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1.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 359-372, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929095

ABSTRACT

Irritable bowel syndrome is a gastrointestinal disorder of unknown etiology characterized by widespread, chronic abdominal pain associated with altered bowel movements. Increasing amounts of evidence indicate that injury and inflammation during the neonatal period have long-term effects on tissue structure and function in the adult that may predispose to gastrointestinal diseases. In this study we aimed to investigate how the epigenetic regulation of DNA demethylation of the p2x7r locus guided by the transcription factor GATA binding protein 1 (GATA1) in spinal astrocytes affects chronic visceral pain in adult rats with neonatal colonic inflammation (NCI). The spinal GATA1 targeting to DNA demethylation of p2x7r locus in these rats was assessed by assessing GATA1 function with luciferase assay, chromatin immunoprecipitation, patch clamp, and interference in vitro and in vivo. In addition, a decoy oligodeoxynucleotide was designed and applied to determine the influence of GATA1 on the DNA methylation of a p2x7r CpG island. We showed that NCI caused the induction of GATA1, Ten-eleven translocation 3 (TET3), and purinergic receptors (P2X7Rs) in astrocytes of the spinal dorsal horn, and demonstrated that inhibiting these molecules markedly increased the pain threshold, inhibited the activation of astrocytes, and decreased the spinal sEPSC frequency. NCI also markedly demethylated the p2x7r locus in a manner dependent on the enhancement of both a GATA1-TET3 physical interaction and GATA1 binding at the p2x7r promoter. Importantly, we showed that demethylation of the p2x7r locus (and the attendant increase in P2X7R expression) was reversed upon knockdown of GATA1 or TET3 expression, and demonstrated that a decoy oligodeoxynucleotide that selectively blocked the GATA1 binding site increased the methylation of a CpG island in the p2x7r promoter. These results demonstrate that chronic visceral pain is mediated synergistically by GATA1 and TET3 via a DNA-demethylation mechanism that controls p2x7r transcription in spinal dorsal horn astrocytes, and provide a potential therapeutic strategy by targeting GATA1 and p2x7r locus binding.


Subject(s)
Animals , Astrocytes/metabolism , DNA Demethylation , Epigenesis, Genetic , GATA1 Transcription Factor/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Oligodeoxyribonucleotides/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, Purinergic P2X7/metabolism , Visceral Pain/metabolism
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929058

ABSTRACT

Acetaminophen, also known as N-acetyl-p-aminophenol (APAP), is commonly used as an antipyretic and analgesic agent. APAP overdose can induce hepatic toxicity, known as acetaminophen-induced liver injury (AILI). However, therapeutic doses of APAP can also induce AILI in patients with excessive alcohol intake or who are fasting. Hence, there is a need to understand the potential pathological mechanisms underlying AILI. In this review, we summarize three main mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of AILI: hepatocyte necrosis, sterile inflammation, and hepatocyte regeneration. The relevant factors are elucidated and discussed. For instance, N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI) protein adducts trigger mitochondrial oxidative/nitrosative stress during hepatocyte necrosis, danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are released to elicit sterile inflammation, and certain growth factors contribute to liver regeneration. Finally, we describe the current potential treatment options for AILI patients and promising novel strategies available to researchers and pharmacists. This review provides a clearer understanding of AILI-related mechanisms to guide drug screening and selection for the clinical treatment of AILI patients in the future.


Subject(s)
Acetaminophen/toxicity , Analgesics, Non-Narcotic/toxicity , Animals , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/pathology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury, Chronic/pathology , Humans , Inflammation/metabolism , Liver/pathology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Necrosis/pathology
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928946

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate whether Lingbao Huxin Pill (LBHX) protects against acute myocardial infarction (AMI) at the infarct border zone (IBZ) of myocardial tissue by regulating apoptosis and inflammation through the sirtuin 1 (SIRT1)-mediated forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1) and nuclear factor-κ B (NF-κ B) signaling pathways.@*METHODS@#Six-week-old Wistar rats with normal diet were randomized into the sham, the model, Betaloc (0.9 mg/kg daily), LBHX-L (0.45 mg/kg daily), LBHX-M (0.9 mg/kg daily), LBHX-H (1.8 mg/kg daily), and LBHX+EX527 (0.9 mg/kg daily) groups according to the method of random number table, 13 in each group. In this study, left anterior descending coronary artery (LADCA) ligation was performed to induce an AMI model in rats. The myocardial infarction area was examined using a 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride solution staining assay. A TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay was conducted to assess cardiomyocyte apoptosis in the IBZ. The histopathology of myocardial tissue at the IBZ was assessed with Heidenhain, Masson and hematoxylineosin (HE) staining assays. The expression levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1 β, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). The mRNA expressions of SIRT1 and FOXO1 were detected by real-time qPCR (RT-qPCR). The protein expressions of SIRT1, FOXO1, SOD2, BAX and NF- κ B p65 were detected by Western blot analysis.@*RESULTS@#The ligation of the LADCA successfully induced an AMI model. The LBHX pretreatment reduced the infarct size in the AMI rats (P<0.01). The TUNEL assay revealed that LBHX inhibited cardiomyocyte apoptosis at the IBZ. Further, the histological examination showed that the LBHX pretreatment decreased the ischemic area of myocardial tissue (P<0.05), myocardial interstitial collagen deposition (P<0.05) and inflammation at the IBZ. The ELISA results indicated that LBHX decreased the serum levels of inflammatory cytokines in the AMI rats (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Furthermore, Western blot analysis revealed that the LBHX pretreatment upregulated the protein levels of SIRT1, FOXO1 and SOD2 (P<0.05) and downregulated NF- κ B p65 and BAX expressions (P<0.05). The RT-qPCR results showed that LBHX increased the SIRT1 mRNA and FOXO1 mRNA levels (P<0.05). These protective effects, including inhibiting apoptosis and alleviating inflammation in the IBZ, were partially abolished by EX527, an inhibitor of SIRT1.@*CONCLUSION@#LBHX could protect against AMI by suppressing apoptosis and inflammation in AMI rats and the SIRT1-mediated FOXO1 and NF- κ B signaling pathways were involved in the cardioprotection effect of LBHX.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Inflammation/metabolism , Myocardial Infarction/pathology , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Nerve Tissue Proteins , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Sirtuin 1/genetics
4.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 323-331, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928541

ABSTRACT

We investigated the therapeutic effects of superoxide dismutase (SOD) from thermophilic bacterium HB27 on chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) and its underlying mechanisms. A Sprague-Dawley rat model of CP/CPPS was prepared and then administered saline or Thermus thermophilic (Tt)-SOD intragastrically for 4 weeks. Prostate inflammation and fibrosis were analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin staining, and Masson staining. Alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), serum creatinine (CR), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels were assayed for all animals. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were performed to analyze serum cytokine concentrations and tissue levels of malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, SOD, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. Reactive oxygen species levels were detected using dichlorofluorescein diacetate. The messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression of tissue cytokines was analyzed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and infiltrating inflammatory cells were examined using immunohistochemistry. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) P65, P38, and inhibitor of nuclear factor-κBα (I-κBα) protein levels were determined using western blot. Tt-SOD significantly improved histopathological changes in CP/CPPS, reduced inflammatory cell infiltration and fibrosis, increased pain threshold, and reduced the prostate index. Tt-SOD treatment showed no significant effect on ALT, AST, CR, or BUN levels. Furthermore, Tt-SOD reduced inflammatory cytokine expression in prostate tissue and increased antioxidant capacity. This anti-inflammatory activity correlated with decreases in the abundance of cluster of differentiation 3 (CD3), cluster of differentiation 45 (CD45), and macrophage inflammatory protein 1α (MIP1α) cells. Tt-SOD alleviated inflammation and oxidative stress by reducing NF-κB P65 and P38 protein levels and increasing I-κBα protein levels. These findings support Tt-SOD as a potential drug for CP/CPPS.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chronic Pain , Cytokines/metabolism , Fibrosis , Humans , Inflammation/metabolism , Male , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Pelvic Pain/pathology , Prostatitis/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Superoxide Dismutase , Syndrome
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928128

ABSTRACT

The present study investigated the therapeutic effect and mechanism of Di'ao Xinxuekang(DXXK) on non-alcoholic steatohepatitis(NASH) in mice. Sixty-five C57 BL/6 J mice were randomly divided into a normal group and an experimental group for model induction with the high-fat diet for 16 weeks. Then the mice in the experimental group were randomly divided into a model group, an atorvastatin group(4 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)), and high-(200 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)), medium-(60 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)), and low-dose(20 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)) DXXK groups, with 10 mice in each group. Drugs were administered by gavage for eight weeks. Serum lipid, liver lipid, serum alanine aminotransferase(ALT), aspartate aminotransferase(AST), malondialdehyde(MDA), superoxide dismutase(SOD), and glutathione reductase(GSH-Px) were determined. Interleukin-1β(IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). The liver index was calculated. The liver pathological change and lipid accumulation were observed by HE and oil red O staining. The liver ultrastructure was observed by the transmission electron microscope. The mRNA and protein expression of nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2(Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1(HO-1) was detected by real-time fluorescence-based quantitative PCR and Western blot, respectively. The results showed that compared with the normal group, the model group displayed serum lipid and liver lipid metabolism disorders, elevated transaminase, lipid deposition, steatosis, and inflammation, suggesting that the NASH model in mice was properly induced. Compared with the model group, the DXXK groups showed decreased serum lipid, liver lipid, ALT, AST, MDA, IL-1β, and TNF-α, increased SOD and GSH-Px, alleviated hepatic steatosis, ballooning, and inflammation, and up-regulated Nrf2 and HO-1 gene and protein expression. In conclusion, DXXK can significantly alleviate NASH in mice, which is related to the inhibition of oxidative stress and inflammatory damage by up-regulating the Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Inflammation/metabolism , Lipids , Liver , Mice , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Signal Transduction , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928057

ABSTRACT

This paper aims to study the effect of Xiangqin Jiere Granules(XQ) on lipid metabolism and chronic inflammation in different obesity model mice. The monosodium glutamate(MSG) obese mouse model was established by subcutaneous injection of MSG in newborn mice, and the high fat diet(HFD) obese mouse model was established by feeding adult mice with HFD. The normal mice were assigned into the control group; the MSG obese mice were assigned into MSG model group, XQ4.5 group(Xiangqin Jiere Granu-les, 4.5 g·kg~(-1)), XQ22.5 group(Xiangqin Jiere Granules, 22.5 g·kg~(-1)); the HFD obese mice were assigned into HFD model group, XQ4.5 group, and XQ22.5 group. The mice were intragastrically administrated with saline or XQ for 5 weeks. After that, the body weight, visceral fat mass, liver and thymus weight, and the organ indexes in each group were measured. The levels of triglyceride(TG), total cholesterol(TC), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-c) in serum and liver tissue were detected by the kits. The mRNA expression levels of acetyl CoA carboxylase 1(ACC1), fatty acid synthetase(FAS), diacylgycerol acyltransferase 1(DGAT1) and hepatic lipase(HTGL) involved in lipid metabolism in mouse liver tissue were detected by quantitative real-time PCR(qPCR). The protein levels of tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) and interleukin-6(IL-6) in serum were detected by ELISA, and the mRNA levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in liver tissue were detected by qPCR. Compared with the control group, MSG and HFD mice showed increased body weight, abdominal circumference, Lee index and visceral fat mass as well as elevated levels of TG, TC, and LDL-c in serum. The model mice had up-regulated gene levels of ACC1, FAS and DGAT1 while down-regulated gene level of HTGL in the liver. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein levels of IL-6 increased in the model mice. Compared with the model mice, XQ treatment decreased the body weight, abdominal circumference, Lee index, and visceral fat mass, lowered the levels of TG, TC, and LDL-c in se-rum, down-regulated the gene levels of ACC1, FAS, and DGAT1 in liver tissue, up-regulated the gene level of HTGL, and down-regulated the mRNA and protein levels of IL-6. To sum up, XQ has good therapeutic effect on different obesity model mice. It can improve lipid metabolism and reduce fat accumulation in obese mice by regulating the enzymes involved in lipid metabolism, and alleviate obesity-related chronic low-grade inflammation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Inflammation/metabolism , Lipid Metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Obese , Obesity/genetics
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928020

ABSTRACT

The present study investigated the effect of active components of Descurainia sophia on allergic asthma and explored the underlying mechanism. SD male rats were randomly divided into a normal group(NC), a model group(M), a D. sophia decoction group(DS), a D. sophia fatty oil group(FO), a D. sophia flavonoid glycoside group(FG), a D. sophia oligosaccharide group(Oli), and a positive drug dexamethasone group(Y). The allergic asthma model was induced in rats by intraperitoneal injection of ovalbumin(OVA) and aluminum hydroxide gel adjuvant(sensitization) and atomization of OVA solution(excitation). After modeling, asthma-related indicators, tracheal phenol red excretion, inflammatory cell levels in the peripheral blood, lung permeability index(LPI), and oxygenation index(OI) of rats were detected. The pathological changes of lung tissues were observed by HE staining. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) was used to detect the content of inflammatory factors immunoglobulin E(IgE), interleukin-4(IL-4), and interferon-γ(IFN-γ) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid(BALF) and the content of endothelin-1(ET-1) and angiotensin-converting enzyme(ACE) in lung tissue homogenate. The serum content of nitric oxide(NO) was detected by colorimetry. Western blot was employed to determine the protein expression of Toll-like receptor 4(TLR4), nuclear factor κB-p65(NF-κB-p65), phosphorylated NF-κB-p65(p-NF-κB-p65), myosin light chain kinase(MLCK), vascular endothelial cadherin(VE cadherin), connexin 43, and claudin 5, and the mechanism of active components of D. sophia on allergic asthma was explored. As revealed by the results, the M group showed extensive infiltration of inflammatory cells around the bronchus of the lung tissues of the allergic asthma rats, thickened bronchial wall, severely deformed alveolar structure, increased number of wheezes, the content of IgE, IL-4, ET-1, and ACE, inflammatory cells, and LPI, and reduced latency of asthma, tracheal phenol red excretion, IFN-γ, NO content, and OI. After the intervention of the active components of D. sophia, the DS, FO, FG, Oli, and Y groups showed improved asthma-related indicators, tracheal phenol red excretion, and lung tissue lesions in allergic asthma rats, and the effects in the FO and Oli groups were superior. The content of inflammatory factors in BALF was recovered in the DS, FO, and Y groups and the FG and Oli groups. The number of inflammatory cells in rats was reduced in the DS and FO groups, and the FG, Oli, and Y groups to varying degrees, and the effect in the FO group was superior. DS, FO, Oli, and Y reduced ET-1, ACE, and LPI and increased NO and OI. FG recovered NO, ET-1, ACE, LPI, and OI to improve lung epithelial damage and permeability. Further investigation of inflammation-related TLR4/NF-κB pathways, MLCK, and related skeleton protein levels showed that TLR4, NF-κB-p65, p-NF-κB-p65, and MLCK levels were increased, and VE cadherin, connexin 43, and claudin 5 were reduced in the M group. DS, FO, FG, Oli, and Y could reduce the protein expression related to the TLR4 pathway to varying degrees, and regulate the protein expression of MLCK, VE cadherin, connexin 43, and claudin 5. It is inferred that the active components of D. sophia improve lung permeability in rats with allergic asthma presumedly by regulating the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway to improve airway inflammation, mediating MLCK and connexin, and regulating epithelial damage.


Subject(s)
Animals , Asthma/drug therapy , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Inflammation/metabolism , Lung , Male , Permeability , Rats
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927639

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#This study aimed to investigate the effects of caprylic acid (C8:0) on lipid metabolism and inflammation, and examine the mechanisms underlying these effects in mice and cells.@*METHODS@#Fifty-six 6-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were randomly allocated to four groups fed a high-fat diet (HFD) without or with 2% C8:0, palmitic acid (C16:0) or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). RAW246.7 cells were randomly divided into five groups: normal, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), LPS+C8:0, LPS+EPA and LPS+cAMP. The serum lipid profiles, inflammatory biomolecules, and ABCA1 and JAK2/STAT3 mRNA and protein expression were measured.@*RESULTS@#C8:0 decreased TC and LDL-C, and increased the HDL-C/LDL-C ratio after injection of LPS. Without LPS, it decreased TC in mice ( P < 0.05). Moreover, C8:0 decreased the inflammatory response after LPS treatment in both mice and cells ( P < 0.05). Mechanistic investigations in C57BL/6J mouse aortas after injection of LPS indicated that C8:0 resulted in higher ABCA1 and JAK2/STAT3 expression than that with HFD, C16:0 and EPA, and resulted in lower TNF-α, NF-κB mRNA expression than that with HFD ( P < 0.05). In RAW 264.7 cells, C8:0 resulted in lower expression of pNF-κBP65 than that in the LPS group, and higher protein expression of ABCA1, p-JAK2 and p-STAT3 than that in the LPS and LPS+cAMP groups ( P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Our studies demonstrated that C8:0 may play an important role in lipid metabolism and the inflammatory response, and the mechanism may be associated with ABCA1 and the p-JAK2/p-STAT3 signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
ATP Binding Cassette Transporter 1/immunology , Animals , Caprylates/chemistry , Cholesterol/metabolism , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Humans , Inflammation/metabolism , Janus Kinase 2/immunology , Lipid Metabolism/drug effects , Macrophages/immunology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , STAT3 Transcription Factor/immunology , Signal Transduction
9.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 64(3): 205-222, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131094

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The Human Genome Project has significantly broadened our understanding of the molecular aspects regulating the homeostasis and the pathophysiology of different clinical conditions. Consequently, the field of nutrition has been strongly influenced by such improvements in knowledge - especially for determining how nutrients act at the molecular level in different conditions, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. In this manner, characterizing how the genome influences the diet and vice-versa provides insights about the molecular mechanisms involved in chronic inflammation-related diseases. Therefore, the present review aims to discuss the potential application of Nutritional Genomics to modulate obesity-related inflammatory responses. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2020;64(3):205-22


Subject(s)
Humans , Diet, Mediterranean , Nutrigenomics , Inflammation/genetics , Obesity/genetics , Chronic Disease , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Inflammation/metabolism , Obesity/metabolism
10.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(6): e9031, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1132523

ABSTRACT

Malnutrition is still considered endemic in many developing countries. Malnutrition-enteric infections may cause lasting deleterious effects on lipid metabolism, especially in children living in poor settings. The regional basic diet (RBD), produced to mimic the Brazilian northeastern dietary characteristics (rich in carbohydrate and low in protein) has been used in experimental malnutrition models, but few studies have explored the effect of chronic RBD on liver function, a central organ involved in cholesterol metabolism. This study aimed to investigate whether RBD leads to liver inflammatory changes and altered reverse cholesterol metabolism in C57BL6/J mice compared to the control group, receiving a standard chow diet. To evaluate liver inflammation, ionized calcium-binding adapter protein-1 (IBA-1) positive cell counting, interleukin (IL)-1β immunohistochemistry, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-10 transcription levels were analyzed. In addition, we assessed reverse cholesterol transport by measuring liver apolipoprotein (Apo)E, ApoA-I, and lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) by RT-PCR. Furthermore, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was measured to assess liver function. RBD markedly impaired body weight gain compared with the control group (P<0.05). Higher hepatic TNF-α (P<0.0001) and IL-10 (P=0.001) mRNA levels were found in RBD-challenged mice, although without detectable non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Marked IBA-1 immunolabeling and increased number of positive-IBA-1 cells were found in the undernourished group. No statistical difference in serum ALT was found. There was also a significant increase in ApoA mRNA expression in the undernourished group, but not ApoE and LCAT, compared with the control. Altogether our findings suggested that chronic RBD-induced malnutrition leads to liver inflammation with increased ApoA-I activity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Rabbits , Rats , Apolipoprotein A-I/blood , Malnutrition/metabolism , Diet/adverse effects , Inflammation/metabolism , Brazil , Chronic Disease , Apolipoprotein A-I/metabolism , Malnutrition/pathology , Malnutrition/blood , Inflammation/pathology , Inflammation/blood , Liver/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL
11.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(6): e9346, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1132516

ABSTRACT

Atherosclerosis (AS) is a common vascular disease, which can cause apoptosis of vascular endothelial cells. Notoginsenoside R1 (NGR1) is considered an anti-AS drug. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are believed to play a vital role in cell apoptosis and angiogenesis. This study aimed to explore the mechanism of NGR1 for treating AS through miRNAs. Flow cytometry was used to detect the apoptosis rate. The levels of inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β were detected using ELISA. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured using corresponding assay kits. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay was performed to detect miR-221-3p expression. Dual-luciferase reporter and RNA immunoprecipitation assays were carried out to examine the relationship between miR-221-3p and toll-like receptors 4 (TLR4). Also, western blot analysis was performed to determine the levels of TLR4 and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway-related proteins. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) apoptosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress. NGR1 alleviated the negative effect of ox-LDL through promoting the expression of miR-221-3p in HUVECs. TLR4 was a target of miR-221-3p, and its overexpression could reverse the inhibition effects of miR-221-3p on apoptosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress. NGR1 improved miR-221-3p expression to inhibit the activation of the TLR4/NF-κB pathway in ox-LDL-treated HUVECs. NGR1 decreased ox-LDL-induced HUVECs apoptosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress through increasing miR-221-3p expression, thereby inhibiting the activation of the TLR4/NF-κB pathway. This study of the mechanism of NGR1 provided a more theoretical basis for the treatment of AS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Apoptosis/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Ginsenosides/pharmacology , MicroRNAs/adverse effects , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells/drug effects , Inflammation/metabolism , Lipoproteins, LDL/metabolism , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Signal Transduction , Transcriptional Activation , Up-Regulation , Blotting, Western , NF-kappa B/antagonists & inhibitors , Reactive Oxygen Species , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Immunoprecipitation , Toll-Like Receptor 4/antagonists & inhibitors , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
12.
J. bras. pneumol ; 46(5): e20180353, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134901

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the relationships that smoking history has with inflammatory markers, metabolic markers, body composition, muscle strength, and cardiopulmonary capacity in current smokers. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 65 smokers (age range: 18-60 years). On three non-consecutive days, each participant was evaluated in terms of smoking history, pre-existing comorbidities, lung function (by spirometry), peripheral muscle strength (by dynamometry), body composition (by bioelectrical impedance analysis), levels of metabolic/inflammatory markers, and maximum cardiopulmonary capacity (by treadmill exercise test). We evaluated the relationships that smoking history has with inflammatory markers, metabolic markers, body composition, muscle strength, and cardiopulmonary capacity, using logarithmic transformation of the data and calculating Pearson's correlation coefficient and for partial correlations adjusted for age, gender, body mass index (BMI), and comorbidities. To identify the influence of smoking history on pre-existing comorbidities, we used a logistic regression model adjusted for age, BMI, and duration of smoking. Results: Smoking history correlated significantly, albeit weakly, with triglyceride level (r = 0.317; p = 0.005), monocyte count (r = 0.308; p = 0.013), and waist circumference (r = 0.299; p = 0.017). However, those correlations did not retain their significance in the adjusted analysis. In the logistic regression model, smoking more than 20 cigarettes/day correlated significantly with the presence of metabolic diseases (OR = 0.31; 95% CI: 1.009-1.701; p = 0.043). Conclusions: In this sample of smokers, smoking history correlated positively with the triglyceride level, the monocyte count, and waist circumference. The prevalence of metabolic disease was highest in those who smoked more than 20 cigarettes/day.


RESUMO Objetivo: Verificar a relação da carga tabágica com marcadores inflamatórios, marcadores metabólicos, composição corporal, força muscular e capacidade cardiorrespiratória em tabagistas. Métodos: Estudo transversal com 65 tabagistas de ambos os sexos (idade: 18-60 anos). Todos os participantes foram avaliados em três dias não consecutivos quanto ao histórico de tabagismo, comorbidades pré-existentes, função pulmonar (espirometria), força muscular periférica (dinamometria), composição corporal (bioimpedância), dosagem de marcadores metabólicos e inflamatórios e teste cardiopulmonar em esteira para avaliar a capacidade cardiorrespiratória máxima. Avaliou-se a relação da carga tabágica com marcadores inflamatórios, marcadores metabólicos, composição corporal, força muscular e capacidade cardiorrespiratória com transformação logarítmica através da correlação de Pearson e correlações parciais ajustadas para idade, sexo, índice de massa corpórea (IMC) e comorbidades. A regressão logística com modelo ajustado para idade, IMC e tempo de tabagismo foi utilizada para identificar a influência do histórico de tabagismo sobre as comorbidades pré-existentes. Resultados: Observaram-se correlações positivas fracas somente para dados não ajustados da carga tabágica com nível de triacilglicerol (r = 0,317; p = 0,005), contagem de monócitos (r = 0,308; p = 0,013) e circunferência abdominal (r = 0,299; p = 0,017). No modelo de regressão logística, fumar mais de 20 cigarros/dia correlacionou-se significativamente com a presença de doenças metabólicas (OR = 0,31; IC95%: 1,009-1,701; p = 0,043). Conclusões: Nesta amostra de tabagistas, a carga tabágica se correlacionou positivamente com nível de triacilglicerol, contagem de monócitos e circunferência abdominal. A prevalência de doenças metabólicas foi maior em tabagistas que fumam mais de 20 cigarros/dia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Body Composition/drug effects , Biomarkers/metabolism , Smoking/adverse effects , Muscle Strength/drug effects , Smokers , Inflammation/metabolism , Triglycerides/blood , Monocytes/metabolism , Biomarkers/analysis , Smoking/metabolism , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Waist Circumference , Cardiorespiratory Fitness
13.
Biol. Res ; 53: 35, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131881

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a severe central nervous system trauma. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of HIF-1α on inflammation in spinal cord injury (SCI) to uncover the molecular mechanisms of anti-inflammation. RESULTS: HIF-1α was reduced in SCI model rats and HIF-1α activation reduced TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6 and IL-18 levels in SCI model rats. Meanwhile, Circ 0001723 expression was down-regulated and miR-380-3p expression was up-regulated in SCI model rats. In vitro model, down-regulation of Circ 0001723 promoted TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6 and IL-18 levels, compared with control negative group. However, over-expression of Circ 0001723 reduced TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6 and IL-18 levels in vitro model. Down-regulation of Circ 0001723 suppressed HIF-1α protein expressions and induced NLRP3 and Caspase-1 protein expressions in vitro model by up-regulation of miR-380-3p. Next, inactivation of HIF-1α reduced the pro-inflammation effects of Circ 0001723 in vitro model. Then, si-NLRP3 also inhibited the pro-inflammation effects of Circ 0001723 in vitro model via promotion of autophagy. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that HIF-1α reduced inflammation in spinal cord injury via miR-380-3p/ NLRP3 by Circ 0001723.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Spinal Cord Injuries/metabolism , MicroRNAs/genetics , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , RNA, Circular/genetics , Inflammation/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation , Cytokines/blood , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
14.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(4): e8770, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089354

ABSTRACT

Early mobilization is beneficial for critically ill patients because it reduces muscle weakness acquired in intensive care units. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of functional electrical stimulation (FES) and passive cycle ergometry (PCE) on the nitrous stress and inflammatory cytometry in critically ill patients. This was a controlled, randomized, open clinical trial carried out in a 16-bed intensive care unit. The patients were randomized into four groups: Control group (n=10), did not undergo any therapeutic intervention during the study; PCE group (n=9), lower-limb PCE for 30 cycles/min for 20 min; FES group (n=9), electrical stimulation of quadriceps muscle for 20 min; and FES with PCE group (n=7), patients underwent PCE and FES, with their order determined randomly. The serum levels of nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interferon gamma, and interleukins 6 and 10 were analyzed before and after the intervention. There were no differences in clinical or demographic characteristics between the groups. The results revealed reduced nitric oxide concentrations one hour after using PCE (P<0.001) and FES (P<0.05), thereby indicating that these therapies may reduce cellular nitrosative stress when applied separately. Tumor necrosis factor alpha levels were reduced after the PCE intervention (P=0.049). PCE and FES reduced nitric oxide levels, demonstrating beneficial effects on the reduction of nitrosative stress. PCE was the only treatment that reduced the tumor necrosis factor alpha concentration.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Motion Therapy, Continuous Passive/methods , Cytokines/blood , Critical Illness/therapy , Nitrosative Stress/physiology , Biomarkers/blood , Critical Illness/rehabilitation , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Electric Stimulation/methods , Quadriceps Muscle/physiopathology , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/metabolism , Intensive Care Units
15.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(3): e9039, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089345

ABSTRACT

We previously reported that both the high-carbohydrate diet (HCD) and high-fat diet (HFD) given for two months promote lipid deposition and inflammation in the liver and brain of mice. The results obtained indicate a tissue-specific response to both diets. Herein, we compared the effects of HCD and HFD on fatty acid (FA) composition and inflammation in the gastrocnemius muscle. Male Swiss mice were fed with HCD or HFD for 1 or 2 months. Saturated FA (SFA), monounsaturated FA (MUFA), n-3 polyunsaturated FA (n-3 PUFA), and n-6 PUFA were quantified. The activities of stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD-1), Δ-6 desaturase (D6D), elongase 6, and de novo lipogenesis (DNL) were estimated. As for indicators of the inflammatory tissue state, we measured myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and gene expression of F4/80, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, and IL-10. The HCD led to a lower deposition of SFA, MUFA, n-3 PUFA, and n-6 PUFA compared to HFD. However, the HCD increased arachidonic acid levels, SFA/n-3 PUFA ratio, DNL, SCD-1, D6D, and MPO activities, and expression of IL-6, contrasting with the general idea that increased lipid deposition is associated with more intense inflammation. The HCD was more potent to induce skeletal muscle inflammation than the HFD, regardless of the lower lipid accumulation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Dietary Carbohydrates/administration & dosage , Dietary Fats/administration & dosage , Muscle, Skeletal/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Body Weight , Energy Intake , Dietary Carbohydrates/metabolism , Dietary Fats/metabolism , Gene Expression
16.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(4): 472-480, Out.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056605

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Anemic patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) can be divided into anemic patients without or with functional iron deficiency (FID). The increase in the number of cases of hemosiderosis in patients on hemodialysis (HD) attributed to excessive intravenous iron replacement has called for the investigation of the factors involved in the genesis of FID. Objectives: This study aimed to describe the prevalence of FID in patients with CKD on HD, characterize the included individuals in terms of clinical and workup parameters, and assess their nutritional, oxidative stress, and inflammation statuses. This cross-sectional study assembled a convenience sample of 183 patients with CKD on HD treated in Southern Brazil. Patients meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria were divided into two groups, one with anemic subjects with FID and one with anemic patients without FID. Participants answered a questionnaire probing into socio-epidemiological factors, underwent anthropometric measurements, and were tested for markers of anemia, oxidative stress, inflammation, and nutrition. Statistical analysis: The date sets were treated on software package GraphPad InStat version 3.1. Variables were tested with the Kolmogorov-Smirnov, chi-square, Student's t, and Mann-Whitney tests. Statistical significance was attributed to differences with a p < 0.05. Results: Markers of inflammation were not statistically different between the two groups. Markers of anemia and nutrition were significantly lower in patients with FID. Patients with FID were prescribed higher doses of parenteral iron (p < 0,05). Discussion: FID was associated with lower nutritional marker levels, but not to increased levels of markers of inflammation or oxidative stress, as reported in the literature. Additional studies on the subject are needed.


Resumo Introdução: A anemia na DRC pode ser dividida em anemia sem deficiência funcional de ferro e com deficiência funcional de ferro (ADFF). Diante do aumento dos casos de hemossiderose em pacientes em hemodiálise, atribuídos à reposição excessiva de ferro endovenoso, maiores conhecimentos sobre os fatores envolvidos na gênese da ADFF são importantes. Objetivos: documentar a prevalência de ADFF em renais crônicos em hemodiálise. Caracterizar clínica e laboratorialmente os portadores de ADFF em HD e avaliar o estado nutricional, estresse oxidativo e inflamatório. Estudo transversal, amostra de conveniência, envolvendo 183 renais crônicos em hemodiálise no sul do Brasil. Após aplicação dos critérios de exclusão, os pacientes foram separados em dois grupos: portadores de anemia com e sem deficiência funcional de ferro. Foram submetidos a questionário socioepidemiológico, à análise antropométrica e análise laboratorial dos marcadores de anemia, estresse oxidativo, inflamatórios e nutricionais. Análise estatística: programa GraphPad InStat versão 3.1. Foram aplicados os testes: Kolmogorov-Smirnov, qui-quadrado, t de Student e Mann-Whitney. Nível de significância adotado de 5%. Resultados: não houve diferença significativa nos marcadores inflamatórios entre os dois grupos. Houve diferença significativa nos marcadores de anemia e nutrição, significativamente menores nos pacientes com ADFF. Pacientes com ADFF receberam doses mais elevadas de ferro parenteral (p < 0,05). Discussão: ADFF esteve associada a menores valores de marcadores nutricionais, mas não esteve associada a marcadores inflamatórios ou de estresse oxidativo aumentados, como relatado na literatura. Estudos adicionais sobre o tema são necessários.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Biomarkers/metabolism , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/etiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Inflammation/metabolism , Anemia/etiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Nutrition Assessment , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/epidemiology , Administration, Intravenous , Hemosiderosis/epidemiology , Anemia/epidemiology , Iron/administration & dosage , Iron/adverse effects , Nitric Oxide/metabolism
17.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 113(6): 1121-1127, Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055071

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Oxidative stress and inflammation are present in coronary artery disease (CAD) and are linked to the activation of the transcription nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). To attenuate these complications, transcription factors like nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/δ (PPARβ/δ) can be activated to inhibit NF-κB. However, the available data on expression of NF-κB, Nrf2 and PPARβ/δ in CAD patients are limited. Objective: To evaluate the expression of the transcription factors NF-κB and Nrf2 and PPAR��/�� in CAD patients. Methods: Thirty-five patients (17 men, mean age 62.4 ? 7.55 years) with CAD and twelve patients (5 men, mean age 63.50 ? 11.46 years) without CAD were enrolled. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated and processed for mRNA expression of Nrf2, NF-κB, NADPH: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and PPARβ/δ mRNAs using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: There was no difference in the mRNA expressions of Nrf2 (1.35 ? 0.57), NF-κB (1.08 ? 0.50) or in the antioxidant enzyme NQO1 (1.05 ? 0.88) in the CAD group compared to the group without CAD (1.16 ? 0.76, 0.95 ? 0.33, 0.81 ? 0.55, respectively). However, PPARβ/δ was highest expressed in the CAD group (1.17 ? 0.86 vs. 0.56 ? 0.34, p = 0.008). Conclusion: The main finding of this study was the PPARβ/δ being more expressed in the PBMC of patients with CAD compared to the control group, whereas no differences were observed in Nrf2 or NF-κB mRNA expressions.


Resumo Fundamentos: O estresse oxidativo e a inflamação estão presentes na doença arterial coronariana (DAC) e estão ligados à ativação do fator de transcrição nuclear kappa B (NF-κB). Para atenuar essas complicações, fatores de transcrição como o fator nuclear eritroide 2-relacionado ao fator 2 (Nrf2) e o receptor ativado por proliferador de peroxissoma β/δ (PPARβ/δ) podem ser ativados para inibir o NF-κB. No entanto, os dados disponíveis sobre a expressão de NF-κB, Nrf2 e PPARβ/δ em pacientes com DAC são limitados. Objetivo: Avaliar a expressão dos fatores transcricionais NF-κB e Nrf2 e o PPARβ/δ em pacientes com DAC. Métodos: Trinta e cinco pacientes (17 homens, idade média de 62,4 ± 7,55 anos) com DAC e doze pacientes (5 homens, com idade média de 63,50 ± 11,46 anos) sem DAC foram incluídos. Células mononucleares do sangue periférico (PBMCs) foram isoladas e processadas para a expressão de mRNA do Nrf2, NF-κB, NADPH: quinona oxidoredutase 1 (NQO1) e mRNAs do PPARβ/δ por meio de reação em cadeia da polimerase quantitativa em tempo real (qPCR). Valores de p < 0,05 foram considerados como estatisticamente significativos. Resultados: Não houve diferença nas expressões de mRNA do Nrf2 (1,35 ± 0,57), NF-κB (1,08 ± 0,50) ou na enzima antioxidante NQO1 (1,05 ± 0,88) no grupo DAC em comparação com o grupo sem DAC (1,16 ± 0,76, 0,95 ± 0,33, 0,81 ± 0,55, respectivamente). Entretanto, o PPARβ/δ apresentou maior expressão no grupo com DAC (1,17 ± 0,86 vs. 0,56 ± 0,34, p = 0,008). Conclusão: O principal achado do presente estudo foi o PPARβ/δ apresentar maior expressão nas PBMCs de pacientes com DAC comparados ao grupo controle, ao passo que não foram observadas diferenças nas expressões de mRNA do Nrf2 ou NF-κB.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Coronary Artery Disease/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , PPAR-beta/metabolism , PPAR delta/metabolism , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Biomarkers/metabolism , Body Mass Index , Gene Expression Regulation , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Oxidative Stress , Inflammation/metabolism
18.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 113(6): 1139-1148, Dec. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055070

ABSTRACT

Abstract Obesity associated with systemic inflammation induces insulin resistance (IR), with consequent chronic hyperglycemia. A series of reactions are involved in this process, including increased release of proinflammatory cytokines, and activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) receptors. Among the therapeutic tools available nowadays, physical exercise (PE) has a known hypoglycemic effect explained by complex molecular mechanisms, including an increase in insulin receptor phosphorylation, in AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity, in the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaMKK) pathway, with subsequent activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), Rac1, TBC1 domain family member 1 and 4 (TBC1D1 and TBC1D4), in addition to a variety of signaling molecules, such as GTPases, Rab and soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attached protein receptor (SNARE) proteins. These pathways promote greater translocation of GLUT4 and consequent glucose uptake by the skeletal muscle. Phosphoinositide-dependent kinase (PDK), atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) and some of its isoforms, such as PKC-iota/lambda also seem to play a fundamental role in the transport of glucose. In this sense, the association between autophagy and exercise has also demonstrated a relevant role in the uptake of muscle glucose. Insulin, in turn, uses a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent mechanism, while exercise signal may be triggered by the release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. The objective of this review is to describe the main molecular mechanisms of IR and the relationship between PE and glucose uptake.


Resumo A obesidade associada à inflamação sistêmica induz resistência à insulina (RI), com consequente hiperglicemia crônica. Este processo envolve o aumento na liberação de citocinas pró-inflamatórias, ativação da enzima c-Jun N-terminal cinase (JNK), do fator nuclear kappa-B (NF-κB) e dos receptores do tipo Toll 4 (TLR4). Dentre as ferramentas terapêuticas disponíveis, o exercício físico (EF) tem efeito hipoglicemiante conhecido, explicado por mecanismos moleculares complexos. Dentre eles, ocorre aumento na fosforilação do receptor da insulina, na atividade da proteína quinase ativada por AMP (AMPK), na via da proteína cinase cinase dependente de Ca+2/calmodulina (CaMKK), com posterior ativação do coativador-1α do receptor ativado por proliferador do peroxissoma (PGC-1α), proteínas Rac1, TBC1 membro das famílias de domínio 1 e 4 (TBC1D1 e TBC1D4), além de uma variedade de moléculas de sinalização, como as proteínas GTPases, Rab e proteína solúvel de fusão sensível a N-etil-maleimida (SNARE); estas vias promovem maior translocação de transportador de glicose do tipo 4 (GLUT4) e consequente captação de glicose pelo músculo esquelético. A cinase fosfatidilinositol-dependente (PDK), proteína quinase C atípica (aPKC) e algumas das suas isoformas, como a PKC-iota/lambda também parecem desempenhar papel fundamental no transporte de glicose. Nesse sentido, a associação entre autofagia e EF também tem demonstrado papel relevante na captação de glicose muscular. A insulina, por sua vez, utiliza um mecanismo dependente da fosfatidilinositol-3-quinase (PI3K), enquanto que o sinal do EF pode ter início mediante liberação de cálcio pelo retículo sarcoplasmático e concomitante ativação da AMPK. O objetivo desta revisão é descrever os principais mecanismos moleculares da RI e da relação entre o EF e a captação de glicose.


Subject(s)
Humans , Insulin Resistance , Exercise , Hyperglycemia/metabolism , Hyperglycemia/therapy , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation/therapy , Phosphorylation , Glucose Transporter Type 4 , Obesity
19.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 95(5): 575-583, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040361

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: Evaluate the association between inflammatory process, adiposity, and vitamins A, D, and E in adolescents, according to gender. Methods: Cross-sectional study with adolescents aged 12-19 years old of both genders attending public schools in Recife. A questionnaire was used to collect data on socioeconomic level, lifestyle, and food intake of adolescents. Then, an anthropometric evaluation and a blood sampling were performed to analyze serum concentrations of α-1-acid glycoprotein, retinol, β-carotene, α-tocopherol, and 25-hydroxy-vitamin D. Results: The levels of α-1-acid glycoprotein were higher for abdominal obesity in both genders. Male adolescents with insufficient serum α-tocopherol levels had low levels of α-1-acid glycoprotein (p = 0.03) and an increased risk of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D and β-carotene deficiency in relation to total and abdominal fat; female adolescents had an increased risk of insufficient β-carotene with abdominal obesity (PR: 1.33; 95% CI: 1.2-1.5). Conclusion: Abdominal adiposity implies a higher risk of inflammation and causes different changes to the levels of fat-soluble vitamins according to gender.


Resumo: Objetivo: Avaliar a associação entre processo inflamatório, adiposidade e as vitaminas A, D e E em adolescentes, segundo o sexo. Métodos: Estudo transversal com adolescentes de 12 a 19 anos de ambos os sexos de escolas públicas de Recife. Foi utilizado um questionário para coleta de dados socioeconômicos, de estilo de vida e de consumo alimentar dos adolescentes. Em seguida, realizou-se a avalição antropométrica e coleta de sangue para análise das concentrações séricas de α-1-glicoproteína ácida, retinol, β-caroteno, α-tocoferol e 25-hidroxivitamina D. Resultados: Os níveis de α-1-glicoproteína ácida foram maiores na obesidade abdominal de ambos os sexos. Os meninos com níveis séricos insuficientes de α-tocoferol expressaram níveis reduzidos de α-1-glicoproteína ácida (p = 0,03) e apresentaram um maior risco de deficiência de 25-hidroxivitamina D e β-caroteno na adiposidade total e abdominal, enquanto as meninas mostraram maior risco de insuficiência de β-caroteno com a obesidade abdominal (RP 1,33; IC 95% 1,2-1,5). Conclusão: A adiposidade abdominal reflete maior risco de inflamação e causa alterações distintas nas concentrações das vitaminas lipossolúveis, de acordo com o sexo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Adolescent , Vitamins/metabolism , Adiposity/physiology , Inflammation/metabolism , Obesity/metabolism , Reference Values , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Orosomucoid/analysis , Carotenoids/blood , Anthropometry , Nutritional Status , Cross-Sectional Studies , Inflammation/etiology , Inflammation/physiopathology , Obesity/complications , Obesity/physiopathology
20.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(9): e8525, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011614

ABSTRACT

Many compounds of ginsenosides show anti-inflammatory properties. However, their anti-inflammatory effects in intervertebral chondrocytes in the presence of inflammatory factors have never been shown. Increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines are generally associated with the degradation and death of chondrocytes; therefore, finding an effective and nontoxic substance that attenuates the inflammation is worthwhile. In this study, chondrocytes were isolated from the nucleus pulposus tissues, and the cells were treated with ginsenoside compounds and IL-1β, alone and in combination. Cell viability and death rate were assessed by CCK-8 and flow cytometry methods, respectively. PCR, western blot, and immunoprecipitation assays were performed to determine the mRNA and protein expression, and the interactions between proteins, respectively. Monomeric component of ginsenoside Rd had no toxicity at the tested range of concentrations. Furthermore, Rd suppressed the inflammatory response of chondrocytes to interleukin (IL)-1β by suppressing the increase in IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-6, COX-2, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, and retarding IL-1β-induced degradation of chondrocytes by improving cell proliferation characteristics and expression of aggrecan and COL2A1. These protective effects of Rd were associated with ubiquitination of IL-1 receptor accessory protein (IL1RAP), blocking the stimulation of IL-1β to NF-κB. Bioinformatics analysis showed that NEDD4, CBL, CBLB, CBLC, and ITCH most likely target IL1RAP. Rd increased intracellular ITCH level and the amount of ITCH attaching to IL1RAP. Thus, IL1RAP ubiquitination promoted by Rd is likely to occur by up-regulation of ITCH. In summary, Rd inhibited IL-1β-induced inflammation and degradation of intervertebral disc chondrocytes by increasing IL1RAP ubiquitination.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Chondrocytes/drug effects , Ginsenosides/pharmacology , Interleukin-1beta/drug effects , Interleukin-1 Receptor Accessory Protein/metabolism , Intervertebral Disc Degeneration/metabolism , Dinoprostone/metabolism , Cell Survival/drug effects , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Low Back Pain/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase/metabolism , Chondrocytes/cytology , Chondrocytes/metabolism , Ginsenosides/metabolism , Cyclooxygenase 2/metabolism , Aggrecans/metabolism , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Ubiquitination , Nucleus Pulposus/cytology , Nucleus Pulposus/drug effects , Nucleus Pulposus/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism
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