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Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1448805


ABSTRACT Objective: To identify the potential determinants of tobacco counseling implementation among oral health professionals in India. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out among the 298 dentists of Aligarh and Gwalior. The questionnaire used in the study had sections on dentists' sociodemographic data and a 35-item questionnaire to assess the potential determinants of tobacco cessation counseling. Descriptive statistics were carried out, and a Chi-square test was utilized to determine the association. P-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Domains "knowledge", "Professional Responsibility and Identity", and "Remembrance, awareness, and judgment" showed a statistically significant correlation with most tobacco cessation counseling behaviors. In addition, undergraduate education received in Tobacco Cessation counseling, and Continuing education received in Tobacco Cessation counseling had significantly impacted the practice of tobacco cessation counseling (p=0.02 and 0.04, respectively). Conclusion: This study suggests that "Knowledge", "Professional Responsibility and Identity" and "Remembrance, awareness, and judgment" are the potential determinants that could be used to design effective strategies to enhance tobacco counseling among dentists in India.

Humans , Male , Female , Tobacco/adverse effects , Oral Health/education , Tobacco Use Cessation , Tobacco Use Disorder/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires , Health Policy , India/epidemiology
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e21230, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439537


Abstract The aim of this study is to provide a real picture of the disease burden of Prameha in society. The study was performed in Government Ayurved College and Hospital, Nagpur, Maharashtra during Oct 2015-Mar 2016. Total 60 patients of newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus attending the Kayachikitsa Opd of GAC Nagpur were included for the study. The subjects details were recorded in case report form. The CRF included many variables such as sociodemographic factors, presenting symptoms, risk factors such as hypertension, obesity and glycaemic status, family history of diabetes and physical activity. Other parameters like BMI, glycosylated haemoglobin, fasting and post prandial blood sugar and fasting lipid profile were documented. Descriptive and bivariate analyses were carried out using the XLSTAT software (2020). Amongst 60 subjects, 65% were male and 93.3% were adults. 78% of subjects were following sedentary lifestyle and 40% had family history of diabetes. The results revealed that, obesity, family history of diabetes, uncontrolled glycemic status, sedentary lifestyles, and hypertension were prevalent among the Prameha subjects. The characterization of this risk profile and early detection of prameha by observing poorvarupa will contribute to designing more effective and specific strategies for screening and controlling Prameha in Maharashtra, India.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnostic imaging , Observational Study , Hospitals/classification , India/ethnology
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 121-124, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970974


Viper bite envenomation represents a significant occupational hazard among agricultural workers in India. The viper bite envenomation is usually suspected when a patient presents with predominant local symptoms at the bitten site, including pain, swelling, and necrosis. Further, systemic findings such as diffuse intravascular coagulation, hypotension, and shock may alert physicians of viper bite envenomation rather than a neurotoxic snake bite. However, cerebral complications are rare in viper bites but may potentially fatal. Central nervous system involvement in a viper bite is either due to neurotoxins or hemorrhagins present in the venom, which may induce cerebral thrombosis, ischemia, infarction, and hemorrhage. Here we present a case of a previously healthy adult male who succumbed to extensive subarachnoid, intracerebral, and intraventricular hemorrhages involving bilateral cerebral hemispheres following viper snake bite envenomation. This report highlights the importance of anticipating cerebral complications in viper bite envenomation, a rare occurrence. It also emphasizes the need for early antisnake venom administration to prevent and control systemic envenomation and its complications.

Adult , Humans , Male , Snake Bites/complications , Hemorrhage/etiology , Intracranial Hemorrhages , Shock , India
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e243975, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285629


Abstract In South and South East Asia three genera of fish species i.e. Tor, Neolissochilus and Naziritor are commonly known as Mahseer with at least 47 species. Among these 23 belongs to genus Tor, 22 to Neolissochilus and one to Naziritor i.e. Naziritor zhobensis. Recently another species added to genus Naziritor is Naziritor chelynoides in India. Among Tor species Tor putitora (Hamilton) is the most widely distributed Mahseer in Pakistan and other countries of the Indian subcontinent. However, based alone on morphological characters some authors identify the Pakistani counterparts as Tor macrolepis (Heckel), (a species presumed to be found exclusively in the Indus River system) distinct from Tor putitora (a species found in Ganga Brahmaputra River system). In order to resolve this taxonomic ambiguity, present study carried out meristic and morphometric measurements of Mahseer collected from a total of 11 water bodies of Pakistan. Ratios between the morphometric characters were calculated and statistically analyzed using t-test and correlation coefficient. Two species identified as Tor putitora and Naziritor zhobensis were the sole Mahseer inhabitants of Indus system in Pakistan. Tor putitora occurred at all surveyed sites while Nazirtor zhobensis had a distribution range from river Zhob to tributaries of river Gomal the right bank tributaries of River Indus. The study corroborates that there are no unequivocal morphological synapomorphies in any existing populations of both species. The study further demonstrates that head length, a character frequently used in Mahseer taxonomy, is not a good measure for species identification. Finally the present study establishes that Naziritor zhobensis still exists in the water bodies of Pakistan and that golden Mahseer occurring in Indus riverine system of Pakistan is Tor putitora.

Resumo No sul e sudeste da Ásia, três gêneros de espécies de peixes, ou seja, Tor, Neolissochilus e Naziritor, são comumente conhecidos como Mahseer com pelo menos 47 espécies. Entre estas, 23 pertencem ao gênero Tor, 22 a Neolissochilus e um a Naziritor, ou seja, Naziritor zhobensis. Recentemente, outra espécie adicionada ao gênero Naziritor é Naziritor chelynoides na Índia. Entre as espécies de Tor, Tor putitora (Hamilton) é o Mahseer mais amplamente distribuído no Paquistão e em outros países do subcontinente indiano. No entanto, com base apenas em caracteres morfológicos, alguns autores identificam as contrapartes paquistanesas como Tor macrolepis (Heckel) (uma espécie que se presume ser encontrada exclusivamente no sistema do rio Indo), distinta de Tor putitora (uma espécie encontrada no sistema do rio Ganga Brahmaputra). A fim de resolver essas ambiguidades taxonômicas, o presente estudo realizou medidas merísticas e morfométricas de Mahseer coletadas em um total de 11 corpos d'água do Paquistão. As razões entre os caracteres morfométricos foram calculadas e analisadas estatisticamente usando o teste t e o coeficiente de correlação. Duas espécies identificadas como Tor putitora e Naziritor zhobensis foram os únicos habitantes Mahseer do sistema fluvial Indo no Paquistão. Tor putitora ocorreu em todos os locais pesquisados, enquanto Nazirtor zhobensis tinha uma faixa de distribuição do rio Zhob aos afluentes do rio Gomal, afluentes da margem direita do rio Indo. O estudo corrobora que não há sinapomorfias morfológicas inequívocas em nenhuma das populações existentes de ambas as espécies. O estudo demonstra ainda que o comprimento da cabeça, um caractere frequentemente usado na taxonomia de Mahseer, não é boa medida para identificação das espécies. Finalmente, o presente estudo estabelece que Naziritor zhobensis ainda existe nos corpos d'água do Paquistão e que o Mahseer dourado ocorrendo no sistema fluvial Indo do Paquistão é Tor putitora.

Animals , Cyprinidae , Pakistan , India
Braz. j. oral sci ; 21: e225388, jan.-dez. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1366211


Genetic and environmental factors are essential in occlusal variations and malocclusion and have been of considerable interest to orthodontists. Studies on twin pairs are one of the most effective methods for investigating genetically determined occlusal variables. Many studies have focused on distances between first molars or between canines but malocclusions can also occur in other regions of the dental arch. Aim: To evaluate the characteristics of the dental arch between pairs of Monozygotic (MZ) and Dizygotic (DZ) twins from Southern India. Methods: A random sample of 51 twin pairs (12­18years old) participated in this study. The zygosity of twin pairs was recorded by facial appearance. The occlusion of the first permanent molars was recorded according to Angle's classification. Study models were prepared to assess dental arch characteristics (i.e., arch form, arch perimeter, arch length; intercanine, intermolar width, and teeth size discrepancy). The obtained data was statistically analyzed using SPSS software 19.0. The student's t-test (two-tailed, independent) and Chi-square test was used to determine the significance of studied parameters. Results: Angle's Class I molar relation was more commonly observed followed by the Class II molar relationship among twins. The measured dental arch dimensions did not show a statistically significant difference among twin pairs. The ovoid arch form was commonly observed among Monozygotic and Dizygotic Twins. There was a similarity among MZ and DZ twins in the anterior and overall Bolton's ratio. Conclusion: There were similar occurrences of measured parameters among twins, which showed genetic predominance in the expression of measured dental arch traits

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Twins, Dizygotic , Twins, Monozygotic , Dental Arch/anatomy & histology , India
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 11(5): 1-11, nov. 23, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1435282


Background: Probing of the periodontal pocket is an essential part of the diagnosis of periodontal disease and 15-77% of untreated periodontal patients experience pain during probing. Therefore, the objective of this study is to evaluate the pain perceived by patients with dental plaque-induced gingivitis and chronic periodontitis during periodontal probing and the main objective includes the evaluation of the relationship between pain perceived during periodontal probing and gingival inflammatory parameters. Material and Methods: A total of 475 participants were recruited into the study. The patients were divided into two groups: Group-A (Gingivitis Group - 275 patients) and Group-B (Chronic Periodontitis Group - 200 patients). Clinical parameters included analysis of bleeding on probing, simplified gingival index, pocket depth on probing, and clinical attachment level. Pain score was recorded using the HP VAS scale and all patients participated in the study after a detailed explanation of the study protocol. Results: A significant difference in pain perception was noted between groups, highlighting the role of the degree of inflammation in the examination of periodontal parameters. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the present study, we can conclude that pain perception is directly correlated with the degree of inflammation in periodontitis rather than plaque-induced gingivitis during periodontal probing. Therefore, some form of adjuvant topical anesthesia may be considered in order to reduce pain levels in severely inflamed patients, to encourage continued acceptance of supportive periodontal therapy.

Antecedentes: El sondaje de la bolsa periodontal es una parte esencial en el diagnóstico de la enfermedad periodontal. 15-77% de los pacientes periodontales no tratados experimentan dolor durante el sondaje. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de este estudio es evaluar el dolor percibido por pacientes con gingivitis inducida por placa dental y periodontitis crónica durante el sondaje periodontal y el objetivo principal incluye la evaluación de la relación entre el dolor percibido durante el sondaje periodontal con parámetros inflamatorios gingivales. Material y Métodos: Un total de 475 sujetos fueron reclutados en el estudio. Los sujetos se dividieron en 2 grupos: Grupo - A (Grupo de gingivitis - 275 pacientes) y Grupo - B (Grupo de periodontitis crónica - 200 pacientes). Los parámetros clínicos incluyeron el análisis del sangrado al sondaje, el índice gingival simplificado, la profundidad de la bolsa al sondaje y el nivel de inserción clínica. La puntuación del dolor se registró utilizando la escala HP VAS y todos los pacientes participaron en el estudio después de una explicación detallada del protocolo del estudio. Resultados: Se notó una diferencia significativa en la percepción del dolor en el grupo B que en el grupo A, lo que significa el papel del grado de inflamación en el examen de los parámetros periodontales. Conclusión: Dentro de las limitaciones del presente estudio, podemos concluir que la percepción del dolor se correlaciona directamente con el grado de inflamación que se observa en la periodontitis más que con la gingivitis inducida por la placa dental durante el sondaje periodontal. Por lo tanto, se puede considerar alguna forma de anestesia tópica adyuvante para reducir los niveles de dolor en pacientes gravemente inflamados para fomentar la aceptación continua de la terapia periodontal de apoyo.

Humans , Male , Female , Chronic Periodontitis , Pain Perception , Gingivitis , Periodontal Diseases , Periodontal Index , Prospective Studies , India , Inflammation
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 11(3): 1-8, jun. 30, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1434409


Objetive: The aim of the study was to evaluate the maximum molar bite force in children aged 4 to 6 years with and without dental caries. Material and Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out from May 2018 to December 2018. A total of 288 children aged between 4 to 6 years were randomly selected from six different primary schools in Chennai city, India and divided into two groups of 144 children each, based on the presence and absence of caries: Group A children with non-carious dentition and Group B children with carious dentition. Bite force measurement was performed using standardized custom made occlusal force gauge. Statistical analysis used: Data were expressed as the mean ± SD. Student's t­test (two tailed, independent) and ANOVA were used to find the significance of study parameters between the groups. Results: Occlusal bite force of non-carious dentition (367.94 ±33.71N) was higher than the carious dentition (326.73±27.83N) and it was statistically significant (p≤0.01). Overall occlusal bite force of boys (350.44±35.84N) was significantly higher than that of girls (344.22±38.25N). Flush terminal plane molar relationship showed higher occlusal bite force (380.54±27.36N) followed by mesial step (350.82±22.25N) and distal step (310.63±20.82N) molar relationship. Conclusion: Non-carious dentition showed significantly higher bite force than carious dentition in children 4 to 6 years of age. Boys had higher bite force than the girls and flush terminal plane molar relationship showed higher bite force than mesial and distal step molar relationship.

Objetivo: El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar la fuerza de mordida molar máxima en niños y niñas de 4 a 6 años con y sin caries dental. Material y Métodos: Este estudio transversal se llevó a cabo entre mayo de 2018 y diciembre de 2018. Se seleccionó aleatoriamente un total de 288 niños y niñas de entre 4 y 6 años de seis escuelas primarias diferentes en la ciudad de Chennai, India, y se dividieron en dos grupos de 144 niños cada uno según la presencia y ausencia de caries: El grupo A incluye niños con dentición no-cariada y el grupo B incluye niños con dentición cariada. La medición de la fuerza de mordida se realizó utilizando un medidor de fuerza oclusal estandarizado hecho a medida.Análisis estadístico utilizado: Los datos se expresaron como la media ± SD. Se utilizó la prueba t de Student (dos colas, independiente) y ANOVA para encontrar la importancia de los parámetros de estudio entre los grupos. Resultados: La fuerza de mordida oclusal de la dentición no cariada (367,94 ±33,71N) fue mayor que la de la dentición cariada (326,73±27,83N) y fue estadísticamente significativa (p≤0,01). La fuerza de mordida oclusal global de los niños (350,44±35,84N) fue significativamente mayor que la de las niñas (344,22±38,25N). La relación molar en el plano terminal al ras mostró una mayor fuerza de mordida oclusal (380,54 ± 27,36 N), seguida de una relación molar de escalón mesial (350,82 ± 22,25 N) y escalón distal (310,63 ± 20,82N).Conclusión: La dentición no cariada mostró una fuerza de mordida significativamente mayor que la dentición cariada en niños de 4 a 6 años de edad. Los niños tenían una mayor fuerza de mordida que las niñas y la relación molar en el plano terminal mostró una mayor fuerza de mordida que la relación molar escalonada mesial y distal.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Bite Force , Dental Caries , Cross-Sectional Studies , India/epidemiology , Molar
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 68(2): 212-216, Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365352


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: Neonates are more susceptible to drug interactions and adverse effects, and special care should be taken when prescribing medication to them. This study aimed to investigate drug usage in the neonatal intensive care unit of a tertiary care hospital. METHODS: This prospective observational study was conducted on 98 patients at the Apollo tertiary care hospital (Bannerghatta, Bangalore, India) in a period of 6 months. The most common indications for neonatal intensive care unit admission, average number of drugs per patient, the most frequently used medication, distribution of patients based on the birth procedure, and possible drug interactions were collected from patient profiles. RESULTS: Among the patients, 52% were males and 48% were females. Notably, 38% of patients were preterm, 60% were term, and only 2% were post-term. Also, 80.6% were born by cesarean section and 19.4% were born by normal vaginal delivery. The highest mean of drug use was in the patient of 1,000-1,500 g (8.06 per patient). Preterm was the most frequent indication for admission in neonatal intensive care unit, followed by hyperbilirubinemia and then respiratory distress syndrome. The most frequently used medication was vitamin K (99%) and antibiotics followed by dextrose. In different types of antibiotics, amikacin (41%), cefoperazone+sulbactam (35%), cephalosporin (1%), ceftriaxone (0.7%), and amoxicillin (0.3%) were commonly administered. There were some possible interactions, such as aminoglycoside with furosemide and calcium gluconate. CONCLUSION: Premature birth and resulting low birth weight were the main reasons for drug prescription. High administration of antibiotics is probably an area of concern and should be seriously considered.

Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal/statistics & numerical data , Drug Utilization/statistics & numerical data , Cesarean Section/adverse effects , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , India
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1365223


Abstract Objective: To compare the Oncostatin M (OSM) concentrations in tissues of patients with chronic periodontitis with and without diabetes. Material and Methods: Sixty-four subjects visiting the dental outpatient department were categorized as "healthy" (Group 1), "periodontitis" (Group 2), and "diabetes with periodontitis" (Group 3) groups. The clinical oral examination included assessment of plaque, gingivitis, probing depth, clinical attachment level. Blood glucose was assessed for group 3 patients. OSM concentration in the tissues was assessed using ELISA in all groups. Results: The mean OSM was 0.02 ± 0.04 pg/mg in the healthy group, 0.12 ± 0.09 pg/mg in the chronic periodontitis group and 0.13 ± 0.10 pg/mg in the diabetes-periodontitis group. A significantly higher mean OSM was seen in Group 2 and Group 3 than Group 1. The amount of OSM positively correlated with probing depth and clinical attachment level. Conclusion: Periodontal disease causes a rise in Oncostatin M, independent of the diabetic status. Expression of OSM in the gingival tissues can serve as an inflammatory marker.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Dental Plaque Index , Cytokines , Diabetes Mellitus , Oncostatin M/analysis , Chronic Periodontitis/pathology , Periodontal Diseases , Blood Glucose , Chi-Square Distribution , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Diagnosis, Oral , Gingiva , India/epidemiology , Inflammation
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 22: e210058, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1365226


ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate and compare the effect of 17% Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid (EDTA), 9% Etidronic acid (HEDP), and 7% Maleic acid (MA) on the push-out bond strength of NeoMTA Plus sealer to the coronal, middle, and apical thirds of root canal dentin. Material and Methods Forty single-rooted human maxillary central incisors were selected and decoronated to 12 mm long root fragments. Working length was established and root canals were then enlarged up to rotary Protaper F3. After each instrumentation, the root canal was irrigated with 2.5% NaOCl. For the final irrigation regimen, the specimens were divided into 4 groups (n=10) and treated with EDTA, HEDP, MA or Saline. Root canals were coated with NeoMTA Plus sealer, and obturation was done with single cone obturation technique. Subsequently, three horizontal sections were taken from the coronal, middle and apical thirds of each specimen, and POBS was measured using a universal testing machine. The type of bond failures was assessed under a stereomicroscope. Statistical analysis was done with One-way ANOVA with Tukey's Post hoc analysis. Results MA and EDTA showed the highest POBS. There was no significant difference in bond strength between MA and EDTA (p>0.05). HEDP and Saline showed lower POBS. Among all the four groups, the coronal third showed the highest values, followed by middle and apical thirds. Conclusion The type of chelating agent used during the root canal treatment significantly affects the bond strength of NeoMTA Plus to the root canal dentin.

Humans , Root Canal Filling Materials , Tensile Strength , Chelating Agents/chemistry , Dental Cements , Endodontics , Analysis of Variance , Edetic Acid , Etidronic Acid , Dental Materials/chemistry , Incisor , India , Maleic Hydrazide
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1365230


ABSTRACT Over the past year and a half dental education has been conducted primarily online due to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. During the pandemic, we have spent many hours a day on our computers, mobile phones, and tablets to gather information and participate in online seminars and classrooms. Health consequences resulting from the overuse of these devices include carpal tunnel syndrome as well as computer vision syndrome (CVS). Computer vision syndrome, also known as digital eye strain, has several associated features such as eye burning, strained vision, dry eye, blurred vision, and associated neck and shoulder pain. Several predisposing factors have been linked with CVS, but often this problem gets ignored. The management of this syndrome is aimed at educating dentists on computer use, position, and the surrounding environment. Considering all this, we must ensure that we spend some time away from these devices every day to avoid any significant vision problems. The objective of preparing this manuscript was to provide a brief overview of the increased prevalence of computer vision syndrome and its associated features.

Vision Disorders/prevention & control , Artificial Intelligence , Dentists , Eye Diseases/prevention & control , COVID-19/complications , Microcomputers , Carpal Tunnel Syndrome , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Education, Dental , Screen Time , India
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1365234


ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the marginal adaptation of computer-aided designing and computer-aided machining (CAD/CAM) fabricated cobalt-chromium and zirconium-oxide-based ceramic crowns compared to those produced by a conventional method. Material and Methods The study consists of three groups; 45 crowns fabricated from cobalt-chromium (CAD-CoCr) and 45 crowns manufactured from zirconium CAD/CAM technology (CAD-Z), and 45 control (C) which consists of conventional metal-ceramic crowns. The marginal discrepancies in vertical dimensions were assessed utilizing a microscope in four surfaces (mesial, distal, vestibular, and oral) for each crown. On completion of the microscopic evaluation, multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to study the difference in the four surfaces, considered altogether. Two-way ANOVA revealed the effect of three systems used for gap measurements of each landmark. The differences observed were considered significant at p<0.05. Results There were no differences in the four surfaces revealed by АNOVА in the three groups when considered altogether. Two-way ANOVA of each surface discovered no differences among all groups as well. Conclusion The CAD/CAM crowns revealed a comparable and satisfactory marginal adaptation compared to conventional metal-ceramic crowns.

Zirconium , Chromium Alloys , Dental Prosthesis/instrumentation , Crowns , Dental Porcelain , In Vitro Techniques , Analysis of Variance , Metal Ceramic Alloys , Computer-Aided Design , Dental Marginal Adaptation , India
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1422290


Abstract Objective: To quantify and compare respiratory functions and further screen the oral mucosa of tobacco and non-tobacco users. Material and Methods: First control group, non-tobacco users (n=55); Second group, smokers' group (n=168) who currently smoked cigarettes; Third group smokeless/chewing type, tobacco group (n=81); Fourth group, both smokeless and smoking type tobacco users (n=46). Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependences (FTND) and Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence-Smokeless Tobacco (FTND-ST) instruments were used to assess nicotine dependence. Subsequently, spirometry and Toluidine Blue (TB) vital staining were performed. Chi-squared and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used for statistical analysis. Results: Fagerstrom test resulted in 48.8% of subjects with low dependency, followed by an increase in nicotine dependency from low to moderate (29.2%), moderate (15.6%), and highly dependent (6.4%) groups. All respiratory function tests and oral screening confirmed significant changes amongst tobacco and non-tobacco users. The forced vital capacity of non-smoker group was significantly different from other tobacco users' group (p<0.05). Conclusion: Early effects of tobacco use can lead to complications with the respiratory system and oral cavity. Such data can be used to delineate the harm of tobacco and should be used to urge individuals to evade the utilization of tobacco (AU).

Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Spirometry/methods , Tobacco Use Disorder , Lung Volume Measurements/instrumentation , Mouth Mucosa/pathology , Nicotine/adverse effects , Chi-Square Distribution , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires , Analysis of Variance , India/epidemiology
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1386818


Abstract Objective: To translate Oral Health Literacy - Adult Questionnaire from English to Odia language and test its psychometric properties and assess its influence on oral health status of school teachers. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was performed among 400; 116 (29%) males and 284 (71%) female school teachers of Bhubaneswar. OHL-AQ questionnaire subsequent to being translated to Odia language utilizing World Health Organization recommended translation back translation protocol was then tested for the establishment of its psychometric properties with assistance from the selected expert panel of academicians. The oral health status of participants was assessed using the WHO oral health assessment form-2013. Chi-square, t-tests, one-way ANOVA, and linear regression were used for statistical analysis. Results: Internal consistency of OHL-AQ-O was acceptable with an alpha value of 0.70. Test-retest reliability showed almost perfect agreement (ICC=0.90, CI=0.85-0.93) indicating highly reliable translated scale (p=0.001). Overall mean oral health literacy scores were 13.02±1.86, with about 80% belonging to the high oral health literacy level group. Caries prevalence was 78%, with a mean DMFT of 3.04±2.55. Shallow pockets were absent majorly in teachers belonging to the high oral health literacy group (p=0.01). The multiple linear regression model depicted that only the teaching experience variable added significantly to the prediction (p=0.008). Conclusion: OHL-AQ-O questionnaire was found valid and reliable to measure OHL. Further application of the instrument in other communities and populations will support establishing the external validity of the OHL-AQ-O.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Psychometrics/methods , Oral Health , Health Education, Dental , Health Literacy , Translating , Chi-Square Distribution , Linear Models , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires , Analysis of Variance , India/epidemiology
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-987159


Background@#India has the highest incidence of retinoblastoma globally and is one of the six Asian countries identified to contribute 43% to the global retinoblastoma cases. Data on clinical presentation, treatment, and outcomes were reviewed which can serve as basis in the creation of clinical guidelines, policies and programs, and resource allocation in the diagnosis and management of retinoblastoma in India. @*Methodology@#Articles on retinoblastoma in India gathered from different databases were reviewed for clinical features, treatment, and outcomes. @*Result@#Fourteen articles with 3,666 patients involving around 4,945 eyes seen from 1983-2017 were reviewed. The median age at consult ranged from 14-48 months. The median delay of consult ranged from 2-9 months. Majority of the patients were males (59%) and unilateral disease was present in 63%. Family history was reported in 4%. Retinoblastoma was intraocular in at least 75% of eyes. Systemic chemotherapy was the most used treatment option given to >2,042 eyes. Enucleation was done in >1,695 eyes. The mean follow-up period ranged from 4-50 months. Three hundred fifty six (356) patients were lost to follow-up. The functional vision was retained in 134 eyes. The globe salvage rate for Group A was 100%, 94-100% for Group B, and 50-100% in Group C. The highest globe salvage rate for Group D eyes was 85% and 58% for group E. The overall survival rate was 75% (2,233 patients).@*Conclusion@#Common among the articles was the relatively high proportion of extraocular disease attributed to delay in consult attributed to financial factors and lack of knowledge on the disease.

Retinoblastoma , Therapeutics , India , Asia
Int. j. morphol ; 39(6): 1787-1790, dic. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385555


SUMMARY: In the western surgical tradition there has been little acknowledgement of the ancient Vedic surgeon Sushruta who initiated many aspects of surgical practice. In his compendium the Sushruta Samhita, Sushruta systematised medicine in various areas. His meticulous knowledge in many branches of medicine is evident. A brilliant surgeon, he developed plastic surgical techniques, types of bandaging, hygiene practices and over one hundred surgical instruments. In this article, I focus on Sushruta's ideas on human dissection as a pre-requisite for surgery, his method of preparation of human cadavers and his anatomical pedagogy. Sushruta pioneered the instruction of cadaveric based anatomical learning which is still being used in medical teaching.

RESUMEN: En la tradición quirúrgica occidental existe escaso reconocimiento del antiguo cirujano védico Sushruta, quien inició muchos aspectos de la práctica quirúrgica. En su compen-dio, el Sushruta Samhita, Sushruta sistematizó la medicina en varias áreas. Es evidente su meticuloso conocimiento en muchas ramas de la medicina. Cirujano brillante, desarrolló técnicas de cirugía plástica, tipos de vendajes, prácticas de higiene y más de cien instrumentos quirúrgicos. El enfoque de este artículo se centra en las ideas de Sushruta sobre la disección humana como requisito previo para la cirugía, su método de preparación de cadáveres humanos y su pedagogía anatómica. Sushruta fue pionero en la instrucción del aprendizaje anatómico basado en cadáveres que todavía se utiliza en la enseñanza médica.

Humans , Dissection/education , Anatomy/education , Surgical Procedures, Operative/education , Cadaver , Classification , Human Body , Dissection/history , Anatomy/history , India
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 43(3): 280-286, July-Sept. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346270


Abstract Introduction: Transfusion in cirrhotic patients remains a challenge due to the absence of evidence-based guidelines. Our study aimed to determine the indication of transfusion and the associated transfusion thresholds in cirrhotic patients. Methods: This retrospective observational study was conducted in the Department of Transfusion Medicine at a tertiary care liver center from October 2018 to March 2019. The blood bank and patient records of cirrhotic patients admitted during the study period were retrieved and analyzed to determine the current transfusion practice. Results: A total of 992 cirrhotic patients were included in the study. Blood components were transfused to 402 (40.5%) patients. Sixty-nine (17.2%) patients were transfused to control/treat active bleeding, while 333 (82.8%) were transfused prophylactically. Packed red blood cells (65.4%) was the most commonly transfused blood component, followed by fresh frozen plasma (35.6%), among patients receiving transfusions (therapeutic & prophylactic). The mean pre-transfusion thresholds for: (i) packed red blood cell transfusion: hemoglobin less than 7 g/dL; (ii) fresh frozen plasma transfusion: international normalized ratio over 2.6; (iii) platelet concentrate transfusion: platelet count less than 40,700/µL, and; (iv) cryoprecipitate transfusion: fibrinogen less than 110 mg/dL. The average length of stay of the study population was 5 days (3-9. Conclusion: To conclude, 40.5% of our hospitalized cirrhotic patients were transfused, with the majority of the transfusions being prophylactic (82.8%). Separate guidelines are required for this patient population, as these patients have an altered hemostasis which responds differently to the transfusion of blood components.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Blood Coagulation Disorders , Blood Transfusion , Liver Cirrhosis , India
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 8(2): 1-9, jun. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284417


Background:Lumbar sympathectomy through radio ablation is a useful treatment of peripheral ischemia. However, clinical efficacy with respect to lower limb ulcers is not adequately established in the Indian population. The study was conducted to evaluate the role of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of the lumbar sympathetic ganglia in healing of ischemic ulcers of the lower limb.Method:The prospective study with 63 patients registered in the General surgery department with lower limb ischemic ulcers between December 2017­ July2019 were treated with RFA. Patients with cardiopulmonary disease, pregnant, congenital malformation, or skin infection at the site of intervention, or suffering from bleeding disorders, were excluded from the study. Clinical investigation of the wound was performed, and demographic data was collected. Comparative reduction in wound size was assessed through Friedman`s ANOVA (P<0.001). Difference in pain score, hospital stay, and walking distance were evaluated using Wilcoxon matched pair test (P<0.001), Unpaired t-test, and Paired t-test (P<0.05).Result:Majority of the patients were male (n=40) with a mean age of 60.93 SD14.34 years. Significant reduction in wound size, pain scores and hospital stay were observed post procedure(P<0.001). Number of RFA sessions was significantly associated with the size of the ulcer and Fontaine's classification 2 and 3 (P<0.0001).Conclusion:RFA of lumbar sympathetic ganglia is a potential treatment modality for lower limb ischemic ulcers.

Antecedentes: La simpatectomía lumbar a través de la ablación por radiofrecuencia es un tratamiento útil de la isquemia periférica. Sin embargo, la eficacia clínica con respecto a las úlceras en las extremidades inferiores no está adecuadamente establecida en la población india. El estudio se llevó a cabo para evaluar el papel de la ablación por radiofrecuencia (RFA) de los ganglios simpáticos lumbares en la curación de las úlceras isquémicas de la extremidad inferior. Método: El estudio prospectivo con 63 pacientes registrados en el departamento de cirugía general con úlceras isquémicas de las extremidades inferiores entre diciembre de 2017 y julio de 2019 fueron tratados con RFA. Los pacientes con enfermedad cardiopulmonar, malformación embarazada, congénita o infección de la piel en el lugar de la intervención, o que sufren de trastornos hemorrágicos, fueron excluidos del estudio. Se realizó una investigación clínica de la herida y se recopilaron datos demográficos. La reducción comparativa en el tamaño de la herida se evaluó a través del ANOVA de Friedman (P<0.001).Resultado: La diferencia en la puntuación del dolor, la estancia en el hospital y la distancia a pie se evaluaron mediante la prueba de par coincidente de Wilcoxon (P<0.001), la prueba t no emparejada y la prueba t emparejada (P<0.05). La mayoría de los pacientes eran varones (n-40) con una edad media de 60,93 SD14,34 años. Se observó una reducción significativa en el tamaño de la herida, las puntuaciones de dolor y la estancia hospitalaria (P<0.001). El número de sesiones de RFA se asoció significativamente con el tamaño de la úlcera y las clasificaciones 2 y 3 de Fontaine (P<0.0001).Conclusión: LA RFA de los ganglios simpáticos lumbares puede constituir una opción terapéutica para las úlceras isquémicas de las extremidades inferiores.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Ulcer/therapy , Lower Extremity , Radiofrequency Ablation/methods , Ganglia, Sympathetic , Ischemia/therapy , Prospective Studies , Analysis of Variance , India