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3.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 121(5): e202202900, oct. 2023. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1509526

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El consumo de sustancias psicoactivas ilegales en el embarazo constituye un problema creciente. En pocas maternidades latinoamericanas se aplica una estrategia de detección y los datos publicados son escasos. Objetivos. Comparar dos quinquenios de resultados de una estrategia de detección de sustancias psicoactivas ilegales implementada en el posparto. Población y métodos. Estudio de corte transversal. Detección por inmunoensayo en orinas de binomios madre-hijo/a, en un hospital público argentino entre 2009 y 2018. Resultados. En 76/191 binomios se detectaron sustancias en 10 años. El criterio de detección más frecuente fue la comunicación o antecedente de uso de drogas: 25/37 y 32/39 en cada quinquenio. Predominaron cannabis (21/37 y 26/39) y cocaína (19/37 y 16/39) en ambos períodos. No hubo diferencias en datos demográficos, ginecológicos, del embarazo ni neonatales en los quinquenios comparados. Conclusiones. No se encontraron diferencias en la frecuencia ni en el tipo de sustancias detectadas a lo largo de 10 años.


Introduction. The use of illicit psychoactive substances during pregnancy is a growing problem. Few Latin American maternity centers implement a screening strategy, and published data are scarce. Objectives. To compare the outcomes of 2 five-year periods of a postpartum strategy to screen for illicit psychoactive drugs. Population and methods. This was a cross-sectional study. Immunoassay detection in urine of mothernewborn infant dyads in an Argentine public hospital between 2009 and 2018. Results. Substances were detected in 76/191 dyads over 10 years. The most frequent detection criterion was reporting or history of drug use: 25/37 and 32/39 in each five-year period. Cannabis (21/37 and 26/39) and cocaine (19/37 and 16/39) predominated in both periods. No differences were observed in demographic, gynecological, pregnancy, or neonatal data between both five-year periods. Conclusions. No differences were found in the frequency or type of substances detected over 10 years


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Illicit Drugs , Substance-Related Disorders/diagnosis , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Central Nervous System Agents , Cross-Sectional Studies , Mothers
4.
Medisan ; 27(2)abr. 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1440582

ABSTRACT

Algunas situaciones ponen en riesgo a Cuba en cuanto al uso de drogas, entre ellas el aumento del turismo, las relaciones con países que poseen altas tasas de consumo, la ubicación geográfica en corredores de narcotraficantes y la alta prevalencia de drogas porteras. Al respecto, el Sistema Nacional de Salud debe estar preparado para la prevención del problema y la atención a los afectados, de manera que resulta necesario mantener una información actualizada sobre los factores de riesgo y los principales productos utilizados por los consumidores. En la presente revisión bibliográfica sobre el tema se busca llamar la atención de los trabajadores de la salud en tal sentido, se ofrecen datos sobre la magnitud del problema y se abordan elementos de sus antecedentes, así como de la clasificación de las drogas, los factores de riesgo asociados a su consumo y las bases jurídicas para su control en Cuba.


Some situations put Cuba at risk for drug use, such as an increase in tourism, relations with countries that have high rates of substance abuse, the geographic location in drug trafficking corridors, and the high prevalence of "opening doors" drugs. In this regard, the National Health System must be prepared to prevent the problem and care for those affected, so it is necessary to maintain updated information on risk factors and main products used by consumers. In the present literature review on the subject, it is sought to draw the attention of health workers to this point, data on the magnitude of the problem and elements of its background are offered, as well as drug classification, the risk factors associated with its use and the legal bases for its control in Cuba.


Subject(s)
Illicit Drugs , Substance-Related Disorders , Drug Users , Cannabis , Risk Factors , Cocaine , Cuba , Amphetamine , Methamphetamine
5.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 802-808, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985565

ABSTRACT

Objective: To understand and analyze the incidence of club drug abuse and influencing factors in men who have sex with men (MSM) in Qingdao, and provide reference for the AIDS prevention and intervention in this population. Methods: From March 2017 to July 31, 2022, MSM who did not abuse club drug were recruited by snowball sampling of MSM social organizations in Qingdao, a prospective cohort was established, and a follow-up survey was conducted every 6 months. The survey collected the information about the MSM's demographic characteristics, sexual characteristics, club drug abuse and others. The incidence of club drug abuse was the outcome dependent variable and the interval between the recruitment into the cohort and the incidence of club drug abuse was the time dependent variable. Cox regression analysis was conducted to identify the influencing factors for club drug abuse. Results: A total of 509 MSM were recruited at baseline survey, and 369 eligible MSM were enrolled in this cohort. A total of 62 MSM began to abuse club drug during the study period, and the cumulative follow-up time was 911.54 person-years, the incidence of club drug abuse was 6.80/100 person-years. All the club drug abusers shared drugs with others in the first club drug abuse, and 16.13% (10/62) had mix-use of club drugs. The multivariate Cox proportional risk regression analysis showed that being students (aHR=2.17, 95%CI: 1.15-4.10), receiving no HIV testing or receiving 1 HIV testing during past 6 months (aHR=4.57, 95%CI:1.80-11.60; aHR=5.15, 95%CI: 2.83-9.36), having sex only with regular sexual partners during past 6 months (aHR=4.75,95%CI:2.32-9.75), having more than 4 homosexual partners (aHR=1.70, 95%CI:1.01-2.87) and abuse of club drug of sexual partners during past 6 months (aHR=12.78, 95%CI:3.06-53.35) were significantly associated with club drug abuse in the MSM. Conclusions: The incidence of club drug abuse was at a high level in the MSM cohort in Qingdao, indicating a high risk for HIV infection. Being student, receiving less HIV testing, having sex only with regular sexual partners, having more homosexual partners and abuse of club drug of sexual partners during past 6 months were risk factors for the incidence of club drug abuse in the MSM. Targeted surveillance and intervention measures should be strengthened to reduce the risk of club drug abuse in MSM.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Homosexuality, Male , Cohort Studies , Illicit Drugs , Incidence , HIV Infections , Prospective Studies , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Substance-Related Disorders
6.
Singapore medical journal ; : 385-390, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984217

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION@#Cannabis has consistently been the third most commonly abused drug among drug arrestees in Singapore over the past few years. Accordingly, this study aimed to understand the profile of cannabis users in Singapore and explore the effects of cannabis use on drug progression.@*METHODS@#A total of 450 participants who had used cannabis at least once in their lifetime were recruited from the National Addictions Management Service, prisons, the Community Rehabilitation Centre and halfway houses from August 2017 to May 2018. A face-to-face questionnaire was administered and descriptive analyses were conducted.@*RESULTS@#The mean participant age was 40.9 ± 14.51 years, and 93.1% of them were male. The participants generally initiated cannabis use during adolescence, at a mean onset age of 16.5 ± 4.46 years. Most (89.6%) were introduced to cannabis by peers. Approximately half of them (46.9%) had used cannabis before other illicit drugs and 42.1% of them had used heroin as the succeeding drug.@*CONCLUSION@#In Singapore, cannabis use is often initiated during adolescence, largely under peer influence. Cannabis users may progress to other illicit drugs, particularly heroin, later in life.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Child , Young Adult , Female , Cannabis , Singapore/epidemiology , Heroin , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Illicit Drugs
7.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 457-464, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009378

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To establish the GC-MS qualitative and quantitative analysis methods for the synthetic cannabinoids, its main matrix and additives in suspicious electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) oil samples.@*METHODS@#The e-cigarette oil samples were analyzed by GC-MS after diluted with methanol. Synthetic cannabinoids, its main matrix and additives in e-cigarette oil samples were qualitatively analyzed by the characteristic fragment ions and retention time. The synthetic cannabinoids were quantitatively analyzed by using the selective ion monitoring mode.@*RESULTS@#The linear range of each compound in GC-MS quantitative method was 0.025-1 mg/mL, the matrix recovery rate was 94%-103%, the intra-day precision relative standard deviations (RSD) was less than 2.5%, and inter-day precision RSD was less than 4.0%. Five indoles or indazole amide synthetic cannabinoids were detected in 25 e-cigarette samples. The main matrixes of e-cigarette samples were propylene glycol and glycerol. Additives such as N,2,3-trimethyl-2-isopropyl butanamide (WS-23), glycerol triacetate and nicotine were detected in some samples. The content range of synthetic cannabinoids in 25 e-cigarette samples was 0.05%-2.74%.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The GC-MS method for synthesizing cannabinoid, matrix and additive in e-cigarette oil samples has good selectivity, high resolution, low detection limit, and can be used for simultaneous qualitative and quantitative analysis of multiple components; The explored fragment ion fragmentation mechanism of the electron bombardment ion source of indole or indoxamide compounds helps to identify such substances or other compounds with similar structures in cases.


Subject(s)
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/methods , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Illicit Drugs/analysis , Indazoles/chemistry , Glycerol/analysis , Cannabinoids , Indoles/chemistry , Ions
8.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 406-416, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009373

ABSTRACT

In recent years, the types and quantities of fentanyl analogs have increased rapidly. It has become a hotspot in the illicit drug control field of how to quickly identify novel fentanyl analogs and to shorten the blank regulatory period. At present, the identification methods of fentanyl analogs that have been developed mostly rely on reference materials to target fentanyl analogs or their metabolites with known chemical structures, but these methods face challenges when analyzing new compounds with unknown structures. In recent years, emerging machine learning technology can quickly and automatically extract valuable features from massive data, which provides inspiration for the non-targeted screening of fentanyl analogs. For example, the wide application of instruments like Raman spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, high resolution mass spectrometry, and other instruments can maximize the mining of the characteristic data related to fentanyl analogs in samples. Combining this data with an appropriate machine learning model, researchers may create a variety of high-performance non-targeted fentanyl identification methods. This paper reviews the recent research on the application of machine learning assisted non-targeted screening strategy for the identification of fentanyl analogs, and looks forward to the future development trend in this field.


Subject(s)
Fentanyl , Substance Abuse Detection/methods , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Illicit Drugs/analysis
9.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e252476, 2023. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1448942

ABSTRACT

Este artigo tem como objetivo analisar a vivência de trabalho precoce de adolescentes e jovens em cumprimento de medida socioeducativa, no estado da Paraíba. Os instrumentos utilizados foram um Questionário Mosquito Diagnóstico e uma Entrevista Semiestruturada. A análise foi realizada com o software Iramuteq, (Interface de R pour les Analyses Multidimensionnelles de Textes et de Questionnaires), através da Análise Hierárquica Descendente, que gerou seis classes: significado do trabalho; infância e escola; condições objetivas de vida; trabalho, drogas e ato infracional; consequências do trabalho infantil; e trabalho infantojuvenil. A perspectiva teórica utilizada foi a psicologia histórico-cultural e os dados discutidos a partir do conceito de vivência. Conclui-se que as vivências e situações sociais de desenvolvimento foram caracterizadas pelo trabalho precoce que oportunizou o envolvimento com atos infracionais e as instituições responsáveis pela garantia de direitos em vez de garantir a proteção social, criminalizaram por meio de medidas socioeducativas.(AU)


This article aims to analyze the experience of child labor of adolescents and youngsters that are complying a social-educational measure, in the State of Paraíba. The instruments utilized were a Questionnaire Mosquito Diagnóstico and a Semi-Structured Interview. The analysis was performed by using the Iramuteq software (Interface de R pour les Analyses Multidimensionnelles de Textes et de Questionnaires), by using Descending Hierarchical Analysis, which generated six classes: meaning of labor; childhood and school; objective conditions of life; labor, drugs, and act of infraction; consequences of child labor; and child labor. The theoretical perspective used was historical-cultural psychology and the data were discussed from the concept of experience. It was concluded that the experiences and social situations of development were characterized by child labor, which enabled the involvement with acts of infraction; and the institutions responsible for guaranteeing rights, instead of guaranteeing social protection, criminalized by using social-educational measures.(AU)


Este artículo tiene como objetivo analizar la vivencia precoz de adolescentes y jóvenes que cumplen medidas socioeducativas en el estado de Paraíba (Brasil). Los instrumentos utilizados fueron un Cuestionario Mosquito Diagnóstico y una entrevista semiestructurada. El análisis se realizó con el software Iramuteq (Interface de R pour les Multidimensionnelles Analyzes de Textes et de Questionnaires), mediante análisis jerárquico descendente, que generó seis clases: Significado del trabajo; Infancia y escuela; Condiciones objetivas de vida; Trabajo, drogas y acto de infracción; Consecuencias del trabajo infantil; y Trabajo infantojuvenil. La perspectiva teórica que se utilizó fue la psicología histórico-cultural, y los datos se discutieron desde el concepto de vivencia. Se concluye que las vivencias y situaciones sociales de desarrollo se caracterizaron por trabajo infantil que permitió la participación en infracciones y que las instituciones responsables de garantizar los derechos en lugar de la protección social los criminalizaron mediante medidas socioeducativas.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Child Labor , Adolescent , Education , Personality , Play and Playthings , Poverty , Prejudice , Sex Work , Psychology , Public Policy , Punishment , Schools , Self Concept , Social Change , Social Class , Social Conditions , Social Support , Socialization , Socioeconomic Factors , Stereotyping , Student Dropouts , Suicide, Attempted , Theft , Violence , Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms , Work Hours , Child Abuse, Sexual , Mainstreaming, Education , Occupational Risks , Accidents, Occupational , Family , Illicit Drugs , Child, Abandoned , Child Advocacy , Child, Institutionalized , Child Welfare , Self-Injurious Behavior , Civil Rights , Family Planning Policy , Sexual Harassment , Communication , Adult , Legislation , Counseling , Crime , Dangerous Behavior , Adolescent Health , Death , Deinstitutionalization , Friends , Minors , Aggression , Human Rights Abuses , Educational Status , Employment , Health Vulnerability , Job Market , Bullying , Remuneration , Social Discrimination , Drug Trafficking , Enslaved Persons , Social Capital , Emotional Adjustment , Underage Drinking , Literacy , Help-Seeking Behavior , Self-Control , Psychiatric Rehabilitation , Psychosocial Support Systems , Work-Life Balance , Frailty , Survivorship , Recidivism , Academic Failure , Adverse Childhood Experiences , Cyberbullying , Data Analysis , Involuntary Commitment , Return to School , Sustenance , Emotional Abuse , Financial Stress , Life Course Perspective , Housing Instability , Social Vulnerability , Citizenship , Homicide , Household Work , Human Rights , Institutionalization , Juvenile Delinquency , Language , Mental Health Services
11.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e246584, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1422412

ABSTRACT

Este relato de experiência, situado no campo do cuidado a pessoas usuárias de álcool e outras drogas em contextos marcados por violência, tem como objetivo explorar os limites, desafios e caminhos possíveis, em um Centro de Atenção Psicossocial Álcool e Drogas (Caps AD III), para a sustentação de um cuidado orientado pela compreensão das pessoas usuárias do Caps a partir da sua existência, sofrimento e relação com o corpo social, mesmo diante de comportamentos tidos como violentos. De caráter qualitativo, o percurso de pesquisa foi conduzido por meio de dois recursos metodológicos: o relato de experiência, referente à trajetória de uma das autoras no Programa de Residência Multiprofissional em Saúde Mental do Instituto de Psiquiatria da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IPUB/UFRJ), e a metodologia caso traçador ou usuário-guia. O trabalho de cuidar de pessoas expostas à necropolítica exige um posicionamento ético dos trabalhadores de saúde mental de engendrar processos de resistências e produção de vida. Pela radicalidade que é vivenciá-la, a violência comparece como um elemento dificultador desse trabalho para os profissionais, fazendo com que, diante do desamparo, por vezes utilizem lógicas disciplinares para conseguir lidar com esse fenômeno. Propõe-se abordar as cenas nomeadas como violentas nos Caps com base na noção de situação-limite, retirando a situação da malha de sentidos que acompanha a palavra e remete a práticas disciplinares e ao contexto da violência urbana. Essa mudança de paradigma abre a possibilidade de que os trabalhadores se incluam nas situações, as entendam como relacionadas à complexidade e à singularidade da existência das pessoas envolvidas e, assim, proponham soluções produtoras de vida.(AU)


This experience report, situated in the field of care for people who use alcohol and other drugs in contexts marked by violence, aims to explore the limits, challenges, and possible paths, at a Psychosocial Care Center for Alcohol and Drugs (CAPS AD III), to support care guided by the knowledge of CAPS users based on their existence, suffering, and relationship with the social body, even in the face of behaviors considered to be violent. The path of this qualitative research was conducted with two methodological resources: the experience report, referring to the trajectory of one of the authors at the Multiprofessional Residency Program in Mental Health at the Institute of Psychiatry at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (IPUB/UFRJ), and the methodology of case tracer or user-guide. The work of caring for people exposed to necropolitics requires an ethical positioning of mental health workers to build resistance processes and life production. Due to it is radical to experience, violence appears as a complicating element of this work for the professionals, forcing them to, due to the lack of support, occasionally use disciplinary reasoning to deal with this phenomenon. This study proposes to approach violent scenarios in the CAPS under the guise of limit-situation, withdrawing the situation from the web of meanings that accompany the word and refer to disciplinary actions and the context of urban violence. This paradigmatic change opens the path for workers to include themselves in these situations, to understand their relationship with the complexity and singularity of the existence of the implicated people, and thus offer solutions that produce life.(AU)


Este reporte de experiencia se sitúa en el área de la atención a las personas que consumen alcohol y otras drogas en contexto de violencia y tiene por objetivo explorar los límites, desafíos y caminos posibles en un Centro de Atención Psicosocial Alcohol y Drogas (Caps AD III), para ofrecer un cuidado a los usuarios basado en la comprensión de las personas usuarias del Caps considerando su existencia, sufrimiento y relación con el cuerpo social, incluso ante situaciones violentas. Esta es una investigación cualitativa que se basó en dos recursos metodológicos: el reporte de experiencia sobre la trayectoria de una de las autoras en el Programa de Residencia Multiprofesional en Salud Mental de la Universidad Federal de Río de Janeiro (IPUB/UFRJ) y de la metodología del caso trazador o usuario guía. La labor de asistir a las personas expuestas a la necropolítica requiere un posicionamiento ético de los profesionales de la salud mental de producir vida y procesos de resistencia. Por la radicalidad de la experiencia, la violencia es un obstáculo para el trabajo de los profesionales, lo que los llevan a actuar de forma disciplinaria para hacer frente a este fenómeno. Se propone aquí abordar las escenas violentas bajo la noción de situación límite en el Caps, sacando del contexto la red semántica que acompaña la palabra y alude a las prácticas disciplinarias y la violencia urbana. Este cambio de paradigma permite que los trabajadores se incluyan en las situaciones, las comprendan en relación con la complejidad y la singularidad de la existencia de las personas y propongan soluciones que produzcan vida.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Violence , Mental Health , Psychiatric Rehabilitation , Psychosocial Support Systems , Mental Health Services , Poverty , Psychology , Psychotherapy , Public Policy , Social Work , Attitude of Health Personnel , Illicit Drugs , Dissociative Disorders , User Embracement , Ethics, Professional , Racism , Social Discrimination , Alcohol Abstinence
12.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e246660, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1422419

ABSTRACT

Objetivamos reconstruir, por meio das vozes de mães de jovens negros mortos em ações policiais, a subtração da vida de seus filhos em contínuas políticas que precarizavam suas existências ao negar-lhes direitos básicos e cidadania. Participaram desta pesquisa seis mães. As conversas com elas, após cuidadosa aproximação, se iniciaram com a pergunta disparadora: "Como você gostaria de contar a história do seu filho?". Para subsidiar nossas análises, tomamos como centrais a articulação teórica e política das noções de genocídio negro e de necropolítica. Este artigo evidencia que, entre o nascimento e a interrupção da vida por balas que atravessam o corpo como um alvo predestinado, o racismo constrói trilhos de precarização da vida que a torna cada vez mais abjeta, vulnerável e descartável, conduzindo à morte precoce, ainda que preveníveis, de jovens negros, principalmente, residentes em periferias e favelas. Nesta discussão, fomentamos uma visão menos compartimentalizada das múltiplas políticas genocidas, trazendo para o diálogo outras políticas públicas, para além da segurança pública. Abordamos um continuum de produção e legitimação de mortes de jovens negros, centrando nossas análises nas formas de apagamento social e institucional desses jovens, que ocorreram anteriormente à morte física, de modo a desqualificar suas vidas. Esses processos contribuem para que a política de segurança pública extermine vidas de jovens negros sem causar ampla comoção social, a devida investigação criminal e, portanto, a responsabilização do Estado, pois já eram vidas mutiladas e desumanizadas em suas existências.(AU)


We aim to reconstruct, with the voices of mothers of young black people killed in police actions, the subtraction of their children's lives in continuous policies that undermined their existence by denying them basic rights and citizenship. Six mothers participated in this research. The conversations with them, after a careful approach, began with the triggering question: "How would you like to tell your child's story?". To support our analyses, we take as central the theoretical and political articulation of the notions of black genocide and necropolitics. This article shows that, between the birth and the interruption of life by bullets that pass through the body as a predestined target, racism builds trails of precariousness of life that makes it increasingly more abject, vulnerable, and disposable, leading to premature death, even if preventable, of young black people, mainly, living in suburbs and slums. In this discussion, we foster a less compartmentalized view of multiple genocidal policies, bringing to the dialogue other public policies, in addition to public safety. We approach a continuum of production and legitimization of deaths of young black people, centering our analysis on the forms of social and institutional erasure of these young people, which occurred before physical death, to disqualify their lives. These processes contribute to the public security policy to exterminate the lives of young black people without causing widespread social upheaval, due criminal investigation, and, thus, the accountability of the State, since they were already mutilated and dehumanized lives in their existence.(AU)


El objetivo de este artículo es reconstruir, a través de las voces de las madres de jóvenes negros asesinados en acciones policiales, la sustracción de la vida de sus hijos en políticas continuas que socavaron su existencia al negarles derechos básicos y ciudadanía. Seis madres participaron en esta investigación. Las conversaciones con estas madres, después de un enfoque cuidadoso, comenzaron con la pregunta desencadenante: "¿Cómo le gustaría contar la historia de su hijo?". Para apoyar el análisis, se tomó como eje central la articulación teórica y política de las nociones de genocidio negro y necropolítica. Este artículo muestra que, entre el nacimiento y la interrupción de la vida por balas que atraviesan el cuerpo como fin predestinado, el racismo construye senderos de precariedad de la vida que la hace cada vez más abyecta, vulnerable y desechable, conduciendo a una muerte prematura, incluso prevenible, de jóvenes negros, principalmente, residentes en la periferia y favelas. Esta discusión fomenta una visión menos compartimentada de múltiples políticas genocidas, llevando al diálogo otras políticas públicas, además de la seguridad pública. Se acerca a un continuo de producción y legitimación de muertes de jóvenes negros, centrando el análisis en las formas de borrado social e institucional de estos jóvenes, ocurridas antes de la muerte física, para descalificar sus vidas. Tales procesos contribuyen a la política de seguridad pública para exterminar la vida de los jóvenes negros sin provocar un gran revuelo social, la debida investigación criminal y, en consecuencia, la rendición de cuentas del Estado, pues ya eran vidas cuya existencia era mutilada y deshumanizada.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Young Adult , Public Policy , Women , Adolescent , Racism , Genocide , Mothers , Poverty , Prejudice , Psychology , Race Relations , Social Behavior , Social Justice , Social Problems , Social Support , Socioeconomic Factors , Violence , Child Labor , Brazil , Bereavement , Illicit Drugs , Child Advocacy , Colonialism , Criminal Law , Hazards , Death , Whistleblowing , Dehumanization , Ethics , Social Stigma , Social Discrimination , Sociological Factors , Underage Drinking , Help-Seeking Behavior , Social Segregation , Social Privilege , Freedom , Respect , Intersectional Framework , Systemic Racism , Social Vulnerability , Citizenship , Homicide , Human Rights
13.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e255410, 2023. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1529230

ABSTRACT

Com a instauração da política de cotas, ocorreram profundas transformações no perfil dos estudantes das universidades públicas brasileiras. Essa nova composição do corpo discente, com maior representatividade de minorias e/ou estudantes de baixa renda, traz consigo novas demandas relacionadas à saúde mental do estudante. Apesar disso, ainda são escassas as pesquisas que investiguem esse contexto específico. Este estudo visa comparar a saúde mental de estudantes cotistas e não cotistas, avaliando diferenças nas prevalências de sintomas de depressão, ansiedade e estresse entre os dois grupos. Participaram da pesquisa 6.103 estudantes de graduação de uma universidade pública federal, dos quais 2.983 (48,88%) cotistas e 3.120 (51,12%) não cotistas. O levantamento de dados foi feito por meio de questionário on-line contendo questionário sociodemográfico e de hábitos de vida, e pelo Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale, na sua versão reduzida de 21 itens (DASS-21), utilizada para avaliar sintomas de depressão, ansiedade e estresse. Os resultados indicaram que os estudantes cotistas apresentaram maiores prevalências de sintomas de depressão e ansiedade quando comparados aos não cotistas. As áreas de Ciências Exatas e da Terra, e os Bacharelados Interdisciplinares apresentaram maiores diferenças entre os dois grupos em relação a esses problemas em saúde mental. Os resultados apontam para a necessidade de que as universidades estejam atentas às novas demandas em saúde mental dos estudantes e que estas sejam contempladas nas políticas de atenção à saúde estudantil.(AU)


With the introduction of the quota policy, profound changes took place in the profile of students in Brazilian public universities. This new composition of the student body, with greater representation of minorities and/or low-income students, brings new demands related to student mental health. Despite this, there are still few studies investigating this specific context. This study aims to compare the mental health of quota and non-quota students, evaluating differences in the prevalence of symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress between the two groups. A total of 6,103 undergraduate students from a federal public university participated in the research, of which 2,983 (48.88%) were quota students and 3,120 (51.12%) were nonquota students. Data collection was carried out via an online questionnaire containing a sociodemographic and lifestyle questionnaire, and the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale, in its reduced version of 21 items (DASS-21) was used to assess symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress. The results indicated that quota students had higher prevalence of symptoms of depression and anxiety when compared to non-quota students. The areas of Exact and Earth Sciences and Interdisciplinary Bachelors were the ones that showed the greatest differences between the two groups in relation to these mental health problems. The results point to the need for universities to be attentive to the new demands in mental health of students and for these to be included in student health care policies.(AU)


Con la introducción de la política de cuotas, se produjeron cambios profundos en el perfil de los estudiantes de las universidades públicas brasileñas. Esta nueva composición del alumnado, con mayor representación de minorías y/o estudiantes de escasos recursos, trae consigo nuevas demandas relacionadas con la salud mental del alumno. Pero todavía existen pocas investigaciones sobre el contexto específico. Este estudio tiene como objetivo comparar la salud mental de los estudiantes beneficiarios de las políticas de cuotas y los no beneficiarios, y evaluar las diferencias en la prevalencia de síntomas de depresión, ansiedad y estrés entre los dos grupos. En la investigación participaron un total de 6.103 estudiantes de grado de una universidad pública federal, de los cuales 2.983 (48,88%) son estudiantes beneficiarios y 3.120 (51,12%) son estudiantes no beneficiarios. Los datos se recolectaron de un formulario en línea, que estaba compuesto por un cuestionario sociodemográfico y de hábitos de vida, y por la Escala de Depresión, Ansiedad y Estrés, en su versión reducida de 21 ítems (DASS-21), utilizada para evaluar síntomas de depresión, ansiedad y estrés. Los resultados destacaron que los estudiantes beneficiarios de las políticas de cuotas tenían una mayor prevalencia de síntomas de depresión y ansiedad en comparación con los estudiantes no beneficiarios. Las áreas de Ciencias Exactas y de la Tierra y Licenciaturas Interdisciplinarias presentaron las mayores diferencias entre los dos grupos con relación a estos problemas en salud mental. Los resultados apuntan a la necesidad de que las universidades sean conscientes de las nuevas demandas sobre la salud mental de los estudiantes y de que estas se incluyan en las políticas de atención de la salud estudiantil.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Students , Universities , Mental Health , Personal Satisfaction , Prejudice , Professional Competence , Psychology , Psychometrics , Public Policy , School Admission Criteria , Schools , Social Behavior , Social Change , Social Class , Social Conditions , Social Justice , Social Mobility , Social Sciences , Socioeconomic Factors , Sociology , Stereotyping , Stress, Psychological , Student Dropouts , Teaching , Violence , Population Characteristics , Black or African American , Career Choice , Family , Illicit Drugs , Poverty Areas , Schools, Public Health , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Disabled Persons , College Admission Test , Domestic Violence , Cultural Diversity , Statistics , Culture , Democracy , Friends , Racial Groups , Depression , Alcoholic Beverages , Education , Educational Measurement , Equity , Fear , Fellowships and Scholarships , Test Taking Skills , Racism , Social Discrimination , Social Marginalization , Medicalization , Tobacco Products , Social Skills , Sociological Factors , Healthy Lifestyle , Academic Performance , Academic Success , Ethnic Inequality , Social Privilege , Adverse Childhood Experiences , Indigenous Peoples , Psychological Distress , Empowerment , Social Inclusion , Gender Equity , Economic Factors , Health Disparate Minority and Vulnerable Populations , Sociodemographic Factors , Intersectional Framework , Ethnic and Racial Minorities , Social Vulnerability , Quilombola Communities , Diversity, Equity, Inclusion , Low Socioeconomic Status , Residential Segregation , Hierarchy, Social , Human Rights , Intelligence , Interpersonal Relations , Mental Disorders , Methods , Antidepressive Agents
14.
Saúde Soc ; 32(4): e220352pt, 2023. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1530420

ABSTRACT

Resumo À luz das práticas de lazer, objetivamos analisar os sentidos do consumo de drogas por homens homossexuais em uma casa noturna da cidade do Rio de Janeiro, RJ. Realizamos o processo de observação participante em 36 episódios de festas eletrônicas em uma boate, entre janeiro de 2018 e setembro de 2019. Detectamos que os usos de substâncias estabelecem um sentimento de pertencimento social entre os sujeitos, funcionando como rede de apoio coesa e cerimonial. Concluímos que, para os interlocutores, as drogas assumem diferentes sentidos para um "bem-viver" coletivo, em que a droga simboliza a união e o apoio socioemocional que conecta os homossexuais consumidores em um espaço plural às diversidades, a princípio sem julgamentos morais. O consumo das drogas em cada festa fortaleceu a coesão grupal, além de refletir sentimentos de fraternidade, companheirismo e irmandade, edificando e retroalimentando uma espécie de "grupo terapêutico" atrelado a essa vivência do lazer, uma prática acionada para "suportar e sobreviver" às demandas sociais, por vezes preconceituosas e discriminatórias.


Abstract In light of leisure practices, we aim to analyze the meanings of drug consumption by homosexual men in a nightclub in the city of Rio de Janeiro, RJ. We carried out the participant observation process in 36 episodes of electronic parties in a nightclub, between January 2018 and September 2019. We detected that substance use establishes a sense of social belonging among the subjects, functioning as a cohesive and ceremonial support network. We conclude that, for those interlocutors, drugs take on different meanings for a collective "good living," in which the drug symbolizes the union and socio-emotional support that connects homosexual consumers in a plural space to diversities, at first without moral judgments. The consumption of drugs at each party strengthened group cohesion, in addition to reflecting feelings of fraternity, companionship, and brotherhood, building and feeding back a kind of "therapeutic group" linked to this experience of leisure, a practice activated to "endure and survive" the social demands, sometimes prejudiced and discriminatory.


Subject(s)
Illicit Drugs , Homosexuality, Male , Qualitative Research , Public Nondiscrimination Policies
15.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e244329, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1422404

ABSTRACT

Este artigo relaciona o paradigma manicomial, relativo à assistência psiquiátrica, à compreensão e ao manejo do campo da saúde mental, ao paradigma proibicionista, referente ao porte, uso e à circulação de drogas, como duas séries de políticas e práticas sociais que operam a guerra de raças que está na base do Estado brasileiro. Com isso, propomos uma investigação arqueogenealógica acerca do emaranhado de condições de emergência das práticas e objetos de saber-poder mobilizados por esses dois paradigmas, atentando ao caráter político das verdades que as sustentam. Dedicamo-nos especialmente ao período entre o final do século XIX e o começo do XX ao interrogar as dinâmicas de forças que constituem as práticas sociais e seus efeitos de subjetivação, produzidos pela sujeição de corpos por meio de uma diversidade de mecanismos morais, disciplinares, eugênicos, higienistas e biopolíticos que articulam os anseios de modernização e produtividade do Estado brasileiro à gestão dos problemas de saúde e segurança do país, colocando a pobreza, o vício e a doença como desdobramento da sua constituição racial. Concluímos, por fim, que o conflito de raças aparece como fundo intrínseco que se atualiza no cerne e a partir dos campos problemáticos da saúde mental e das drogas, colocando como saída dos impasses sociais e políticos eliminar ou pelo menos diluir, via miscigenação ou submissão para integração, o elemento físico e cultural do negro do Brasil.(AU)


This article puts in relation the asylum paradigm, associated to psychiatric care, to the understanding and management of the mental health field, to the prohibitionist paradigm, that refers to the possession, use and circulation of drugs, as two series of social policies and practices that operate racial war that is in the base of the Brazilian State. So on, we propose an archeogenealogical investigation about the emergency conditions of the practices and objects of knowledge-power organized by these two paradigms, paying attention to the political character of the truths that support them. Looking especially at the period between the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th, we questioned the dynamics of forces that constitute social practices and their effects of subjectivation, produced by the subjection of bodies through moral, disciplinary, eugenic, hygienist and biopolitics mechanisms that articulate the modernization and productivity aspirations of the Brazilian State to the management of the country's health and safety problems, understanding poverty, addiction and disease as consequences of its racial constitution. We conclude that the conflict of races is an intrinsic background that is updated at the heart of the problematic fields of mental health and drugs. Considering this, the solution for social and political impasses is the elimination or at least dilution, through miscegenation or submission for integration, of the physical and cultural element of black people in Brazil.(AU)


Este artículo relaciona el paradigma asilar de atención psiquiátrica, comprensión y manejo del campo de la salud mental, con el paradigma prohibicionista, referente a al uso y circulación de drogas, como dos series de políticas y prácticas sociales que operan la guerra racial que está en el fundamento del Estado brasileño. Así, proponemos una investigación arqueogenealógica sobre las condiciones de emergencia de prácticas y objetos de saber-poder movilizados por estos dos paradigmas, prestando atención al carácter político de las verdades que los sustentan. Nos dedicamos especialmente al período entre finales del siglo XIX y principios del XX buscando la dinámica de fuerzas que constituyen a las prácticas sociales y sus efectos de subjetivación, producidos por la sujeción de los cuerpos a través de una diversidad de mecanismos morales, disciplinarios, eugenésicos, higienistas y biopolíticos que articulan las aspiraciones de modernización y productividad del Estado brasileño a la gestión de los problemas de salud y seguridad del país, comprendiendo la pobreza, la adicción y la enfermedad como resultado de su constitución racial. Finalmente, concluimos que el conflicto racial aparece como un trasfondo intrínseco que se actualiza en el cerne y desde los campos problemáticos de la salud mental y de las drogas, tomando como soluciones a los impasses sociales y políticos nacionales, la eliminación o al menos la dilución, a través del mestizaje o de la sumisión para fines de integración, del elemento físico y cultural del negro en Brasil.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , Illicit Drugs , Mental Health , Public Health , Racial Groups , Prejudice , Psychology , Psychology, Social , Psychomotor Agitation , Social Alienation , Social Problems , Social Work , Substance Withdrawal Syndrome , Black or African American , Dopamine , Poverty Areas , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , Civil Rights , Community Health Services , Substance-Related Disorders , Dangerous Behavior , Aggression , Mental Health Assistance , Racism , Medicalization , Ethnic Violence , Social Segregation , Freedom , Workhouses , Hallucinations , Hospitalization , Language Arts
16.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e243764, 2023. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1422423

ABSTRACT

A população em situação de rua (PSR), em seu cotidiano, se relaciona com diferentes pessoas, grupos e/ou coletivos ligados à execução das políticas públicas, às organizações não governamentais, familiares ou a membros da sociedade civil. Pensar nessas dinâmicas de trabalho, cooperação e auxílio remete a pensar sobre uma rede de apoio que constrói estratégias com essa população. Tendo presente essas problematizações, este estudo teve como objetivo analisar as narrativas das pessoas em situação de rua sobre como é produzida sua rede de apoio. Para tanto, foi realizado um estudo qualitativo, de orientação etnográfica, sendo utilizada a observação participante, registros em diário de campo e entrevistas narrativas. Participaram seis pessoas em situação de rua que recebem alimentação ofertada por projetos sociais em uma cidade do interior do Rio Grande do Sul. Os dados produzidos foram analisados a partir da Análise Temática. As análises expressam as especificidades das narrativas das trajetórias de vida associadas à chegada às ruas e à composição de uma rede de apoio na rua. Ao conhecer como se produz e opera essa rede de apoio, a partir das narrativas das pessoas em situação de rua, problematiza-se a complexidade dessa engrenagem e o desafio de produzir ações integradas entre as diferentes instâncias da rede. Nisso, destaca-se a potencialidade de práticas que levem conta à escuta, ao diálogo e à articulação na operacionalização de políticas públicas atentas às necessidades dessa população.(AU)


The street population, in their daily lives, relates to different people, groups and/or collectives linked to the execution of public policies, to non-governmental organizations, family members, or to members of civil society. Thinking about these dynamics of work, cooperation, and assistance leads to thinking about a support network that builds strategies with this population. Having these problematizations in mind, this study aims to analyze the narratives of homeless people about how their support network is produced. To this end, a qualitative study was carried out, with ethnographic orientation, using participant observation, records in a field diary, and narrative interviews. Participated in the research six homeless people who receive food offered by social projects in a municipality in the interior of Rio Grande do Sul. The data produced were analyzed using the Thematic Analysis. The analyzes express the specifities of the narratives of life trajectories associated with the arrival on the streets and the composition of a support network on the street. By knowing how the support network is produced and operated, the complexity of this gear and the challenge of producing integrated actions between the different instances of the network are problematized. Thus, it highlights the potential of practices that consider listening, dialogue, and articulation in the operationalization of public policies that are attentive to the needs of this population.(AU)


Las personas en situación de calle en su cotidiano se relacionan con distintas personas, grupos y/o colectivos, que están vinculados a la ejecución de políticas públicas, organizaciones no gubernamentales, familiares o miembros de la sociedad civil. Pensar en estas dinámicas de trabajo, cooperación y ayuda nos lleva a una red de apoyo que construye estrategias con estas personas. Teniendo en cuenta esta problemática, este estudio tiene como objetivo analizar las narrativas de las personas en situación de calle acerca de cómo se produce su red de apoyo. Con este fin, se realizó un estudio cualitativo, etnográfico, utilizando observación participante, registros de diario de campo y entrevistas narrativas. Este estudio incluyó a seis personas en situación de calle que reciben alimentos ofrecidos por proyectos sociales en una ciudad del interior de Rio Grande do Sul (Brasil). Se utilizó el Análisis Temático. Los análisis expresan las especificidades de las narrativas de las trayectorias de vida asociadas con la llegada a las calles y la composición de una red de apoyo en la calle. Al saber cómo se produce y opera la red de apoyo, a partir de las narrativas de las personas en la calle, se problematizan la complejidad de este equipo y el desafío de producir acciones integradas entre las diferentes instancias de la red. Destaca el potencial de las prácticas que tienen en cuenta la escucha, el diálogo y la articulación en la implementación de políticas públicas que estén atentas a las necesidades de esta población.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Public Policy , Ill-Housed Persons , Community Support , Poverty , Primary Health Care , Psychology , Relief Work , Safety , Social Behavior , Social Change , Social Conditions , Social Desirability , Social Isolation , Social Sciences , Social Support , Socialization , Socioeconomic Factors , Sociology , Tobacco Use Disorder , Unemployment , Urbanization , Violence , Emergency Feeding , Health Surveillance , Occupational Risks , Illicit Drugs , Charities , Child, Abandoned , Hygiene , Disease , Risk Factors , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Hunger , Medically Uninsured , Crack Cocaine , Clothing , Interview , Community Health Services , Community Participation , Substance-Related Disorders , Criminology , Shelter , Disaster Vulnerability , Health Risk , Personal Autonomy , Dehumanization , Gift Giving , Human Rights Abuses , Alcoholism , Economics , User Embracement , Existentialism , Family Conflict , Drug Users , Alcoholics , Social Stigma , Emergency Shelter , Social Discrimination , Social Marginalization , Food Deprivation , Frailty , Freedom , Self-Neglect , Social Vulnerability Index , Solidarity , Community Health Status Indicators , Social Defeat , Food Insecurity , Life Course Perspective , Economic Stability , Housing Instability , Access to Healthy Foods , Social Status , Social Vulnerability , Citizenship , Family Support , Health Services Needs and Demand , Helping Behavior , Human Rights , Income , Mental Disorders
17.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e247962, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1422424

ABSTRACT

Resumo Conceitos como o de alteridade, encontro de saberes, polifasia cognitiva, o princípio de familiaridade e de representações sociais operaram na complexa tarefa de compreender como os encontros entre profissionais e usuários sustentavam e/ou transformavam as práticas de acolhimento. Entretanto, a experiência da minha pesquisa de doutorado me levou a questionar os próprios conceitos utilizados da Teoria das Representações Sociais. Ao final do ensaio, após discutir aspectos teórico-metodológicos, o princípio de familiaridade e a questão da tensão e dos afetos nas representações sociais, espero evidenciar como o movimento provocado pelo encontro com usuários e profissionais de uma Rede de Atenção Psicossocial levou-me a questionar pontos essenciais da teoria: o papel domesticador das representações, a forma ainda estática de evidenciar os fenômenos, a separação entre um sujeito que representa e o objeto representado e a dificuldade em usar suas ferramentas conceituais para acompanhar processos me fazem repensar meu lugar e minha função de pesquisador.


Abstract Concepts such as alterity, encounter of knowledge, cognitive polyphasia, the principle of familiarity and the very concept of social representations operated in the complex task of understanding how the encounters between professionals and users supported and / or transformed user embracement practices. However, the experience of my doctoral research led me to question the very concepts used in the Theory of Social Representations. At the end of the essay, after discussing theoretical and methodological aspects, the principle of familiarity and the issue of tension and affects in social representations, I hope to show how the movement caused by the encounter with users and professionals of a Psychosocial Care Network, led me to question essential points of the theory: the domesticating role of representations, the still static way of showing phenomena, the separation between a subject that represents and the object represented and the difficulty in using their conceptual tools to accompany processes makes me rethink my place and role as a researcher.


Resumen Conceptos como la alteridad, el encuentro de saberes, la polifasia cognitiva, el principio de familiaridad y el concepto mismo de representaciones sociales operaron en la compleja tarea de comprender cómo los encuentros entre profesionales y usuarios apoyaron y / o transformaron las prácticas de acogimiento. Sin embargo, la experiencia de mi investigación doctoral me llevó a cuestionar los propios conceptos utilizados en la Teoría de las Representaciones Sociales. Al final del ensayo, después de discutir aspectos teóricos y metodológicos, el principio de familiaridad y el tema de tensión y afectos en las representaciones sociales, Espero mostrar cómo el movimiento provocado por el encuentro con usuarios y profesionales de una Red de Atención Psicosocial, me llevó a cuestionar puntos esenciales de la teoría: el rol domesticador de las representaciones, la forma todavía estática de mostrar los fenómenos, la separación entre un sujeto que representa y el objeto representado y la dificultad para utilizar sus herramientas conceptuales para acompañar procesos, me hace repensar mi lugar y rol como investigador.


Subject(s)
Humans , Psychology, Social , Qualitative Research , Social Representation , Pain , Patient Care Team , Politics , Prejudice , Problem Solving , Psychiatric Nursing , Psychiatry , Psychology , Psychopharmacology , Psychotherapy, Group , Public Policy , Rehabilitation , Sex Offenses , Social Isolation , Social Support , Social Welfare , Social Work , Socioeconomic Factors , Sociology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Substance Withdrawal Syndrome , Pathological Conditions, Signs and Symptoms , Thinking , Unemployment , Health Surveillance , Ill-Housed Persons , Biotransformation , Inactivation, Metabolic , Health Behavior , Family , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Illicit Drugs , Hygiene , Mental Health , Treatment Refusal , Patient Satisfaction , Parenting , Crack Cocaine , Commitment of Mentally Ill , Risk Assessment , Life , Substance-Related Disorders , Counseling , Crisis Intervention , Affective Symptoms , Psychosocial Impact , Personal Autonomy , State , Harm Reduction , Aggression , Depressive Disorder , Economics , Empathy , Methodology as a Subject , User Embracement , Ethics , Family Relations , Mental Fatigue , Resilience, Psychological , Drug Users , Drug Overdose , Community Integration , Sociological Factors , Compassion Fatigue , Emotional Adjustment , Pessimism , Psychological Trauma , Psychiatric Rehabilitation , Occupational Stress , Treatment Adherence and Compliance , Health Risk Behaviors , Incivility , Survivorship , Involuntary Treatment, Psychiatric , Worldview , Freedom , Self-Neglect , Solidarity , Psychological Distress , Food Insecurity , Home Environment , Social Vulnerability , Family Support , Coping Skills , Homicide , Hospitals, Psychiatric , Intelligence , Life Change Events , Loneliness , Mental Disorders
18.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e255714, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1529210

ABSTRACT

Uma das demandas centrais das pessoas em situação de rua é a dificuldade de acesso a trabalho e renda, o que tanto pode levá-las a essa circunstância como dificultar sua saída das ruas. Nessa direção, em parceria com o Movimento Nacional da População em Situação de Rua em Natal, Rio Grande do Norte (MNPR/RN), Brasil, realizamos projeto de extensão com os objetivos de fortalecer as ações de geração de renda para os militantes do referido movimento e para o movimento em si e de promover a organização coletiva e política dos militantes do MNPR/RN em torno da pauta trabalho. Baseamo-nos na Economia Solidária para elaborar ações de geração de renda e fortalecimento político, e na Psicologia Social do Trabalho para informar sobre as intervenções realizadas pela equipe extensionista. Como estratégia de ação, foram realizados cinco bazares solidários em 2019, os quais envolveram militantes do MNPR/RN e extensionistas em reuniões preparatórias, arrecadação de materiais e efetivação dos bazares. Avaliou-se que os bazares foram uma ótima estratégia para a arrecadação de fundos para o movimento e a geração de renda imediata para os militantes envolvidos, mas que não garantiram a médio e longo prazo a renda dessas pessoas. Também possibilitaram o fortalecimento da autonomia, da participação ativa como trabalhadores e trabalhadoras e do aprendizado mútuo sobre princípios da Economia Solidária.(AU)


One of the main demands of people living on the streets is the difficulty in accessing work and income, which can either lead them to this circumstance or make it difficult for them to leave the streets. In this direction, in partnership with the National Movement of Homeless Population in Natal, in the state of Rio Grande do Norte (Movimento Nacional População de Rua - MNPR/RN), we carried out an extension project with the objectives of strengthening the actions to generate income for the militants of the referred movement and for the movement itself and to promote the collective and political organization of the MNPR/RN militants around the work agenda. We start with the Solidarity Economy for the elaboration of actions to generate income and political strengthening, and from the Social Psychology of Work to inform about the interventions carried out by the extension team. As an action strategy, five solidarity bazaars were held in 2019, involving MNPR/RN militants and extension workers in preparatory meetings, collection of materials, and holding the bazaars. The bazaars were considered an excellent strategy for raising funds for the movement and generating immediate income for the activists involved, but that they could not guarantee the income of these people in the medium and long term. It also allowed for the strengthening of autonomy, active participation as a female or male worker, and mutual learning on the principles of Solidarity Economy.(AU)


Una de las principales demandas de las personas en situación de calle es la dificultad para acceder al trabajo y a los ingresos, lo que puede llevarlos a esta situación o dificultarles su salida de la calle. En este sentido, en colaboración con el Movimiento Nacional de Población en Situación de Calle en Natal/RN (MNPR/RN), realizamos un proyecto de extensión con los objetivos de fortalecer las acciones de generación de ingresos para los activistas del referido movimiento y para el movimiento en sí y de promover la organización colectiva y política de los activistas del MNPR/RN en torno a las normas del trabajo. Partimos de la economía solidaria para desarrollar acciones de generación de ingresos y de fortalecimiento político, y desde la Psicología Social del Trabajo para informar de las intervenciones que realiza el equipo de extensión. Como estrategia de acción, en el 2019 se realizaron cinco ferias solidarias, en las cuales participaron activistas y grupos de extensión del MNPR/RN en reuniones preparatorias, recolección de materiales y realización de las ferias. Se consideró que las ferias son una excelente estrategia para recaudar fondos para el movimiento y generar ingresos inmediatos para los activistas involucrados, pero no pueden garantizar los ingresos de estas personas a mediano y largo plazo. También permiten fortalecer la autonomía, la participación activa como trabajador y trabajadora, y el aprendizaje mutuo sobre los principios de la economía solidaria.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Psychology, Social , Work , Ill-Housed Persons , Economics , Solidarity , Income , Poverty , Prejudice , Primary Health Care , Psychology , Public Policy , Quality of Life , Rest , Retirement , Safety , Self Care , Self Concept , Social Change , Social Conditions , Social Desirability , Social Isolation , Social Planning , Social Problems , Social Sciences , Social Work , Socialization , Socioeconomic Factors , Sociology , Stereotyping , Unemployment , Violence , Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms , Population Characteristics , Body Image , Brazil , Family , Illicit Drugs , Hygiene , Mental Health , Hunger , Workplace , Community-Institutional Relations , Privacy , Credentialing , Shelter , Capitalism , Democracy , Dehumanization , Gift Giving , Human Rights Abuses , Diet , Education , Educational Status , Health Status Disparities , Job Market , User Embracement , Products Commerce , Family Conflict , Social Stigma , Social Participation , Binge Drinking , Social Discrimination , Social Marginalization , Sociological Factors , Literacy , Social Segregation , Survivorship , Academic Failure , Self-Management , Freedom , Self-Neglect , Right to Health , Right to Work , Workhouses , Freedom of Movement , Food Insecurity , Housing Instability , Health Disparate Minority and Vulnerable Populations , Access to Healthy Foods , Home Environment , Sociodemographic Factors , Social Vulnerability , Citizenship , Working Conditions , Health Policy , Holidays , Housing , Human Rights , Individuation , Interpersonal Relations , Labor Unions , Leisure Activities , Occupations
19.
Rev. Esc. Enferm. USP ; 57(spe): e20230032, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1521574

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To identify condom use and drug consumption in migrants, as well as the association between these variables. Method: A systematic search was carried out for articles published in Spanish and English (2017-2022), in PubMed, EBSCO, WEB of SCIENCE, Elsevier, Scielo, Redalyc, with eligible studies reporting on condom use and drug consumption, and their association. Results: The search strategy found 147 articles with the combination of terms and other sources. After excluding articles by title, abstract, and finding that they had the study variables, eight articles were included for qualitative analysis and only three met the criteria for quantitative analysis. Conclusion: Drug consumption favors inconsistent condom use, increasing the risk of acquiring an STI, and can lead to other mental health issues derived from the use of these substances.


RESUMO Objetivo: Identificar o uso de preservativo e o consumo de drogas em migrantes, bem como a associação entre essas variáveis. Método: Foi realizada uma busca sistemática de artigos publicados em espanhol e inglês (2017-2022), em PubMed, EBSCO, WEB of SCIENCE, Elsevier, Scielo, Redalyc, com estudos elegíveis relatando o uso de preservativos e consumo de drogas, e sua associação. Resultados: Com a estratégia de busca foram identificados 147 artigos com a combinação de termos e outras fontes. Após eliminar os artigos por título, resumo e identificar que continham as variáveis do estudo, oito artigos foram incluídos para análise qualitativa e apenas três atenderam aos critérios para análise quantitativa. Conclusão: O consumo de drogas estimula o uso inconsistente do preservativo, o que aumenta o risco de aquisição de uma IST, além de outros problemas de saúde mental decorrentes do consumo dessas substâncias.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Identificar el uso del condón y el consumo de drogas en migrantes, así como la asociación entre estas variables. Método: Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática de artículos publicados en español e inglés (2017-2022), en PubMed, EBSCO, WEB of SCIENCE, Elsevier, Scielo, Redalyc, siendo que los estudios elegibles informaron sobre el uso del condón y el consumo de drogas, y su asociación Resultados: Con la estrategia de búsqueda se identificaron 147 artículos con la combinación de términos y de otras fuentes. Después de la eliminación de artículos por título, resumen, identificar que cuenten con las variables de estudio, se incluyeron ocho artículos para el análisis cualitativo y únicamente tres cumplieron con los criterios para el análisis cuantitativo. Conclusión: El consumo de drogas favorece el uso inconstante del condón, y esto incrementa el riesgo de adquirir alguna ITS, además de otras cuestiones de salud mental derivadas del consumo de estas sustancias.


Subject(s)
Humans , Substance-Related Disorders , Emigrants and Immigrants , Illicit Drugs , Condoms
20.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1520895

ABSTRACT

O presente estudo visa avaliar, através de uma revisão narrativa da literatura, como o controle do Estado exerceu ao longo da história do Brasil a regulamentação do uso de drogas. Método Foram consultados livros, artigos de periódicos acadêmicos indexados, trabalhos completos apresentados em congressos e documentos históricos disponíveis na internet relativos ao tema. Resultados A primeira legislação penal em relação ao uso de drogas surge apenas no Brasil império. Nesse período começam a surgir também os primeiros problemas devido ao uso de drogas. A criação de cursos superiores nas áreas de saúde e de ciências naturais veio a formar profissionais capacitados na manipulação e fiscalização de produtos químicos e farmacêuticos. Com o tempo, observando-se os efeitos, algumas substâncias passam a ser proscritas. Conclusão Por toda história do país, o uso e a regulação das drogas, permearam todas as épocas influenciando na cultura, educação e no modo de vida da população. Atualmente há um grande debate acerca das políticas sobre drogas no Brasil, principalmente sobre a maconha e seus usos terapêuticos, mostrando novamente a influência do Estado sobre a saúde e a segurança da população.


The present study aims to evaluate, through a narrative review of the literature, how State's control has exercised regulation of drug use throughout the history of Brazil. Method Books, articles from indexed academic journals, complete works presented at conferences and historical documents available on the internet relating to the topic were consulted. Results The first criminal legislation related to drug use only appeared in Imperial Brazil. During this period, the first problems due to drug use also begin to appear. The creation of higher education courses in the areas of health and natural sciences resulted in the training of professionals capable of handling and supervising chemical and pharmaceutical products. Over time, observing the effects, some substances become proscribed. Conclusion Throughout the country's history, the use and regulation of drugs has permeated all eras, influencing culture, education and the population's way of life. There is currently a great debate about drug policies in Brazil, mainly regarding marijuana and its therapeutic uses, once again showing the influence of the State on the health and safety of the population.


Subject(s)
Toxicology , Brazil , Illicit Drugs , Recreational Drug Use , Legislation, Drug
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