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1.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(6): 642-661, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155771

ABSTRACT

Abstract This second joint document, written by experts from the Brazilian Association of Allergy and Immunology (ASBAI) and Brazilian Society of Anesthesiology (SBA) concerned with perioperative anaphylaxis, aims to review the pathophysiological reaction mechanisms, triggering agents (in adults and children), and the approach for diagnosis during and after an episode of anaphylaxis. As anaphylaxis assessment is extensive, the identification of medications, antiseptics and other substances used at each setting, the comprehensive data documentation, and the use of standardized nomenclature are key points for obtaining more consistent epidemiological information on perioperative anaphylaxis.


Resumo Este segundo documento, escrito por especialistas da Associação Brasileira de Alergia e Imunologia (ASBAI) e da Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia (SBA) interessados no tema anafilaxia perioperatória, tem por objetivo revisar os mecanismos fisiopatológicos, agentes desencadeantes (em adultos e crianças), assim como a abordagem diagnóstica durante e após o episódio. Por se tratar de uma avaliação abrangente, a identificação das medicações, antissépticos e outras substâncias usadas em cada região, registros detalhados, e nomenclatura padronizada são pontos fundamentais para a obtenção de dados epidemiológicos mais fidedignos sobre a anafilaxia perioperatória.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adult , Drug Hypersensitivity/diagnosis , Drug Hypersensitivity/etiology , Perioperative Period , Anaphylaxis/diagnosis , Anaphylaxis/etiology , Societies, Medical , Vasodilator Agents/adverse effects , In Vitro Techniques , Mastocytosis/complications , Brazil , Preoperative Care , Immunoglobulin E/immunology , Bradykinin/adverse effects , Skin Tests/methods , Risk Factors , IgA Deficiency/complications , Drug Hypersensitivity/physiopathology , Allergy and Immunology , Symptom Assessment , Anaphylaxis/physiopathology , Anesthesiology , Angioedema/chemically induced , Terminology as Topic
2.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(6): 418-422, dic 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1146110

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las alergias alimentarias afectan, mayoritariamente, a los niños en los primeros años de vida. Existen escasos datos epidemiológicos en nuestro país.Objetivos: Determinar los agentes causales, describir la prevalencia y características de los pacientes con alergia alimentaria en una población pediátrica argentina.Pacientes y métodos: Estudio retrospectivo observacional, de corte transversal, de pacientes menores de 18 años. Resultados: Se incluyeron 321 pacientes; se confirmó alergia alimentaria en un 64 % (207) de los casos. El 53 % (109) presentó mecanismo mediado por inmunoglobulina E; el 68 % (140), alergia a las proteínas de la leche de vaca; el 20 % (41), alergia al huevo, y el 12 % (24), anafilaxia como manifestación clínica. La prevalencia global de alergia alimentaria fue del 0,87 % (IC 95 %: 0,7-0,9).Conclusiones: La prevalencia global de alergia alimentaria fue del 0,87 %. La leche de vaca resultó el principal alérgeno incluso en adolescentes.


Introduction: Food allergies affect mostly children in their first years of life. Epidemiological data obtained in Argentina are scarce. Objectives: To determine offending foods and describe the prevalence and characteristics of patients with food allergy in an Argentine pediatric population. Patients and methods: Observational, retrospective, cross-sectional study on patients younger than 18 years. Results:A total of 321 patients were included; food allergy was confirmed in 64 % (207) of cases. An immunoglobulin E-mediated mechanism was observed in 53 % (109); cow's milk protein allergy, in 68 % (140); egg allergy, in 20 % (41); and anaphylaxis as clinical manifestation, in 12 % (24). The overall prevalence of food allergy was 0.87 % (95 % confidence interval: 0.7-0.9). Conclusions: The overall prevalence of food allergy was 0.87 %. Cow's milk was the main allergen, even among adolescents


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Food Hypersensitivity/diagnosis , Immunoglobulin E/immunology , Epidemiologic Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Milk Hypersensitivity
3.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(5): 534-548, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1143957

ABSTRACT

Abstract Experts from the Brazilian Association of Allergy and Immunology (ASBAI) and the Brazilian Society of Anesthesiology (SBA) interested in the issue of perioperative anaphylaxis, and aiming to strengthen the collaboration between the two societies, combined efforts to study the topic and to prepare a joint document to guide specialists in both areas. The purpose of the present series of two articles was to report the most recent evidence based on the collaborative assessment between both societies. This first article will consider the updated definitions, treatment and guidelines after a perioperative crisis. The following article will discuss the major etiologic agents, how to proceed with the investigation, and the appropriate tests.


Resumo Especialistas da Associação Brasileira de Alergia e Imunologia (ASBAI) e da Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia (SBA) interessados no tema anafilaxia perioperatória reuniram-se com o objetivo de intensificar a colaboração entre as duas sociedades no estudo desse tema e elaborar um documento conjunto que possa guiar os especialistas de ambas as áreas. O objetivo desta série de dois artigos foi mostrar as evidências mais recentes alicerçadas na visão colaborativa entre as sociedades. Este primeiro artigo versará sobre as definições mais atuais, formas de tratamento e as orientações após a crise no perioperatório. No próximo artigo serão discutidos os principais agentes causais e a condução da investigação com testes apropriados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adult , Drug Hypersensitivity/diagnosis , Drug Hypersensitivity/etiology , Perioperative Period , Anaphylaxis/diagnosis , Anaphylaxis/etiology , Societies, Medical , Vasodilator Agents/adverse effects , In Vitro Techniques , Mastocytosis/complications , Brazil , Preoperative Care , Immunoglobulin E/immunology , Bradykinin/adverse effects , Skin Tests/methods , Risk Factors , IgA Deficiency/complications , Drug Hypersensitivity/physiopathology , Allergy and Immunology , Symptom Assessment , Anaphylaxis/physiopathology , Anesthesiology , Angioedema/chemically induced , Terminology as Topic
4.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180139, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041506

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: High percentages of structural identity and cross-immunoreactivity have been reported between potato apyrase and Schistosoma mansoni ATP diphosphohydrolase (SmATPDases) isoforms, showing the existence of particular epitopes shared between these proteins. METHODS: Potato apyrase was employed using ELISA, western blot, and mouse immunization methods to verify IgE reactivity. RESULTS: Most of the schistosomiasis patient's (75%) serum was seropositive for potato apyrase and this protein was recognized using western blotting, suggesting that parasite and plant proteins share IgE-binding epitopes. C57BL/6 mice immunized with potato apyrase showed increased IgE antibody production. CONCLUSIONS: Potato apyrase and SmATPDases have IgE-binding epitopes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Apyrase/immunology , Schistosoma mansoni/immunology , Schistosomiasis mansoni/immunology , Solanum tuberosum/enzymology , Immunoglobulin E/immunology , Antibodies, Helminth/immunology , Epitopes/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Blotting, Western , Cross Reactions , Mice, Inbred C57BL
5.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 89(4): 448-453, ago. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-959545

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La alergia alimentaria (AA) es una entidad de elevada y creciente prevalencia, pudiendo ser mediada por IgE o inmunidad celular. Puede presentar amplia sintomatología y ser gatillada por múltiples antígenos alimentarios, lo que varía en diversas zonas geográficas. OBJETIVO: Describir las características clínicas de pacientes chilenos con AA IgE-mediada. PACIENTES Y MÉTODO: Revisión retrospectiva de pacientes con AA IgE-mediada atendidos en un centro terciario de salud de Santiago, Chile entre los años 2006 y 2016. Se evaluaron características demográficas, manifestaciones clínicas y alimentos gatillantes. RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron 282 pacientes con diagnóstico de AA IgE-mediada. El 89% debutó con AA antes de los 18 años de edad y de estos, la mayoría antes del año (mediana: 1 año; rango: 1 mes - 55 años). Las manifestaciones clínicas más frecuentes fueron urticaria, angioedema, disnea y vómitos. Un 40% tenía historia compatible con anafilaxia. Los alimentos más frecuentes fueron huevo, leche de vaca, maní, mariscos, nuez, tomate, trigo, palta, pescados y legumbres. Alergia a huevo, leche de vaca y maní fueron más frecuentes en edad pediátrica, mientras que en adultos fueron los mariscos. CONCLUSIONES: Los alimentos causantes de AA IgE-mediada en Chile fueron similares a los descritos en otros países, aunque destaca la elevada frecuencia de alergia a tomate y palta, poco habituales en series internacionales. La incidencia de anafilaxia fue alta, lo que instala la necesidad de contar con autoinyectores de adrenalina a nivel nacional.


BACKGROUND: Food allergy (FA) is an entity of high and growing prevalence, which can be mediated by IgE or cellular immunity. It can have a wide range of symptoms and be triggered by multiple food antigens, which vary in different geographical areas. OBJECTIVES: To describe clinical characteristics of Chilean patients with IgE-mediated FA. Patients and Method: Retrospective review of patients with IgE-mediated FA treated at a tertiary healthcare center in Santiago, Chile, between 2006 and 2016. Demographic characteristics, clinical manifestations, and trigger foods were evaluated. RESULTS: A to tal of 282 patients diagnosed with IgE-mediated FA were included. 89% had FA onset before 18 years of age and most of these before one year of age (median of age: one year; range: one month-55 years). The most common clinical manifestations were hives, angioedema, dyspnea, and vomiting. 40% had symptoms compatible with anaphylaxis. The foods most frequently involved were egg, cow's milk, peanut, shellfish, walnut, tomato, wheat, avocado, fish, and legumes. Egg, cow's milk, and peanut allergies were the most frequent at pediatric age, while seafood allergy was the most frequent among adults. CONCLUSION: Foods causing IgE-mediated FA in Chile were similar to those described in other countries, although the frequency of tomato and avocado allergy, which are unusual in international series, stands out. Anaphylaxis incidence was high, emphasizing the need for epinephrine autoinjec tors in Chile.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Immunoglobulin E/immunology , Food Hypersensitivity/diagnosis , Chile/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Food Hypersensitivity/immunology , Food Hypersensitivity/epidemiology
6.
Colomb. med ; 49(2): 169-174, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-952911

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Epidemiological studies have shown that children who grow up on traditional farms are protected from allergic diseases. However, less is known about if the environment influences the pharmacotherapy in these patients. Objective: To compare the treatment of asthmatic and rhinitis children from urban and rural areas in Medellín, Colombia. Methods: During one year, we follow up a group of children (6 to 14 years) with diagnostic of asthma or rhinitis living for more than five years in urban or rural area. A questionnaire with socio-demographic characteristics, pharmacotherapy treatments, was obtained each three months. Atopy evaluation, spirometry and clinical test for asthma and rhinitis severity were done at the beginning and one year later. Results: Eighty six point four percent patients completed the follow up (rural n: 134, urban n: 248). Patients in rural location required less salbutamol (p: 0.01), visit to emergency department (p <0.01) and have a less number of patients with FEV1 <80% (p: 0.05). For clinical control rural children require less pharmacotherapy than urban children (p: 0.01) and more patients with rhinitis (18% vs 8% p: 0.03) and asthma (23% vs 12% p: 0.01) in the rural group could suspended pharmacotherapy. Atopy (p: <0.07) and poli-sensitization (p: <0.08) was a little higher in urban than rural area. We observe that poverty/unhygienic indicators were risk factors for higher levels of specific IgE among patients from urban area. Conclusion: Patients with respiratory allergies located in urban area require more pharmacotherapy and have less clinical response than rural children.


Resumen Introducción: Los estudios epidemiológicos han demostrado que los niños que crecen en las granjas suelen tener menos frecuencia de enfermedades alérgicas. Sin embargo, se sabe menos si el tipo de ambiente (rural vs urbano) también puede influir en la respuesta clínica de a la farmacoterapia. Objetivo: Comparar un grupo de niños localizados en área rural y área urbana de Antioquia, Colombia, en cuanto al tratamiento farmacológico recibido para el asma y/o la rinitis. Métodos: Fueron incluidos niños con asma y/o rinitis que llevaran viviendo al menos 5 años en la misma zona rural o urbana con edades entre 6 a 14 años. A todos los pacientes se les realizó un seguimiento clínico cada 3 a 4 meses. La evaluación de la atopia, la espirometría y test para evaluar la gravedad del asma y la rinitis se realizaron al principio y al final del estudio. Resultados: De los pacientes candidatos, 382 (86.4%) completaron el seguimiento (rural n= 134 urbano n= 248). Los pacientes en área rural requirieron menos salbutamol (p: 0.01), visitas al departamento de emergencias (p <0.01) y tenían un menor número de pacientes con FEV1 <80% (p <0.05). Para el control clínico, los niños en zonas rurales requieren menos farmacoterapia que los niños en zona urbana (p: 0.01). Igualmente, para la rinitis (18% vs 8% p: 0.03) y el asma (23% vs 12% p= 0.01) un mayor número de los pacientes en zona rural pudieron suspender la farmacoterapia. La atopia (p <0.07) y la poli-sensibilización (p <0.08) fue mayor en las zonas urbanas que en las rurales. Se observó que los indicadores de pobreza y los servicios de aseo, eran factores de riesgo para mayores niveles de IgE entre los pacientes de área urbana. Conclusión: Los pacientes con asma o rinitis localizado en el área urbana tienen síntomas más severos y refractarios al tratamiento farmacológico, por lo que requieren más farmacoterapia que los niños rurales. Algunos factores ambientales intra y extra domiciliarios propios de la zona rural y urbana podrían influir en estos resultados.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Asthma/drug therapy , Rural Population/statistics & numerical data , Urban Population/statistics & numerical data , Rhinitis/drug therapy , Poverty , Asthma/immunology , Asthma/epidemiology , Spirometry , Severity of Illness Index , Bronchodilator Agents/administration & dosage , Immunoglobulin E/immunology , Rhinitis/immunology , Rhinitis/epidemiology , Forced Expiratory Volume , Prospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Colombia/epidemiology , Albuterol/administration & dosage , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data
7.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(1): 94-98, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041447

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) downmodulates allergen-specific IgE levels and prevents other atopic responses in experimental models but fails to protect against respiratory allergies. Human responsiveness to BCG is variable and may interfere with protection. METHODS: Multivariate models were evaluated to test the possible effect of responsiveness (assessed by IFN-γ production) to BCG revaccination on the modulation of total and allergen-specific serum IgE levels in healthy volunteers participating in a randomized controlled trial. RESULTS: Serum total or Derp-specific IgE levels did not change regardless of the increase in IFN-γ levels. CONCLUSIONS: BCG responsiveness does not affect protection against atopy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Immunoglobulin E/blood , BCG Vaccine/immunology , Immunization, Secondary , Interferon-gamma/biosynthesis , Time Factors , Immunoglobulin E/immunology , Skin Tests , Down-Regulation , Hypersensitivity
8.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 34(1): 48-54, 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-959407

ABSTRACT

Resumen Las reacciones de hipersensibilidad a corticoides son raras en la población general, se dividen en dos categorías: Inmediatas, típicamente mediadas por Inmunoglobulina E (IgE), donde se incluye la anafilaxia luego de la administración de un fármaco en un corto período. Su prevalencia descrita es de 0,3-0,5%. Otra reacción es la 'no inmediata', que se manifiesta en un tiempo mayor de una hora después de la administración del fármaco. Se revisó la literatura con el objetivo de mejorar y aclarar el tratamiento en pacientes asmáticos que poseen esta condición. Se encontró que las vías posibles para generar estas reacciones son intranasal, aerosol por inhalador, oral y parenteral. Frente a esta condición se requiere una evaluación estrecha y detallada de la historia clínica, síntomas y reacciones secundarias al fármaco sospechoso. Finalmente, al momento de elegir tipo de corticoide a usar es primordial la seguridad del paciente logrando, además, el control de la enfermedad.


Hypersensitivity reactions to corticosteroids are rare in the general population, they fall into two categories: 'immediate', typically mediated by immunoglobulin E (IgE), which includes anaphylaxis after administration of a drug in a short period of time. Its reported prevalence is 0.3-0.5%. Another reaction is 'not immediate', which manifests itself in a time longer than one hour after the administration of the drug. We reviewed the literature with the aim of improving and clarifying the treatment in asthmatic patients with this condition. It was found that the possible routes to generate these reactions are intranasal, aerosol by inhaler, oral and parenteral. Facing this condition requires a close and detailed evaluation of the clinical history, symptoms and side reactions to the suspected drug. Finally, when choosing which corticosteroid to use, the patient's safety is paramount, and control of the disease is also essential.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Asthma/physiopathology , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Hypersensitivity/diagnosis , Anaphylaxis/diagnosis , Anaphylaxis/therapy , Immunoglobulin E/immunology , Immunoglobulin E/blood , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/deficiency , Albuterol/administration & dosage , Anaphylaxis/etiology
9.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 115(4): 331-335, ago. 2017. graf, tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-887343

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La alergia a la proteína de la leche de vaca es la alergia alimentaria más frecuente en pediatría. El subtipo de las mediadas por inmunoglobulina E (IgE) presenta mayor riesgo de vida y peor pronóstico. Objetivos. Describir la evolución de la alergia a la proteína de la leche de vaca mediada por IgE y los factores de riesgo asociados a la persistencia de la enfermedad. Pacientes y método. Estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo en pacientes que consultaron a la sección de Alergia Pediátrica del Hospital Italiano entre junio de 2006 y junio de 2012 con diagnóstico de alergia a la leche de vaca mediada por IgE. Resultados: Se hallaron 72 pacientes con alergia a la leche de vaca mediada por IgE, 39 (54%) de sexo masculino. La edad promedio al momento del diagnóstico fue de 5,19 ± 3,7 meses; los síntomas de presentación más frecuentes fueron urticaria y vómitos. La rinitis y el asma fueron las enfermedades atópicas concomitantes más frecuentemente observadas. En el período de estudio, el 54,5% adquirieron tolerancia a la edad promedio de 32 meses. La presencia de pápulas mayores de 8mm en el prick test y de sensibilización a la caseína se asoció con la persistencia de la enfermedad. Conclusión. El 54,5% de los pacientes desarrolló tolerancia a los 32 meses de vida. Se encontró una asociación significativa entre el tamaño de la pápula al momento del diagnóstico y la sensibilización a la caseína con la persistencia de la enfermedad.


Introduction. Cow's milk protein allergy is the most common allergy in pediatrics. Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated cow's milk allergy poses a higher risk for life and a worse prognosis. Objectives. To describe the course of IgE-mediated cow's milk protein allergy and risk factors associated with disease persistence. Patients and methods. This was a descriptive, retrospective study conducted in patients seen at the Division of Pediatric Allergy of Hospital Italiano between June 2006 and June 2012 who had been diagnosed with IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy. Results. Out of the 72 patients with IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy, 39 (54%) were boys. Patients' average age at the time of diagnosis was 5.19 ± 3.7 months old; the most common symptoms were urticaria and vomiting. Rhinitis and asthma were the most commonly observed concomitant atopic diseases. In the study period, 54.5% of patients developed tolerance at an average age of 32 months old. An 8-mm papule in the skin prick test and casein sensitization were associated with disease persistence. Conclusion. Overall, 54.5% of patients developed tolerance at 32 months old. A significant association was observed between papule size at the time of diagnosis and casein sensitization and disease persistence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Immunoglobulin E/immunology , Milk Hypersensitivity/immunology , Argentina , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Immune Tolerance
10.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 252-254, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-126249

ABSTRACT

Although formaldehyde is well known to cause type 4 hypersensitivity, immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated hypersensitivity to formaldehyde is rare. Here, we report a case of recurrent generalized urticaria after endodontic treatment using a para-formaldehyde (PFA)-containing root canal sealant and present a review of previous studies describing cases of immediate hypersensitivity reactions to formaldehyde. A 50-year-old man visited our allergy clinic for recurrent generalized urticaria several hours after endodontic treatment. Prick tests to latex, lidocaine, and formaldehyde showed negative reactions. However, swelling and redness at the prick site continued for several days. The level of formaldehyde-specific IgE was high (class 4). Thus, the patient was deemed to have experienced an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reaction caused by the PFA used in the root canal disinfectant. Accordingly, we suggest that physicians should pay attention to type I hypersensitivity reactions to root canal disinfectants, even if the symptoms occur several hours after exposure.


Subject(s)
Disinfectants/adverse effects , Formaldehyde/adverse effects , Humans , Hypersensitivity, Immediate/chemically induced , Immunoglobulin E/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Recurrence , Skin Tests , Time Factors , Urticaria/chemically induced , Zinc Oxide-Eugenol Cement/chemistry
11.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 36(4): 632-645, dic. 2016. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-950929

ABSTRACT

Resumen La urticaria papular es una enfermedad alérgica causada por la picadura de insectos, la cual predomina en el trópico. El objetivo de esta revisión fue profundizar en sus aspectos epidemiológicos e inmunológicos, particularmente con base en datos publicados en Latinoamérica. Se hizo una revisión no sistemática mediante la búsqueda electrónica de artículos sobre la epidemiología de la urticaria papular, las características entomológicas de los agentes causales y los mecanismos inmunológicos asociados. Según los diversos reportes de centros médicos de Latinoamérica la urticaria papular es frecuente; el único estudio de prevalencia publicado indica que afecta a una cuarta parte de los niños escolares de Bogotá. Hay información sobre la relación causal entre la exposición domiciliaria a la pulga, la pobreza y la urticaria papular en Bogotá, una ciudad representativa de las altitudes andinas. No hay estudios que indaguen directamente sobre los insectos causales en zonas cálidas, aunque se sospecha clínicamente de los mosquitos Aedes aegypti y Culex quinquefasciatus. En cuanto a su patogenia, se destaca la participación de mecanismos celulares que involucran las células colaboradoras Th2, lo cual explica que sea una condición de hipersensibilidad retardada. El papel de la inmunoglobulina E (IgE) en la urticaria papular no está tan claro. Se desconocen los antígenos derivados de los insectos que causan la enfermedad, aunque se plantea que existen moléculas comunes de reacción cruzada entre los insectos, tales como el alérgeno Cte f 2 en la pulga, y sus homólogos en los mosquitos. La urticaria papular es una condición frecuente en Latinoamérica que debe investigarse en profundidad. La caracterización inmunológica de los componentes moleculares que causan esta condición puede resolver interrogantes sobre su etiología y su patogenia.


Abstract Papular urticaria is a chronic allergic reaction induced by insect bites, which is common in the tropics. The objective of this review was to deepen on epidemiological and immunological aspects of this disease, focused on data published in Latin American countries. We conducted a non-systematic review of the literature through electronic search on the epidemiology of papular urticaria, the entomological characteristics of the causative agents and associated immunological mechanisms. Several reports from medical centers suggest that papular urticaria is common in Latin America. Only one epidemiological survey designed to estimate prevalence of papular urticaria has been published, reporting that about a quarter of children under six years of age is affected by this condition in Bogotá. There is evidence on the causal relationship among exposure to indoor fleas, poverty and papular urticaria in Bogotá, a representative city of the Andean altitudes. Information about causal insects in tropical warmer areas is scarce, although from clinical reports Aedes aegypti and Culex quienquefasciatus appear to be the most common. Th2 cellular-mediated mechanisms are involved in its pathogenesis, which explains its delayed hypersensitivity. The role of immunoglobulin E is not clear in this disease. Insect-derived antigens directly involved in papular urticaria etiology are unknown. However, it is possible that common molecules among causal insects mediate cross-reactive reactions, such as Cte f 2 allergen, found in cat fleas, and its counterparts in mosquitoes. Papular urticaria is a frequent disease in Latin America that should be further investigated. Immunological characterization of the molecular components that cause this condition may solve questions about its pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Animals , Cats , Child , Child, Preschool , Dogs , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Urticaria/etiology , Skin Diseases, Vesiculobullous/etiology , Insect Bites and Stings/complications , Poverty , Tropical Climate , Urticaria/immunology , Urticaria/veterinary , Urticaria/epidemiology , Immunoglobulin E/immunology , Allergens/immunology , Cat Diseases/etiology , Cat Diseases/immunology , Skin Diseases, Vesiculobullous/immunology , Skin Diseases, Vesiculobullous/veterinary , Skin Diseases, Vesiculobullous/epidemiology , Immunocompromised Host , Colombia/epidemiology , Th2 Cells/immunology , Insect Proteins/immunology , Cross Reactions , Disease Susceptibility , Dog Diseases/etiology , Dog Diseases/immunology , Siphonaptera , HLA Antigens/genetics , Hypersensitivity, Delayed/etiology , Hypersensitivity, Delayed/epidemiology , Hypersensitivity, Immediate/genetics , Hypersensitivity, Immediate/epidemiology , Insect Bites and Stings/immunology , Insect Bites and Stings/veterinary , Culicidae
12.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 87(6): 468-473, Dec. 2016. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-844567

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La prevalencia de sensibilización al látex es variable. Se describen diversos factores de riesgo para la sensibilización al látex, como riesgo genético, atopia y múltiples intervenciones quirúrgicas. Objetivo: Caracterizar los pacientes con sospecha de alergia al látex, analizar sus características clínicas y factores de riesgo. Pacientes y método: Estudio retrospectivo, descriptivo, en niños derivados a la Unidad de Inmunología pediátrica por sospecha de alergia al látex y para confirmación diagnóstica. Se revisaron síntomas por contacto o exposición a materiales con látex. Se identificó factores de riesgo para la sensibilización al látex: patologías con múltiples intervenciones quirúrgicas (espina bífida, mielomeningocele, escoliosis y alteraciones nefrourológicas), atopia (rinitis o asma, dermatitis atópica), y se realizó prick test y/o IgE específica para látex. Se efectuó un modelo de regresión logística multivariado para asociar síntomas de exposición al látex con enfermedades de base y condiciones de riesgo. Resultados: Se reclutaron 106 pacientes, de los cuales 50 fueron analizables. El 96% eran mayores de 5 años de edad al momento del diagnóstico. La mayoría de los factores de riesgo descritos en la literatura eran observables en estos pacientes (múltiples cirugías, malformaciones neurológicas y nefrourológicas, intervenciones quirúrgicas antes del año de edad y cateterismo vesical repetido). Luego de la exposición, las manifestaciones cutáneo-mucosas fueron las más frecuentes (52%), seguidas por las respiratorias (36%). El 100% de los pacientes estaban sensibilizados al látex. Conclusión: La sensibilización y alergia al látex es un problema relevante en niños con factores de riesgo. Los resultados mostrados plantean importantes desafíos en relación con medidas preventivas.


Introduction: The prevalence of latex sensitisation varies according to the population studied. There are various risk factors that increase latex sensitisation, such as genetic risk, atopy, and multiple surgeries. Objective: To characterise patients referred to an Immunology Unit with suspected latex allergy, and to analyse their clinical features and risk factors. Patients and method: A retrospective, descriptive study was conducted on children suspected of latex allergy. Their medical records were reviewed in order to assess symptoms with contact or exposure to latex materials. Known risk factors to latex sensitisation, such as pathologies requiring repeated surgery (spina bifida, myelomeningocele, scoliosis and nephro-urological alterations), atopy (rhinitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis) were investigated. A prick test and/or specific IgE to latex were also performed. A multivariate logistic regression model was performed to find associations between symptoms triggered by exposure to latex with underlying diseases and other risk conditions. Results: A total of 106 patients were enrolled in the study, of whom 50 were evaluable. At diagnosis 96% of patients were older than five years. Most of the risk factors described were observable in these patients, such as multiple surgeries, neurological and nephro-urological malformations, surgery before one year-old, and repeated bladder catheterisation. After latex exposure, mucous cutaneous manifestations were the most common (52%), followed by respiratory symptoms (36%). All patients were sensitised and allergic to latex. Conclusion: Latex allergy is a significant problem in children with risk factors. The results shown in this study raise important challenges for preventive measures and awareness.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Immunoglobulin E/immunology , Skin Tests/methods , Latex Hypersensitivity/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Prevalence , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Latex Hypersensitivity/diagnosis , Latex Hypersensitivity/etiology , Hospitals, Pediatric
14.
J. bras. pneumol ; 42(5): 356-361, Sept.-Oct. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-797949

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the presence of staphylococcal superantigen-specific IgE antibodies and degree of IgE-mediated sensitization, as well as whether or not those are associated with the severity of asthma in adult patients. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving outpatients with asthma under treatment at a tertiary care university hospital in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Consecutive patients were divided into two groups according to the severity of asthma based on the Global Initiative for Asthma criteria: mild asthma (MA), comprising patients with mild intermittent or persistent asthma; and moderate or severe asthma (MSA). We determined the serum levels of staphylococcal toxin-specific IgE antibodies, comparing the results and performing a statistical analysis. Results: The study included 142 patients: 72 in the MA group (median age = 46 years; 59 females) and 70 in the MSA group (median age = 56 years; 60 females). In the sample as a whole, 62 patients (43.7%) presented positive results for staphylococcal toxin-specific IgE antibodies: staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA), in 29 (20.4%); SEB, in 35 (24.6%); SEC, in 33 (23.2%); and toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST), in 45 (31.7%). The mean serum levels of IgE antibodies to SEA, SEB, SEC, and TSST were 0.96 U/L, 1.09 U/L, 1.21 U/L, and 1.18 U/L, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in terms of the qualitative or quantitative results. Conclusions: Serum IgE antibodies to SEA, SEB, SEC, and TSST were detected in 43.7% of the patients in our sample. However, neither the qualitative nor quantitative results showed a statistically significant association with the clinical severity of asthma.


RESUMO Objetivo: Determinar a presença de anticorpos IgE específicos para superantígenos estafilocócicos e o grau de sensibilização mediada por esses, assim como se esses estão associados à gravidade da asma em pacientes adultos. Métodos: Estudo transversal incluindo asmáticos adultos em acompanhamento ambulatorial em um hospital universitário terciário no Rio de Janeiro (RJ). Os pacientes foram alocados consecutivamente em dois grupos de gravidade da asma segundo critérios da Global Initiative for Asthma: asma leve (AL), com asmáticos leves intermitentes ou persistentes, e asma moderada ou grave (AMG). Foram determinados os níveis séricos de anticorpos IgE antitoxinas estafilocócicas, e os resultados foram comparados por análise estatística. Resultados: Foram incluídos 142 pacientes no estudo: 72 no grupo AL (mediana de idade = 46 anos; 59 do sexo feminino) e 70 do grupo AMG (mediana de idade = 56 anos; 60 do sexo feminino). Na amostra geral, 62 pacientes (43,7%) apresentaram resultados positivos para dosagens de anticorpos IgE antitoxinas estafilocócicas: enterotoxina (TX) A, em 29 (20,4%); TXB, em 35 (24,6%); TXC, em 33 (23,2%); e toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST), em 45 (31,7%). As médias das dosagens séricas de anticorpos IgE específicos anti-TXA, TXB, TXC e TSST foram, respectivamente, de 0,96 U/l, 1,09 U/l, 1,21 U/l, e 1,18 U/l. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa dos resultados qualitativos ou quantitativos entre os grupos. Conclusões: A presença de anticorpos IgE séricos anti-TXA, TXB, TXC e TSST, foi detectada em 43,7% nessa amostra de pacientes, mas não houve associação estatisticamente significativa entre seus resultados qualitativos ou quantitativos e gravidade clínica da asma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Asthma/immunology , Immunoglobulin E/analysis , Severity of Illness Index , Staphylococcus aureus/immunology , Superantigens/immunology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Immunoglobulin E/immunology , Peak Expiratory Flow Rate/immunology
15.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 62(6): 537-543, Sept. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-829491

ABSTRACT

Summary Objective: To evaluate the wheal diameter in allergy skin-prick tests (SPT) with cow’s milk extract (CM) comparing tolerant and persistent patients. Method: A retrospective cohort study involving database analysis of children with diagnosis of cow’s milk protein allergy (CMPA) mediated by immunoglobulin E in a specialized outpatient clinic that regularly performed SPT between January 2000 and July 2015. Patients were allocated into two groups: tolerant or persistent. Comparisons were made at diagnosis and over time between tolerant and persistent patients using Fisher’s, Mann-Whitney or Wilcoxon tests and significance level at 5%. Results: After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, the sample includes 44 patients (29 tolerant and 15 who persisted with CMPA). In the tolerant group, the medians of SPT were: 6 mm at diagnosis and 2 mm at the development of tolerance; a significant difference (p<0.0001) was found. In the persistent group, the median SPT at diagnosis was 7 mm, while in the last SPT it was 5 mm, with no statistical difference (p=0.173). The comparison of medians in the last SPT between groups was significant (p=0.001), with a reduction greater than 50% in SPT in the tolerant group. Conclusion: Serial SPTs were useful for diagnosis, and a decrease higher than 50% in diameter can indicate the moment to perform oral food challenge (OFC) tests, helping to detect tolerance in CMPA.


Resumo Objetivo: avaliar o diâmetro da pápula do teste cutâneo alérgico (TCA) com extrato de leite de vaca (LV) comparando pacientes tolerantes e persistentes. Método: estudo de coorte retrospectivo de análise de banco de dados de crianças com diagnóstico de alergia à proteína do leite de vaca (APLV) mediada pela imunoglobulina E, em ambulatório especializado, que realizaram TCA de forma evolutiva, sendo alocados em dois grupos: tolerantes ou persistentes, entre janeiro de 2000 e julho de 2015. As comparações foram realizadas ao diagnóstico e evolutivamente entre tolerantes e persistentes, pelos testes de Fisher, Mann-Whitney ou Wilcoxon, utilizando níveis de significância de 5%. Resultados: aplicando critérios de inclusão e exclusão, a amostra incluiu 44 pacientes (29 tolerantes e 15 que persistiram com APLV). No grupo tolerante, as medianas do TCA foram: ao diagnóstico, de 6 mm, e, no desenvolvimento de tolerância, de 2 mm, com diferença significante (p<0,0001). No grupo persistente, a mediana do TCA ao diagnóstico foi de 7 mm e no momento do último TCA, de 5 mm, sem diferença estatística (p=0,173). A comparação das medianas no último TCA entre os grupos mostrou-se significante (p=0,001), com redução maior de 50% no valor do TCA no grupo tolerante. Conclusão: os TCA seriados foram úteis para o diagnóstico, e a redução maior que 50% em seu diâmetro pode indicar o momento para realização de testes de provocação oral (TPO), auxiliando na detecção de tolerância na APLV.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Immunoglobulin E/immunology , Skin Tests/methods , Milk Hypersensitivity/diagnosis , Immunoglobulin E/blood , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-28309

ABSTRACT

Boiled silkworm pupa is a traditional food in Asia, and patients with silkworm pupa food allergy are common in these regions. Still now only one allergen from silkworm, arginine kinase, has been identified. The purpose of this study was to identify novel food allergens in silkworm pupa by analyzing a protein extract after heat treatment. Heat treated extracts were examined by proteomic analysis. A 27-kDa glycoprotein was identified, expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified. IgE reactivity of the recombinant protein was investigated by ELISA. High molecular weight proteins (above 100 kDa) elicited increased IgE binding after heat treatment compared to that before heat treatment. The molecular identities of these proteins, however, could not be determined. IgE reactivity toward a 27-kDa glycoprotein was also increased after heating the protein extract. The recombinant protein was recognized by IgE antibodies from allergic subjects (33.3%). Glycation or aggregation of protein by heating may create new IgE binding epitopes. Heat stable allergens are shown to be important in silkworm allergy. Sensitization to the 27-kDa glycoprotein from silkworm may contribute to elevation of IgE to silkworm.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Allergens/chemistry , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Bombyx/chemistry , Epitopes/immunology , Female , Food Hypersensitivity/etiology , Glycoproteins/chemistry , Hot Temperature , Humans , Immunoglobulin E/immunology , Male , Molecular Sequence Data , Molecular Weight , Proteomics , Pupa/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/biosynthesis , Sequence Alignment
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-147139

ABSTRACT

Diisocyanate (DI) is the most common cause of occupational asthma (OA) in Korea. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) initiates the lectin complement activation pathway following oxidative stress and plays an important role in the regulation of inflammatory processes. To determine whether there is a genetic association between MBL2 polymorphisms and DI-OA, 99 patients with DI-OA, 99 asymptomatic exposed controls (AECs) and 144 unexposed normal controls were enrolled in this study. Three polymorphisms (-554 G>C, - 431A>C and - 225 G>C) in the MBL2 promoter were genotyped, and serum MBL levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Functional variabilities in the promoter polymorphisms were analyzed by a luciferase reporter assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). A significantly higher frequency of haplotype (ht) 2 [CAG] was noted in the DI-OA group compared with the AEC group (P=0.044). The patients with DI-OA carrying ht2 [CAG] had significantly lower PC20 methacholine levels (P<0.001) than the non-carriers. The serum MBL levels were significantly higher in the DI-exposed subjects (both the DI-OA patients and AECs) carrying ht1 [GAG] (P=0.028). Luciferase activity was significantly enhanced in ht1 [GAG] compared with ht2 [CAG] in human hepatocarcinoma cells (Hep3B) (P=0.002). The EMSA showed that a - 554G probe produced a specific shifted band compared with the - 554C probe. These findings suggest that decreased serum MBL levels due to polymorphisms of the MBL2 gene may increase susceptibility to the development of DI-OA in DI-exposed individuals.


Subject(s)
Adult , Alleles , Asthma, Occupational/diagnosis , Cell Line , Female , Forced Expiratory Volume , Gene Frequency , Genotype , Haplotypes , Humans , Immunoglobulin E/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Isocyanates/adverse effects , Male , Mannose-Binding Lectin/blood , Middle Aged , Polymorphism, Genetic , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Protein Binding , Transcriptional Activation , Young Adult
19.
Clinics ; 68(7): 1004-1009, jul. 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-680710

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate whether interleukin 10 (IL10) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) gene polymorphisms were associated with persistent IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy in 50 Brazilian children. The diagnostic criteria were anaphylaxis triggered by cow's milk or a positive double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge. Tolerance was defined as the absence of a clinical response to a double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge or cow's milk exposure. METHOD: The genomic DNA of the 50 patients and 224 healthy controls (HCs) was used to investigate five IL10 gene polymorphisms (-3575A/T, -2849A/G, -2763A/C, -1082G/A, -592C/A) and one TGFβ1 polymorphism (-509C/T). RESULTS: Among the five IL10 polymorphisms analyzed, homozygosis for the G allele at the -1082 position was significantly higher in the patients compared with the healthy controls (p = 0.027) and in the persistent cow's milk allergy group compared with the healthy controls (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Homozygosis for the G allele at the IL10 -1082G/A polymorphism is associated with the persistent form of cow's milk allergy. .


Subject(s)
Child , Female , Humans , Male , Immunoglobulin E/immunology , /genetics , Milk Hypersensitivity/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/genetics , Brazil , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Gene Frequency , Logistic Models , Milk Hypersensitivity/immunology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Risk Factors
20.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 71(2): 106-109, Feb. 2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-663915

ABSTRACT

In the present study, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) standardized with vesicular fluid of Taenia solium cysticerci was used to screen for IgG (total and subclasses) and IgE antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from patients with neurocysticercosis showing intrathecal production of specific IgG antibodies and patients with other neurological disorders. The following results were obtained: IgG-ELISA: 100% sensitivity (median of the ELISA absorbances (MEA)=1.17) and 100% specificity; IgG1-ELISA: 72.7% sensitivity (MEA=0.49) and 100% specificity; IgG2-ELISA: 81.8% sensitivity (MEA=0.46) and 100% specificity; IgG3-ELISA: 63.6% sensitivity (MEA=0.12) and 100% specificity; IgG4-ELISA: 90.9% sensitivity (MEA=0.85) and 100% specificity; IgE-ELISA 93.8% sensitivity (MEA=0.60) and 100% specificity. There were no significant differences between the sensitivities and specificities in the detection of IgG-ELISA and IgE-ELISA, although in CSF samples from patients with neurocysticercosis the MEA of the IgG-ELISA was significantly higher than that of the IgE-ELISA. The sensitivity and MEA values of the IgG4-ELISA were higher than the corresponding values for the other IgG subclasses. Future studies should address the contribution of IgG4 and IgE antibodies to the physiopathology of neurocysticercosis.


No presente estudo, uma reação imunoenzimática (ELISA) padronizada com o fluido vesicular de cisticercos de Taenia solium foi utilizada para avaliar as respostas de anticorpos anti-cisticercos IgG (total e subclasses) e IgE em amostras de líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR) de pacientes com neurocisticercose apresentando produção intratecal de anticorpos específicos IgG e pacientes com outras desordens neurológicas. Os seguintes resultados foram obtidos: ELISA-IgG: 100% de sensibilidade (mediana das absorbâncias das reações ELISA (MAE)=1,17) e especificidade 100%; ELISA-IgG1: sensibilidade 72,7% (MAE=0,49) e especificidade 100%; ELISA-IgG2: sensibilidade 81,8% (MAE=0,46) e especificidade 100%; ELISA-IgG3: sensibilidade 63,6% (MAE=0,12) e especificidade 100%; ELISA-IgG4: sensibilidade 90,9% (MAE=0,85) e especificidade 100%; ELISA-IgE: sensibilidade 93,8% (MAE=0,60) e especificidade 100%. Não foram encontradas diferenças significativas entre as sensibilidades e especificidades das reações ELISA-IgG e ELISA-IgE, embora a MAE da reação ELISA-IgG em amostras de LCR de pacientes com neurocisticercose tenha sido significativamente maior que a obtida com ELISA-IgE. Os valores de sensibilidade e MAE da reação ELISA-IgG4 foram maiores que os valores correspondentes para as outras subclasses da IgG. Estudos futuros deverão abordar a contribuição dos anticorpos IgG4 e IgE na fisiopatologia da neurocisticercose.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Antibody Specificity/immunology , Cysticercus/immunology , Immunoglobulin E/cerebrospinal fluid , Immunoglobulin G/biosynthesis , Neurocysticercosis/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Immunoglobulin E/immunology , Neurocysticercosis/cerebrospinal fluid , Sensitivity and Specificity , Taenia solium/immunology
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