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1.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1365223

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To compare the Oncostatin M (OSM) concentrations in tissues of patients with chronic periodontitis with and without diabetes. Material and Methods: Sixty-four subjects visiting the dental outpatient department were categorized as "healthy" (Group 1), "periodontitis" (Group 2), and "diabetes with periodontitis" (Group 3) groups. The clinical oral examination included assessment of plaque, gingivitis, probing depth, clinical attachment level. Blood glucose was assessed for group 3 patients. OSM concentration in the tissues was assessed using ELISA in all groups. Results: The mean OSM was 0.02 ± 0.04 pg/mg in the healthy group, 0.12 ± 0.09 pg/mg in the chronic periodontitis group and 0.13 ± 0.10 pg/mg in the diabetes-periodontitis group. A significantly higher mean OSM was seen in Group 2 and Group 3 than Group 1. The amount of OSM positively correlated with probing depth and clinical attachment level. Conclusion: Periodontal disease causes a rise in Oncostatin M, independent of the diabetic status. Expression of OSM in the gingival tissues can serve as an inflammatory marker.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Dental Plaque Index , Cytokines , Diabetes Mellitus , Oncostatin M/analysis , Chronic Periodontitis/pathology , Periodontal Diseases , Blood Glucose , Chi-Square Distribution , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Diagnosis, Oral , Gingiva , India/epidemiology , Inflammation
2.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(4): 1419-1428, abr. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285924

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present study was an effort to assess the mitigation interventions carried out, so far, by the nations to fight the pandemic COVID-19. The novelty of the study was that it had considered the issue of pandemic mitigation strategy as a decision making problem. The performances of the twenty nations were to be ranked. The problem considered in the study was essentially a Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) problem. The available alternatives were the 20 countries and the 8 traits were the criteria. The Technique of Order Preference Similarity to the Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) was used in the present study. The study used Entropy method for assignment of weights to all the criteria. The performance score obtained in respect of the countries considered in the study and the corresponding ranks indicated the relative performances of the countries in their efforts to mitigate the COVID-19 pandemic. The results show that New Zealand is the best performing country and India is the worst one. Brazil ranked 17th, while the rank of UK was 15. The performance of the USA stood at 18th position.


Resumo O presente estudo foi um esforço para avaliar as intervenções de mitigação realizadas, até o momento, pelas nações para combater a pandemia COVID-19. A novidade do estudo é que considerou a questão da estratégia de mitigação da pandemia como um problema de tomada de decisão. As performances das vinte nações deveriam ser classificadas. O problema considerado no estudo era essencialmente um problema de Análise de Decisão Multi-Critério (MCDA). As alternativas disponíveis eram os 20 países e as 8 características eram os critérios. A Técnica de Similaridade de Preferência de Pedido com a Solução Ideal (TOPSIS) foi utilizada no presente estudo. O estudo utilizou o método da Entropia para atribuição de pesos a todos os critérios. A pontuação de desempenho obtida em relação aos países considerados no estudo e as classificações correspondentes indicaram os desempenhos relativos dos países em seus esforços para mitigar a pandemia COVID-19. Os resultados mostram que a Nova Zelândia é o país com melhor desempenho e a Índia o pior. O Brasil ficou em 17º, enquanto o Reino Unido ficou em 15. O desempenho dos EUA ficou na 18ª posição.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/prevention & control , United States/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Decision Support Techniques , Entropy , United Kingdom/epidemiology , India/epidemiology , New Zealand/epidemiology
3.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1346679

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of oil pulling in the management of oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF). Material and Methods: A total of 62 patients clinically and histopathologically diagnosed as OSMF were incorporated in the present study. The subjects are randomly divided equally into two groups, Group A (oil pulling group) and Group B (placebo group). Subjects in Group A were asked to perform OP with sesame oil on an empty stomach in the morning for 3 months and Group B was given placebo capsules for 3 months. Assessment of various clinical parameters was done regularly, and data were analyzed using the Chi-square test. Results: Eighty-two percent had a habit of betel nut chewing, while 18% of the patients had tobacco chewing habits, which were among the main causative factors for OSMF. Clinical improvements in mouth opening, tongue protrusion, difficulty in speech and deglutition, and burning sensation were significant in the Group A. None of the patients reported any discomfort or side effects. The symptoms were not severe in nature and resolved in few days without stopping the therapy. Conclusion: Oil pulling can bring about significant clinical improvements in the symptoms like a mouth opening and tongue protrusion.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Oral Submucous Fibrosis/pathology , Precancerous Conditions/pathology , Therapeutics , Effectiveness , Sesame Oil , Chi-Square Distribution , Visual Analog Scale , India/epidemiology
4.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1154995

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the prevalence of dental caries and fluorosis among 7-12-year-old school children in Muradnagar, India. An additional objective was to determine the relationship between dental caries and fluorosis in the studied population. Material and Methods: A total of 1500 school children aged between 7 to 12 years, and both genders were randomly selected for the present study. The selected participants were divided into three groups based upon age, viz 7-8 year (group I), 9-10 year (group II) and 11-12 year (group III). Sterile mouth mirrors and explorers were used for the detection of caries. The water samples were collected to assess the fluoride concentration. The data collected were tabulated and statistically analysed using Chi-square, ANOVA, Spearman's correlation and t-test wherever applicable. Results: Out of 1500 participants, 54.1% were females and 45.9% were males. The prevalence of dental caries and fluorosis was 89.3% and 93.7%, respectively. The prevalence of caries increased with age (p<0.05) and females showed a higher prevalence in both the dentitions. Most dental fluorosis was 'very mild' (40.1%). Prevalence of dental fluorosis increased with age and males showed more fluorosis than females. A negative relationship was found between dental caries and fluorosis (p<0.05). Conclusion: Dental caries and fluorosis are the public health problems in Muradnagar; therefore, preventive programs should be organized to increase awareness among the general people.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Stomatognathic Diseases/pathology , Epidemiology , Dental Caries/prevention & control , India/epidemiology , Fluorosis, Dental/etiology , Chi-Square Distribution , Public Health , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric
5.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1154998

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the effects of commonly used smokeless tobacco forms on oral health at habitual placement sites of smokeless tobacco compared to non-placement sites among the North Indian population. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 542 individuals using smokeless tobacco recruited from the outpatient wing of the Dental College. Subjects completed a questionnaire and received an oral examination. Periodontal pocket depth, gingival index, plaque index, gingival recession, and oral mucosal changes were assessed. Kendal's Tau test, paired t-test, and chi-square test were carried out to compare different variables among placement and non-placement sites. Results: Most of the subjects were male, reporting an average of 11.26 years of SLT use. Clinical inflammation of gingiva was significantly greater (p=0.01) at placement-sites (1.64 ± 0.53) of SLT in comparison to non-placement-sites (1.40 ± 0.41). The difference in the GR and PPD at placement and non-placement-sites was also statistically significant with p=0.002 and p=0.001, respectively. Clinically, the majority of subjects had mucosal changes at the placement sites, and a statistically significant association (p=0.034) was observed between the duration of the use of smokeless tobacco and the mucosal changes. Conclusion: Smokeless tobacco use predisposes to increased risk of periodontal diseases and oral mucosal changes at the placement sites in an individual due to the local irritant effect.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Periodontitis/pathology , Oral Health/education , Tobacco, Smokeless/toxicity , India/epidemiology , Mouth Mucosa/injuries , Chi-Square Distribution , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1154999

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the intra-examiner and inter-examiner reliability of linear and curvilinear measurements for the complete assessment of implant sites and jaw pathologies using Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT). Material and Methods: Fifty cone-beam computed tomographic images of patients were retrieved from the archives of Dentomaxillofacial Radiology. CBCT images taken for implant planning and evaluation of intrabony jaw pathologies (benign cyst/tumor) were included. Two expert oral and maxillofacial radiologists analyzed the images independently and made the measurements. The images for implant planning were analyzed for width, the height of the edentulous site, and the qualitative analysis of bone in the region. Jaw pathologies were assessed for linear dimensions and curvilinear measurements. Results: The inter-observer measurement error for implant site analysis ranged from 0.12 to 0.42 mm with almost perfect agreement (ICC: 0.94 to 1). The inter-observer measurement error for jaw pathology was 0.09 to 0.25 mm (ICC: 0.98-1). Curvilinear measurements showed perfect agreement between the observers. The intraobserver reliability for the various parameters used for the assessment of the implant site and jaw pathologies indicated almost perfect agreement. Conclusion: Reliability between the radiologists is high for various measurements on CBCT images taken for implant planning and jaw pathologies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pathology, Oral , Diagnostic Imaging/instrumentation , Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted/instrumentation , Dental Implantation/instrumentation , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Mandible/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , Observational Studies as Topic/methods , Dimensional Measurement Accuracy , Radiologists , India/epidemiology , Jaw , Mandible/pathology
7.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1287500

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate Indian dental students' perception of seeking international dental higher education during COVID-19. Material and Methods: We conducted an online survey among the dental students. A self-administered questionnaire was prepared, which had information on country choice, reasons for the decision to study abroad, measures to be taken by the foreign universities because of COVID-19, the application's status, current plan, and opinions on exploring other possibilities. Results: Four hundred students constituted the final sample, out of which the majority were females (69.3%). Most of the students were not sure about their status in the application process (63%). The current plan to study abroad remained uncertain for almost half of the students (50.2%). Concerning the status of the application process, a significantly higher number of female students were "not sure" and are still "searching colleges" (p<0.001). Similarly, a higher number of females were "uncertain" or "postponed" or "canceled" when compared to the males concerning the current plan to study abroad (p=0.001). Also, a significantly higher proportion of female students cited the study budget as the main deterrent for pursuing a career abroad and opined that "flexible study options" will help them get admissions post-COVID-19 (p=0.001 and 0.035). Conclusion: A substantial impact was perceived by Indian dental students concerning higher education abroad, more among females.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Students, Dental , Internationality , Education, Dental , COVID-19 , India/epidemiology , Self Concept , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires , Data Interpretation, Statistical
8.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1287485

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To establish the validity of COVID-19 Peritraumatic Distress Index (CPDI) questionnaire and assess the stress with its associated factors during COVID-19 among dental professionals in Bhubaneswar, India. Material and Methods: An online survey through Google Forms was steered among 234 dentists. CPDI questionnaire was used for data collection post its validation assessment. Content validity was judged satisfactory by two psychiatrists, and excellent internal consistency was found (Cronbach's alpha = 0.92). For statistical analysis, chi-square and binomial logistic regression tests were used with a significance level of p=0.05. Results: 70 (29.9%) were males and 164 (70.1%) were females with a mean age of 30.58 ± 6.70 years. Around 50% had an MDS degree and were attached to an institution and nearly 80% were having experience of less than 10 years. The mean CPDI score was found to be 29.09 ± 15.47. A statistically significant association was observed between CPDI scores with age (p<0.003), gender (p<0.03), practice (p<0.06) and education (p<0.006). Binomial logistic regression revealed that odds of stress were 2 times higher among males than females (OR=2.01, p<0.04), which was statistically significant. Conclusion: Acceptable validation scores confirmed CPDI as an effective instrument for detecting stress. Importance of early interventions to combat the issue of stress among dental professionals as it is allied with negative consequences on health and furthermore affects daily activities is highlighted.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Health Personnel , Dentists , Pandemics , COVID-19 , India/epidemiology , Psychiatry , Chi-Square Distribution , Logistic Models , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1250449

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the prevalence of third molar agenesis and associated characteristics. Material and Methods: A total of 2374 panoramic radiographs were retrieved from the radiological archives and evaluated in a computer monitor under optimum viewing conditions. The basic demographic data (age and sex) and the primary findings regarding the presence or absence of third molars in the maxillary and mandibular arches were recorded systematically in a specially designed proforma. Categorical variables were compared using the Chi-square test. Results: A total of 2000 panoramic radiographs were included in the study, of which 1004 were females (50.2%), and 996 were of males (49.8%). The incidence of third molar agenesis was 486 patients (24.3%). Maxillary third molar showed a higher prevalence of agenesis (28.8%) than mandibular third molars (16.4%). A total of 1514 patients (75.7%) had third molars in all four quadrants, and the remaining 486 patients (24.3%) had agenesis of third molar tooth in at least one of the quadrants. Single tooth agenesis was observed in 219 (11%) patients, two teeth agenesis in 172 (8.6%) patients, three teeth agenesis in 39 (2%) patients, and four teeth agenesis in 56 (2.8%) patients. Conclusion: The present study exhibited a maximum number of single tooth agenesis. It was also observed that maxillary third molar agenesis is more than the mandibular third molar and the right side is more than the left side. Agenesis of the third molar is more prevalent in males as compared to females.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Radiography, Panoramic/instrumentation , Young Adult , Molar, Third/abnormalities , Chi-Square Distribution , India/epidemiology , Anodontia/etiology , Molar/abnormalities
10.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1180855

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the usefulness of online teaching for undergraduate students during this Corona pandemic, to point the drawbacks of online teaching, and to learn the areas of improvement in online teaching for the future. Material and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study on 130 students was done in Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India. The questionnaire consisted of two parts, personal details and specific information. The first part of the questionnaire consisted of questions related to age, gender, etc. The second part had questions pertaining to online teaching. Pearson's Chi-square test was applied and the level of significance was set at 5%. Results: Most of the students (83.3%) were in the view that classroom lectures are the best mean of imparting knowledge, which was significant (p<0.001). A significant number of students (88.1%) agreed that online teaching is the best method of teaching apart from classroom teaching. Almost all the students (93%) agreed significantly that online teaching is the best way to learn in this present pandemic scenario. Most students (59.6%) agreed that connectivity/network issue is a major drawback in online teaching, which is again significant (p<0.001). Conclusion: Here in these testing times, the role of online teaching becomes important for medical/dental students, both undergraduates and postgraduates, to keep up with their studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Students, Dental , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Education, Distance/methods , Education, Dental , COVID-19 , India/epidemiology , Chi-Square Distribution , Pilot Projects , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1180852

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the influence of oral and maxillofacial trauma on the development of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and to determine the efficiency of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) as a diagnostic tool for detecting PTSD in patients with Oral and Maxillofacial injuries. Material and Methods: PTSD was assessed one month postoperatively by the diagnostic instrument, IES-R, to arrive at a provisional diagnosis. A structured clinician-administered PTSD Scale then assessed the patients for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5th edition (CAPS-5) to establish a final diagnosis. The assessment of the severity of PTSD was done based on various types of oral and maxillofacial injuries. Results: The IES-R scale provisionally diagnosed 54 subjects with PTSD, out of which 42 were diagnosed to have PTSD by the CAPS-5 scale. Subjects with injuries involving the 'orbital complex,' those presenting with a perceptible scar in the maxillofacial region and with multiple avulsed/ luxated anterior teeth, showed a higher affinity to develop PTSD, and this was statistically significant. Conclusion: Higher levels of PTSD in patients with injuries to the maxillofacial region warrants correct diagnosis and detection, and hence the maxillofacial surgeon plays a vital role in this regard. The IES-R is a useful diagnostic tool to detect PTSD early.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Early Diagnosis , Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons , Maxillofacial Injuries/diagnosis , Chi-Square Distribution , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , India/epidemiology
12.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1155004

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in students and to evaluate if any relationship existed between the stress levels, salivary cortisol levels, and TMD. Material and Methods: A total of 348 students, 187 female, and 161 male students, participated in this cross-sectional study. Students were evaluated based on the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD. The stress levels were evaluated using the Perceived Stress Scale. The students were divided into the control and TMD groups. Salivary cortisol levels in the salivary samples were analyzed. Results: The prevalence rate of TMDs was 30.7% in the study population. Of the female students, 61% had TMD compared with 46% of male students. Muscle disorders were the most predominant disorder in 14.2% of the students with TMD. The TMD group showed significantly higher salivary cortisol and stress levels than the control group. The TMD group also showed a moderate positive correlation between cortisol and stress levels (p=0.01). Conclusion: The study showed a strong association between salivary cortisol levels, stress, and temporomandibular disorders. Salivary cortisol could be used as a prognostic biomarker for stress while assessing the severity of TMJ problems in stressed individuals.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Saliva/immunology , Students, Dental , Hydrocortisone/adverse effects , Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction Syndrome/diagnosis , Muscular Diseases/etiology , Temporomandibular Joint/abnormalities , Biomarkers , Temporomandibular Joint Disorders/diagnosis , Chi-Square Distribution , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires , Statistics, Nonparametric , India/epidemiology
13.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1351212

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the oral health knowledge, attitude, behaviour, and its association with sociodemographic and habitual factors among South Indian Population. Material and Methods: A total of 288 adults living in a residential community situated in Chennai were selected by systematic random sampling method participated in this cross-sectional study. Data collection was carried out using a validated questionnaire. Results: About 97.9% of the participants in our study had good knowledge, 33.3% had a positive attitude and 48.2% had adequate oral health behaviour. Sociodemographic and habitual factors like diet (p=0.006), education (p=0.009), and employment (p=0.003) were significantly associated with knowledge. On the other hand, diet (p=0.012) was the only factor significantly associated with attitude. Ownership of house (p= 0.030) was significantly associated with behaviour and no factor was associated with all three KAB profiles. Absence of correlation were identified between Knowledge-Attitude (r=0.11, p=0.23), Knowledge-Behaviour (r= -0.037, p= 0.68) and Attitude-Behaviour (r =0.01, p=0.94). Conclusion: It has been found a massive number of participants possessed a high knowledge level towards oral health. On the other hand, less than half of the participants had a positive attitude and adequate behaviour towards oral health. No positive linear correlation was seen among knowledge, attitude, and behaviour towards oral health.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Oral Hygiene/education , Health Behavior , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Oral Health , India/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires , Statistics, Nonparametric , Health Promotion
14.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e05192020, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155590

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Dengue presents with a variable clinical course, ranging from mild illness to potentially fatal hemorrhage and shock. We aimed to evaluate the capabilities of various hematological parameters observed early in the course of illness for predicting the clinical outcomes of illness. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the records of children admitted in the pediatric inpatient services of the institute with dengue between 2017 and 2019. We determined the relationships between the hematological parameters observed during the first evaluation and the various clinical outcomes. RESULTS: We evaluated data from 613 patients (age range, 26 days to 17 years). Of these, 29.85% exhibited fever with warning signs, and 8.97% had severe dengue. Lower values of hemoglobin, platelet count, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, and mean platelet volume, and higher values of total leukocyte count (TLC), hematocrit, and red cell distribution width variably correlated with numerous clinical outcomes-duration of hospital stay, development of complications, requirement of blood component transfusion, inotropic support, and mortality. Among the parameters, TLC ≥20,000/mL and initial platelet count ≤20,000/mL significantly associated with mortality, with odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of 11.81 (4.21-33.80) and 5.53 (1.90-16.09), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Hematological parameters observed early during dengue infection may predict its clinical outcomes in infected children. Initial high TLC and low platelet count are potential predictors of fatal outcomes in the course of disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adult , Severe Dengue/diagnosis , Dengue/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Hematocrit , India/epidemiology , Leukocyte Count
15.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1351218

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Tocompare the effect of tooth brushing on surface roughness of Resin-Modified Glass Ionomer Cement (RMGIC; GC Gold label 2LC Light Cured Universal Restorative) and Glass Hybrid (GH; GC EQUIA SYSTEM- EQUIA Forte™ Fil and EQUIA Forte™ Coat) restorative material at 1- and 3-months interval simulated by tooth brushing. Material and Methods: RMGIC and GH material specimens (20 each) were prepared according to manufacturer instructions in 10mm × 2 mm dimensions using a mylar strip. A specially designed toothbrush simulator was used along with Oral B Pro 2 2000N powered toothbrush and Colgate Total dentifrice (Colgate-Palmolive India limited; Relative dentin abrasivity - RDA:70- Low abrasive) to perform brushing strokes. Specimens were subjected to surface roughness analysis before and after simulated tooth brushing at baseline, 1, and 3 months. Results: The intragroup comparison was done using repeated-measures ANOVA. Intergroup comparisons were done using an independent sample t-test and General Linear Model (ANCOVA). Surface roughness increased from baseline through 3 months in both RMGIC and GH groups. The mean surface roughness in RMGIC group was significantly higher than GH group at baseline 1 and 3-months, respectively (p<0.001, <0.001, and <0.001). Interaction between group and baseline surface roughness was not significant (p=0.466). The estimated marginal means were significantly higher in RMGIC than GH group (p=0.008). Conclusion: The surface roughness of both RMGIC and GH restorative increased from baseline to 1 month and 3 months after the simulated toothbrushing protocol. GH exhibited significantly lower surface roughness than RMGIC at all the tested intervals.


Subject(s)
Surface Properties , Toothbrushing/instrumentation , Microscopy, Atomic Force/instrumentation , Dental Materials , Glass Ionomer Cements , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , India/epidemiology
16.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1351217

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate and compare the effectiveness of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) therapy on whole salivary flow in patients with xerostomia and healthy adults. Material and Methods: Thirty subjects with a history of xerostomia and subjects withunstimulated salivary flow equal to or less than 0.5 ml in 5 min were included in the study group, and 30 healthy subjects were included in the control group. Low forced spitting unstimulated saliva was collected for five minutes in a test tube fitted with a funnel. Then electrode pads of the TENS unit were applied bilaterally on skin overlying the parotid glands and at optimal intensity, stimulated saliva was collected for 5 minutes with the same method in a separate graduated test tube. The salivary flow rate (per minute) was calculated by dividing the amount of collected saliva (volume in mL) by the duration of collection period (5 minutes) and the salivary flow rates prior and after electrostimulation were compared for both groups. The Student's t-test (unpaired and paired) was performed for group-wise comparisons. Results: In study group, the mean unstimulated salivary flow rate was 0.07 ± 0.01 mL/min. There was an 85.71% increase in salivary flow (0.13 ± 0.03 mL/min) during the TENS application and the difference was highly significant (p<0.001). In control group, the mean unstimulated salivary flow rate was 0.37 ± 0.07 mL/min. There was a 21.62% increase in salivary flow (0.45 ± 0.07 mL/min) during the TENS application and the difference was highly significant (p<0.001). An increase in mean salivary flow rate both in males and females after TENS application in both groups (p<0.001) was noted. The difference between unstimulated, stimulated and mean difference in salivary flow rate between males and females was notstatistically significant in both groups (p<0.05). Conclusion: TENS can be an effective therapy in increasing whole salivary flow rates in patients with xerostomia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Saliva/immunology , Xerostomia/pathology , Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation/instrumentation , Prospective Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric , India/epidemiology
17.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1250447

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To test the modified Demirjian's method of dental age estimation on the South Indian population and correlate it with the patient's chronological age. Material and Methods: This retrospective radiographic study was performed on digital panoramic radiographs taken during a one-year duration. Radiographs of patients in the age range from 8 to 18 years were included in the study. The radiographs were examined and according to the stage of the crown and root status of the left side mandibular teeth. The stage of calcification was observed for eight teeth in the mandibular arch and was recorded in a specially designed proforma. Each rated tooth with stage was converted into a score using a conversion table specified for girls and boys. Results: 224 digital panoramic radiographs were retrieved from the radiologic database. Out of total study sample, 49.5% (n=111) were boys and 50.5% (n=113). The mean chronological and estimated dental age using dental maturity scores resulted in an overestimation of 3 years and eight months. Also, it was noted that there was a strong positive association between chronological (real) and dental age. Conclusion: It was observed that there was a strong correlation between chronological and dental age. A new formula for determining the chronological age from the estimated dental age was derived. Further studies on a larger population may prove the reliability of this age estimation method.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Tooth/growth & development , Age Determination by Teeth , Radiography, Panoramic/instrumentation , Forensic Dentistry , Retrospective Studies , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Growth and Development , Age and Sex Distribution , India/epidemiology
18.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1143402

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the current level of oral health knowledge and identify information sources among adolescents in Bhubaneswar, India. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional examination was conducted among 1330 adolescents aged 13 to 15 years enrolled in 24 randomly selected government and private schools in Bhubaneswar. A specially designed self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the responses. Chi-square test with a level of significance set at 5% was used for statistical analysis. Results: Parents (55%) followed by media (18%) were the major sources of oral health information among the study population, which was statistically not significant in relation to gender and school type. Many subjects (95.3%) perceived sweets could cause tooth decay; however, this was statistically significant only among school type (p<0.05). Around (45%) knew about fluoride and only 36% properly identified fluoride's action as preventing cavities. This was statistically significant among both gender and school type (p<0.05). Seventy-five percent of students effectively distinguished gum disease symptoms, which was significant only with gender (p<0.05). Around 55% identified that oral habits have an influence on oral health, which showed significance among gender (p<0.05). Conclusion: Children oral health knowledge was not satisfactory, highlighting the need to utilize parents, schoolteachers and media to provide oral health education. It's essential for designing and implementing a person-centered care model in dentistry.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Oral Health/education , Adolescent , Dental Care , India/epidemiology , Chi-Square Distribution , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 9(6): 500-510, dic. 31, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178947

ABSTRACT

Objetive: Home oral care practices in patients undergoing orthodontic therapy are often ineffective in maintaining optimal plaque control. The aim of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of periodontal maintenance program in subjects with established gingivitis undergoing fixed orthodontic appliance therapy for one year. Material and Methods: Forty patients undergoing fixed orthodontic appliance therapy with established chronic gingivitis were recruited for the study. As a part of a periodontal maintenance program, a pre-validated structured questionnaire evaluating oral hygiene and periodontal health was administered at the baseline as well as at the end of the study. At the baseline Gingival Bleeding Index, Gingival Index, and Bonded Bracket Plaque Index scores were recorded, Scaling and polishing procedure was performed followed by a customised Oral Hygiene Advice (OHA) session was conducted for all the study subjects. Clinical indices were assessed and OHA was conducted at the 3rd, 6th, 9th, and 12th months of orthodontic treatment visits. Results: There was significant improvement in the clinical indices and awareness regarding oral hygiene and periodontal health level in the patients at the end of the 12th month. Conclusion: The periodontal maintenance program appeared to be effective in improving the periodontal health and awareness health awareness level about oral hygiene among patients undergoing fixed orthodontic therapy at the end of 12 months in our study population.


Objetivo: Las prácticas de cuidado bucal en el hogar en pacientes sometidos a terapia de ortodoncia suelen ser ineficaces para mantener un control óptimo de la placa. El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar la efectividad del programa de mantenimiento periodontal en sujetos con gingivitis establecida sometidos a terapia con aparatos de ortodoncia fijos durante un año. Material y Métodos: Se reclutó para el estudio a 40 pacientes sometidos a terapia con aparatos de ortodoncia fijos y con gingivitis crónica establecida. Como parte de un programa de mantenimiento periodontal, se administró un cuestionario estructurado pre-validado que evaluaba la higiene bucal y la salud periodontal al inicio y al final del estudio. En la línea de base, se registraron las puntuaciones del índice de sangrado gingival, el índice gingival y el índice de placa de soporte adherido, se realizó el procedimiento de raspado y pulido seguido de una sesión personalizada de consejos de higiene oral (CHO) para todos los sujetos del estudio. Se evaluaron los índices clínicos y se llevó a cabo la CHO a los 3, 6, 9 y 12 meses durante las visitas de tratamiento de ortodoncia. Resultados: Hubo una mejora significativa en los índices clínicos y la conciencia sobre la higiene oral y el nivel de salud periodontal en los pacientes al final del 12º mes. Conclusión: El programa de mantenimiento periodontal pareció ser eficaz para mejorar la salud periodontal y el nivel de conciencia de la salud sobre la higiene bucal entre los pacientes sometidos a terapia de ortodoncia fija al final de los 12 meses en nuestra población de estudio.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Oral Hygiene/psychology , Orthodontic Appliances, Fixed , Gingivitis , Surveys and Questionnaires , India/epidemiology
20.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1135552

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To evaluate and compare the efficacy of eggshell derived calcium hydroxyapatite with Dycal® as indirect pulp capping material in primary molars. Material and Methods: A total of 32 carious primary molars from 22 children (6-10-years) were screened, of which 26 primary molars meeting inclusion criteria were selected and equally divided into two groups. At the first appointment, the infected dentin was excavated using a spoon excavator after treating the carious part with Carie-Care™ chemomechanical caries removal agent. After this, eggshell derived calcium hydroxyapatite in Group 1 and Dycal® in Group 2 were used as liners followed by restoration of the cavity with type IX glass ionomer cement. Clinical assessment for pain and radiographic assessment for measurement of the amount of reparative dentin thickness formation was performed at baseline, 8 weeks and 3 months. The data were subjected to statistical analysis by one-way ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results: Higher mean reparative dentin formation was found in eggshell derived calcium hydroxyapatite group than Dycal® group at the end of 8 weeks and 3 months and the difference was significant statistically (p<0.001). Conclusion: Eggshell derived calcium hydroxyapatite seems to be a suitable alternative to Dycal® (calcium hydroxide) that can be used as a liner for indirect pulp capping in primary molars.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Tooth, Deciduous , Durapatite/therapeutic use , Dental Pulp Capping , Dentin, Secondary/anatomy & histology , Molar , Radiography, Dental/instrumentation , Efficacy , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Egg Shell , Glass Ionomer Cements , India/epidemiology
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