were comparable with the standard; even better than the GL (10 mg/kg body wt) alone. The proposed hypothesis has reduced the no. of drug components from eight to three and dose almost 50 % of both PHF and GL which fulfil the FDA requirements for export. Thus the developed APHF will be an ideal alternative for the existing hypoglycemic formulations in the market with an additional advantage of hypolipidemic effect and minimizing the cardiovascular risk factors associated with diabetes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Glucose Tolerance Test , Herbal Medicine , Hyperlipidemias/complications , Hyperlipidemias/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Hypolipidemic Agents/therapeutic use , Rats , Streptozocin
18.
Rev. bras. cardiol. (Impr.) ; 26(2): 100-105, mar.-abr. 2013. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-685719

ABSTRACT

Fundamentos: A lipemia pós-prandial (LPP) é um fenômeno metabólico que se correlaciona com a aterogênese. Embora o exercício físico atenue a curva de triglicerídeos (TG) resultante da LPP, seu efeito agudo ainda não é totalmente esclarecido. Objetivo: Verificar se o exercício físico intervalado de alta intensidade e curta duração (EFIAICD) reduz a curva de TG resultante da LPP em jovens irregularmente ativos. Métodos: Estudo analítico prospectivo, no qual foram investigados 32 indivíduos (14 homens), média de idade 25±3,3 anos, sem alteração metabólica. Foram submetidos a teste cardiopulmonar e a dois testes de LPP: basal (TLPP-B) e exercício (TLPP-E). Amostras sanguíneas foram coletadas para dosagem dos TG nos tempos 0 (jejum) e 30 min e após a ingestão de composto lipídico (50 g) aos 90 min, 210 min e 270min. No TLPP-E foi aplicada, após a coleta de jejum, uma sessão de EFIAICD a 80% do VO2pico. Resultados: Os valores de jejum, 30 min, 90 min, 210min e 270 min, respectivamente, do TLPP-B e doTLPP-E foram: 69±34 mg/dL vs. 72±34 mg/dL(p=0,4348); 68±34 mg/dL vs. 71±34 mg/dL (p=0,4771);78±37 mg/dL vs. 77±34 mg/dL (p=0,8457);124±57 mg/dL vs. 124±53 mg/dL (p= 0,9525); e120±64 mg/dL vs. 124±65 mg/dL (p=0,6636), não sendo encontrada diferença significativa. Conclusão: Os resultados demonstram que a curva lipídica resultante da LPP em jovens irregularmente ativos não é modificada pelo EFIAICD.


Background: Postprandial lipemia (PPL) is a metabolic phenomenon that is correlated with atherogenesis. Although exercise lowers the triglycerides (TG) curve resulting from LLP, its acute effect has not yet been fully clarified. Objective: To discover whether Short Duration High Intensity Interval Training (SDHIIT) lowers the (TG)curve resulting from LLP among young people who exercise irregularly. Methods: A prospective analytical study analyzed 32 individuals (14 men) with an average age of 25±3.3 years and no metabolic alterations who underwent a cardiopulmonary exercise test and two PPL tests: Basal (PPLT-B) and Exercise (PPLT-E). Blood samples were collected for TG measurements at intervals of 0 minutes (fasting) and 30 minutes, and after ingestion of a lipid compound (50 g) at 90 minutes, 210 minutes and 270 minutes. After the fasting blood collection, an SDHIIT session was completed on a treadmill for the PPLT-E at 40% VO2 max. Results: The PPLT-B and PPLT-E values for fasting, 30 minutes, 90 minutes, 210 minutes and 270 minutes were respectively: 69±34 mg/dL vs. 72±34 mg/dL (p= 0.4348);68±34 mg/dL vs. 71±34 mg/dL (p=0.4771); 78±37 mg/dLvs. 77±34 mg/dL (p=0.8457); 124±57 mg/dL vs.124±53 mg/dL (p=0.9525); and 120±64 mg/dL vs.124±65 mg/dL (p=0.6636), finding no significant difference. Conclusion: The results show that the lipid curve resulting from PPL among young people exercising irregularly is not modified by SDHIIT.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Dyslipidemias/complications , Exercise/physiology , Hyperlipidemias/complications , Primary Prevention/methods , Prospective Studies , Guidelines as Topic/standards , Clinical Protocols/standards
19.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2013. 91 p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-695614

ABSTRACT

As mudanças nos hábitos alimentares têm causado efeitos impressionantes na saúde pública, diretamente relacionados ao aumento da ingestão de refeições ricas em gorduras, principalmente gorduras saturadas. A principal consequência desse consumo é o estado prolongado e excessivo da lipemia pós-prandial (LPP), considerada um dos fatores relacionados às anormalidades metabólicas e aos danos vasculares. O objetivo do estudo foiavaliar o efeito da sobrecarga lipídica na reatividade microvascular em mulheres obesas. Das 41 participantes deste estudo, 21 apresentavam o diagnóstico de obesidade, com IMC de 32,4±1,6 kg/m2 (média ±SD) e idade 31,6±5 anos e 20 mulheres saudáveis, com IMC de 21,9±1,7 kg/m2 e idade 27,2±5,5 anos. Após a avaliação clínica e laboratorial, as participantes tiveram a microcirculação examinada por dois métodos: a dinâmica do leito periungueal, para avaliação da densidade capilar funcional (DCF), velocidade de deslocamento das hemácias no basal (VDH) e após uma isquemia de 1 min (VDHmax) e tempo de reperfusão (TVDHmax). A segunda técnica foi a do dorso do dedo para avaliação da DCF no repouso, durante a hiperemia reativa e após oclusão venosa. Foi feita a coleta de sangue para avaliação do colesterol total (CT), triglicerídeos (TG), HDL-c e ácidos graxos livres (AGL), glicose, insulina e viscosidade plasmática em 30 e 50 rotações por minuto (rpm). Também foram medidas a pressão arterial sistólica (PAS), diastólica (PAD) e frequência cardíaca (FC). Após essas análises no repouso, todas as participantes receberam uma refeição rica em lipídios, e após 30, 60, 120 e 180 minutos da ingestão da refeição, os exames de videocapilaroscopia e a coleta de sangue foram novamente realizados.As participantes com obesidade apresentaram, após a sobrecarga lipídica, valores significativamente menores do que no jejum para: DCF basal do dorso do dedo (p=0,02); DCF durante hiperemia reativa (p=0,02), DCF pós-oclusão venosa (p=0,02), HDL-c (p<0,0001)...


Changes in eating habits have caused striking effects on public health, directly related to increased intake of food rich in fat, mainly saturated fat. The main consequence of this consumption is the excessive and prolonged state of postprandial lipemia (PPL), considered one an important factor related to metabolic abnormalities and vascular damage. The aim of this study was to assess effects of fat overload on microvascular reactivity in obese women. Of the 41 study participants, 21 had the diagnosis of obesity, with BMI of 32.4 ± 1.6 kg/m2 (mean ± SD) and age of 31.6 ± 5 years and 20 healthy women with BMI of 21.9 ± 1.7 kg/m2and age 27.2 ± 5.5 years. After clinical and laboratorial assessment, participants had the microcirculation examined by two methods: dynamic, using the nailfold bed to assess functional capillary density (FCD), red blood cell velocity in in control conditions (RBCV) and peak (RBCVmax) and time (TRBCVmax) to reach it after 1 min arterial occlusion. The second technique was the finger dorsum to assess FCD at rest and during the reactive hyperemia response and after venous occlusion. Blood sampling was performed to determine total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), HDL- c and free fatty acids (FFA), glucose, insulin and plasma viscosity at 30 and 50 rotations per minute (rpm). Systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressures and heart rate (HR) were also measured. After these measurements at rest, all participants received a meal rich in lipids, and after 30, 60, 120 and 180 min after ingestion, videocapillaroscopy exams and blood samples were taken again. Results - Obese participants, after fat overload, presented significantly lower values than at rest at finger dorsum of FCD (p = 0.02), FCD during reactive hyperemia (p = 0.02) and post- venous occlusion (p = 0.02), HDL-C (p <0.0001), LDL-C (p <0.0001) and FFA (p <0.0001) and high values for: RBCV at rest (p<0 ,0001), RBCVmax (p = 0.003), TRBCVmax (p = 0.004), glucose (p <0.0001)...


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Hyperlipidemias/complications , Hyperlipidemias/metabolism , Obesity/complications , Obesity/metabolism , Microscopic Angioscopy/methods , Dietary Fats , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Feeding Behavior , Microcirculation , Postprandial Period/physiology , Overweight/complications
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-159644

ABSTRACT

Periodontal disease is a predictor of stroke and cognitive impairment. The association between the number of lost teeth (an indicator of periodontal disease) and silent infarcts and cerebral white matter changes on brain CT was investigated in community-dwelling adults without dementia or stroke. Dental examination and CT were performed in 438 stroke- and dementia-free subjects older than 50 yr (mean age, 63 +/- 7.9 yr), who were recruited for an early health check-up program as part of the Prevention of Stroke and Dementia (PRESENT) project between 2009 and 2010. In unadjusted analyses, the odds ratio (OR) for silent cerebral infarcts and cerebral white matter changes for subjects with 6-10 and > 10 lost teeth was 2.3 (95% CI, 1.38-4.39; P = 0.006) and 4.2 (95% CI, 1.57-5.64; P < 0.001), respectively, as compared to subjects with 0-5 lost teeth. After adjustment for age, education, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and smoking, the ORs were 1.7 (95% CI, 1.08-3.69; P = 0.12) and 3.9 (95% CI, 1.27-5.02; P < 0.001), respectively. These findings suggest that severe tooth loss may be a predictor of silent cerebral infarcts and cerebral white matter changes in community-dwelling, stroke- and dementia-free adults.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Age Factors , Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dementia/pathology , Diabetes Complications/diagnosis , Hyperlipidemias/complications , Hypertension/complications , Interviews as Topic , Odds Ratio , Periodontal Diseases/complications , Predictive Value of Tests , Risk Factors , Stroke/pathology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Tooth Loss
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