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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986813

ABSTRACT

Objective: Total neoadjuvant therapy has been used to improve tumor responses and prevent distant metastases in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). Patients with complete clinical responses (cCR) then have the option of choosing a watch and wait (W&W) strategy and organ preservation. It has recently been shown that hypofractionated radiotherapy has better synergistic effects with PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors than does conventionally fractionated radiotherapy, increasing the sensitivity of microsatellite stable (MSS) colorectal cancer to immunotherapy. Thus, in this trial we aimed to determine whether total neoadjuvant therapy comprising short-course radiotherapy (SCRT) combined with a PD-1 inhibitor improves the degree of tumor regression in patients with LARC. Methods: TORCH is a prospective, multicenter, randomized, phase II trial (TORCH Registration No. NCT04518280). Patients with LARC (T3-4/N+M0, distance from anus ≤10 cm) are eligible and are randomly assigned to consolidation or induction arms. Those in the consolidation arm receive SCRT (25Gy/5 Fx), followed by six cycles of toripalimab plus capecitabine and oxaliplatin (ToriCAPOX). Those in the induction arm receive two cycles of ToriCAPOX, then undergo SCRT, followed by four cycles of ToriCAPOX. Patients in both groups undergo total mesorectal excision (TME) or can choose a W&W strategy if cCR has been achieved. The primary endpoint is the complete response rate (CR, pathological complete response [pCR] plus continuous cCR for more than 1 year). The secondary endpoints include rates of Grade 3-4 acute adverse effects (AEs) etc. Results: Up to 30 September 2022, 62 patients attending our center were enrolled (Consolidation arm: 34, Induction arm:28). Their median age was 53 (27-69) years. Fifty-nine of them had MSS/pMMR type cancer (95.2%), and only three MSI-H/dMMR. Additionally, 55 patients (88.7%) had Stage III disease. The following important characteristics were distributed as follows: lower location (≤5 cm from anus, 48/62, 77.4%), deeper invasion by primary lesion (cT4 7/62, 11.3%; mesorectal fascia involved 17/62, 27.4%), and high risk of distant metastasis (cN2 26/62, 41.9%; EMVI+ 11/62, 17.7%). All 62 patients completed the SCRT and at least five cycles of ToriCAPOX, 52/62 (83.9%) completing six cycles of ToriCAPOX. Finally, 29 patients achieved cCR (46.8%, 29/62), 18 of whom decided to adopt a W&W strategy. TME was performed on 32 patients. Pathological examination showed 18 had achieved pCR, four TRG 1, and 10 TRG 2-3. The three patients with MSI-H disease all achieved cCR. One of these patients was found to have pCR after surgery whereas the other two adopted a W&W strategy. Thus, the pCR and CR rates were 56.2% (18/32) and 58.1% (36/62), respectively. The TRG 0-1 rate was 68.8% (22/32). The most common non-hematologic AEs were poor appetite (49/60, 81.7%), numbness (49/60, 81.7%), nausea (47/60, 78.3%) and asthenia (43/60, 71.7%); two patients did not complete this survey. The most common hematologic AEs were thrombocytopenia (48/62, 77.4%), anemia (47/62, 75.8%), leukopenia/neutropenia (44/62, 71.0%) and high transaminase (39/62, 62.9%). The main Grade III-IV AE was thrombocytopenia (22/62, 35.5%), with three patients (3/62, 4.8%) having Grade IV thrombocytopenia. No Grade V AEs were noted. Conclusions: SCRT-based total neoadjuvant therapy combined with toripalimab can achieve a surprisingly good CR rate in patients with LARC and thus has the potential to offer new treatment options for organ preservation in patients with MSS and lower-location rectal cancer. Meanwhile, the preliminary findings of a single center show good tolerability, the main Grade III-IV AE being thrombocytopenia. The significant efficacy and long-term prognostic benefit need to be determined by further follow-up.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Adult , Aged , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Chemoradiotherapy , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Prospective Studies , Rectal Neoplasms/pathology , Thrombocytopenia/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome
2.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 445-451, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984742

ABSTRACT

Objective: To observe the present situation, efficacy and safety of immunotherapy in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Methods: The data of 39 patients with MPM in two centers from 2016 to 2021 were collected and the efficacy and safety were evaluated. According to the application of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), these patients, whose median clinical follow-up amounting to 18.97 months, were divided into immunotherapy group (19 cases) and control group (20 cases). Kaplan-Meier method and Log-rank test were used for the survival analysis. Results: The objective response rate (ORR) and the disease control rate (DCR) in the immunotherapy group is 21.05% and 79.0% respectively, compared with 10.0% and 55.0% in the control group; and the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). The median overall survival (OS) in the immunotherapy group was significantly longer than that in the control group (14.53 months vs 7.07 months, P=0.015), but there was no significant difference in the median progression free survival (PFS) between two groups (4.80 months vs 2.03 months, P=0.062). Single factor survival analysis showed that the nature of pleural effusion, pathological subtype and the efficacy of immunotherapy were related to both PFS and OS of the patients with MPM (P<0.05). The incidence of adverse reactions in immunotherapy group was 89.5% (17 out of 19 cases), and the most common adverse event was hematological toxicity (9 cases), followed by nausea and vomiting (7 cases), fatigue (6 cases) and skin damage (6 cases). Five patients had immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) related adverse reactions with grade 1-2. Conclusions: Patients with MPM have begun to receive immunotherapy in more than 2-line mainly combined chemotherapy in the real world, and the median treatment line is 2-line. Either combined with chemotherapy or anti-angiogenesis therapy, ICI inhibitors have significant efficacy, controllable adverse events and good clinical value.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mesothelioma, Malignant/drug therapy , Mesothelioma/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Immunotherapy/adverse effects
3.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 291-297, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984722

ABSTRACT

In recent years, immunotherapy represented by immune checkpoint inhibitors programmed death 1 (PD-1) has made great progress in the treatment of esophageal cancer and is rewriting the global paradigm for the treatment of esophageal cancer. According to current data, only a small number of patients with esophageal cancer could benefit from immunotherapy. Therefore, it is a challenge to screen the potential beneficiaries of PD-1 inhibitors. Studies have shown that the expression level of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) in esophageal cancer is closely associated with the efficacy of PD-1 inhibitors, and PD-L1 is the most important predictive biomarker of the efficacy of PD-1 inhibitors. With the clinical application of different PD-1 inhibitors and PD-L1 protein expression detection platforms, clarifying the clinical significance and timing of detection of PD-L1 protein expression in esophageal cancer, and establishing a standardized PD-L1 testing procedure, are of great significance to improve the accuracy of detection and reduce the difference between laboratories, so as to maximize the therapeutic benefits for patients. This consensus was finally reached, based on the combination of literature, expert experience, and internal discussion and voting of committee members, to provide an accurate and reliable evidence for clinicians to make decisions.


Subject(s)
Humans , B7-H1 Antigen/metabolism , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Consensus , Esophageal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Immunotherapy/methods , Lung Neoplasms/pathology
4.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 170-174, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969821

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of neoadjuvant chemotherapy combined with programmed death-1 (PD-1) antibody in operable, borderline or potentially resectable locally advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma(ESCC) in the real world. Methods: The study retrospectively analyzed 28 patients with operable or potentially resectable locally advanced ESCC patients treated with preoperative chemotherapy combined with PD-1 inhibitor in Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School from April 2020 to March 2021. According to the clinical TNM staging system of the 8th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer, there were 1, 15, 10, 1 and 1 case of stage Ⅱ, Ⅲ, ⅣA, ⅣB and unknown stage respectively. The treatment was two cycle of dual drug chemotherapy regimen including taxane plus platinum or fluorouracil combined with PD-1 antibody followed by tumor response assessment and surgery if the patient was eligible for resection. Results: Of the 28 patients, 1, 2, 3 and 4 cycles of chemotherapy combined with PD-1 antibody treatment completed in 1, 21, 5, and 1 patient, respectively. Objective response rate (ORR) was 71.4% (20/28), and disease control rate (DCR) was 100% (28/28). The incidence of adverse events exceeding grade 3 levels was 21.4% (6/28), including 3 neutropenia, 1 leukopenia, 1 thrombocytopenia and 1 immune hepatitis. There was no treatment-related death. Of the 23 patients underwent surgery, R0 resection rate was 87.0% (20/23), 13 patients had down staged to the T1-2N0M0 I stage, the pCR rate was 17.3% (4/23), and the pCR rate of primary tumor was 21.7% (5/23). Four patients received definitive chemoradiotherapy. One patient rejected surgery and other treatment after achieved PR response. Conclusion: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy combined PD-1 inhibitor is safe and has high efficacy in operable, borderline or potentially resectable locally advanced ESCC, and it is a promising regimen.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antibodies/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/surgery , Cisplatin , Esophageal Neoplasms/surgery , Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma/drug therapy , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
5.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 111-116, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969813

ABSTRACT

Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in men and women worldwide, and 85% of these patients have non-small cell lung cancer. In recent years, the clinical use of targeted drug therapy and immune checkpoint inhibitors has dramatically changed the treatment landscape for advanced NSCLC. The mechanism and the value of targeted therapies have been a hot topic of research, as KRAS is one of the earliest discovered and most frequently mutated oncogenes, which is activated by binding to GTP and triggers a series of cascade reactions in cell proliferation and mitosis. The KRAS protein acts as a molecular switch and is activated by binding to GTP, triggering a series of cascade responses in cell proliferation and mitosis. Clinically, patients with KRAS mutated NSCLC have poor response to systemic medical therapy and poor prognosis. Since the first report of KRAS gene in 1982, research on KRAS targeted therapeutics has been slow, and previous studies such as farnesyltransferase inhibitors and downstream protein inhibitors of KRAS signaling pathway have not achieved the expected results, making KRAS long defined as a "non-druggable target". The deeper understanding of the crystal structure of KRAS has led to the discovery of potential therapeutic sites for KRAS and the development of several drugs directly targeting KRAS, especially KRAS G12C inhibitors such as AMG510 (sotorasib) and MRTX849 (adagrasib), which have shown encouraging results in clinical trials. In recent years, studies on the therapeutic efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors for KRAS-mutated NSCLC have made some progress. In this review, we systematically introduce the basic understanding of RAS gene and clinical characteristics of KRAS mutated NSCLC patients, summarize the medical treatments for KRAS mutated NSCLC, including chemotherapy, anti-vascular drug therapy and tumor immunotherapy, and focus on the review and outlook of the research progress of KRAS targeted therapy.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Female , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras)/therapeutic use , Genes, ras , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Guanosine Triphosphate/therapeutic use , Mutation
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971476

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to identify subtypes of genomic variants associated with the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) by conducting systematic literature search in electronic databases up to May 31, 2021. The main outcomes including overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), objective response rate (ORR), and durable clinical benefit (DCB) were correlated with tumor genomic features. A total of 1546 lung cancer patients with available genomic variation data were included from 14 studies. The Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog G12C (KRASG12C) mutation combined with tumor protein P53 (TP53) mutation revealed the promising efficacy of ICI therapy in these patients. Furthermore, patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) classical activating mutations (including EGFRL858R and EGFRΔ19) exhibited worse outcomes to ICIs in OS (adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 1.40; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01‍‒‍1.95; P=0.0411) and PFS (adjusted HR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.49‍‒‍2.63; P<0.0001), while classical activating mutations with EGFRT790M showed no difference compared to classical activating mutations without EGFRT790M in OS (adjusted HR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.48‍‒‍1.94; P=0.9157) or PFS (adjusted HR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.39‍‒‍1.35; P=0.3050). Of note, for patients harboring the Usher syndrome type-2A(USH2A) missense mutation, correspondingly better outcomes were observed in OS (adjusted HR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.32‍‒‍0.82; P=0.0077), PFS (adjusted HR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.38‍‒‍0.69; P<0.0001), DCB (adjusted odds ratio (OR), 4.74; 95% CI, 2.75‍‒‍8.17; P<0.0001), and ORR (adjusted OR, 3.45; 95% CI, 1.88‍‒‍6.33; P<0.0001). Our findings indicated that, USH2A missense mutations and the KRASG12Cmutation combined with TP53 mutation were associated with better efficacy and survival outcomes, but EGFR classical mutations irrespective of combination with EGFRT790M showed the opposite role in the ICI therapy among lung cancer patients. Our findings might guide the selection of precise targets for effective immunotherapy in the clinic.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , ErbB Receptors/genetics , Extracellular Matrix Proteins/genetics , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Mutation , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras)/genetics , Treatment Outcome
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971370

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Programmed death 1 (PD-1) associated fulminant type 1 diabetes (PFD) is a rare acute and critical in internal medicine, and its clinical characteristics are still unclear. This study aims to analyze the clinical characteristics of PFD patients to improve clinical diagnosis and treatment.@*METHODS@#We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 10 patients with PFD admitted to the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, combined with the data of 66 patients reported in the relevant literature, analyzed and summarized their clinical and immunological characteristics, and compared the patients with PFD with different islet autoantibody status.@*RESULTS@#Combined with our hospital and literature data, a total of 76 patients with PFD were reported, with the age of (60.9±12.1) years old, 60.0% male and body mass index of (22.1±5.2) kg/m2. In 76 patients, the most common tumors were lung cancer (43.4%) and melanoma (22.4%). Among PD-1 inhibitors, the most common drugs are nivolumab (37.5%) and pembrolizumab (38.9%). 82.2% of PFD patients developed diabetes ketoacidosis. The median onset time from PD-1 related inhibitor treatment to hyperglycemia was 95 (36.0, 164.5) d, and the median treatment cycle before the onset of diabetes was 6 (2.3, 8.0) cycles. 26% (19/73) of PFD patients had positive islet autoantibodies, and the proportion of ketoacidosis in the positive group was significantly higher than that in the negative group (100.0% vs 75.0%, P<0.05). The onset time and infusion times of diabetes after PD-1 inhibitor treatment in the autoantibody positive group were significantly lower than those in the autoantibody negative group (28.5 d vs 120.0 d; 2 cycles vs 7 cycles, both P<0.001).@*CONCLUSIONS@#After initiation of tumor immunotherapy, it is necessary to be alert to the occurrence of adverse reactions of PFD, and the onset of PFD with islet autoantibody positive is faster and more serious than that of patients with autoantibodies negative. Detection of islet autoantibodies and blood glucose before and after treatment with PD-1 inhibitors is of great value for early warning and prediction of PFD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Female , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Ketosis , Autoantibodies
8.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 179-183, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971024

ABSTRACT

Management and treatment of terminal metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) remains heavily debated. We sought to investigate the efficacy of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) inhibitor plus anlotinib as a potential solution for terminal mCRPC and further evaluate the association of genomic characteristics with efficacy outcomes. We conducted a retrospective real-world study of 25 mCRPC patients who received PD-1 inhibitor plus anlotinib after the progression to standard treatments. The clinical information was extracted from the electronic medical records and 22 patients had targeted circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) next-generation sequencing. Statistical analysis showed that 6 (24.0%) patients experienced prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response and 11 (44.0%) patients experienced PSA reduction. The relationship between ctDNA findings and outcomes was also analyzed. DNA-damage repair (DDR) pathways and homologous recombination repair (HRR) pathway defects indicated a comparatively longer PSA-progression-free survival (PSA-PFS; 2.5 months vs 1.2 months, P = 0.027; 3.3 months vs 1.2 months, P = 0.017; respectively). This study introduces the PD-1 inhibitor plus anlotinib as a late-line therapeutic strategy for terminal mCRPC. PD-1 inhibitor plus anlotinib may be a new treatment choice for terminal mCRPC patients with DDR or HRR pathway defects and requires further investigation.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Treatment Outcome , Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant/drug therapy , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982705

ABSTRACT

The anti-tumor effect of anti-PD-1 antibody has long been shown to be strongly related to the tumor immune microenvironment (TIME). This study aimed to mechanistically assess whether Chang Wei Qing (CWQ) Decoction can enhance the anti-tumor effect of PD-1 inhibitor therapy. PD-1 inhibitor therapy showed the significant anti-tumor effect in patients with mismatch repair-deficient/microsatellite instability-high (dMMR/MSI-H) colorectal cancer (CRC), rather than those with mismatch repair-proficient/microsatellite stable (pMMR/MSS) CRC. Hence, immunofluorescence double-label staining was utilized to explore the difference in the TIME between dMMR/MSI-H and pMMR/MSS CRC patients. Flow cytometry was used to analyze T-lymphocytes in tumors from mice. Western blot was used to measure the expression of PD-L1 protein in mouse tumors. The intestinal mucosal barrier of mice was evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemistry. 16S rRNA-gene sequencing was used to examine the structure of the gut microbiota in mice. Subsequently, Spearmanapos;s correlation analysis was used to analyze the relationship between the gut microbiota and tumor-infiltrating T-lymphocytes. The results showed that dMMR/MSI-H CRC patients had more CD8+T cells and higher expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 proteins. In vivo, CWQ enhanced the anti-tumor effect of anti-PD-1 antibody and increased the infiltration of CD8+ and PD-1+CD8+ T cells in tumors. Additionally, the combination of CWQ with anti-PD-1 antibody resulted in lower inflammation in the intestinal mucosa than that induced by anti-PD-1 antibody alone. CWQ and anti-PD-1 antibody co-treatment upregulated PD-L1 protein and reduced the abundance of Bacteroides in the gut microbiota but increased the abundance of Akkermansia,Firmicutes, andActinobacteria. Additionally, the proportion of infiltrated CD8+PD-1+, CD8+, and CD3+ T cells were found to be positively correlated with the abundance of Akkermansia. Accordingly, CWQ may modulate the TIME by modifying the gut microbiota and consequently enhance the anti-tumor effect of PD-1 inhibitor therapy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , B7-H1 Antigen , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Colorectal Neoplasms/metabolism , Colonic Neoplasms , Tumor Microenvironment
10.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1403-1424, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981146

ABSTRACT

Malignant tumors are diseases that seriously threaten human health and social development. Traditional tumor therapies such as surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and targeted therapy cannot fully meet the needs of clinical treatment, and emerging immunotherapy has become a research hotspot in the field of tumor treatment. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have been approved as a tumor immunotherapy method for the treatment of various tumors, such as lung cancer, liver cancer, stomach cancer and colorectal cancer, etc. However, during the clinical use of ICIs, only a small number of patients experienced durable responses, which also led to drug resistance and adverse reactions. Therefore, the identification and development of predictive biomarkers is crucial to improve the therapeutic efficacy of ICIs. The predictive biomarkers of tumor ICIs mainly include tumor biomarkers, tumor microenvironment biomarkers, circulation-related biomarkers, host environmental biomarkers and combinatorial biomarkers. They are of great significance for screening, individualized treatment and prognosis evaluation of tumor patients. This article reviews the advances of predictive markers for tumor ICIs therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Lung Neoplasms , Biomarkers , Immunotherapy/methods , Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , Prognosis , Tumor Microenvironment
11.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1663-1670, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980962

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#As the efficacy of programmed cell death-1/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) inhibitors combined with chemotherapy in curing breast cancer is still controversial, this meta-analysis compares the efficacy and safety of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors combined with chemotherapy and chemotherapy alone in the treatment of breast cancer, which provides guidance for the clinical treatment.@*METHODS@#Relevant studies published as of April 2022 in the various databases including EMBASE, PubMed, and Cochrane Library were selected. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in which control patients underwent chemotherapy alone and experimental group patients underwent combination chemotherapy and PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor treatment were included in this investigation. Investigations without complete information, researches from which information could not be extracted, duplicate articles, animal studies, review articles, and systematic reviews were excluded. STATA 15.1 was employed for all statistical analyses.@*RESULTS@#In total, eight eligible studies were identified, revealing that combination chemotherapy and PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor treatment was linked to significant increases in progression-free survival (PFS) relative to chemotherapy alone (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.83, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.70-0.99, P = 0.032) but not overall survival (HR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.80-1.06, P = 0.273). Pooled adverse event rates were also increased within the group of combination treatment relative to the chemotherapy group (risk ratio [RR] = 1.08, 95% CI: 1.03-1.14, P = 0.002). Specifically, nausea rates were lesser within the group of combination treatment relative to the group of chemotherapy (RR = 0.48, 95% CI: 0.25-0.92, P = 0.026). Subgroup analyses indicated that the PFS of patients who underwent combination atezolizumab or pembrolizumab and chemotherapy treatment were substantially longer than those of patients who underwent chemotherapy alone (HR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.69-0.89, P ≤0.001; HR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.67-0.92, P = 0.002).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The pooled results suggest that combination chemotherapy and PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor treatment approaches help prolong PFS in breast cancer patients, but have no statistically significant effect on overall survival (OS). Additionally, combination therapy can significantly improve complete response rate (CRR) compared with chemotherapy alone. However, combination therapy was associated with greater rates of adverse events.


Subject(s)
Humans , B7-H1 Antigen/antagonists & inhibitors , Drug Therapy, Combination , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/antagonists & inhibitors , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy
12.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1422-1429, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980945

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are increasingly used as first-line therapy for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring no actionable mutations; however, data on their efficacy among patients presenting with intracranial lesions are limited. This study aimed to explore the efficacy and safety of ICIs combined with chemotherapy in advanced NSCLC patients with measurable brain metastasis at initial diagnosis.@*METHODS@#Our study retrospectively analyzed clinical data of a total of 211 patients diagnosed with driver gene mutation-negative advanced NSCLC with measurable, asymptomatic brain metastasis at baseline from Hunan Cancer Hospital between January 1, 2019 and September 30, 2021. The patients were stratified into two groups according to the first-line treatment regimen received: ICI combined with chemotherapy ( n = 102) or chemotherapy ( n = 109). Systemic and intracranial objective response rates (ORRs) and progression-free survival (PFS) were analyzed. Adverse events were also compared between the groups.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the chemotherapy-based regimen, the ICI-containing regimen was associated with a significantly higher intracranial (44.1% [45/102] vs . 28.4% [31/109], χ2 = 5.620, P = 0.013) and systemic (49.0% [50/102] vs . 33.9% [37/109], χ2 = 4.942, P = 0.019) ORRs and longer intracranial (11.0 months vs . 7.0 months, P <0.001) and systemic (9.0 months vs . 5.0 months, P <0.001) PFS. Multivariable analysis consistently revealed an independent association between receiving ICI plus platinum-based chemotherapy as a first-line regimen and prolonged intracranial PFS (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.52, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.37-0.73, P <0.001) and systemic PFS (HR = 0.48, 95% CI: 0.35-0.66, P <0.001). No unexpected serious adverse effects were observed.@*CONCLUSION@#Our study provides real-world clinical evidence that ICI combined with chemotherapy is a promising first-line treatment option for driver gene mutation-negative advanced NSCLC patients who present with brain metastasis at initial diagnosis.@*CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION@#https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ , OMESIA, NCT05129202.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Brain Neoplasms/genetics
13.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1523-1531, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980918

ABSTRACT

Lung cancer has the highest risk of brain metastasis (BM) among all solid carcinomas. The emergence of BM has a significant impact on the selection of oncologic treatment for patients. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are the most promising treatment option for patients without druggable mutations and have been shown to improve survival in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) BM in clinical trials with good safety. Moreover, ICI has shown certain effects in NSCLC BM, and the overall intracranial efficacy is comparable to extracranial efficacy. However, a proportion of patients showed discordant responses in primary and metastatic lesions, suggesting that multiple mechanisms may exist underlying ICI activity in BM. According to studies pertaining to tumor immune microenvironments, ICIs may be capable of provoking immunity in situ . Meanwhile, systematic immune cells activated by ICIs can migrate into the central nervous system and exert antitumor effects. This review summarizes the present evidence for ICI treatment efficacy in NSCLC BM and proposes the possible mechanisms of ICI treatment for NSCLC BMs based on existing evidence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Brain Neoplasms/drug therapy , Carcinoma , Tumor Microenvironment
14.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 585-616, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010817

ABSTRACT

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have demonstrated unparalleled clinical responses and revolutionized the paradigm of tumor treatment, while substantial patients remain unresponsive or develop resistance to ICIs as a single agent, which is traceable to cellular metabolic dysfunction. Although dysregulated metabolism has long been adjudged as a hallmark of tumor, it is now increasingly accepted that metabolic reprogramming is not exclusive to tumor cells but is also characteristic of immunocytes. Correspondingly, people used to pay more attention to the effect of tumor cell metabolism on immunocytes, but in practice immunocytes interact intimately with their own metabolic function in a way that has never been realized before during their activation and differentiation, which opens up a whole new frontier called immunometabolism. The metabolic intervention for tumor-infiltrating immunocytes could offer fresh opportunities to break the resistance and ameliorate existing ICI immunotherapy, whose crux might be to ascertain synergistic combinations of metabolic intervention with ICIs to reap synergic benefits and facilitate an adjusted anti-tumor immune response. Herein, we elaborate potential mechanisms underlying immunotherapy resistance from a novel dimension of metabolic reprogramming in diverse tumor-infiltrating immunocytes, and related metabolic intervention in the hope of offering a reference for targeting metabolic vulnerabilities to circumvent immunotherapeutic resistance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Neoplasms/pathology , Immunotherapy/methods , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use
15.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 878-888, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010806

ABSTRACT

Metastases of uveal melanoma (UM) spread predominantly to the liver. Due to low response rates to systemic therapies, liver-directed therapies (LDT) are commonly used for tumor control. The impact of LDT on the response to systemic treatment is unknown. A total of 182 patients with metastatic UM treated with immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) were included in this analysis. Patients were recruited from prospective skin cancer centers and the German national skin cancer registry (ADOReg) of the German Dermatologic Cooperative Oncology Group (DeCOG). Two cohorts were compared: patients with LDT (cohort A, n = 78) versus those without LDT (cohort B, n = 104). Data were analyzed for response to treatment, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). The median OS was significantly longer in cohort A than in cohort B (20.1 vs. 13.8 months; P = 0.0016) and a trend towards improved PFS was observed for cohort A (3.0 vs. 2.5 months; P = 0.054). The objective response rate to any ICB (16.7% vs. 3.8%, P = 0.0073) and combined ICB (14.1% vs. 4.5%, P = 0.017) was more favorable in cohort A. Our data suggest that the combination of LDT with ICB may be associated with a survival benefit and higher treatment response to ICB in patients with metastatic UM.


Subject(s)
Humans , CTLA-4 Antigen , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Liver , Prospective Studies , Skin Neoplasms
16.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2562-2572, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007708

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Lung cancer is the second most common cancer worldwide, with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounting for the majority of cases. Patients with NSCLC have achieved great survival benefits from immunotherapies targeting immune checkpoints. Glucocorticoids (GCs) are frequently used for palliation of cancer-associated symptoms, as supportive care for non-cancer-associated symptoms, and for management of immune-related adverse events (irAEs). The aim of this study was to clarify the safety and prognostic significance of glucocorticoid use in advanced patients with NSCLC treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs).@*METHODS@#The study searched publications from PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, China Biology Medicine disc, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Data, and Chinese Science and Technology Journal Database up to March 1st, 2022, and conducted a meta-analysis to assess the effects of glucocorticoid use on overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in NSCLC patients treated with ICIs through the available data. The study calculated the pooled hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).@*RESULTS@#This study included data from 25 literatures that were mainly retrospective, with 8713 patients included. Patients taking GCs had a higher risk for tumor progression and death compared with those not taking GCs (PFS: HR = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.33-1.86, P <0.001; OS: HR = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.41-1.88, P <0.001). GCs used for cancer-associated symptoms caused an obviously negative effect on both PFS and OS (PFS: HR = 1.74, 95% CI: 1.32-2.29, P <0.001; OS: HR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.52-2.04, P <0.001). However, GCs used for irAEs management did not negatively affect prognosis (PFS: HR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.46-1.00, P = 0.050; OS: HR = 0.53, 95% CI: 0.34-0.83, P = 0.005), and GCs used for non-cancer-associated indications had no effect on prognosis (PFS: HR = 0.92, 95%CI: 0.63-1.32, P = 0.640; OS: HR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.59-1.41, P = 0.680).@*CONCLUSIONS@#In advanced NSCLC patients treated with ICIs, the use of GCs for palliation of cancer-associated symptoms may result in a worse PFS and OS, indicating that they increase the risk of tumor progression and death. But, in NSCLC patients treated with ICIs, the use of GCs for the management of irAEs may be safe, and the use of GCs for the treatment of non-cancer-associated symptoms may not affect the ICIs' survival benefits. Therefore, it is necessary to be careful and evaluate indications rationally before administering GCs in individualized clinical management.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies
17.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 709-716, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010078

ABSTRACT

A patient with advanced lung adenocarcinoma developed symptoms of frequent urination and urgent urination after 14 cycles of Pembrolizumab combined with chemotherapy. After making comprehensive analysis of the results of urine routine test, renal function, cystoscope and computed tomography (CT) examination, immune checkpoint inhibitors related cystoureteritis and acute kidney injury were considered. The patient's symptoms were relieved after discontinuation of Pembrolizumab combined with chemotherapy. However, the symptoms of urinary irritation worsened significantly after rechallenging Pembrolizumab combined with chemotherapy, and the symptoms was relieved after corticosteroids treatment. If patients develop urinary symptoms during immune checkpoint inhibitors treatment, immune checkpoint inhibitors related cystoureteritis should be considered for early differential diagnosis in order to implement appropriate treatment.
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Subject(s)
Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Adenocarcinoma of Lung/drug therapy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
18.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 659-668, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010073

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The SMARCA4 mutation has been shown to account for at least 10% of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In the present, conventional radiotherapy and targeted therapy are difficult to improve outcomes due to the highly aggressive and refractory nature of SMARCA4-deficient NSCLC (SMARCA4-DNSCLC) and the absence of sensitive site mutations for targeted drug therapy, and chemotherapy combined with or without immunotherapy is the main treatment. Effective SMARCA4-DNSCLC therapeutic options, however, are still debatable. Our study aimed to investigate the efficacy and prognosis of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in combination with chemotherapy and chemotherapy in patients with stage III-IV SMARCA4-DNSCLC.@*METHODS@#46 patients with stage III-IV SMARCA4-DNSCLC were divided into two groups based on their treatment regimen: the chemotherapy group and the PD-1 ICIs plus chemotherapy group, and their clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. Efficacy assessment and survival analysis were performed in both groups, and the influencing factors for prognosis were explored for patients with SMARCA4-DNSCLC.@*RESULTS@#Male smokers are more likely to develop SMARCA4-DNSCLC. There was no significant difference in the objective response rate (76.5% vs 69.0%, P=0.836) between chemotherapy and the PD-1 ICIs plus chemotherapy or the disease control rate (100.0% vs 89.7%, P=0.286). The one-year overall survival rate in the group with PD-1 ICIs plus chemotherapy was 62.7%, and that of the chemotherapy group was 46.0%. The difference in median progression-free survival (PFS) between the PD-1 ICIs plus chemotherapy group and the chemotherapy group was statistically significant (9.3 mon vs 6.1 mon, P=0.048). The results of Cox regression analysis showed that treatment regimen and smoking history were independent influencing factors of PFS in patients with stage III-IV SMARCA4-DNSCLC, and family history was an individual influencing factor of overall survival in patients with stage III-IV SMARCA4-DNSCLC.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Treatment regimen may be a prognostic factor for patients with SMARCA4-DNSCLC, and patients with PD-1 ICIs plus chemotherapy may have a better prognosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/genetics , Retrospective Studies , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/therapeutic use , Prognosis , DNA Helicases/genetics , Nuclear Proteins/genetics , Transcription Factors/genetics
19.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 257-264, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982155

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Immune-related adverse events (irAEs) are commonly occurred in patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors. However, evidence of irAEs derived from the Chinese population is relatively lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and outcomes of irAEs in Chinese patients with lung cancer after receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs).@*METHODS@#Clinical and follow-up data from lung cancer patients who received at least one time of ICIs from January 2018 to September 2021 at Huadong Hospital, Fudan University were included. Statistical descriptions and Kaplan-Meier method were used to analyze the overall incidence of irAEs, as well as the incidence and outcomes of each type of irAEs.@*RESULTS@#135 patients were included in the study. 106 patients (78.5%) presented at least one type of irAEs, and the median time to first irAEs onset was 28 d. Most irAEs occurred at early time after treatment, and most irAEs were mild-moderate and reversible. 57 patients (42.2%) died at the study cutoff. The mortality rate of severe irAEs was 12.6% (n=17), and among them 7 patients (41.2%) died of pneumonitis. The median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) time of the total population was 505 d (95%CI: 352-658) and 625 d (95%CI: 491-759), respectively. Patients who presented any irAEs achieved a longer PFS than those who did not (median PFS: 533 d vs 179 d, P=0.037, HR=0.57), while patients who presented skin toxicities achieved a longer OS than patients who did not (median OS: 797 d vs 469 d, P=0.006, HR=0.70).@*CONCLUSIONS@#In real-world settings, irAEs in lung cancer patients were commonly observed, with pneumonitis as the most common fatal irAEs. In addition, patients who presented any irAEs may tend to achieve a longer PFS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lung Neoplasms , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Incidence , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/therapeutic use , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936066

ABSTRACT

Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in the world. The treatments include surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and targeted therapy. The guidelines of many tumor types have been rewritten with the advent of immune checkpoint inhibitors. There are significant differences in the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors in colorectal cancer according to microsatellite status. Microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) colorectal cancer has made a breakthrough in immunotherapy, whether in the late-line, first-line, adjuvant or neoadjuvant therapy. The success of KEYNOTE-177 study has changed the guidelines with pembrolizumab becoming a standard treatment in the first-line treatment of MSI-H advanced colorectal cancer. The NICHE study, which used immunotherapy as neoadjuvant treatment of colorectal cancer, has made exciting achievements in MSI-H colorectal cancer. For microsatellite stability (MSS) colorectal cancer, many studies are ongoing, and immunotherapy is still unable to challenge the status of traditional treatment. In this paper, we review the clinical trials related to immune checkpoint inhibitors of colorectal cancer, expecting to provide references for the development of colorectal cancer immunotherapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Clinical Trials as Topic , Colonic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Immunotherapy
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