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Int. j. morphol ; 41(2): 401-409, abr. 2023. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440294


SUMMARY: Hyoid bone measurements have been proposed to vary between different genders and age groups. The aim of the study is to study hyoid morphometrics among Jordanian patients. 3D-CT scans of 637 patients were analyzed. Ten parameters of hyoid bone were measures, including the anteroposterior length, length of greater horns (right and left), height of greater horns (right and left), width of hyoid body, height of hyoid body, the distance between the midpoints of the posterior ends of the greater horns of the hyoid bone, the angle between right and left greater horns, and the distance of the hyoid bone to the vertebral column. Also, vertebral level, fusion rank, morphology of hyoid body lingula, and shape of hyoid bone were documented. All hyoid dimensions were longer in males, but greater horns angle was wider in females. In patients younger than 30 years, the parameters are the smallest with the widest angle. The distance from hyoid to vertebral column is higher in males (30-49) years of age. No fusion between hyoid body and greater horns was observed in patients younger than 10 years, but fusion (unilateral or bilateral) was found in only 73.2 % of patients ≥ 70 years. The hyoid was mostly at vertebra C3 level and "U" shaped. The lingula shape was mostly "Scar" in males (especially ≥ 50 years) and "Nothing" in females (especially < 50 years). The maximum growth of hyoid dimensions is before age of 30 years. Fusion between hyoid body and greater horns was not seen in patients younger than 10 years. Otherwise, the hyoid features failed to predict age or gender in our sample. Furthermore, 3D-CT scan is an excellent tool to assess the anatomy of head and neck region.

Se ha propuesto que las medidas del hueso hioides varían entre los diferentes sexos y grupos de edad. El objetivo del estudio fur estudiar la morfometría del hueso hioides en pacientes jordanos. Se analizaron tomografías computarizadas en 3D de 637 pacientes. Se midieron diez parámetros del hueso hioides, incluyendo la longitud anteroposterior, la longitud de los cuernos mayores (derecho e izquierdo), la altura de los cuernos mayores (derecho e izquierdo), el ancho del cuerpo hioides, la altura del cuerpo hioides, la distancia entre los puntos medios de los extremos posteriores de los cuernos mayores del hueso hioides, el ángulo entre los cuernos mayores derecho e izquierdo, y la distancia del hueso hioides a la columna vertebral. Además, se documentaron el nivel vertebral, el rango de fusión, la morfología de la língula del cuerpo hioides y la forma del hueso hioides. Todas las dimensiones del hioides fueron más largas en los hombres, pero el mayor ángulo de los cuernos fue más ancho en las mujeres. En pacientes menores de 30 años, los parámetros son los más pequeños con el ángulo más amplio. La distancia del hioides a la columna vertebral es mayor en el sexo masculino (30-49) años. No se observó fusión entre el cuerpo hioides y los cuernos mayores en pacientes menores de 10 años, pero se encontró fusión (unilateral o bilateral) en solo el 73,2 % de los pacientes ≥ 70 años. El hioides estaba mayormente al nivel de la vértebra C3 y en forma de "U". La forma de la língula era mayoritariamente "Cicatriz" en los hombres (especialmente ≥ 50 años) y "Nada" en las mujeres (especialmente < 50 años). El máximo crecimiento de las dimensiones del hioides es antes de los 30 años. La fusión entre el cuerpo hioides y los cuernos mayores no se observó en pacientes menores de 10 años. No obstante, las características del hueso hioides no pudieron predecir la edad o el sexo en nuestra muestra. Además, la tomografía computarizada 3D es una herramienta excelente para evaluar la anatomía de la región de la cabeza y el cuello.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods , Hyoid Bone/diagnostic imaging , Sex Factors , Age Factors , Hyoid Bone/anatomy & histology
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1431044


Abstract Bitemark analysis is a challenging procedure in the field of criminal case investigation. The unique characteristics of dentition are used to find the best match between the existing patterned injury and the suspected perpetrator in bitemark identification. Bitemark analysis accuracy can be influenced by various factors, including biting pressure, tooth morphology, skin elasticity, dental cast duplication, timing, and image quality. This review article discusses the potential of a smartphone camera as an alternative method for 3D bitemark analysis. Bitemark evidence on human skin and food should be immediately recorded or duplicated to retrieve long-lasting proof, allowing for a sufficient examination period. Various studies utilizing two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) technologies have been developed to obtain an adequate bitemark analysis. 3D imaging technology provides accurate and precise analysis. However, the currently available method using an intraoral scanner (IOS) requires high-cost specialized equipment and a well-trained operator. The numerous advantages of monoscopic photogrammetry may lead to a novel method of 3D bitemark analysis in forensic odontology. Smartphone cameras and monoscopic photogrammetry methodology could lead to a novel method of 3D bitemark analysis with an efficient cost and readily available equipment.

Bites, Human/diagnostic imaging , Photogrammetry/instrumentation , Smartphone , Forensic Dentistry , Identity Recognition , Forensic Anthropology , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods , Odontometry
Rev. Asoc. Odontol. Argent ; 110(2): 1100831, may.-ago. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1418460


Objetivo: El odontoma es una lesión hamartomatosa benigna formada por tejido dentario (cemento, esmalte, pul­ pa). Según su grado de diferenciación podrá ser clasificado en sus dos variantes: compuesto y complejo en una relación 2:1. El objetivo de este artículo es presentar un odontoma mixto de gran tamaño de localización mandibular y su resolución quirúrgica. Caso clínico: Se describe el caso de un paciente mascu­ lino de 16 años de edad, portador de ortodoncia, que presenta un odontoma mixto de gran tamaño de localización mandibular y su resolución quirúrgica utilizando planificación 3D y confección de placa de titanio customizada (AU)

Aim: Odontoma is a benign hamartomatous lesion formed by dental tissue (cementum, enamel, pulp). According to its degree of differentiation, it can be classified in its two variants: compound and complex in a 2:1 ratio. The objective of this article is to present a large mixed odontoma of mandi­ bular location and its surgical resolution. Clinical case: A 16-year-old male patient with ortho­ dontics, who presents a large mixed odontoma with mandibu­ lar location and its surgical resolution using 3D planning and customized titanium plate fabrication (AU)

Humans , Male , Adolescent , Tooth Abnormalities/classification , Odontogenic Tumors/classification , Odontoma/surgery , Mandible/pathology , Patient Care Planning , Argentina , Oral Surgical Procedures, Preprosthetic/methods , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods , Dental Service, Hospital , Surgical Fixation Devices , Malocclusion, Angle Class III/therapy
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936259


Objective: The characteristics of 3D-FLAIR MRI images of the inner ear of patients with vestibular neuritis were preliminarily studied to explore the possible pathogenesis of vestibular neuritis, and the correlation analysis was conducted in combination with vestibular function to provide a basis for accurate diagnosis of vestibular neuritis. Methods: A total of 36 patients with vestibular neuritis (VN) from December 2019 to October 2020 were collected from the Vertigo Department of Shandong Provincial ENT Hospital, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University. There were 36 cases (18 females, 18 males) with unilateral acute vestibular neuritis, 17 cases of left ear and 19 cases of right ear. According to the results of 3D-FLAIR MRI in the inner ears, the patients were divided into the enhanced group and the non-enhanced group (the health side served as the normal control group). The results of vestibular function examination in the two groups were compared. SPSS19.0 software was used for statistical processing to analyze the relationship between the vestibular function and the characteristics of 3D-FLAIR imaging in the inner ears. Results: Abnormal enhancement of 3D-FLAIR was found in 31 cases (86.1%) of the 36 cases, including 14 cases of both vestibular nerve and vestibular terminal organ enhancement, eight cases of superior vestibular nerve enhancement alone, seven cases of vestibular terminal organ enhancement alone, and two cases of cochlear enhancement alone. Observation of abnormal reinforcement of vestibular nerve showed: twenty-one cases of superior vestibular nerve reinforcement, one case of superior and inferior vestibular nerve reinforcement. No abnormalities were found in 3D-FLAIR of inner ear in 5 cases. According to the analysis of vestibular function results, there were 19 cases (52.8%) with total vestibular involvement, sixteen cases (44.4%) with superior vestibular involvement alone, and one case (2.8%) with inferior vestibular involvement alone. Comparison of vestibular function between the five cases (non-enhancement group) and the 31 cases (enhanced group) in the 3D-FLAIR group of the inner ears showed that the CP values of caloric tests in the enhanced group were higher (60.81±3.49 vs 34.12±7.37), with statistically significant difference (t=-2.898, P<0.01). Conclusion: In patients with vestibular neuritis, 3D-FLAIR MRI scan of the inner ear provides visual imaging evidence for clinical practice, considering that the lesion site of vestibular neuritis is not only in the vestibular nerve, but also in the vestibular end organ. Patients with 3D-FLAIR enhanced in the inner ear may have more significant vestibular function damage.

Female , Humans , Male , Caloric Tests , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Vestibular Neuronitis/diagnosis , Vestibule, Labyrinth
Chinese Journal of Stomatology ; (12): 358-365, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935875


Objective: To explore the establishment of an efficient and automatic method to determine anatomical landmarks in three-dimensional (3D) facial data, and to evaluate the effectiveness of this method in determining landmarks. Methods: A total of 30 male patients with tooth defect or dentition defect (with good facial symmetry) who visited the Department of Prosthodontics, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology from June to August 2021 were selected, and these participants' age was between 18-45 years. 3D facial data of patients was collected and the size normalization and overlap alignment were performed based on the Procrustes analysis algorithm. A 3D face average model was built in Geomagic Studio 2013 software, and a 3D face template was built through parametric processing. MeshLab 2020 software was used to determine the serial number information of 32 facial anatomical landmarks (10 midline landmarks and 22 bilateral landmarks). Five male patients with no mandibular deviation and 5 with mild mandibular deviation were selected from the Department of Orthodontics or Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology from June to August 2021. 3D facial data of patients was collected as test data. Based on the 3D face template and the serial number information of the facial anatomical landmarks, the coordinates of 32 facial anatomical landmarks on the test data were automatically determined with the help of the MeshMonk non-rigid registration algorithm program, as the data for the template method to determine the landmarks. The positions of 32 facial anatomical landmarks on the test data were manually determined by the same attending physician, and the coordinates of the landmarks were recorded as the data for determining landmarks by the expert method. Calculated the distance value of the coordinates of facial anatomical landmarks between the template method and the expert method, as the landmark localization error, and evaluated the effect of the template method in determining the landmarks. Results: For 5 patients with no mandibular deviation, the landmark localization error of all facial anatomical landmarks by template method was (1.65±1.19) mm, the landmark localization error of the midline facial anatomical landmarks was (1.19±0.45) mm, the landmark localization error of bilateral facial anatomical landmarks was (1.85±1.33) mm. For 5 patients with mild mandibular deviation, the landmark localization error of all facial anatomical landmarks by template method was (2.55±2.22) mm, the landmark localization error of the midline facial anatomical landmarks was (1.85±1.13) mm, the landmark localization error of bilateral facial anatomical landmarks was (2.87±2.45) mm. Conclusions: The automatic determination method of facial anatomical landmarks proposed in this study has certain feasibility, and the determination effect of midline facial anatomical landmarks is better than that of bilateral facial anatomical landmarks. The effect of determining facial anatomical landmarks in patients without mandibular deviation is better than that in patients with mild mandibular deviation.

Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Algorithms , Anatomic Landmarks , Cephalometry/methods , Face/anatomy & histology , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods , Malocclusion , Orthodontics , Software
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 303-317, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929085


Understanding the connection between brain and behavior in animals requires precise monitoring of their behaviors in three-dimensional (3-D) space. However, there is no available three-dimensional behavior capture system that focuses on rodents. Here, we present MouseVenue3D, an automated and low-cost system for the efficient capture of 3-D skeleton trajectories in markerless rodents. We improved the most time-consuming step in 3-D behavior capturing by developing an automatic calibration module. Then, we validated this process in behavior recognition tasks, and showed that 3-D behavioral data achieved higher accuracy than 2-D data. Subsequently, MouseVenue3D was combined with fast high-resolution miniature two-photon microscopy for synchronous neural recording and behavioral tracking in the freely-moving mouse. Finally, we successfully decoded spontaneous neuronal activity from the 3-D behavior of mice. Our findings reveal that subtle, spontaneous behavior modules are strongly correlated with spontaneous neuronal activity patterns.

Animals , Mice , Behavior, Animal , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods , Neuroimaging , Rodentia
Rev. Fac. Odontol. (B.Aires) ; 37(86): 1-12, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1413026


El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar con microto-mografía los poros existentes entre el cemento de resina, poste de fibra y paredes del conducto en los distintos tercios radiculares en premolares inferio-res. Se utilizaron 15 premolares inferiores unirra-diculares humanos recientemente extraídos. Se les realizó el tratamiento endodóntico, y se obturó con conos de gutapercha y cemento endodóntico a base de resina. Una vez desobturados se procedió a la ce-mentación de los postes. Cada muestra se posicionó en un accesorio personalizado y se escaneó utilizan-do un Microtomógrafo. Con el software CTAn v.1.12 (Bruker-microCT) se analizaron las microtomografías para obtener el volumen de interés (VOI) que permi-tió calcular el área de superficie (mm2) y volumen de cada poro (mm3) entre la dentina y el poste a nivel co-ronal, medio y apical. Los datos fueron analizados me-diante las pruebas estadísticas de Friedman o ANOVA de medidas repetidas. El volumen de los poros entre los tres tercios radiculares mediante la prueba de Friedman, encontró una diferencia global significativa (F = 30,00; p < 0,05). El tercio en donde los poros presentaron un mayor volumen (mm3) fue el tercio coronal (mediana: 0,29250), seguido por los tercios medio (mediana: 0,03200), y apical (mediana: 0,00140). La comparación de la superficie de los poros entre los 3 tercios brindó un resultado análogo al de la comparación del volumen. La mayor superficie (mm2) correspondió al tercio coronal (media ± DE = 1,66377 ± 0,27175), seguido por los tercios medio (media ± DE = 1,16210 ± 0,20343) y apical (media ± DE = 0,41074 ± 0,12641). La microtomografía permitió realizar un análisis cuantitativo y cualitativo de los poros en toda la muestra, sin deterioro de la misma. Se puede concluir que el tercio coronal presenta más poros que el tercio apical con la técnica de cementación utilizada. En cuanto a la superficie y volumen de los poros, los resultados encontrados son similares a los reporta-dos por diversos autores (AU)

The aim of this study was to evaluate with microtomography the existing pores between the resin cement, fiber post and canal walls in the different in thirds of the canal, in single-root lower premolars. Fifteen recently extracted human single root lower premolars were used, endodontically treated, and filled with gutta-percha cones and resin-based endodontic cement. Once unfilled, the posts were cemented. Each sample was positioned on a custom fixture and scanned using a Microtomograph. Each sample was evaluated using CTAn v.1.12 software (Bruker-microCT) to obtain the surface area (mm2), volume of interest (mm3) of each pore between dentin and post at the coronal, middle and apical levels. Data were analyzed using Friedman's tests or repeated measures ANOVA. The volume of the pores between the three root thirds using the Friedman test, a significant global difference was found (F = 30.00; p < 0.05). The third in which the pores presented a greater volume (mm3) was the coronal third (means: 0.29250), followed by the middle (means: 0.03200) and apical (means: 0.00140) thirds. The comparison of the pore surface between the 3 thirds gave an analogous result to that of the volume comparison. The largest surface area (mm2) corresponded to the coronal third (mean ± SD 1.66377 ± 0.27175), followed by the middle (mean ± 1.16210 ± 0.20343) and apical (mean ± 0.41074 ± 0.12641) thirds.Microtomography allowed a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the pores in the entire sample without deterioration. It can be concluded that the coronal third has more pores than the apical third with the cementation technique used. Regarding the surface and volume of the pores, the results found are similar to those reported by various authors (AU)

Porosity , Post and Core Technique , Cementation/instrumentation , X-Ray Microtomography , Bicuspid , Analysis of Variance , Resin Cements , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods , Fibric Acids
Int. j. morphol ; 40(5): 1344-1348, 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405281


SUMMARY: Intracranial artery stenosis (ICAS) was one of the main causes of ischemic stroke onset and recurrence. About 30 % of strokes were caused by intracranial artery stenosis. Intracranial artery stenosis had a high incidence in China and faced a high risk of recurrence for a long time. It affected patient safety and quality of life seriously. At the same time, it caused a heavy financial burden for the patient´s family. Therefore, early detection and accuracy of intracranial artery stenosis evaluation were extremely important. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (HR-MRI) had been widely used in clinical examinations, making up for the shortcomings of traditional vascular imaging methods that could only show the degree of luminal stenosis, making it possible to perform lumens, tube wall and plaque features of atherosclerotic intracranial arteries at the same time. There were still some controversies about the credibility of this technique in assessing the intracranial artery lumen stenosis. This article reviewed the application efficacy of HR-MRI technology in evaluating the degree of intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis.

RESUMEN: La estenosis de arterias intracraneales (ICAS) es una de las principales causas del ictus isquémico, como así también de su recurrencia. Alrededor del 30 % de los ataques cerebrovasculares son causados por estenosis de la arteria intracraneal. La estenosis de arterias intracraneales tiene una alta incidencia en China y enfrenta un alto riesgo de recurrencia, afectando gravemente la seguridad y la calidad de vida de los pacientes. Al mismo tiempo, supone una importante carga financiera para la familia de los pacientes. Por lo tanto, la detección temprana y la precisión de la evaluación de la estenosis de arterias intracraneales es extremadamente importante. La resonancia magnética de alta resolución (HR-MRI, por sus siglas en inglés) es utilizada ampliamente en los exámenes clínicos, compensando las deficiencias de los métodos tradicionales de imágenes vasculares que solo pueden mostrar el grado de estenosis luminal, haciendo posible el estudio de las características del lumen, pared vascular y la placa ateroesclerótica, de las arterias intracraneales afectadas, al mismo tiempo. Aún existen algunas controversias sobre la credibilidad de esta técnica en la evaluación de la estenosis del lumen de arterias intracraneales. En este artículo se revisó la eficacia de la aplicación de la tecnología HR-MRI para evaluar el grado de estenosis aterosclerótica intracraneal.

Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Intracranial Arteriosclerosis/diagnostic imaging , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods , Constriction, Pathologic/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/prevention & control
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 35(3): erer_07, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1411516


A necessidade de examinar o coração com uma ferramenta tridimensional não é nova na ecocardiografia. O órgão complexo e dinâmico em estudo sempre exigiu o entendimento em três dimensões e em tempo real. Sem o recurso, o examinador precisa transformar as imagens em bidimensional para uma compreensão de volume que exige complexa interação de conhecimentos e aproximações. A invenção da tridimensão já contabiliza três décadas, e seu aprimoramento levou a produtos comerciais no início do século. Estudos demonstram, no mínimo, equivalência da tridimensão com ganhos no manuseio do tempo necessário. Utilizamos as modalidades Tri Plano na rotina com ganho de tempo e menor estresse do membro superior do examinador. A tridimensão pode responder perguntas mais complexas e auxilia em nossa abordagem mais geométrica da contração, sendo o espessamento analisado em segundo plano.(AU)

The need to examine the heart using a three-dimensional (3D) tool is not new. This complex and dynamic organ has always required 3D and real-time understanding. Without this feature, the examiner has to transform two-dimensional images to understand its volume, which requires complex knowledge and approximation interactions. Echocardiography was invented three decades ago, and its improvements resulted in commercial products at the beginning of the century. Some studies demonstrate 3D equivalence with gains in handling the necessary time. We use triplane modalities in our routine, with time gain and less stress on the examiner's upper limb. Thus, 3D examinations can answer more complex questions and provide a more geometric approach to contraction, with thickening being analyzed in the background. (AU)

Humans , Cardiac Imaging Techniques/methods , Heart/anatomy & histology , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Echocardiography/methods , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods , Echocardiography, Three-Dimensional/methods , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods , Echocardiography, Stress/methods
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 40(4): 297-302, 26/11/2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362065


Introduction The increase in intracranial pressure (ICP) is a neurological complication resulting from numerous pathologies that affect the brain and its compartments. Therefore, decompressive craniectomy (DC) is an alternative adopted to reduce ICP in emergencies, especially in cases refractory to clinical therapies, in favor of patient survival. However, DC is associated with several complications, including hydrocephalus (HC). The present study presents the results of an unusual intervention to this complication: the implantation of an external ventricular drain (EVD) in the intraoperative period of cranioplasty (CP). Methods Patients of both genders who presented with HC and externalization of the brain through the cranial vault after decompressive hemicraniectomy and underwent EVD implantation, to allow the CP procedure, in the same surgical procedure, were included. Results Five patients underwent DC due to a refractory increase in ICP, due to automobile accidents, firearm projectiles, falls from stairs, and ischemic strokes. All evolved with HC. There was no uniform time interval between DC and CP. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was drained according to the need for correction of cerebral herniation in each patient, before undergoing cranioplasty. All patients progressed well, without neurological deficits in the immediate postoperative period. Conclusion There are still several uncertainties about the management of HC resulting from DC. In this context, other CP strategies simultaneous to the drainage of CSF, not necessarily related to ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS), should be considered and evaluated more deeply, in view of the verification of efficacy in procedures of this scope, such as the EVD addressed in this study.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt/methods , Plastic Surgery Procedures/methods , Hydrocephalus/surgery , Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunts , Drainage/methods , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Craniofacial Abnormalities/surgery , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods , Observational Study , Hydrocephalus/etiology
Rev. medica electron ; 43(4): 1045-1055, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1341534


RESUMEN La cardiopatía isquémica y los accidentes cerebrovasculares son la primera causa de muerte en el mundo. La enfermedad cardiovascular de origen ateroesclerótico es un problema internacional de salud, que constituye una carga social, sanitaria y económica. Se realizó un análisis de las principales guías internacionales sobre dislipoproteinemias y su manejo, como las de la Sociedad Europea de Cardiología y las del Colegio Americano de Cardiología/Asociación Americana del Corazón. También, de los principales artículos publicados en los últimos cinco años sobre el manejo de la hipercolesterolemia, de los cuales se tomaron 20 publicaciones en Medline, Google Académico y SciELO. Las mencionadas guías reúnen las recomendaciones de sus respectivas organizaciones y las combinan con nuevas. Ambas mantienen el uso de scores de riesgo y discrepan sobre la imagenología en la determinación del tratamiento, al igual que en el uso de drogas no estatinas. Se plantea que la mejor intervención para prevenir la enfermedad cardiovascular es la promoción de un estilo de vida saludable (AU).

ABSTRACT Ischemic cardiomyopathy and cerebrovascular stroke are the first causes of death in the world. Cardiovascular disease of atherosclerotic origins is an international health problem that is also a social, sanitary and economic burden. The authors analyzed the main international guidelines on dyslipoproteinemia, like the ones from the European Society of Cardiology and the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association. They also considered the main articles published in the last five years on the management of hypercholesterolemia and chose 20 of them available in Medline, Google Scholar and SciELO. The before-mentioned guidelines gather the recommendations of their own organizations, and combine them with new ones. They both keep using risk scores on and differ on medical imaging determining the treatment, and also in the use of non-statin drugs. It is stated that the better intervention to prevent cardiovascular disease is the promotion of a healthy lifestyle (AU).

Humans , Male , Female , Cardiovascular Diseases/classification , Hypercholesterolemia/epidemiology , Review Literature as Topic , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods , Hypercholesterolemia/diagnosis , Hypercholesterolemia/therapy
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(4): 390-394, Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288600


ABSTRACT Introduction: Basketball sports will effect on the morphology and structure of the hand bones and joints. Objective: The article selected nine professional basketball players (basketball group) and 11 non-basketball players (control group) in the provincial youth team. A 64-row spiral computed tomography scan was used to scan the wrist and three-dimensional reconstruction. The volume of each carpal bone and the computed tomography value (bone density) were measured. Methods: To explore the influence of basketball sports on the hand bones and joints' morphological structure, the paper analyzes the structural characteristics of the computed tomography images of young male basketball players' wrist bones. Results: Compared with the carpal bones in the control group, the volume of the right navicular bone and the small polygonal bone, the left-hand navicular bone, the large triangular bone, and the small polygonal bone in the basketball group increased significantly (P<0.05). Conclusions: Basketball can increase the volume of the part of the wrist bones of adolescent male athletes and reduce the bone density; the morphological structure of the non-smashing wrist bones of basketball players has similar changes to that of the spikers. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment results.

RESUMO Introdução: O basquetebol afetará a morfologia e a estrutura dos ossos e articulações da mão. Objetivo: o artigo selecionou nove jogadores profissionais de basquete (grupo de basquete) e 11 não jogadores de basquete (grupo de controle) da equipe juvenil da província. Uma tomografia computadorizada espiral de 64 linhas foi usada para digitalizar o punho e a reconstrução tridimensional. O volume de cada osso do carpo e o valor da tomografia computadorizada (densidade óssea) foram medidos. Métodos: Para explorar a influência dos esportes de basquete sobre os ossos da mão e a estrutura morfológica das articulações, o artigo analisa as características estruturais das imagens de tomografia computadorizada de ossos do punho de jovens jogadores de basquete do sexo masculino. Resultados: Em comparação com os ossos do carpo no grupo de controle, o volume do osso navicular direito e o osso poligonal pequeno, o osso navicular esquerdo, o osso triangular grande e o osso poligonal pequeno no grupo de basquete aumentaram significativamente (P <0,05). Conclusões: O basquete pode aumentar o volume dos ossos do punho de atletas adolescentes do sexo masculino e reduzir a densidade óssea; a estrutura morfológica dos ossos do pulso que não se quebram em jogadores de basquete tem mudanças semelhantes às dos espigões. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos- investigação dos resultados do tratamento.

RESUMEN Introducción: el baloncesto afectará la morfología y la estructura de los huesos y articulaciones de la mano. Objetivo: El artículo seleccionó nueve jugadores de baloncesto profesionales (grupo de baloncesto) y 11 jugadores no baloncesto (grupo de control) en el equipo juvenil provincial. Se utilizó una tomografía computarizada en espiral de 64 filas para escanear la muñeca y la reconstrucción tridimensional. Se midieron el volumen de cada hueso del carpo y el valor de la tomografía computarizada (densidad ósea). Métodos: Para explorar la influencia de los deportes de baloncesto en la estructura morfológica de los huesos de la mano y las articulaciones, el artículo analiza las características estructurales de las imágenes de tomografía computarizada de los huesos de la muñeca de los jóvenes jugadores de baloncesto. Resultados: En comparación con los huesos del carpo en el grupo de control, el volumen del hueso navicular derecho y el hueso poligonal pequeño, el hueso navicular izquierdo, el hueso triangular grande y el hueso poligonal pequeño en el grupo de baloncesto aumentaron significativamente (P <0,05). Conclusiones: El baloncesto puede aumentar el volumen de los huesos de la muñeca de los deportistas varones adolescentes y reducir la densidad ósea; la estructura morfológica de los huesos de las muñecas que no se rompen de los jugadores de baloncesto tiene cambios similares a los de los atacantes. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos- investigación de los resultados del tratamiento.

Humans , Male , Wrist Joint/diagnostic imaging , Basketball , Carpal Bones/diagnostic imaging , Bone Density/physiology , Athletes , Wrist Joint/growth & development , Algorithms , Adaptation, Physiological , Carpal Bones/growth & development , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(4): 381-385, Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288606


ABSTRACT Background: Objective: The study of sports biomechanics in sports medicine usually requires a special image analysis system (software) to obtain 3D kinematics data. Taking the swimming project in sports medicine as an example, 3D water images in water have always been relatively complicated and difficult. As light travels in different media, it will refract and reflect. When testing underwater movements, if only a land camera or an underwater camera is used for testing, the error caused by light refraction will be larger, which will affect the accuracy of the test data even more. Methods: Taking breaststroke movement as an example, a three-dimensional measurement method based on the Kwon3D movement analysis system is introduced. This method is different from the simple underwater camera test. It is a three-dimensional test method combining a land camera and an underwater camera. Two underwater cameras and two land cameras were used to simultaneously calibrate the water and underwater space with the same calibration frame in the experiment after analyzing and verifying the accuracy of 3D reconstruction. Results: The comprehensive reconstruction error is small, and the average relative error is less than 1%. Conclusions: The application of three-dimensional image analysis technology of vision systems in sports medicine is reasonable and worth promoting. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment results.

RESUMO Antecedente: Objetivo: O estudo da biomecânica do esporte na medicina esportiva geralmente requer o uso de um sistema especial de análise de imagens (software) para a obtenção de dados cinemáticos 3D. Tomando o projeto de natação na medicina esportiva como exemplo, a análise de imagens 3D da água na água sempre foi um teste relativamente complicado e difícil. À medida que a luz viaja em diferentes meios, ela refratará e refletirá. Ao testar movimentos subaquáticos, se apenas uma câmera terrestre ou subaquática for usada para o teste, o erro causado pela refração da luz será maior, o que afetará a precisão dos dados de teste ainda mais. Métodos: Tomando o movimento de nado peito como exemplo, um método de medição tridimensional baseado no sistema de análise de movimento Kwon3D é introduzido. Este método é diferente do teste simples de câmera subaquática. É um método de teste tridimensional que combina uma câmera terrestre e uma câmera subaquática. No experimento, duas câmeras subaquáticas e duas câmeras terrestres foram usadas para calibrar simultaneamente a água e o espaço subaquático com o mesmo quadro de calibração. Depois de analisar e verificar a precisão da reconstrução 3D. Resultados: O erro de reconstrução abrangente é pequeno e o erro relativo médio é inferior a 1% Conclusões: A aplicação da tecnologia de análise de imagem tridimensional do sistema de visão na medicina esportiva é razoável e vale a pena promover. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos- investigação dos resultados do tratamento.

RESUMEN Antecedente: Objetivo: El estudio de la biomecánica del deporte en la medicina deportiva generalmente requiere el uso de un sistema de análisis de imágenes especial (software) para obtener datos de cinemática 3D. Tomando como ejemplo el proyecto de natación en medicina deportiva, el análisis de imágenes de agua en 3D en el agua siempre ha sido una prueba relativamente complicada y difícil. A medida que la luz viaja en diferentes medios, se refractará y reflejará. Al probar los movimientos bajo el agua, si solo se utiliza una cámara terrestre o una cámara submarina para realizar la prueba, el error causado por la refracción de la luz será mayor, lo que afectará aún más la precisión de los datos de la prueba. Métodos: tomando como ejemplo el movimiento de la brazada, se introduce un método de medición tridimensional basado en el sistema de análisis de movimiento Kwon3D. Este método es diferente de la simple prueba de cámara subacuática. Es un método de prueba tridimensional que combina una cámara terrestre y una cámara submarina. En el experimento, se utilizaron dos cámaras submarinas y dos cámaras terrestres para calibrar simultáneamente el agua y el espacio submarino con el mismo marco de calibración. Después de analizar y verificar la precisión de la reconstrucción 3D. Resultados: el error de reconstrucción integral es pequeño y el error relativo promedio es inferior al 1%. Conclusiones: La aplicación de la tecnología de análisis de imágenes tridimensionales del sistema de visión en la medicina deportiva es razonable y vale la pena promoverla. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos- investigación de los resultados del tratamiento.

Humans , Swimming/physiology , Video Recording/methods , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods , Biomechanical Phenomena/physiology , Algorithms , Calibration , Water
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 73(2): 158-165, abr. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388809


Resumen Introducción: La incorporación de tecnologías en la práctica quirúrgica, ha cambiado la forma de enfrentar el proceso quirúrgico. Objetivo: Describir la experiencia de los últimos 9 años, en cirugía ortognática, con la incorporación de la cefalometría 3D. Materiales y Método: Se realizó una revisión retrospectiva de pacientes operados de cirugía ortognática durante el período enero de 2011 a agosto de 2018. Se registraron datos demográficos, quirúrgicos, tipo de planificación quirúrgica, complicaciones y resultados a largo plazo. Resultados: 21 pacientes requirieron cirugías ortognáticas. Se realizaron 16 cirugías bimaxilares (76%), 3 cirugías de avance maxilar superior (14%) y 2 cirugías de osteotomía sagital de rama (10%). Las principales etiologías fueron: 67% maloclusión clase III (n = 14), 28% maloclusión clase II (n = 6) y 5% desviación mandibular (n = 1). La planificación prequirúrgica virtual fue utilizada en 11 pacientes (52%). La tasa de complicaciones Clavien-Dindo > III fue 4,8% (n = 1). Conclusiones: En nuestra experiencia, las técnicas de cirugía ortognática son seguras. Las complicaciones de la serie fueron escasas y bien toleradas por los pacientes. Durante los últimos años y, de acuerdo a los avances tecnológicos, la incorporación de la planificación quirúrgica virtual 3D favoreció el desarrollo de la cirugía ortognática en nuestro centro.

Introduction: Technological advances have been incorporated into cranio-maxillo-facial surgery changing the clinical practice of surgeons. Aim: The aim of this article is to describe our experience in orthognatic surgery in the last 9-years, with the incorporation of 3D cephalometry. Materials and Method: A retrospective chart review was performed from January 2011 to August 2018 on patients undergoing Orthognatic Surgery. Demographic and surgical data, type of surgical planning, complications and long-term results were recorded. Results: A total of 21 patients underwent orthognatic surgery. Average age was 28 years (DE 8.1), 11 men (52.3%) and 10 women (47.61%). The principal surgeries performed were: 16 (76%) bimaxillary, 3 maxillary advancement surgery 3 (14%) and bilateral sagital split osteotomy 2 (10%). Ethiologies were: 14 patients (this 67%) with malocclusion class III, 6 patients (28%) with malocussion class II, and 1 patient (5%) with mandibular deviation. Virtual 3D presurgical planning was used in 11 patients (52%). The total of complications Clavien-Dindo > III was 4.8% (n = 1). None patient required reoperation. Satisfaction rate with the procedure was high. Conclusions: Based on our experience, orthognatic surgery techniques are safe. The complication rate was lower and well tolerated by patients. The introduction of virtual planning provided a better scenario to develop maxillo-facial surgery.

Humans , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods , Orthognathic Surgery/methods , Orthognathic Surgery/trends , Treatment Outcome , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/trends , Orthognathic Surgical Procedures/methods , Mandible/surgery
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 39(2): 165-167, ago. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138530


Abstract: Right ventricular restrictive physiology (RVRP) occurs in diverse clinical scenarios, most frequently after repair of Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) can comprehensively evaluate RVRP using 4D flow along with anatomical and fibrosis characterization. Also, RVRP is associated with less pulmonary regurgitation and fewer right ventricle enlargement; its long term protective role is debated. RVRP is a challenging and relevant diagnosis, which hallmark is the presence of antegrade pulmonary arterial Flow in late diastole throughout the respiratory cycle. Also, other hemodynamic findings could aid such us flow in; caval veins, suprahepatic, coronary sinus and tricuspid valve. Obtaining all these flow curves is virtually impossible by echocardiography. CMR with 4DF is a unique and powerful technique enabling this comprehensive hemodynamic evaluation as depicted in this case.

Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/diagnostic imaging , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods , Pulmonary Artery/pathology , Regional Blood Flow , Tetralogy of Fallot/complications , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/physiopathology , Hemodynamics
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 14(1): 81-88, mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056505


ABSTRACT: Aging is a dynamic process that includes various alterations in the oral cavity, with tooth loss being the most frequent. Rehabilitative treatment may include removable or fixed prostheses and implants. The aim of this study was to describe the geometric (trajectory, ranges, areas) and kinematic (speed) characteristics of the mandibular and masticatory movements threedimensionally in participants with dental prostheses. A sample of 10 participants with removable prosthetic rehabilitation was divided into three groups (complete, atypical and overdenture) the characteristics of mandibular movements bordering and chewing with 3D Electromagnetic Articulography were measured. The Posselt polygonin was obtained, the frontal and sagittal plans, its areas, trajectories and ranges are analyzed. The masticatory movements were analyzed in the area of each cycle, the frequency, the speed and the reason between the masticatory cycle and the bordering movements, no significant differences between the groups. Subjects with dental prostheses, regardless of the type, they showed low of motion (border and functional) compared to dentate subjects with no functional alterations whose values have been reported in the literature. The subjects with overdenture have values closer to what is described for young dentate subjects.

RESUMEN: El envejecimiento es un proceso dinámico que incluye varias alteraciones en la cavidad oral, siendo la pérdida de dientes la más frecuente. El tratamiento de rehabilitación puede incluir prótesis fijas o removibles y/o implantes. El objetivo de este estudio fue describir las características geométricas (trayectoria, rangos, áreas) y cinemáticas (velocidad) de los movimientos mandibulares y masticatorios en participantes con prótesis dentales realizando un análisis en tres dimensiones. Se consideró una muestra de 10 participantes con rehabilitación protésica y se dividió en tres grupos (prótesis total, atípica e implantosoportada), se midieron las características de los movimientos mandibulares bordeantes y masticatorios con articulografía electromagnética 3D. Se obtuvo el polígono Posselt en los planos frontal y sagital, se analizaron sus áreas, trayectorias y rangos. Se analizaron los movimientos masticatorios en cuanto al área de cada ciclo, la frecuencia, la velocidad y la razón entre el área el ciclo masticatorio y los movimientos bordeantes, sin diferencias significativas entre los grupos. Los sujetos con prótesis dentales, independientemente del tipo, mostraron disminución de movimiento (bordeante y funcional) en comparación con los sujetos dentados sin alteraciones funcionales cuyos valores se han informado en la literatura. Los sujetos con prótesis implantosoportada tienen valores más cercanos a lo que se describe para sujetos jóvenes dentados.

Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Temporomandibular Joint Disorders , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods , Denture, Partial, Fixed , Denture, Partial, Removable , Mandible , Temporomandibular Joint , Biomechanical Phenomena , Chile , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Computer-Aided Design , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Mandibular Condyle , Mastication , Movement
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 72(1): 36-42, feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092888


Resumen Introducción El uso del sistema de visión 3D en cirugía laparoscópica puede significar una mejor performance de los procedimientos quirúrgicos de mayor complejidad. Objetivo Reportar las indicaciones, los resultados y la valoración de un grupo de cirujanos de diferentes especialidades en el uso de visión 3D. Materiales y Método: Se analizan las indicaciones quirúrgicas y los resultados subjetivos y objetivos del uso del sistema óptico 3D (n = 155 pacientes) en cirugía laparoscópica compleja. Para evaluación subjetiva se aplicó a una encuesta de percepción cualitativa a los cirujanos participantes tipo Likert. Para la evaluación objetiva, se registran los tiempos quirúrgicos empleados en los diferentes procedimientos efectuados y las complicaciones postoperatorias y se comparan con los pacientes operados con sistema 2D (n = 783 pacientes) en el mismo periodo. Resultados el 70,6% concuerda tener mejor imagen con la técnica 3D, el 64,7% de los cirujanos refieren que se puede reducir el tiempo operatorio, el 58,8% considera que se puede reducir el error quirúrgico, el 92% y 100% respectivamente afirman que el confort del cirujano es mejor con el uso de óptica 3D y que esta técnica es recomendable para los procedimientos complejos. El tiempo operatorio se redujo en algunos procedimientos, especialmente urológicos. No se encontró diferencias sustanciales al comparar los resultados con el uso de sistema 3D versus 2D en cuanto a complicaciones postoperatorias. En la 3D no se encontró mortalidad postoperatoria, probablemente por el menor número de pacientes de ese grupo. Conclusión La laparoscopia 3D posee una buena valoración por los cirujanos que la emplearon, principalmente en calidad de imagen, reducción del tiempo operatorio y confort del cirujano en comparación con la laparoscopía 2D convencional. No se encontró diferencias sustanciales al comparar los resultados con el uso de sistema 3D versus 2D en cuanto a tiempo operatorio ni complicaciones postoperatorias.

Introduction The use of the 3D vision system in laparoscopic surgery can mean better performance in more complex surgical procedures. Aim Report the indications, results and assessment of a group of surgeons of different specialties in the use of 3D vision. Materials and Method Surgical indications and subjective and objective results of the use of 3D optical system in patients (n = 155) submitted to complex laparoscopic surgery are analyzed. Subjective evaluation based on a survey of qualitative perception (Likert) was applied to the participating surgeons. For objective evaluation, the operatory times and postoperative complications were recorded and compared with the results observed with the use of the 2D system (783 patients) in the same period. Results 70.6% agree to have a better image with the 3D technique, 64.7% of surgeons report that the operative time can be reduced, 58.8% consider that it can be reduced the surgical error, 92% and 100% respectively considered that the comfort of the surgeon is better with the use of 3D optics and that this technique is recommended for complex procedures. No substantial differences were found when comparing the results with the use of 3D versus 2D system by the same surgical teams in terms of operative times and postoperative complications. In 3D, postoperative mortality was probably not found due to the lower number of patients in this group. Conclusion 3D laparoscopy has a good evaluation by the surgeons who used it, mainly in image quality, reduction of operative time and comfort of the surgeon compared to conventional 2D laparoscopy. No substantial differences were found when comparing the results with the use of 3D versus 2D system in terms of operative times or postoperative complications.

Humans , Laparoscopy/methods , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods , Chile , Surveys and Questionnaires , Laparoscopy/statistics & numerical data , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/instrumentation , Surgery, Computer-Assisted/methods , Comparative Effectiveness Research , Operative Time
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eMD5223, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056059


ABSTRACT Computed tomography with multiple detectors and the advancement of processors improved rendered images and three-dimensional reconstructions in clinical practice. Traditional axial slices form non-intuitive images because they are seen in only one plane. The three-dimensional reconstructions can show structures details and diseases with complex anatomy in different perspectives. Cinematic rendering is a newly three-dimensional reconstruction technique, already approved for clinical use, which can produce realistic images from traditional computed tomography data. The algorithm used is based on light trajectory methods and the global lighting model, which simulate thousands of images from all possible directions. Thus, the technique shapes the physical propagation of light and generates a realistic three-dimensional image with depth, shadows and more anatomic details. It is a multidimensional rendering acquired through complex lighting effects. The aim of this article was to show the advance of three-dimensional technology with the cinematic rendering in images exams of the thoracic wall.

RESUMO A tomografia computadorizada com os múltiplos detectores e o avanço dos processadores melhoraram as imagens renderizadas e as reconstruções tridimensionais na prática clínica. Os cortes axiais tradicionais formam imagens não intuitivas, pois são vistas em apenas um plano. Já as reconstruções tridimensionais podem exibir detalhes anatômicos em diferentes perspectivas das estruturas e de doenças com anatomia complexa. A renderização cinematográfica é uma técnica de reconstrução tridimensional recentemente introduzida, já aprovada para uso clínico, que pode produzir imagens realistas a partir de dados tradicionais da tomografia computadorizada. O algoritmo usado é baseado em métodos de trajetória da luz e no modelo de iluminação global, os quais simulam milhares de imagens de todas as direções possíveis. Assim, a técnica molda a propagação física da luz e gera uma imagem tridimensional realista, com profundidade, sombras e mais detalhes da alteração anatômica. É uma renderização multidimensional adquirida por efeitos de iluminação complexos. O objetivo deste artigo foi mostrar o avanço da tecnologia tridimensional com a renderização cinematográfica nos dos exames de imagens da parede torácica.

Humans , Male , Adult , Thoracic Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/diagnostic imaging , Sarcoma, Synovial/diagnostic imaging , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods , Thoracic Wall/diagnostic imaging , Algorithms , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Sarcoma, Synovial/secondary , Middle Aged
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20190042, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1056592


Abstract Gap formation of composite resin restorations is a serious shortcoming in clinical practice. Polymerization shrinkage stress exceeds the tooth-restoration bond strength, and it causes bacterial infiltration within gaps between cavity walls and the restorative material. Thus, an intermediate liner application with a low elastic modulus has been advised to minimize polymerization shrinkage as well as gap formation. Objective: The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess gap formation volume in premolars restored with different bulk-fill composites, with and without a resin-modified glass-ionomer cement (RMGIC) liner, using x-ray micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). Methodology: Sixty extracted human maxillary premolars were divided into six groups according to bucco-palatal dimensions (n=10). Standardized Class II mesio-occluso-distal cavities were prepared. G-Premio Bond (GC Corp., Japan) was applied in the selective-etch mode. Teeth were restored with high-viscosity (Filtek Bulk Fill, 3M ESPE, USA)-FB, sonic-activated (SonicFill 2, Kerr, USA)-SF and low viscosity (Estelite Bulk Fill Flow, Tokuyama, Japan)-EB bulk-fill composites, with and without a liner (Ionoseal, Voco GmbH, Germany)-L. The specimens were subjected to 10,000 thermocycles (5-55°C) and 50,000 simulated chewing cycles (100 N). Gap formation based on the volume of black spaces at the tooth-restoration interface was quantified in mm3 using micro-computed tomography (SkyScan, Belgium), and analyses were performed. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures ANOVA and the Bonferroni correction test (p < 0.05). Results: The gap volume of all tested bulk-fill composites demonstrated that Group SF (1.581±0.773) had significantly higher values than Group EB (0.717±0.679). Regarding the use of a liner, a significant reduction in gap formation volume was observed only in Group SFL (0.927±0.630) compared with Group SF (1.581±0.773). Conclusion: It can be concluded that different types of bulk-fill composite resins affected gap formation volume. Low-viscosity bulk-fill composites exhibited better adaptation to cavity walls and less gap formation than did sonic-activated bulk-fill composites. The use of an RMGIC liner produced a significant reduction in gap formation volume for sonic-activated bulk-fill composites.

Humans , Composite Resins/chemistry , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods , Dental Cavity Preparation/methods , Dental Materials/chemistry , Dental Restoration, Permanent/methods , Polymerization , In Vitro Techniques , Materials Testing , Resin Cements , Dental Stress Analysis , X-Ray Microtomography