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1.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-3, 01/jan./2022. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1358188

ABSTRACT

Na atualidade, fotografar ou gravar o instante da imunização contra a Covid-19 se tornou rotina compartilhada nas redes sociais. Essa exposição instigou a observação de uma questão relevante: a técnica de aplicação está correta? Com a veiculação de imagens, é possível visualizar as vacinas sendo administradas em diferentes áreas do músculo deltoide, o que pode acarretar efeitos adversos. A otimização da qualificação técnica e pedagógica dos profissionais que elaboram e ministram as capacitações, bem como o envolvimento efetivo dos vacinadores nos treinamentos para injeção intramuscular é uma necessidade constante para evitar mais danos à saúde da população


Currently, photographing or recording the instant of immunization against Covid-19 has become a shared routine on social networks. This exposition prompted the observation of a relevant question: is the application technique correct? With the transmission of images, it is possible to visualize the vaccines being administered in different areas of the deltoid muscle, which can cause adverse effects. The optimization of the technical and pedagogical qualification of the professionals who design and deliver the training, as well as the effective involvement of vaccinators in training for intramuscular injection, is a constant need to avoid further damage to the health of the population


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Immunization , Process Optimization , Deltoid Muscle , Injections
2.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 55(2): 25-31, 20220801.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1380296

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El personal de salud constituye un grupo de riesgo para la infección por el virus de las hepatitis B. Objetivos: Evaluar la frecuencia de vacunación contra Hepatitis B en profesionales médicos y de enfermería de tres grandes centros hospitalarios del Departamento Central de Paraguay. Materiales y métodos: Estudio cuantitativo, observacional, descriptivo, de corte transversal. Se aplicó un cuestionario al personal médico y de enfermería en estudio, elaborado según trabajos afines. Resultados: Fueron encuestadas 1097 personas, siendo médicos 412 (37.6%) yersonal de enfermería 685 (62.4%). Se encontró un nivel de vacunación completa del 48.2% sobre el total de encuestados, 49.5% de los varones presentaron esquema completo y 47.7% de las mujeres. Según la profesión, el personal de enfermería tiene mejor acatamiento con 51% de vacunación completa contra 47% del personal médico. En el Hospital Central del Instituto de Previsión Social, casi un 62% tenía esquema completo, el Hospital de Clínicas alcanzó 40.9% y solamente 36.6% de los encuestados del Hospital Nacional de Itauguá tenían todas las dosis de vacuna anti-Hepatitis B. Para riesgo biológico bajo, el nivel de vacunación completa fue del 36.0%, alcanzó el 36.8% para riesgo moderado y 57.3% para los de alto riesgo de exposición. Conclusión: Ante la baja prevalencia de vacunación completa contra Hepatitis B en el personal de salud, esta debe mejorarse considerando el riesgo biológico de exposición. El equipo de control de infecciones y el Departamento de salud laboral deben llevar un registro de vacunación del personal y tener un plan de inmunizaciones obligatorio.


Introduction: Health care personnel constitute a risk group for hepatitis B virus infection. Objectives: To evaluate the frequency of vaccination against Hepatitis B in medical and nursing professionals of three large hospital centers in the Central Department of Paraguay. Materials and methods: Quantitative, observational, descriptive, cross-sectional, cross-sectional study. A questionnaire was administered to medical and nursing personnel included in the study, based on related studies. Results: A total of 1097 people were surveyed, 412 (37.6%) were physicians and 685 (62.4%) were nurses. In general, a complete vaccination level of 48.2% of the total respondents was reached, 49.5% of men had a complete vaccination schedule and 47.7% of women. According to profession, the nursing staff had a better compliance with complete vaccination with 51% versus 47% of the medical staff. In the Hospital Central del Instituto de Previsión Social almost 62% had a complete schedule, the Hospital de Clínicas reached 40.9% and only 36.6% of the respondents of the Hospital Nacional de Itauguá had all the doses of anti-Hepatitis B vaccine. For low biological risk, the level of complete vaccination was 36.0%, reaching 36.8% for moderate risk and 57.3% for those at high risk of exposure. Conclusion: The level of complete vaccination against Hepatitis B in health personnel was low and should be improved, taking into account the biological risk of exposure. The infection control team and the occupational health department should keep a record of staff vaccination and have a mandatory immunization plan for it.


Subject(s)
Hepatitis B , Hepatitis Viruses , Occupational Health , Immunization , Vaccination , Health Personnel , Hepatitis B Vaccines
3.
Alerta (San Salvador) ; 5(2): 118-125, jul. 22, 2022. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1379964

ABSTRACT

Reportes actuales sugieren que el antecedente de infección por SARS - CoV-2 y completar un esquema de vacunación otorga mayor protección contra la presentación sintomática de COVID -19. Se comparó el riesgo de enfermar de COVID -19 entre el personal de salud con esquema completo de vacuna contra SARS - CoV-2 BNT162b2 y el antecedente de infección por SARS - CoV-2. Estudio de cohorte histórica en 1874 trabajadores de la salud del Nuevo Hospital Civil de Guadalajara inmunizados con la vacuna BNT162b2 entre enero y marzo de 2021. Después de seis meses de seguimiento, el grupo de no expuestos (sin antecedente de infección) fue de 1397 y el grupo expuesto (con antecedente de infección), de 477 sujetos. La incidencia de infección por SARS - CoV-2 fue de 39 casos. El riesgo de infección en la cohorte posterior a la inmunización fue de 0,021. El grupo de inmunización híbrida presentó un riesgo menor de infección comparado con el grupo de inmunización artificial (0,015 y 0,243). La inmunización híbrida contribuyó a una reducción del riesgo atribuible a la población de 0,003 (R0 0,024; Rp 0,020). La hospitalización se presentó en el 7,69 % de los casos confirmados con SARS - CoV-2. El riesgo de hospitalización en inmunización híbrida es de 0,210 y de 0,143 en el grupo de inmunización artificial (RR 1,46 IC95 % 0,13 -16,11). Se llegó a la conclusión que la inmunización híbrida podría contribuir a reducir el riesgo de infección por SARS - CoV-2, potenciando la inmunidad generada por la vacuna contra COVID -19


Current reports suggest that a history of SARS - CoV-2 infection and completing a vaccination schedule provides greater protection against the symptomatic presentation of COVID -19. The risk of becoming ill with COVID -19 was compared between health personnel with a complete SARS - CoV-2 BNT162b2 vaccine schedule and a history of SARS - CoV-2 infection. Historical cohort study in 1874 health workers of the New Civil Hospital of Guadalajara immunized with the BNT162b2 vaccine between January and March 2021. After six months of follow-up, the non-exposed group (without a history of infection) was 1397 and the exposed group (with a history of infection), of 477 subjects. The incidence of SARS - CoV-2 infection was 39 cases. The risk of infection in the post-immunization cohort was 0.021. The hybrid immunization group had a lower risk of infection compared to the artificial immunization group (0.015 and 0.243). Hybrid immunization contributed to a population-attributable risk reduction of 0.003 (R0 0.024, Rp 0.020). Hospitalization occurred in 7.69% of confirmed cases with SARS - CoV-2. The risk of hospitalization in hybrid immunization is 0.210 and 0.143 in the artificial immunization group (RR 1.46 CI95% 0.13 -16.11). It was concluded that hybrid immunization could help reduce the risk of SARS - CoV-2 infection, enhancing the immunity generated by the vaccine against COVID -19


Subject(s)
Immunization , Health Personnel , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , El Salvador , BNT162 Vaccine , Infections
4.
San Salvador; MINSAL; abr. 04, 2022. 97 p. ilus, tab.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1368027

ABSTRACT

El presente documento esta elaborado con el fin de facilitar herramientas para el cumplimiento y estandarización de los lineamientos en relación a la vacunación segura en tres aspectos fundamentales: seguridad de la persona que recibe la vacuna, del personal de salud, comunidad y medio ambiente


This document is prepared in order to provide tools for the compliance and standardization of the guidelines in relation to safe vaccination in three fundamental aspects: safety of the person receiving the vaccine, of the health personnel, community and environment


Subject(s)
Immunization , Vaccination , Health Personnel , Safety , Vaccines
5.
San Salvador; MINSAL; feb. 02, 2022. 16 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1361733

ABSTRACT

La presente Estrategia establece las intervenciones para la inmunización de mujeres embarazadas y puérperas contra la infección por SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19), la aplicación de dicha estrategia es para el personal de salud en los diferentes niveles de atención del Sistema Nacional Integrado de Salud (SNIS)


This Strategy establishes the interventions for the immunization of pregnant and postpartum women against infection by SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19), the application of said strategy is for health personnel at the different levels of care of the Integrated National System of Health (SNIS)


Subject(s)
Immunization , Health Strategies , Pregnant Women , SARS-CoV-2 , Attention , Postpartum Period , COVID-19
6.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e189113, fev. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1363104

ABSTRACT

Animal shelters are places with a high risk of exposure to infectious diseases due to the high density, population dynamics of the shelter, and the stress to which dogs and cats are subjected. The immunization process through vaccines is an essential component in the prevention and health and welfare management program for these animals. This review aims to evaluate the guidelines on vaccination of dogs and cats in shelter environments, highlighting points of comparison with the Brazilian reality.(AU)


Os abrigos de animais são locais com um alto risco de exposição às doenças infecciosas devido à alta densidade, à dinâmica populacional do abrigo e ao estresse a que os cães e gatos estão submetidos. O processo de imunização por meio das vacinas é um componente essencial no programa de prevenção e gestão de saúde e bem-estar para esses animais. Esta revisão tem como objetivo revisar as diretrizes sobre a vacinação de cães e gatos em ambientes de abrigos, ressaltando pontos de comparação com a realidade brasileira.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Dogs , Vaccines/administration & dosage , Immunization/veterinary , Vaccination/veterinary , Disease Prevention , Housing, Animal
7.
Article in English | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1365217

ABSTRACT

Abstract Vaccination is a procedure considered painful for children; therefore, the healthcare team should provide conditions for adequate pain assessment and control. This study sought to evaluate whether behavioral distraction procedures contribute to reduce pain perception and anxiety indicators in children during vaccination. One hundred and four children between three and 12 years attending a Health Center in the Federal District participated in the study. Children were divided into four groups: baseline, groups with balloons, cards and tablets. Data were obtained by means of sociodemographic questionnaires, the Monica and Friends Pain Scale and the Observational Scale of Distress Behavior. The collected data were measured using the SPSS Statistics program. Results show that the intervention groups had lower averages, concerning pain levels, incidence of competing behaviors and duration of vaccine procedures, compared to baseline.


Resumo A vacina é um procedimento considerado doloroso para crianças, portanto, a equipe de saúde deve fornecer condições para avaliação e controle adequados da dor. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar se procedimentos de distração comportamental contribuem para a redução da percepção de dor e de indicadores de ansiedade de crianças durante a vacinação. Participaram 104 crianças entre três e 12 anos em um Centro de Saúde do Distrito Federal. As crianças foram divididas em quatro grupos: linha de base, grupos com balões, cartões e tablet. Os dados foram obtidos através de: questionários sociodemográficos, Escala de Dor da Turma da Mônica e Observational Scale of Distress Behavior. Os dados coletados foram medidos por meio do programa SPSS Statistics. Os resultados revelaram que os grupos de intervenção apresentaram médias menores, em termos de níveis de dor, incidência de comportamentos concorrentes e duração dos procedimentos de vacina, em relação à linha de base.


Resumen La vacunación es un procedimiento considerado doloroso para los niños, por lo que el equipo de salud debe brindar las condiciones adecuadas para evaluación y control del dolor. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar si los procedimientos de distracción conductual contribuyen a disminuir la percepción del dolor y los indicadores de ansiedad en los niños durante la vacunación. En este estudio participaron 104 niños de entre 3 y 12 años de un Centro de Salud del Distrito Federal (Brasil). Los niños se dividieron en cuatro grupos: grupo de línea de base, grupo con globos, tarjeta y tableta. Los datos se obtuvieron a través de cuestionarios sociodemográficos, la Escala de Dolor de Mónica y sus Amigos y la Observational Scale of Distress Behavior. Los datos recopilados se midieron utilizando el programa SPSS Statistics. Los resultados revelaron que los grupos de intervención tenían medias más bajas, en cuanto a los niveles de dolor, incidencia de conductas concurrentes y duración de los procedimientos de vacunación, en comparación con el de línea de base.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Play and Playthings , Recreation/psychology , Pain Measurement , Surveys and Questionnaires , Immunization , Pain Perception
8.
São Paulo; s.n; 2022. 159 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1372264

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A vacinação é considerada uma das mais importantes intervenções de saúde pública. A queda nas coberturas brasileiras desencadeou preocupação acerca do possível impacto da hesitação vacinal nas metas do Programa Nacional de Imunização. Objetivo: Avaliar a hesitação materna em vacinar e a situação vacinal de crianças de até dois anos de idade. Métodos: Estudo transversal com análise de dados primários de inquérito vacinal de uma amostra probabilística estratificada das crianças nascidas em 2015 no município de Araraquara (SP). Foram coletados dados sociodemográficos e econômicos; informações de vacinação da caderneta de saúde da criança; características, informações de saúde da mãe, gravidez, parto e puerpério; características e informações de saúde da criança; aspectos relacionados à vacinação; atitudes maternas frente à vacinação; e informações sobre o uso da internet no cuidado da criança. A análise foi realizada por meio da regressão de Poisson com variância robusta, regressão de Cox e regressão linear. Resultados: As coberturas no inquérito vacinal para cada vacina específica variaram de 86 a 100%; já para o esquema completo a variação foi de 77% (12 meses) a 69% (24 meses), com heterogeneidade em suas distribuições espaciais. Orientação dos profissionais de saúde sobre vacinação no período de pré-natal ou pós parto, problemas de saúde materna durante o parto ou nos primeiros sete dias e relatos de reação adversa à vacina na criança foram associados à completude do calendário vacinal. Além disso, 89% das crianças atrasaram alguma dose de vacina, com as seguintes variáveis associadas a esse atraso: problemas de saúde da mãe durante o parto ou nos primeiros sete dias; internação da criança nos primeiros dois anos de vida; vínculo fraco da mãe com os profissionais de saúde da unidade de saúde; e, atraso proposital ou decisão de não vacinar a criança. Ainda, alta renda familiar foi associada à maior confiança nas vacinas e menor percepção de risco delas, enquanto a presença de outros filhos, independentemente da ordem de nascimento, na família foi associada a menor confiança nas vacinas. O bom relacionamento com os profissionais de saúde, a disposição para aguardar a aplicação da vacina e o hábito da vacinação nas campanhas foram associados à maior confiança nas vacinas. Já o atraso deliberado ou a decisão de não vacinar seus filhos e a experiência anterior com reações adversas à vacina foram associados com menor confiança nas vacinas e maior percepção de risco das vacinas. Conclusão: O estudo aponta para as altas coberturas vacinais, mas com distribuição espacial heterogênea. Ainda, destaca a importância das orientações dos profissionais de saúde sobre os benefícios e a segurança da vacina, desempenhando um papel relevante ao abordar a hesitação vacinal, orientando a vacinação através de uma relação de confiança.


Introduction: The vaccination is considered by public health as one of the most important interventions. The Brazilian vaccine coverage has fallen off and triggered off preoccupation concerning the impact of vaccine hesitancy in the Immunization National Program. Objective: To analyze the maternal hesitance and the vaccine status of the children up to two years old. Methods: The method was a cross-sectional study of primary data extracted from one stratified probabilistic sample of the children that was borned in 2015 from Araraquara municipality (SP). It was gathered: sociodemographic and economic data; information from the vaccine booklet; mothers characteristic and health information; pregnancy, delivery and postpartum period; aspects related to the vaccination; motherly attitudes towards the vaccination; and information about the use of the internet applied to child care. The Poisson regression, Cox regression and Linear regression were used in the analysis. Result: The coverage in the vaccine survey for each specific vaccine varied from 86 to 100%; yet, for the complete schedule the variation was of 77% (12 months) and 69% (24 months) with heterogeneity in its space distributions. The guidance from health professionals on vaccination for the mother; mother's health problems during the delivery or in the first seven days and reports of a previous episode of adverse reaction to the vaccine were associated with the completeness of the vaccination schedule. Moreover, the delayed vaccination rate was 88.66%. Variables associated with delayed vaccination were: mother's health problems during the delivery or in the first seven days; hospitalization of the child in the first two years of life; mother's poor bond with health professionals at the health unit; purposeful decision to delay or not to vaccinate the child. Still, familys high income was associated with greater confidence in vaccines and lower risk perception of vaccines, while the presence of other children, regardless of birth order, in the family was associated with lower confidence in vaccines. The good relationship with health professionals, the willingness to wait for the vaccine application, and the habit of vaccinating on campaign were associated with greater confidence in vaccines. The deliberate delay or the decision to not vaccinate their children and previous experience with adverse reactions to the vaccine were associated with lower confidence in vaccines and greater risk perception of vaccines. Conclusions: The study indicates the high vaccine coverage, but with heterogeneity in its space distributions. Even more, it highlights the importance of guidance from health professionals on vaccination about the advantages and vaccine safety, because they develop a relevant role in the vaccine hesitance, guiding the vaccination through a confidence relationship.


Subject(s)
Vaccines , Immunization , Vaccination , Immunization Programs , Vaccination Coverage , Child Health , Maternal and Child Health
9.
Bull. W.H.O. (Online) ; 100(1): 115-126, 2022. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1359501

ABSTRACT

Objective: To examine changes in vaccination of children younger than 1 year during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic (March 2020-August 2021) in Haiti, Lesotho, Liberia and Malawi. Methods: We used data from health management information systems on vaccination of children aged 12 months or younger in districts supported by Partners In Health. We used data from January 2016 to February 2020 and a linear model with negative binomial distribution to estimate the expected immunization counts for March 2020-August 2021 with 95% prediction intervals, assuming no pandemic. We compared these expected levels with observed values and estimated the immunization deficits or excesses during the pandemic months. Findings: Baseline vaccination counts varied substantially by country, with Lesotho having the lowest count and Haiti the highest. We observed declines in vaccination administration early in the COVID-19 pandemic in Haiti, Lesotho and Liberia. Continued declines largely corresponded to high rates of COVID-19 infection and discrete stock-outs. By August 2021, vaccination levels had returned to close to or above expected levels in Haiti, Liberia and Lesotho; in Malawi levels remained below expected. Conclusion: Patterns of childhood immunization coverage varied by country over the course of the pandemic, with significantly lower than expected vaccination levels seen in one country during subsequent COVID-19 waves. Governments and health-care stakeholders should monitor vaccine coverage closely and consider interventions, such as community outreach, to avoid or combat the disruptions in childhood vaccination.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Immunization , Vaccination , Immunization Programs , COVID-19 , Pandemics
10.
Pan Afr. med. j ; 41(2): NA-NA, 2022.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1368679

ABSTRACT

Introduction: a year after the start of COVID-19 vaccination, coverage remains very low in the African Region. Different challenges and operational barriers have been documented, but countries will need to supplement the available information with operational research in order to adequately respond to practical questions regarding how best to scale up COVID-19 vaccination. We conducted a survey among immunisation program staff working in the African Region, in order to identify the high priority operational research questions relevant to COVID-19 vaccination. Methods: proposed operational research questions categorized into six topic areas were sent to resource persons, asking them to rate according to the relevance, urgency, feasibility, and potential impact of the research questions on the progress of COVID vaccination. Results: a total of 25 research questions have been given an average weighted rating of 75% or more by the respondents. Nine of these top priority research questions were in the area of demand generation, risk communication and community engagement while 8 questions covered the area of service delivery. Conclusion: countries should plan for and coordinate stakeholders to ensure that relevant operational research is done to respond to the top priority research questions, with a view to influence policies and implementation of strategies.


Subject(s)
Immunization , COVID-19 Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Mass Vaccination
11.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 54(3): 25-32, Dec. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352900

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La pandemia de COVID-19 ha provocado cambios que afectan los sistemas de salud y el abordaje de las enfermedades infecciosas a nivel mundial. La esperanza de recuperar un cierto nivel de "normalidad" se basa en el desarrollo de vacunas. Objetivos: El objetivo de este estudio fue describir las actitudes hacia la vacuna COVID-19 en la población paraguaya, explorando factores que podrían ser abordados para apoyar la campaña de vacunación contra el SARS-CoV-2. Materiales y métodos: Estudio transversal y descriptivo. Los participantes fueron reclutados a través de una encuesta basada en Internet, difundida a través de las redes sociales, durante el mes de marzo de 2021. Todos los participantes recibieron información completa sobre el objetivo del estudio, la privacidad y el procesamiento de datos. Resultados: De los 2297 participantes, el 67,9% (n=1559) eran mujeres, el 49,9% (n=1147) estaban empleados, el 89,1% (n=2046) reportaron educación universitaria y el 96,6% (n=2218) eran de áreas urbanas. En general, el 81,8 % (n=1879) de los participantes afirmó que estarían dispuestos a vacunarse contra el COVID-19 si hubiera una vacuna disponible. Se ha encontrado una relación significativa entre haber solicitado la vacuna antigripal y la intención de vacunarse frente al COVID-19 (p<0,0001), con un OR: 3,09 (IC 95% 2,1-4,5). Conclusión: El porcentaje de participantes inclinados a vacunarse contra el COVID-19 es similar al de aquellos que esperan una inmunización adecuada de la vacuna. Las agencias gubernamentales y de salud deben hacer un esfuerzo para brindar información precisa que responda a las inquietudes de las personas sobre la vacunación, en cualquier nivel de la sociedad.


Introduction: Insufficient physical activity is one of the main public health problems globally. Teen behavior patterns and lifestyle may affect their physical and mental health. Objectives: The objective of this study was to know the patterns of physical activity and sedentary behaviors in the adolescent population nationwide. Materials and methods: A quantitative, observational, descriptive cross-sectional study, the questionnaire of the Global School Health Survey was applied in school adolescents of the eighth and ninth grades of the 3rd cycle of Basic School Education and the 1st, 2nd and 3rd year of Secondary Education in 49 schools and colleges in the country. 1,803 students aged 13 to 15 years were included in this study. Results. 27% of adolescents between the ages of 13 and 15 in Paraguay are active, being significantly higher in men than in women (p-value 0.000) and 22% are inactive more frequently in women than in men (p-value 0.000). It was observed that 33.5% of the adolescents had sedentary behavior, 43.4% of the adolescents did not use active displacement to attend school. Adolescents who did not participate in physical education classes at school accounted for 15.6%. Conclusion: Although 27% of adolescents between the ages of 13 and 15 are active, the large percentage of inactive adolescents with sedentary behavior is worrying.


Subject(s)
SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Population , Behavior , Immunization , Vaccination , COVID-19 Vaccines
12.
Nursing (Säo Paulo) ; 24(283): 6632-6641, dez. 2021.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1371064

ABSTRACT

Analisar através de evidências cientificas, o nível de conhecimento da população acerca dos benefícios da imunização infantil. Método: Trata-se de uma revisão integrativa da literatura acerca dos benefícios da imunização infantil, publicada nos últimos 7 anos, dentro das seguintes bases de dados: SciELO, Science direct, biblioteca virtual em Saúde e PubMed. Resultados: Foram analisados 495 artigos, dos quais 7 artigos foram selecionados para esta revisão integrativa, a qual foi realizada de maio a junho de 2020. Foi possível perceber que há uma porcentagem ainda grande da população mundial que opta pela não imunização de suas crianças, onde a grande maioria se dá em países subdesenvolvidos, por falta de visibilidade da mídia e baixa escolaridade, principalmente. Conclusão: Campanhas de vacinação e esclarecimento sobre vacinas devem ser realizadas de forma sistemática.(AU)


Objective: To analyze through scientific evidence, the population's level of knowledge about the benefits of childhood immunization. Method: This is an integrative literature review on the benefits of childhood immunization, published inM the last 7 years, in the following databases: SciELO, Science direct, Virtual Health Library and PubMed. Results: 495 articles were analyzed, of which 7 articles were selected for this integrative review. It was possible to notice that there is a still large percentage of the world population that chooses not to immunize their children, where the vast majority takes place in underdeveloped countries, mainly due to lack of media visibility and low education level. Conclusion: Vaccination campaigns and information about vaccines must be carried out systematically.(AU)


Objetivo: Analizar através de evidencia cientifica, el nível de conocimento de la población sobre los benefícios de la inmunización infantil. Método: Se trata de una revisión bibliográfica sobre los benefícios de la imunización infantil, publicada en los últimos 7 años, dentro de las seguientes bases de datos: SciELO, Science direct, Virtual Health Library e PubMed. Resultados: Se analizaron 495 artículos, de los cuales se seleccionaron 7 artículos para esta revisión integradora. Se pudo notar que todavia hay um gran porcentaje de la población mundial que opta por no vacunar a sus hijos, donde la gran mayoría se da em países subdesarrollados, debido a la falta de visibilidad en los medios y la baja educación, especialmente. Conclusión: Las campañas de vacunación y la información sobre vacunas deben realizarse de forma sistemática.(AU)


Subject(s)
Parents , Child , Mass Vaccination , Immunization
13.
RECIIS (Online) ; 15(4): 1006-1028, out.-dez. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1344161

ABSTRACT

O estudo tem por objetivo analisar as valências simbólicas identificadas em notícias publicadas no Portal G1 de todos os estados brasileiros sobre os primeiros atos de vacinação contra a covid-19, relacionando-os, em particular, às questões de raça e gênero com foco nas mulheres e sua posição na sociedade. Nessa perspectiva busca-se responder, sob a ancoragem da semiótica de Algirdas Julien Greimas, como a mulher foi representada em cada estado. Os resultados retratam as mulheres como sujeito social 'frágil' e 'dependente' do Estado como 'Pai-Provedor' ao lado do uso de mulheres negras representativas de 'minorias' que remetem a uma ideia de um Brasil diverso e miscigenado. As conclusões evidenciam que a visibilidade conferida à mulher nas campanhas de vacinação disputou espaço com representações de caráter sexista e racista.


The study aims to analyze the symbolic valences identified in news published on the G1 Portal from all Brazilian states about the first acts of vaccination against covid-19, relating them to issues of race and gender with a focus on women and their position in society. From this perspective, we seek to answer, under the anchorage of Algirdas Julien Greimas' semiotics, how women were represented in each state. The results portray women as a 'fragile' and 'dependent' social subject, from the State as a 'Father-Provider', alongside the use of black women representing 'minorities' that refer to an idea of a diverse and miscegenated Brazil. The conclusions show that the visibility given to women in vaccination campaigns disputed space with sexist and racist representations.


El estudio tiene como objetivo analizar las valencias simbólicas identificadas en las noticias publicadas en el Portal G1 de todos los estados brasileños sobre los primeros actos de vacunación contra el covid-19, relacionándolos, en particular, con cuestiones de raza y género, con un enfoque en las mujeres y su posición en la sociedad. Desde esta perspectiva, buscamos responder, bajo el anclaje de la semiótica de Algirdas Julien Greimas, cómo estaban representadas las mujeres en cada estado. Los resultados retratan a la mujer como sujeto social 'frágil' y 'dependiente' del Estado como 'Padre-Proveedor' junto con el uso de mujeres negras representativas de 'minorias' que remiten a una idea de un Brasil diverso y mestizo. Las conclusiones muestran que la visibilidad dada a las mujeres en las campañas de vacunación disputaba espacio con representaciones sexistas y racistas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Journalism , Gender Identity , Women , Immunization , Immunization Programs , Sexism , Gender Inequality , COVID-19 Vaccines
14.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(supl.2): 29-36, oct. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355757

ABSTRACT

Resumen | La viruela significó para las colonias americanas un proceso que desestabilizaba de forma dramática las dinámicas sociodemográficas de las colonias, lo que incentivó el desarrollo de estudios científicos sobre el virus causante. Cada libro acerca de la viruela en la biblioteca de Nariño constituyó una herramienta en la lucha contra el virus emprendida por el prócer. Tras la revisión del artículo "A propósito del bicentenario de la independencia de Colombia: las prácticas de lectura de Antonio Nariño y el desarrollo de una vacuna presuntamente efectiva contra la viruela" quise comentar y profundizar en torno al saber médico de Nariño mediante el acercamiento a las obras a las que recurrió para instruirse sobre la enfermedad. A partir de la semblanza de cada una de ellas, analicé el proceso de variolización en el Reino de la Nueva Granada y la necesidad de fabricar una vacuna propia.


Abstract | For the American colonies, smallpox implied a process that dramatically destabilized their sociodemographic dynamics, which explains why scientific development took place around the causative virus. Each book about smallpox in Nariño's library was a tool in the fight against smallpox undertaken by the founding father. After reviewing the article "About the bicentennial of the independence of Colombia: The reading practices of Antonio Nariño and the development of a vaccine that is presumably effective against smallpox", I set myself to study Antonio Nariño's medical knowledge further. Through the approach to the works that Nariño used to educate himself on smallpox and the development of a biographical sketch of each of them, I analyzed the process of variolization in the Kingdom of Nueva Granada and the need to manufacture a vaccine locally.


Subject(s)
Smallpox , Smallpox Vaccine , Variola virus , Vaccinia virus , Immunization , Epidemics
15.
Enferm. foco (Brasília) ; 12(2): 305-311, set. 2021. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1291520

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: Conhecer a percepção de enfermeiros da Atenção Primária em Saúde a respeito dos conhecimentos dos usuários sobre imunização; Identificar as práticas desses enfermeiros sobre imunização; Construir, de forma compartilhada, uma tecnologia educacional sobre imunização. Método: Pesquisa metodológica qualitativa, realizada em 21 Unidades Municipais de Saúde em Belém-Pará, com 23 enfermeiros que atuavam em sala de imunização. A coleta de dados foi por meio de entrevistas individuais submetidas à análise de conteúdo temática. Resultados: Organizaram-se duas categorias: "Percepção dos enfermeiros sobre os conhecimentos dos usuários no contexto da imunização" e "Ações de educação em saúde na rotina das práticas relativas à imunização e elaboração da tecnologia educacional", que possibilitaram a construção de uma cartilha com orientações baseadas no produto dessas categorias. Conclusão: Os enfermeiros têm percepção dos conhecimentos dos usuários sobre a imunização. Reconhecem a importância de práticas educativas, embora não consigam realizá-las efetivamente, devido dificuldades do cotidiano gerencial e assistencial. A participação dos enfermeiros na construção da cartilha foi fundamental para obter-se uma ferramenta adequada a intermediar suas ações educativas junto aos usuários com potencial de colaborar significativamente para a atuação da enfermagem em salas de vacina. (AU)


Objective: To know the perception of primary care nurses regarding users' knowledge about immunization; Identify these nurses' practices on immunization; Build, in a shared way, an educational technology about immunization. Methods: Qualitative methodological research, carried out in 21 Municipal Health Units in Belém-Pará, with 23 nurses who worked in an immunization room. Data collection was carried out through individual interviews submitted to thematic content analysis. Results: Two categories were organized: "Nurses 'perception of users' knowledge in the context of immunization" and "Health education actions in the routine of immunization practices and the development of educational technology", which enabled the construction of a booklet with guidelines based on the product these categories. Conclusion: Nurses are aware of users' knowledge about immunization. They recognize the importance of educational practices, although they are unable to carry them out effectively, due to difficulties in the managerial and care routine. The nurses participation in the construction of the booklet was essential to obtain an adequate tool to mediate their educational actions with users with the potential to collaborate significantly for nursing performance in vaccine rooms. (AU)


Objetivo: Conocer la percepción de las enfermeras de atención primaria con respecto al conocimiento de los usuarios sobre la inmunización; Identificar las prácticas de estas enfermeras sobre inmunización; Construir, de manera compartida, una tecnología educativa sobre inmunización. Métodos: Investigación metodológica cualitativa, realizada en 21 Unidades Municipales de Salud en Belém-Pará, con 23 enfermeras que trabajaban en una sala de inmunización. La recopilación de datos se realizó a través de entrevistas individuales sometidas a análisis de contenido temático. Resultados: Se organizaron dos categorías: "Percepción de las enfermeras del conocimiento de los usuarios en el contexto de la inmunización" y "Acciones de educación para la salud en la rutina de las prácticas de inmunización y el dessarollo de la tecnología", lo que permitió la construcción de un folleto con pautas basadas en el producto de esas categorías. Conclusión: Las enfermeras conocen los conocimientos de los usuarios sobre la inmunización. Reconocen la importancia de las prácticas educativas, aunque no pueden llevarlas a cabo de manera efectiva, debido a las dificultades en la gestión y la rutina de atención. La participación de las enfermeras en la construcción del folleto fue esencial para obtener una herramienta adecuada para mediar sus acciones educativas con los usuarios con el potencial de colaborar significativamente para el desempeño de la enfermería en las salas de vacunas. (AU)


Subject(s)
Primary Health Care , Health Education , Immunization , Nursing , Educational Technology
16.
Med. infant ; 28(2): 81-95, Julio - Diciembre 2021. ilus, Tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1355111

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Debido a la emergencia provocada por la pandemia por el virus SARS-CoV-2 se ha producido una crisis sanitaria global. Una vez disponibles las vacunas, se espera que jueguen un rol decisivo para el control de la enfermedad. Dichas vacunas fueron desarrolladas en tiempo récord por lo que es esencial monitorear su seguridad. Durante la Campaña de Vacunación contra COVID-19, todos los Eventos supuestamente atribuibles a vacunación e inmunización (ESAVI) debieron ser notificados al Ministerio de Salud de la Nación a través del Sistema Integrado de Información Sanitaria de Argentina (SIISA). Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional prospectivo desde el 04/01/2021 al 05/05/2021 en el personal del Hospital Garrahan. Se utilizaron dos métodos de vigilancia de ESAVI. La vigilancia pasiva incluyó las notificaciones voluntarias recibidas de forma telefónica y a través de un cuestionario publicado en intranet. La vigilancia activa se realizó sobre los primeros 947 trabajadores inmunizados, enviando el mismo cuestionario por WhatsApp. Resultados: Hasta el día 05/05/2021 fueron inmunizados 5056 agentes, 4865 con las dos dosis. Se notificaron 473 ESAVI. De ellos, 304 correspondían a la primera dosis y 169 a la segunda. La cantidad de notificaciones según su origen fue de 136 para la vigilancia pasiva, y 333 para la vigilancia activa. Se registraron 5 ESAVI graves; tres anafilaxias, un escotoma secundario a la hipertermia generada por la vacuna y una reacción alérgica grave. Los síntomas locales más frecuentes fueron: dolor, enrojecimiento, hinchazón e induración. Los síntomas sistémicos más frecuentes fueron: fiebre, febrícula, astenia, cefalea, mialgia, artralgia y síntomas gastrointestinales. Como tratamiento en la mayoría de los casos se utilizó paracetamol. Discusión: El presente trabajo logró recolectar un número significativo de notificaciones, brindando información útil al tratarse de una vacuna recientemente aprobada en nuestro país y el mundo. (AU)


Introduction: Due to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic emergency, a global health crisis has occurred. Once vaccines become available, they are expected to play a decisive role in controlling the disease. These vaccines were developed in record time, and therefore it is essential to monitor their safety. During the COVID-19 Vaccination Campaign, all Events Suspected to be Attributable to Vaccination and Immunization (ESAVI) had to be notified to the National Ministry of Health through the Integrated Health Information System of Argentina (SIISA). Material and methods: A prospective observational study was conducted from 04/01/2021 to 05/05/2021 in the staff of Garrahan Hospital. Two methods of ESAVI surveillance were used. Passive surveillance included voluntary notifications received by telephone and through a questionnaire posted on intranet. Active surveillance was conducted on the first 947 immunized workers, sending the same questionnaire by WhatsApp. Results: Up to 05/05/2021, 5056 workers were immunized, of whom 4865 with two doses. A total of 473 ESAVI were reported. Of these, 304 corresponded to the first dose and 169 to the second. The number of notifications was 136 for passive surveillance and 333 for active surveillance. Five severe ESAVIs were recorded; three anaphylaxis, one scotoma secondary to vaccine-generated hyperthermia, and one severe allergic reaction. The most frequent local symptoms were: pain, redness, swelling, and induration. The most frequent systemic symptoms were: mild fever or fever, asthenia, headache, myalgia, arthralgia, and gastrointestinal symptoms. Paracetamol was used as treatment in most cases. Discussion: In the present study a significant number of notifications was collected, providing useful information on a vaccine recently approved in our country and in the world (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Immunization/adverse effects , Vaccination/adverse effects , Health Personnel , Pharmacovigilance , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Prospective Studies
17.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(7): 2859-2862, jul. 2021.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278792

ABSTRACT

Resumo O processo de elaboração do Plano de Imunização contra Covid-19 no Brasil se iniciou tardiamente e contou com a participação de especialistas incluindo o grupo técnico responsável pela definição de grupos prioritários para a vacinação. Este processo foi permeado de indefinições entre o Governo Federal e pesquisadores e, finalmente, no dia 20 de janeiro de 2021 foi divulgada a versão atualizada do Plano ainda incipiente no que tange a sua abrangência.


Abstract The process of developing Brazil's COVID-19 immunization plan began belatedly and involved a number of experts, including a technical group responsible for defining priority groups for vaccination. This process was permeated by contradictions between the government and researchers. Finally, on 20 January 2021, the government published an updated version of the plan, which remains limited in scope.


Subject(s)
Humans , COVID-19 , Brazil , Immunization , Vaccination , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Rev. APS ; 23(4): 765-774, 2021-06-23.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1358352

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Analisar a completude do esquema vacinal contra hepatite B (recombinante) de adultos em município de Minas Gerais, segundo registros de imunização no Sistema de Informação do Programa Nacional de Imunização (SIPNI). Métodos: Estudo transversal, descritivo e analítico realizado a partir da base de dados do SIPNI, em 2019. Foram analisados 654 registros de pessoas vacinadas contra a hepatite B (recombinante). Resultados: Identificou-se que apenas 10,55% dos vacinados completaram o esquema vacinal contra hepatite B (recombinante). Indivíduos do sexo feminino apresentaram 3,23 vezes mais chances de ter esquema vacinal completo se comparados com o sexo masculino e aqueles com 50 anos e mais têm 2,77 vezes mais chances de ter esquema completo se comparados com indivíduos de 25 a 49 anos. O tempo médio para fechamento do esquema vacinal foi de 244 dias. Conclusão: O presente estudo apontou para uma baixa completude no esquema vacinal contra hepatite B.


Objective: To analyze the completeness of immunization schedule against hepatitis B (recombinant) of adults in the city of Minas Gerais, according to immunization records on the Information System of the National Immunization Program (SIPNI). Methods: Cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical study carried out based on data from the SIPNI, in 2019. There was the analysis of 654 records of individuals vaccinated against hepatitis B (recombinant). Results: Only 10.55% of the vaccinated completed the vaccination against hepatitis B (recombinant). Female subjects had 3.23 times more chances of completing vaccination schedule if compared to males and those aged 50 years or more have 2.77 times more chances of having full immunization schedule if compared to individuals aged from 25 to 49 years. The mean time for completion of the immunization schedule was 244 days. Conclusion: The present study pointed to a low completeness in the immunization schedule against hepatitis B.


Subject(s)
Information Systems , Immunization , Vaccination , Hepatitis B
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