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1.
Acta sci., Health sci ; 44: e56960, Jan. 14, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1367539

ABSTRACT

Colorectal cancer is the 4thcause of cancer death; with considering the growth process of this cancer and the necessity of early diagnosis, the purpose of the research is to state the LncRNA 00970, LncRNA UCAI,and the Wntgene before and after the treatment by 5-Azacytidine epigenetic medicine, to reach the biomarker in the very first steps of colorectal cancer. In this experiment, the human colon cancer cell line (HT29) treated with different concentrations of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) was utilized to induce DNA demethylation; Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used to measure LncRNA UCA1and LncRNA LINC00970 and Wntexpression. There was a significant relationship between the expression of LncRNA 00970, LncRNA UCAI,and the Wntgene and its effects on colorectal (p < 0.05). The Wntgene was treated by 1 and 10 of 5-Azacytidine epigenetic medicine, which then experienced decreases. In LncRNA UCAI and LncRNA00970 in dose 1 micromolar of 5-Azacytidine had decrement and increment of expressionrespectively that explains their efficiency but in treatment by dose 10 mM of this medicine, no significant LncRNA expression difference was detected, 5-azacitidine has a direct impact on its target genes and LncRNAs.Therefore, it can be used in the early diagnosis of colorectal cancer.


Subject(s)
In Vitro Techniques/methods , DNA/analysis , Colorectal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Colorectal Neoplasms/therapy , Colonic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Early Diagnosis , Azacitidine/analysis , Azacitidine/antagonists & inhibitors , Biomarkers , Colorectal Neoplasms/mortality , Cell Line/drug effects , Colonic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Colonic Neoplasms/therapy , Epigenomics , RNA, Long Noncoding , RNA, Long Noncoding/drug effects , Genes
2.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e18594, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364422

ABSTRACT

Abstract Traditionally dates is consumed as a rich source of iron supplement and the current research discuss the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using methanolic seed extract of Rothan date and its application over in vitro anti-arthritic, anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative activity against lung cancer cell line (A549). FTIR result of synthesised AgNPs reveals the presence of functional group OH as capping agent. XRD pattern confirms the crystalline nature of the AgNPs with peaks at 38º, 44º, 64º and 81º, indexed by (111), (200), (220) and (222) in the 2θ range of 10-90, indicating the face centered cubic (fcc) structure of metallic Ag. HR- TEM results confirm the morphology of AgNPs as almost spherical with high surface areas and average size of 42 ± 9nm. EDX spectra confirmed that Ag is only the major element present and the Dynamic light scattering (DLS) assisted that the Z-average size was 203nm and 1.0 of PdI value. Zeta potential showed − 26.5mv with a single peak. The results of the biological activities of AgNPs exhibited dose dependent activity with 68.44% for arthritic, antiinflammatory with 63.32% inhibition and anti-proliferative activity illustrated IC50 value of 59.66 µg/mL expressing the potential of AgNPs to combat cancer


Subject(s)
Silver , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Chronology as Topic , Nanoparticles , Phoeniceae/adverse effects , Lung Neoplasms/classification , Seeds , zeta Potential , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Dosage/methods
3.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e18809, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364420

ABSTRACT

Abstract Risperidone is an atypical antipsychotic drug widely prescribed all over the world due to its clinical advantages. The currently available long acting marketed depot formulation of risperidone is a microsphere based preparation using poly-[lactide-co-glycolide] (PLGA) as drug release barrier. It is however, a cold chain product due to thermal instability of PLGA at room temperature. After beginning the depot injection therapy it is administered every two weeks but associated with another drawback of about 3 weeks lag time due to which its tablets are also administered for three weeks so as to attain and maintain therapeutic drug concentration in the body. The present work attempts to develop a long acting depot delivery system of risperidone for once a month administration based on the combination of sucrose acetate isobutyrate and polycaprolactone dissolved in benzyl benzoate to provide an effective drug release barrier for one month without any lag time and which can be stored at room temperature precluding the requirement of cold supply chain. The developed depot formulation showed a sustained in vitro drug release profile with 88.95% cumulative drug release in 30 days with little burst release. The in vivo pharmacokinetic studies of the developed formulation conducted on rats showed attainment of mean peak plasma drug concentration of 459.7 ng/mL in 3 days with a mean residence time of 31.2 days, terminal half-life of 20.6 days, terminal elimination rate constant of 0.0336 per day, and a good in vitro- in vivo correlation.


Subject(s)
Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Risperidone/agonists , Sucrose , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Drug Liberation/drug effects
4.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19178, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1384006

ABSTRACT

In this study, a dichloromethane fraction dry extract from the underground parts of Jatropha isabellei (DFJi) was used to prepare lipid nanocarriers (LNCJi) aimed at providing the oral delivery of terpenic compounds in the treatment of arthritis. The lipid nanocarriers were prepared by the spontaneous emulsification method. The lipid nanocarriers displayed sizes ranging from 180 to 200 nm and zeta potential values of around -18 mV. A high value of entrapment efficiency (> 90%) was obtained for jatrophone, which was used as the chemical marker of DFJi. LNCJi stored at 4°C were demonstrated to be stable through measurements of transmitted light after analytical centrifugation of the samples. In vitro drug release studies conducted in biorelevant dissolution media demonstrated that jatrophone release was faster from LNCJi than from free DFJi. When tested in an acute arthritis model, the LNCJi exhibited antinociceptive properties after oral administration of a 50 mg/kg dose, unlike the free DFJi, although no reduction in articular diameter was observed. These results suggest that an increase in the oral absorption of DFJi constituents may have occurred through the carrying of this fraction in LNCJi, thus improving the antinociceptive activity of this compound


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Arthritis/pathology , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Administration, Oral , Jatropha/adverse effects , Efficiency/classification , Dissolution , Drug Liberation , Lipids/pharmacology , Methylene Chloride/pharmacology
5.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e191026, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1384003

ABSTRACT

In this present study, 63 different 5-[4-methyl-2-(pyridin-3/4-yl)thiazole-5-yl]-4-substituted-3-substituted benzylthio-4H-1,2,4-triazole derivatives were synthesized, and evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial activity against various human pathogenic microorganisms and antioxidant activity. The derivatives were synthesized in a multi-step synthesis procedure including triazole and thiazole ring closure reactions, respectively. The synthesized derivatives (A1-24; B1-39) were screened for their antibacterial, antifungal, and antioxidant activities compared to standard agents. The derivatives possessing 3-pyridyl moiety particularly exhibited relatively high antibacterial activity (MIC= < 3.09-500 µg/mL) against Gram-positive bacteria, and compounds possessing 4-pyridyl moiety showed remarkable antioxidant activity


Subject(s)
Pyridines/analysis , Thiazoles/analysis , Triazoles/analysis , Methods , Antioxidants , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Gram-Positive Bacteria/classification
6.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19859, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383996

ABSTRACT

To overcome the problems associated with bioavailability and systemic side effects of the drug by oral administration, monolithic matrix type transdermal patches containing cinnarizine (CNZ) were developed. For this purpose, films based on hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and polyvinylpyrrolidone as matrix-forming polymers were designed. Physical characteristics of transdermal films and drug-excipient compatibility were investigated. Factors affecting in vitro drug release and ex vivo skin penetration and permeation of the drug were studied. It was confirmed that films displayed sufficient flexibility and mechanical strength for application onto the skin for a long time period. Ex vivo penetration experiments gave satisfactory results for transdermal drug delivery through rat skin. The parameters determining good skin penetration were also evaluated. The highest drug permeation rate was obtained with incorporation of Transcutol® (0.102 mg/cm2/h) into the base CNZ formulation, followed by propylene glycol (0.063 mg/cm2/h), menthol (0.045 mg/cm2/h), and glycerin (0.021 mg/cm2/h) as penetration enhancers (p < 0.05). As a result, the developed transdermal patches of CNZ may introduce an alternative treatment for various conditions and diseases such as idiopathic urticarial vasculitis, Ménière's disease, motion sickness, nausea, and vertigo. Thus, the risk of systemic side effects caused by the drug can be reduced or eliminated


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Cinnarizine , Histamine Agonists/adverse effects , Cholinergic Antagonists , Anesthetics/classification , Skin , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Hypromellose Derivatives/adverse effects , Drug Liberation
7.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19517, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383995

ABSTRACT

Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) is a natural product obtained by the alkaline extraction of dried plants of Larrea tridentata species. Due to the biological properties presented, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral and cytotoxic capacity, this compound is being increasingly studied. In this review, it was evaluated the benefits of NDGA against different animal models. Besides that, it was found that this compound has antitumor activity similar to its synthetic derivative terameprocol in prostate tumors. The hypoglycemic effect may be evidenced by the inhibition of sugar uptake by NDGA; in obesity, studies have observed that NDGA presented a positive regulatory effect for Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR-α) involved in the oxidation of hepatic fatty acids and reduced the expression of lipogenic genes. Regarding its antioxidant potential, its mechanism is related to the ability to in vitro scavenging reactive substances. Although there are several studies demonstrating the benefits of using NDGA, there are also reports of its toxicity, mainly of liver damage and nephrotoxicity


Subject(s)
Masoprocol/analysis , Chemical Phenomena , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Plants/classification , Biological Products/analysis , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Models, Animal , Toxicity , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Neoplasms , Antioxidants/pharmacology
8.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 22: e210112, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1386810

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of silver diamine fluoride (SDF) in arresting dentin caries lesions when applied under different concentrations and times. Material and Methods: Forty-two bovine blocks were selected and fixed in 24-well plates. Each well received a mixed bacterial inoculum added to the culture medium with 5% sucrose. The plates were incubated in microaerophilia (7 days) for caries formation, confirmed by micro-CT (M1). SDF was applied over the carious lesions for different times and concentrations (n=6): SDF 30% - immediate removal, 1 minute and 3 minutes; SDF 38%, - immediate removal, 1 minute and 3 minutes. The group without treatment was the control. Then, the samples were again scanned by micro-CT (M2) and submitted to a second cariogenic challenge for 21 days. Then, a final scan was performed (M3). Results: Mean pH at the culture medium and lesion depth were compared using Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon tests. 38% SDF showed the lowest metabolic activity of the biofilm. All 38% groups and 30% 1 and 3 minutes did not show an increase in mean lesion depth comparing M3 with M1. However, only 30% 3 minutes and 38% 1 and 3 minutes showed a significant reduction of lesion depth. Conclusion: The minimum application time of 30% SDF to arrest dentin caries lesion was 1 minute, while 38% SDF arrested with application and immediate removal.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Tooth Remineralization , Cariostatic Agents/therapeutic use , Dental Caries/epidemiology , Dentin , Diamines/chemistry , Fluorides/chemistry , Silver/therapeutic use , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Longitudinal Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric , Biofilms , X-Ray Microtomography/instrumentation
9.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e18655, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364423

ABSTRACT

Abstract Periodontitis is an oral disease associated with inflammation and pain with swollen and bleeding gums. In the present study, dental pastes containing NSAIDs, namely, diclofenac sodium and nimesulide (1 % w/w) were prepared to treat periodontitis. Dental pastes of diclofenac sodium and nimesulide (1 % w/w) were prepared with/without mucoadhesive hydrocolloid polymers such as sodium carboxy methyl cellulose (NaCMC), hydroxyl ethyl cellulose (HEC) and methyl cellulose (MC) by conventional trituration method. The pH, drug content, viscosity, tube spreadability and tube extrudability of these prepared dental pastes were measured. These dental pastes of diclofenac sodium and nimesulide (1 % w/w) were characterized by FTIR analyses for drug-excipient compatibility. The in vitro drug releases from these dental pastes in 6.4 pH phosphate buffer solution displayed sustained release over longer period and the drug release rate was found to be decreased when the concentration of mucoadhesive polymer was increased. These dental pastes displayed good adhesion to the oral mucosa revealing more retention time in mouth when tested for ex vivo mucoadhesion using bovine cheek pouch. The stability study results reveal that the DC3 and NC3 dental paste formulations were found stable enough over a longer period in different storage conditions. The present study revealed that the prepared mucoadhesive dental pastes of diclofenac sodium and nimesulide (1 % w/w) had good adhesion with the oral mucosa to maintain consistent release of drugs over prolonged time.


Subject(s)
Toothpastes/analysis , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/analysis , Mouth , Mouth Mucosa/abnormalities , Periodontitis , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Diclofenac/adverse effects , Disease/classification , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Drug Liberation , Gingiva/abnormalities , Inflammation/complications
10.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e18946, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364411

ABSTRACT

Abstract To investigate structure-property relationship of polymer-based curcumin solid dispersion (SD), three acrylic polymers were used to formulate curcumin SD by solvent evaporation method. Curcumin Eudragit EPO SD (cur@EPO), curcumin Eudragit RS PO SD (cur@RSPO) and curcumin Eudragit RL PO SD (cur@RLPO) showed deep red, golden orange and reddish orange color, respectively. Cur@RSPO entrapped 15.42 wt% of curcumin followed by cur@RL PO and cur@EPO. FTIR spectra indicated that in cur@EPO, curcumin may transfer hydrogen to the dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate group and thus change its color to red. In contrast, curcumin may form hydrogen bonding with Eudragit RS PO and Eudragit RL. Curcumin exists in amorphous state in three SDs as proved by differential scanning calorimetry and X-Ray diffraction measurement. In vitro digestion presented that lower pH value in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) stimulates the curcumin release from cur@EPO while permeability influences the release profile in other two SDs. When in simulated intestinal fluid (SIF), first order release model governs the release behaviors of all three SDs which showed sustained release pattern. Our results are helpful to elucidate how structure of polymer may impact on the major properties of curcumin contained SD and will be promising to broaden its therapeutic applications.


Subject(s)
Polymers , Curcumin/analysis , Methods , Solvents/administration & dosage , X-Ray Diffraction/instrumentation , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Calorimetry, Differential Scanning/methods , Evaporation/classification , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Color , Citrus sinensis/classification , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
11.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 129 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1392257

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver uma formulação de bebida láctea bubalina probiótica adicionada de polpa de morango, comparando os efeitos do uso do leite de búfala e de vaca na elaboração dos produtos e verificando a possibilidade de suplementação com triptofano nos produtos lácteos probióticos. Como primeira etapa do trabalho, bebidas lácteas probióticas foram elaboradas a partir de leite bubalino e bovino, fermentadas com Streptococcus thermophilus TA040, Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB340 e Lactobacillus acidophilus La5, e formuladas com 0, 25 e 50% de soro em sua formulação. As bebidas foram avaliadas quanto à cinética de fermentação das culturas láticas utilizadas, ao teor de proteína, gordura e sólidos totais não gordurosos, pós-acidificação, viabilidade das culturas fermentadoras e sua capacidade de sobrevivência ao estresse gastrointestinal in vitro. As bebidas lácteas bubalinas apresentaram resultados superiores as bebidas bovinas. O uso do leite de búfala na elaboração das bebidas lácteas promoveu benefícios quanto as culturas láticas presentes nos produtos, exercendo efeito protetivo e influindo na preservação da viabilidade das bactérias ao longo do armazenamento refrigerado e durante a simulação do estresse gastrointestinal in vitro. As bebidas lácteas elaboradas com 25% apresentaram os resultados mais próximos aos obtidos pelos produtos controle, sem adição de soro, sendo selecionadas para a segunda parte do estudo. Nesta etapa, as formulações de bebida láctea com 25% de soro, foram acrescidas de um preparado com polpa de morango e bebidas sem adição da fruta, utilizadas como controle. As bebidas lácteas bubalinas frutadas, apresentaram menor teor de gordura e melhores características reológicas, com maior viscosidade e consistência do que os produtos controle, sem afetar a pós-acidificação, o perfil de ácido graxo, assim como, a viabilidade e a resistência às condições de estresse gastrointestinal in vitro das culturas fermentadoras. A avaliação da possibilidade de suplementar lácteos probióticos com triptofano foi realizada em conjunto com a Universidade de Milão. Para isso, iogurtes probióticos receberam adição de triptofano antes ou após a fermentação, sendo avaliados com relação ao perfil de pós-acidificação, quantidade de triptofano nos produtos, número de células viáveis por plaqueamento e citometria de fluxo ao longo do armazenamento a 25° e 4°C. Complementarmente, a influência da presença do triptofano no crescimento e produção de compostos antimicrobianos pelas culturas láticas, também foi avaliada. A adição de triptofano após a fermentação dos iogurtes, que foram armazenados sob refrigeração (4°C), além de não afetar a pós-acidificação dos produtos, apresentou benefícios quanto a viabilidade L. acidophilus, redução do dano e aumento do número de células vivas, promovendo teor maior do aminoácido nos iogurtes. A presença do triptofano nos meios de cultivo, também influenciou de forma positiva o crescimento de S. thermophilus e L. acidophilus, melhorando o desenvolvimento das bactérias durante a fermentação e influindo em uma maior atividade antilistérica por parte do S. thermophilus. Diante da influência positiva da aplicação do leite de búfala na elaboração das bebidas lácteas, assim como, a adição do triptofano em iogurtes probióticos, a suplementação do aminoácido em bebidas lácteas bubalinas frutadas permitiria a obtenção de um produto funcional, onde seus benefícios estariam relacionados tanto ao consumo do probiótico presente no produto quanto a complementação de triptofano na dieta do consumidor


The aim of this study was to develop a formulation of probiotic buffalo dairy beverage added with strawberry pulp, comparing the effects of using buffalo and cow's milk in the preparation of products and verifying the possibility of tryptophan supplementation in probiotic dairy products. As a first stage of the work, probiotic dairy beverages were made from buffalo and bovine milk, fermented with Streptococcus thermophiles TA040, Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB340 and Lactobacillus acidophilus La5, and formulated with 0, 25 and 50% whey in their formulation. The beverages were evaluated for the fermentation kinetics of the used lactic cultures, the levels of protein, fat and total no fat solids, post-acidification, fermenting cultures viability and their ability to survive gastrointestinal stress in vitro. Buffalo milk use in dairy beverages production promoted benefits regarding the lactic cultures present in the products, exerting a protective effect and influencing the viability preservation of bacteria during the cold storage and simulation of gastrointestinal stress in vitro. Dairy beverages made with 25% whey addition showed results similar to those obtained by the control products, without whey addition, being selected for the second part of the study. In this part, the dairy beverages formulations with 25% whey, were added with a preparation were added with a strawberry pulp preparation and dairy beverages without added fruit, used as a control. Fruity bubaline dairy beverages had lower fat content and better rheological characteristics, with higher viscosity and consistency than control products, without affecting post-acidification, fatty acid profile, as well as viability and resistance to in vitro gastrointestinal condition of fermented cultures. The possibility of supplementing probiotic dairy products with tryptophan was evaluated in partnership with the University of Milan. For this, probiotic yogurts received the addition of tryptophan before or after fermentation, being evaluated in relation to the post-acidification profile, tryptophan amount in the products, viable cell number per plating and flow cytometry during storage at 25°C and 4°C. In addition, the influence of the tryptophan presence on the growth and production of antimicrobial compounds by lactic cultures was also evaluated. The addition of tryptophan after the yogurt fermentation, which were stored under refrigeration (4°C), in addition to not affecting the post-acidification of the products, showed benefits to the viability of L. acidophilus, reduced the damage and increased the number of cells promoting higher amino acid content in yogurts. Tryptophan presence in the culture media also positively influenced the growth of S. thermophiles and L. acidophilus, improving the development of bacteria during fermentation and influencing better antilisteric activity in the part of S. thermophiles. In view of the buffalo milk positive influence observed after the application in dairy beverage preparation, as well as the addition of tryptophan in probiotic yoghurts, amino acid supplementation in fruity buffalo dairy beverages would allow to obtain a functional product, where its benefits would be related both to the consumption of the probiotic present in the product as to the supplementation of tryptophan in the consumer's diet


Subject(s)
Beverages/adverse effects , Milk/adverse effects , Tryptophan/classification , Yogurt , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Buffaloes , Cell Count/instrumentation , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical , Probiotics/classification , Streptococcus thermophilus/metabolism , Lactobacillus delbrueckii/metabolism , Growth and Development , Flow Cytometry/methods , Whey/adverse effects , Fruit , Amino Acids/antagonists & inhibitors , Lactobacillus acidophilus/metabolism
12.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 157 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1380998

ABSTRACT

Melanoma accounts for 3% of skin neoplasms and is the leading cause of death from skin disorders worldwide. The high mortality rate associated with this disease stems from the high capacity of melanoma patients to develop metastases and treatment relapse with inhibitors of the MAPK signaling pathway (such as BRAF inhibitors), commonly used in melanoma therapy. Thus, the investigation of genes involved in the mechanisms of melanoma development is essential for new and more effective therapeutic strategies. Hence, we describe in this thesis two projects involving the genes SIN3B and IRF4 as possible biomarkers for cutaneous melanoma. Initially, through bioinformatics analyses performed by our group, an upregulation of SIN3B was found in metastatic melanomas. This result together with the understanding of SIN3B role in regulating gene expression and oncogenic transformation, prompted us to describe in this thesis some mechanisms by which SIN3B may influence melanoma development. We then sought to characterize the gene function using SIN3B-deleted cells, generated by the CRISPR-Cas9 methodology. Initially, we observed increased SIN3B expression in BRAF-mutant metastatic melanomas, where we noted that the long splicing variant of the gene (NM_001297595.1) was effectively prevalent in melanomas. Subsequently, we designed gRNAs between the exons 2 and 3 of the human SIN3B gene and engineered three knockout clones and three control clones (containing empty lentiCRISPRv2 plasmid) from different melanoma cell lines (SKMEL28, A2058, and A375). Through functional analyses, it was observed that the absence of the gene did not interfere in the proliferation of tumor cells; however, it led to a decrease in invasive properties. These results were verified by Boyden chamber assays and transcriptome analysis (total RNA sequencing of deleted cells), where a decrease in migration and motility pathways was observed. Additionally, a screening of synthetically lethal genes with SIN3B was performed with a genome wide CRISPR library. These results showed that USP7 and STK11 genes, which belong to the FoxO signaling pathway, were essential in SIN3B-depleted melanoma cells. Finally, through a collaborative project with the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, previous large-scale sequencing analyses demonstrated that deletion of the IRF4 gene was lethal for melanoma cells. Accordingly, we performed IRF4 silencing in vitro and noticed that the lack of IRF4 promotes cell death and apoptosis, independently of MYC and MITF, known in the literature to be downstream targets of this gene. Therefore, these data suggest that IRF4 plays a vital role in melanoma cell survival. Taken together, both works herein described in this thesis demonstrate how CRISPR-Cas9 can be applied to study the functions and mechanisms of genes involved in melanoma progression, collectively helping in the development of more effective therapeutic strategies for this tumor


O melanoma representa 3% dos tipos de neoplasias cutâneas e é a maior causa das mortes por distúrbios de pele no mundo. A alta taxa de mortalidade associada à essa doença advém da alta capacidade de pacientes com melanoma desenvolverem metástases, e apresentarem recidiva após tratamento com inibidores da via de sinalização MAPK (como da proteína BRAF), comumente utilizados no tratamento de pacientes metastáticos. Assim, a investigação de genes envolvidos nos mecanismos de desenvolvimento do melanoma é primordial para novas estratégias terapêuticas mais efetivas. Dessa forma, descrevemos no presente trabalho dois projetos envolvendo os genes SIN3B e IRF4 como possíveis biomarcadores para melanoma cutâneo. Em análises prévias de bioinformática realizados pelo nosso grupo, SIN3B foi identificado tendo maior expressão em melanomas metastáticos. Além disso, diversos estudos mostraram que o gene está envolvido na regulação da expressão gênica e transformação oncogênica. Dessa forma, descrevemos nessa tese alguns mecanismos pelos quais SIN3B pode influenciar no desenvolvimento do melanoma, através da caracterização funcional de células SIN3B-deletadas pela metodologia CRISPR-Cas9. Inicialmente, observamos aumento na expressão de SIN3B em melanomas metastáticos BRAF-mutados, onde notamos que a variante de splicing longa do gene (NM_001297595.1), era efetivamente prevalente em melanomas. Assim, desenhamos sequências de RNA guias entre os éxons 2 e 3 do gene SIN3B humano e, obtivemos três clones knockout e outros três clones controle (contendo plasmídeo vazio) em diferentes linhagens de melanoma (SKMEL28, A2058 e A375), para caracterização funcional. Observou-se que a ausência do gene não interferiu na proliferação das células tumorais, contudo, acarretou na diminuição de processos invasivos. Esses resultados foram averiguados através de ensaios em câmara de Boyden e análises de transcriptoma (sequenciamento de RNA total das células deletadas), onde notou-se diminuição das vias de migração e motilidade. Adicionalmente, um rastreamento de genes sinteticamente letais com SIN3B foi realizado com uma biblioteca de CRISPR capaz de silenciar todo o genoma. Esses resultados mostraram que os genes USP7 e STK11, ambos pertencentes à via de sinalização de FoxO, são essenciais nas células SIN3B deletadas. Por fim, através de um projeto colaborativo com o Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, análises prévias de sequenciamento de larga escala demonstraram que a deleção do gene IRF4 era letal para células de melanoma. Dessa forma, realizamos o silenciamento de IRF4 in vitro e notamos que a ausência do gene promove morte celular e apoptose, independentemente de MYC e MITF, conhecidos na literatura por serem alvos downstream do gene. Portanto, esses dados sugerem que IRF4 tem um papel importante na sobrevivência de células de melanoma. Em conjunto, ambos trabalhos descritos nessa tese, demonstram como a metodologia CRISPR-Cas9 pode auxiliar no entendimento de processos importantes para a malignidade do melanoma e contribuir para estratégias terapêuticas mais efetivas para esse tumor


Subject(s)
Skin Neoplasms/complications , Methodology as a Subject , Melanoma/pathology , Neoplasm Metastasis , Neoplasms , Patients/classification , Skin , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Biomarkers/analysis , Gene Expression , Cell Survival , Sequence Analysis, RNA/instrumentation , Computational Biology/methods , Absenteeism , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats
13.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 22: e210090, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1386800

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To compare the high-cycle fatigue behavior of four commercially available NiTi orthodontic wires. Material and Methods: Twelve NiTi orthodontic wires, round, 0.016-in, three per brand, were selected and divided into four groups: G1 - Heat-activated NiTi, G2 - Superelastic NiTi, G3 - Therma-Ti, and G4 - CopperNiTi. The atomic absorption spectrometry method was used to determine the chemical composition of investigated NiTi wires. We also performed a fatigue test at three-point bending using a universal testing machine for 1000 cycles in a 35 °C water bath. For the first and thousandth cycle, the average plateau load and the plateau length were determined in the unloading area of the force versus displacement diagram. In addition, we calculated the difference between the average plateau load of the first and thousandth cycle (∆F), as well as the difference between the plateau length of both cases (∆L). Results: According to our results, there were no significant differences between the average plateau load of the first and thousandth cycles of each group (p>0.05) and in the plateau length of the first and thousandth cycles of the groups (p>0.05). Conclusion: There were no significant differences between the groups changing the superelasticity property after high-cycle fatigue.


Subject(s)
Orthodontic Wires , Orthodontics , Stress, Mechanical , Dental Instruments , Spectrophotometry, Atomic/instrumentation , Spectrum Analysis/methods , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Materials Testing , Analysis of Variance
14.
Rev. Ciênc. Plur ; 7(2): 61-73, maio 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1282737

ABSTRACT

Introdução:Os sistemas adesivos possibilitama execução de restaurações estéticas e minimamente invasivas, sendo, portanto,objeto de pesquisas para contornar os problemas que se apresentam no procedimento restaurador.Objetivo:Avaliar in vitroa resistência de união de um sistema adesivo autocondicionante, e deste modificado com soluções extrativas de semente de uva.Metodologia:Duas soluções extrativas foram preparadas comextrato de semente de uva em pó dissolvido em acetona e etanol. A partir delas e de umadesivo,seis sistemas adesivos autocondicionantes experimentais foram preparados, diferindo quanto aosolvente utilizado eàsproporções entre adesivo puro e solução extrativa(7,5%, 15% e 30%). Setenta incisivos bovinos hígidos tiveram as raízes removidas com disco de carborundum e as faces vestibulares desgastadas comlixas d'água de granulação 120, 240, 600 e 1200 sob refrigeração até expor a dentina superficial. Os dentes foram distribuídos aleatoriamenteem sete grupos distintos: Controle; A7,5; A15; A30; E7,5; E15; e E30, contendo 10 elementos cada. A aplicação dos adesivos foi executada de acordo com as recomendações do fabricante do adesivo controle. A restauração foi realizada com uma matriz de silicone com dimensões 2mm de altura e 4mm de diâmetro e inserido o material restaurador em incremento único e fotopolimerizado por 40s. Após três meses armazenados em água destilada, os espécimes foram submetidos ao teste de resistência de união. Foi empregado ométodo estatísticoTeste Paramétrico Anova 1 Fator e pós-teste de Tamhane (p<0,05). Resultados:Os grupos A7,5, E7,5 e E30 não apresentaram diferença em relação ao grupo Controle; A15 e A30 mostraram desempenho estatisticamente semelhante entre si; e E15 não apresentou diferença estatística em relação aos outros adesivos.Conclusões:A adição de proantocianidina teve efeitos diferentes,dependendodos solventes e das concentrações utilizadas, mas sem alterar significativamente o desempenho do adesivo (AU).


Introduction:Adhesive systems make it possible to perform aestheticand minimally invasive restorations, being the subject of research to circumvent the problems that arise in the restorative procedure.Objective:Evaluate in vitrothe bond strength of a self-etching adhesive system,and modified with extractive grape seed solutions. Methodology:Two extractive solutions were prepared with powdered grape seed extract dissolved in acetone and ethanol. From them and an adhesive, six experimental self-etching adhesive systems were prepared, differing in terms of the solvent used and the proportions between pure adhesive and extractive solution(7.5%, 15% and 30%). Seventy healthy bovine incisors had their roots removed with carborundum disc and the vestibular faces were worn with sandpaper with granulation water 120, 240, 600 and 1200 under refrigeration until the superficial dentin was exposed. The teeth were randomly assigned to seven different groups: Control; A7.5; A15; A30; E7.5; E15; and E30, containing 10 elements each. The application of the adhesives was carried out according to the recommendations of the manufacturer of the control adhesive. The restoration was performed with a silicone matrix with dimensions 2mm high and 4mm indiameter and the restorative material was inserted in a single increment and light cured for 40s. After three months stored in distilled water, the specimens were submitted to the bond strength test. The statistical method Parametric Test Anova 1 Factor and Tamhane post-test (p<0.05) were used. Results:Groups A7.5, E7.5 and E30 showed no difference in relation to the Control group; A15 and A30 showed a statistically similar performance; and E15 showed no statistical difference in relation to the other adhesives. Conclusions:The addition of proanthocyanidin had different effects, depending on the solvents and concentrations used, but without significantly altering the performance ofthe adhesive (AU).


Introducción: Sistemas adhesivos permiten realizar restauraciones estéticas y mínimamente invasivas, siendo objeto de investigación para sortear problemas que surgen en elprocedimiento restaurador. Objetivo: Evaluar in vitrola fuerza de unión de un sistema adhesivoautograbante y modificado con soluciones extractivas de semilla de uva. Metodología: Se prepararon dos soluciones extractivas con extracto de semilla de uva en polvo disuelto en acetona y etanol. A partir de ellos y de un adhesivo, se prepararon seis sistemas experimentales de adhesivos autograbantes, que se diferencian en cuanto al solvente utilizado y las proporciones entre adhesivo puro y solución extractiva (7,5%, 15% y 30%). Setenta incisivos bovinos sanos fueron removidos con un disco de carborundo y las caras vestibulares fueron usadas com lija de agua de granulación 120, 240, 600 y 1200 bajo refrigeración hasta que la dentina superficial quedo expuesta. Los dientes se asignaron aleatoriamente a siete grupos diferentes: Control; A7,5; A15; A30; E7,5; E15; y E30, que contiene 10 elementos cada uno. La aplicación de los adhesivos se realizó siguiendo las recomendaciones del fabricante del adhesivo de control. La restauración se realizó con matriz de silicona con 2mm de altura y 4mm de diámetro y el material restaurador se insertó en un solo incremento y se fotopolimerizó durante 40s. Tres meses después, almacenados em agua destilada, las muestras se sometieron a la prueba de resistencia de la unión. Se utilizó el método estadístico Prueba Paramétrica Factor Anova 1 y post-prueba de Tamhane (p<0,05). Resultados: Los grupos A7,5, E7,5 y E30 no mostraron diferencias em relación con el grupo Control; A15 y A30 mostraron un desempeño estadísticamente similar; y E15 no mostró diferencia estadística en relación con los otros adhesivos. Conclusiones: La adición de proantocianidina tuvo diferentes efectos, dependiendo de los disolventes y concentraciones utilizadas, pero sin alterar significativamente el rendimiento del adhesivo (AU).


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Dental Polishing/instrumentation , Proanthocyanidins , Materials Science , Flexural Strength , Solvents , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Brazil , Intervention Studies , Analysis of Variance , Dental Cements/chemistry , Grape Seed Extract
15.
Rev. Ciênc. Plur ; 7(2): 47-60, maio 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1282724

ABSTRACT

Introdução:As atuaisresinas Bulk-Fill apresentamcomovantagens e propriedades: menor tempo clínico, baixa contração de polimerização, maior translucidez, entre outros. Objetivo:Avaliar a topografia superficial de restaurações com diferentes tipos de resina composta antes e após submetê-las a diferentes sistemas de acabamento e polimento. Metodologia:Confecção de100 corpos de prova, sendo 50 de cada composto resinoso, apresentando cinco grupos (n=10) sorteados de forma aleatória, de acordo com o sistema de acabamento e polimento empregado. Foram utilizadas as resinas Filtek Z350 XT e a Bulk Fill Filtek One Bulk Fill e os sistemas de acabamento e polimento: Discos de Lixa Sof-Lex Pop On Kit;Discos Diamantado Espiral Sof-Lex; Ponta Enhance e Broca Carbide Multilaminada nº 0283F, que foram comparados com superfície deixada pela Tira de Poliester (Controle Negativo). Após 7 dias de armazenamento em água destilada, os corpos de provaforam submetidos aoMicroscópio Eletrônico de Varredura.Resultados:Os corpos de provada resina Bulk Fill tiveram como melhor resultado o sistema de acabamento e polimentocom broca carbidee resultado não satisfatório com discodiamantado espiral Sof-lex, enquanto a ponta Enhance e lixa Sof-lex Pop Ontiveram resultados semelhantes. Os corpos de prova da resina Filtek Z350 XT tiveram melhor aspecto visual de lisura no grupo controle negativoe pior resultado no grupo com disco diamantado espiral Sof-lex. Conclusões:Dessa forma, o sistema que apresentou melhor resultado foi a broca Carbidena resina Bulk Fill, enquanto a Filtek Z350 XT apresentou-se melhor no grupo controle. Porém, ainda são necessáriosestudos para se chegar em um protocolo de acabamento e polimento mais eficiente (AU).


Introduction:The current Bulk-Fill resins have the following advantages and properties: less clinical time, low polymerization shrinkage, greater translucency, among others.Objective:Toevaluate the topography of restorations with different types of composite resin before and after submitting them to different finishing and polishing systems.Methodology:Manufacture of 100 specimens, 50 of each resin compound, presenting five groups (n = 10) drawn at random, according to the finishing and polishing system employed. Filtek Z350 XT resins and Bulk Fill Filtek One Bulk Fill andfinishing and polishing systems were used: Sof-Lex Pop On Kit Sanding Discs; Diamond Spiral Sof-Lex Discs; Tip Enhance and Multilaminated Carbide Drill nº 0283F, which were compared with the surface left by the Polyester Strip (Negative Control). After 7 days of storage in distilled water, the specimens were submitted to a Scanning Electron Microscope.Results:The Bulk Fill resin specimens had the best result of the finishing and polishing system with carbide drill and unsatisfactory result with Sof-lex spiral diamond disc, while the Enhance tip and Sof-lex Pop On sandpaper had similar results. The Filtek Z350 XT resin specimens had a better visual aspect of smoothness in the negative control group and a worse result in the group with Sof-lex spiral diamond wheel.Conclusions:Thus, the system that showed the best result was the Carbide drill in Bulk Fill resin, while Filtek Z350 XT was better in the control group. However, studies are still needed to arrive at a more efficient finishing and polishing protocol (AU).


Introducción:Las actuales resinas Bulk-Fill tienen las siguientes ventajas y propiedades: menor tiempo clínico, baja contracción de polimerización, mayor translucidez, entre otras.Objetivo: Evaluar la topografía de restauraciones con diferentes tipos de resina compuesta antes y después de someterlas a diferentes sistemas de acabado y pulido.Metodología: Fabricación de 100 probetas, 50 de cada resina compuesta, presentando cinco grupos (n = 10) extraídos al azar, según el sistema de acabado y pulido empleado. Se utilizaron resinas Filtek Z350 XT y Bulk Fill Filtek One Bulk Fill y sistemas de acabado y pulido: Discos de lijado Sof-Lex Pop On Kit; Discos Sof-Lex en espiral de diamante; Broca Realce de Punta y Carburo Multilaminado nº 0283F, que fueron comparadas con la superficie dejada por la Tira de Poliéster (Control Negativo). Después de 7 días de almacenamiento en agua destilada, lasmuestras se sometieron a un Las muestras de resina Bulk Fill tuvieron el mejor resultado del sistema de acabado y pulido con broca de carburo y un resultado insatisfactorio con el disco de diamante en espiral Sof-lex, mientras que la punta Enhance y el papel de lija Sof-lex Pop On tuvieron resultados similares. Las muestras de resina Filtek Z350 XT tuvieron un mejor aspecto visual de suavidad en el grupo de control negativo y un peor resultado en el grupo con disco de diamante en espiral Sof-lex.Conclusiones: Así, el sistema que mejor resultado mostró fue la broca Carbide en resina Bulk Fill, mientras que Filtek Z350 XT fue mejor en el grupo control. Sin embargo, aún se necesitan estudios para llegar a un protocolo de acabado y pulido más eficiente (AU).


Subject(s)
Surface Properties , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/instrumentation , Composite Resins , Dental Polishing/instrumentation , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Brazil , Guidelines as Topic , Polymerization
16.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 21(supl.1): e0024, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1340342

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze and compare the stiffness of different lingual appliances with different archwires. Material and Methods: The three-point bending test was used to analyze the stiffness of the lingual archwires for the different lingual systems: eBrace, Harmony, Incognito, and STb. The deflection load curve of each archwire was obtained to evaluate how the section, the material and the manufacturer affect the elasticity and stiffness characteristics of the wires. The comparison of the stiffness between different systems was carried out through a factor variance analysis with three factors (manufacturer, cross-section, and material), followed by the post-hoc Tuckey test. Results: An increase in the system's rigidity was reported as the wire section increases, regardless of the manufacturer. The stainless steel archwires have ever higher stiffness values than NiTi and TMA. The STb wires of CuNiTi material, by virtue of the characteristics of the thermal wires, have flatter and lower load-deflection curves than the NiTi wires of other manufacturers. Conclusion: Archwires section and material showed a significant influence on the stiffness of the lingual systems. Archwires of the same section and material but different manufacturers show different load-deflection curves of stiffness.


Subject(s)
Orthodontic Appliances , Orthodontic Wires , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Orthodontic Brackets , Analysis of Variance , Italy
17.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2021. 275 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1379262

ABSTRACT

A alta incidência, prevalência e mortalidade do câncer de pulmão demonstram a necessidade de se identificar alterações moleculares envolvidas na carcinogênese pulmonar. Nesse contexto, a reprogramação do metabolismo energético é uma marca emergente do câncer. Há evidências de que benzo[a]pireno (B[a]P), um conhecido carcinógeno humano, induz alterações metabólicas via modificação da função mitocondrial tanto in vitro quanto in vivo. Uma vez que as alterações metabólicas não são somente o resultado da transformação celular, mas podem também ter papel na etiologia do câncer ao modular o epigenoma e a expressão de genes, intervir no metabolismo de células em processo de transformação pode contribuir para desvendar mecanismos de carcinogênese e revelar alvos para quimioprevenção. A fim de investigar a relação entre alterações no metabolismo celular, marcas epigenéticas e transformação celular, implementamos um modelo de tumorigênese (avaliada pela formação de colônias em soft-agar) induzida por B[a]P em células epiteliais bronquiais humanas imortalizadas (linhagem BEAS-2B) crescidas em monocamada (2D). O modelo possibilitou a observação de alterações precoces do metabolismo celular. Levando em consideração que o nucleotídeo NAD+ regula as atividades de diversas vias moleculares importantes para a sobrevivência, diferenciação, crescimento e morte celular, e que suas concentrações foram rapidamente diminuídas após exposição a B[a]P, decidimos suplementar as células BEAS-2B com nicotinamida ribosídeo (NR), um precursor intracelular de NAD+, concomitantemente à exposição a B[a]P. NR em baixa concentração no meio de cultura (1 µM) induziu estresse energético em células BEAS-2B expostas a B[a]P (1 µM) ao longo do período de uma semana de co-incubação, aumentando seletivamente a taxa de apoptose dessas células. Protegeu contra a transformação celular induzida por B[a]P e impediu completamente a formação espontânea de colônias das células controle em soft-agar. Usamos uma abordagem metabolômica direcionada a alvos específicos ("targeted metabolomics") desenvolvida no grupo para quantificar metabólitos conhecidamente alterados no câncer. Os dados indicam que NR diminui o metabolismo de glutamina nas células expostas a B[a]P, o que ocorre em paralelo com a diminuição das concentrações de citrato e aspartato, aumento da razão malato/aspartato, diminuição das razões ATP/AMP e ATP/ADP e aumento das concentrações de adenosina. As alterações se enquadram na hipótese de inibição do shuttle malato-aspartato, cuja atividade é necessária para a sobrevivência de células que sofrem o efeito Warburg (alta dependência de NADH citosólico para geração de ATP). NR adicionalmente protegeu as células contra o estresse redox, a hipermetilação do DNA e o aumento da atividade de sirtuína 1 (SIRT1) induzidos por B[a]P, além de aumentar a expressão de genes supressores tumorais (E-caderina, PTEN, semaforina 3F, p16(ink4a)) que podem ser reprimidos por CtBP (proteína ligante de NADH que atua como sensor redox e traduz a condição metabólica da célula para o controle da expressão gênica). Foi ainda observada maior atividade de PARP1 nas células expostas a B[a]P+NR em comparação aos demais grupos. Os resultados obtidos mostram que NR se contrapõe a ou exacerba alterações bioquímicas induzidas por B[a]P, diminuindo a chance de transformação carcinogênica das células BEAS-2B. Estudos em modelos mais complexos, como micro tecidos in vitro, são necessários para a confirmação do efeito quimiopreventivo da NR e alterações bioquímicas subjacentes


Tese de DoutoradoDOIhttps://doi.org/10.11606/T.9.2021.tde-05082021-095853DocumentoTese de DoutoradoAutorCordeiro, Everson Willian Fialho (Catálogo USP)Nome completoEverson Willian Fialho CordeiroE-mailE-mailUnidade da USPFaculdade de Ciências FarmacêuticasÁrea do ConhecimentoToxicologiaData de Defesa2021-04-08ImprentaSão Paulo, 2021OrientadorLoureiro, Ana Paula de Melo (Catálogo USP) Banca examinadoraLoureiro, Ana Paula de Melo (Presidente) Àvila, Daiana Silva de Meotti, Flavia Carla Silva, Eloiza Helena Tajara da Título em portuguêsModulação da concentração intracelular de NAD+ e seu efeito na tumorigênese induzida por benzo[a]pireno em células bronquiais epiteliais humanasPalavras-chave em portuguêsBenzo[a]pireno Câncer de pulmão Metabolismo energético Nicotinamida ribosídeo Resumo em portuguêsA alta incidência, prevalência e mortalidade do câncer de pulmão demonstram a necessidade de se identificar alterações moleculares envolvidas na carcinogênese pulmonar. Nesse contexto, a reprogramação do metabolismo energético é uma marca emergente do câncer. Há evidências de que benzo[a]pireno (B[a]P), um conhecido carcinógeno humano, induz alterações metabólicas via modificação da função mitocondrial tanto in vitro quanto in vivo. Uma vez que as alterações metabólicas não são somente o resultado da transformação celular, mas podem também ter papel na etiologia do câncer ao modular o epigenoma e a expressão de genes, intervir no metabolismo de células em processo de transformação pode contribuir para desvendar mecanismos de carcinogênese e revelar alvos para quimioprevenção. A fim de investigar a relação entre alterações no metabolismo celular, marcas epigenéticas e transformação celular, implementamos um modelo de tumorigênese (avaliada pela formação de colônias em soft-agar) induzida por B[a]P em células epiteliais bronquiais humanas imortalizadas (linhagem BEAS-2B) crescidas em monocamada (2D). O modelo possibilitou a observação de alterações precoces do metabolismo celular. Levando em consideração que o nucleotídeo NAD+ regula as atividades de diversas vias moleculares importantes para a sobrevivência, diferenciação, crescimento e morte celular, e que suas concentrações foram rapidamente diminuídas após exposição a B[a]P, decidimos suplementar as células BEAS-2B com nicotinamida ribosídeo (NR), um precursor intracelular de NAD+, concomitantemente à exposição a B[a]P. NR em baixa concentração no meio de cultura (1 µM) induziu estresse energético em células BEAS-2B expostas a B[a]P (1 µM) ao longo do período de uma semana de co-incubação, aumentando seletivamente a taxa de apoptose dessas células. Protegeu contra a transformação celular induzida por B[a]P e impediu completamente a formação espontânea de colônias das células controle em soft-agar. Usamos uma abordagem metabolômica direcionada a alvos específicos ("targeted metabolomics") desenvolvida no grupo para quantificar metabólitos conhecidamente alterados no câncer. Os dados indicam que NR diminui o metabolismo de glutamina nas células expostas a B[a]P, o que ocorre em paralelo com a diminuição das concentrações de citrato e aspartato, aumento da razão malato/aspartato, diminuição das razões ATP/AMP e ATP/ADP e aumento das concentrações de adenosina. As alterações se enquadram na hipótese de inibição do shuttle malato-aspartato, cuja atividade é necessária para a sobrevivência de células que sofrem o efeito Warburg (alta dependência de NADH citosólico para geração de ATP). NR adicionalmente protegeu as células contra o estresse redox, a hipermetilação do DNA e o aumento da atividade de sirtuína 1 (SIRT1) induzidos por B[a]P, além de aumentar a expressão de genes supressores tumorais (E-caderina, PTEN, semaforina 3F, p16(ink4a)) que podem ser reprimidos por CtBP (proteína ligante de NADH que atua como sensor redox e traduz a condição metabólica da célula para o controle da expressão gênica). Foi ainda observada maior atividade de PARP1 nas células expostas a B[a]P+NR em comparação aos demais grupos. Os resultados obtidos mostram que NR se contrapõe a ou exacerba alterações bioquímicas induzidas por B[a]P, diminuindo a chance de transformação carcinogênica das células BEAS-2B. Estudos em modelos mais complexos, como micro tecidos in vitro, são necessários para a confirmação do efeito quimiopreventivo da NR e alterações bioquímicas subjacentes.Título em inglêsModulation of intracellular concentration of NAD+ and its effect on benzo[a]pyrene-induced tumorigenesis in human epithelial bronchial cellsPalavras-chave em inglêsBenzo[a]pyrene Energetic metabolism Lung cancer Nicotinamide riboside Resumo em inglêsThe high incidence, prevalence and mortality of lung cancer demonstrates the need to identify molecular changes involved in lung carcinogenesis. In this context, the reprogramming of energy metabolism is an emerging brand of cancer. There is evidence that benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), a known human carcinogen, induces metabolic changes via modification of mitochondrial function both in vitro and in vivo. Since metabolic changes are not only the result of cell transformation, but can also play a role in the etiology of cancer by modulating the epigenome and gene expression, intervening in the metabolism of cells in the process of transformation can contribute to unravel mechanisms of carcinogenesis and reveal targets for chemoprevention. In order to investigate the relationship between changes in cell metabolism, epigenetic marks and cell transformation, we implemented a model of tumorigenesis (assessed by the formation of colonies on soft-agar) induced by B[a]P in immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B cell line human) grown in monolayer (2D). The model enabled the observation of early changes in cell metabolism. Taking into account that the NAD+ nucleotide regulates the activities of several molecular pathways important for cell survival, differentiation, growth and death, and that their concentrations were rapidly decreased after exposure to B[a]P, we decided to supplement the BEAS-2B cells with nicotinamide riboside (NR), an intracellular precursor of NAD+, concomitantly with exposure to B[a]P. NR in low concentration in the culture medium (1 µM) induced energy stress in BEAS-2B cells exposed to B[a]P (1 µM) over the period of a week of co-incubation, selectively increasing the apoptosis rate of these cells. It protected against cell transformation induced by B[a]P and completely prevented the spontaneous formation of control cell colonies on soft-agar. We use a targeted metabolomics approach developed in the group to quantify metabolites known to be altered in cancer. The data indicate that NR decreases the glutamine metabolism in cells exposed to B[a]P, which occurs in parallel with the decrease in citrate and aspartate concentrations, increased malate/aspartate ratio, decreased ATP/AMP and ATP/ADP ratios and increased adenosine concentrations. The changes fit the hypothesis of inhibition of the malate-aspartate shuttle, whose activity is necessary for the survival of cells that suffer the Warburg effect (high dependence on cytosolic NADH for ATP generation). NR additionally protected cells against redox stress, DNA hypermethylation and increased B[a]P-induced sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) activity, in addition to increasing the expression of tumor suppressor genes (E-cadherin, PTEN, semaphorin 3F, p16 (ink4a)) that can be suppressed by CtBP (NADH-binding protein that acts as a redox sensor and translates the cell's metabolic condition to control gene expression). Higher PARP1 activity was also observed in cells exposed to B[a]P+NR compared to the other groups. The results obtained show that NR is opposed to or exacerbates biochemical changes induced by B[a]P, reducing the chance of carcinogenic transformation of BEAS-2B cells. Studies on more complex models, such as micro tissues in vitro, are necessary to confirm the chemopreventive effect of NR and underlying biochemical changes


Subject(s)
Niacinamide/adverse effects , Carcinogenesis/drug effects , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , In Vitro Techniques/methods , DNA , Chemoprevention/classification , Energy Metabolism , Epithelial Cells/classification
18.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 57: e18954, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345456

ABSTRACT

The ethanolic extract of resinous sediment (EERS) of Etlingera elatior young inflorescence was examined for its anticancer effect and potential antioxidant activity. The anticancer effect of the EERS was evaluated on four human cancer cell lines, HCT 116, HT-29, Hela, and MCF-7, using the MTT assay. GC-MS analysis showed that the main components found in the EERS were nonyl cyclopropane (4.44%), 1-tetradecane (3.66%), cyclotetradecane (2.41%), cyclododecane (1.92%), and 1-decene (1.72%). The antioxidant activity was determined through different methods. High amounts of TPC and TFC in the EERS were found. Moderate antioxidant capacity of the EERS was detected by DPPH and ABTS assays, with EC50 values of 44.19 and 56.61 µg/mL and a high FRAP value of 281.79 nmol Fe+2 equivalent/mg extract. In the MTT assay, the EERS showed potent anticancer activity, with IC50 values of 19.82, 37.001, 50.49, and 53.29 µg/mL against HT-29, HCT 116, Hela, and MCF-7 tumour cell lines, respectively. Moreover, the results were comparable to or less potent than the standard reference drug, 5-fluorouracil. The results showed that the EERS of Etlingera elatior inflorescence contained a high amount of polyphenols and flavonoids, which may to the selective antiproliferative effects towards colon cancer in vitro


Subject(s)
Zingiberaceae/classification , Inflorescence/anatomy & histology , Fluorouracil/pharmacology , Neoplasms , Antioxidants/analysis , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Anticarcinogenic Agents/adverse effects , Colonic Neoplasms/pathology
19.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 57: e19023, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345452

ABSTRACT

The ascorbyl methylsilanol pectinate (AMP) presents the same functional properties of ascorbic acid (AA). Besides antioxidant and depigmentant activity, the AMP presents silanol in its chemical structure. The aim of this work was to characterize and indentify the AMP alone and in cosmetic formulations. The following techniques were employed: Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometry, particle size distributions, in vitro antioxidant activity with 2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Oxigen Radical Absorbance Capacity Assay and High Performace Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) (developed and validated method) for the active ingredient; Microscopy, HPLC and Normal Stability Assay (NSA) for the emulsions. Particle size distributions results showed that the average size of AMP was 1.0 µm and polydispersity index was 0.1. In DPPH assay AA and AMP were statistically the same. The value of ORAC obtained for AMP was 0.74 and for AA in the literature was 0.95. In the NSA the formulations were stable in conditions of 5.0 and 45.0 ± 2.0 ºC for 90 days. Adequate stability at ambient temperature out of reach of light was also observed. Thus, this works presented an acceptable method for quantification of AMP alone and in cosmetic formulations. AMP was an adequate choice for the incorporation in emulsions with antioxidant efficacy.


Subject(s)
Efficacy/classification , Emulsions/analysis , Fourier Analysis , Antioxidants/analysis , Ascorbic Acid/agonists , Spectrophotometry, Infrared/instrumentation , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/instrumentation
20.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 57: e19147, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350231

ABSTRACT

Methotrexate (MTX) is famous for its therapeutic potential against different cancers including colorectal cancer. Goal of the present investigation was to formulate MTX loaded mucoadhesive microparticles for colon targeting. The optimized formulation (MTX-MS2) was composed of mucoadhesive polymers (sodium alginate, guar gum and carbopol 940) in an appropriate ratio. MTXMS2 was developed by ionic-gelation method. The suitable particle size and zeta potential were found to be 21.10 ± 0.18 µm and 3.01 ± 0.16 mV for MTX-MS2 respectively. The % yield (98.60 ± 2.12), % entrapment efficiency (97.98 ± 1.22) and % drug loading (1.04 ± 0.03) were estimated for MTXMS2. The swelling index (0.99 ± 0.04 θ) and mucoadhesion (97.29 ± 4.61%) were significantly (***P ˂ 0.01) achieved with MTX-MS2 as compared to other formulations. The optimum drug release (96.07 ± 4.52%) was significantly achieved with MTX-MS2 at simulated gastric fluid (pH 7.4) for 36 h in a sustained manner. This profile may be attributed towards excellent mucoadhesivness of the polymers used in the formulation. Therefore, the current investigation suggests that mucoadhesive carrier system could be promising approach for colon delivery. Thus, the proposed work would be helpful for the treatment of colorectal canc


Subject(s)
In Vitro Techniques/methods , Methotrexate/agonists , Colon/abnormalities , Colorectal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Alginates/adverse effects
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