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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007908

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#The aim of this study is to explore the potential modulatory role of quercetin against Endotoxin or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced septic cardiac dysfunction.@*METHODS@#Specific pathogen-free chicken embryos ( n = 120) were allocated untreated control, phosphate buffer solution (PBS) vehicle, PBS with ethanol vehicle, LPS (500 ng/egg), LPS with quercetin treatment (10, 20, or 40 nmol/egg, respectively), Quercetin groups (10, 20, or 40 nmol/egg). Fifteen-day-old embryonated eggs were inoculated with abovementioned solutions via the allantoic cavity. At embryonic day 19, the hearts of the embryos were collected for histopathological examination, RNA extraction, real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemical investigations, and Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#They demonstrated that the heart presented inflammatory responses after LPS induction. The LPS-induced higher mRNA expressions of inflammation-related factors (TLR4, TNFα, MYD88, NF-κB1, IFNγ, IL-1β, IL-8, IL-6, IL-10, p38, MMP3, and MMP9) were blocked by quercetin with three dosages. Quercetin significantly decreased immunopositivity to TLR4 and MMP9 in the treatment group when compared with the LPS group. Quercetin significantly decreased protein expressions of TLR4, IFNγ, MMP3, and MMP9 when compared with the LPS group. Quercetin treatment prevented LPS-induced increase in the mRNA expression of Claudin 1 and ZO-1, and significantly decreased protein expression of claudin 1 when compared with the LPS group. Quercetin significantly downregulated autophagy-related gene expressions (PPARα, SGLT1, APOA4, AMPKα1, AMPKα2, ATG5, ATG7, Beclin-1, and LC3B) and programmed cell death (Fas, Bcl-2, CASP1, CASP12, CASP3, and RIPK1) after LPS induction. Quercetin significantly decreased immunopositivity to APOA4, AMPKα2, and LC3-II/LC3-I in the treatment group when compared with the LPS group. Quercetin significantly decreased protein expressions of AMPKα1, LC3-I, and LC3-II. Quercetin significantly decreased the protein expression to CASP1 and CASP3 by immunohistochemical investigation or Western blotting in treatment group when compared with LPS group.@*CONCLUSION@#Quercetin alleviates cardiac inflammation induced by LPS through modulating autophagy, programmed cell death, and myocardiocytes permeability.


Subject(s)
Chick Embryo , Animals , Quercetin/therapeutic use , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 , Caspase 3 , Matrix Metalloproteinase 3 , Toll-Like Receptor 4 , Claudin-1 , Inflammation/metabolism , Apoptosis , RNA, Messenger , Autophagy , NF-kappa B
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010315

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the anti-inflammatory effects of ethyl lithospermate in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 murine-derived macrophages and zebrafish, and its underlying mechanisms.@*METHODS@#3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide (MTT) assays were performed to investigate the toxicity of ethyl lithospermate at different concentrations (12.5-100 µ mol/L) in RAW 264.7 cells. The cells were stimulated with LPS (100 ng/mL) for 12 h to establish an inflammation model in vitro, the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) were assessed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Western blot was used to ascertain the protein expressions of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65, phospho-STAT3 (p-STAT3, Tyr705), inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB) α, and phospho-I κB α (p-IκB α, Ser32), and confocal imaging was used to identify the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 and p-STAT3 (Tyr705). Additionally, the yolk sacs of zebrafish (3 days post fertilization) were injected with 2 nL LPS (0.5 mg/mL) to induce an inflammation model in vivo. Survival analysis, hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, observation of neutrophil migration, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) were used to further study the anti-inflammatory effects of ethyl lithospermate and its probable mechanisms in vivo.@*RESULTS@#The non-toxic concentrations of ethyl lithospermate have been found to range from 12.5 to 100 µ mol/L. Ethyl lithospermate inhibited the release of IL-6 and TNF-α(P<0.05 or P<0.01), decreased IκBα degradation and phosphorylation (P<0.05) as well as the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 and p-STAT3 (Tyr705) in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells (P<0.01). Ethyl lithospermate also decreased inflammatory cells infiltration and neutrophil migration while increasing the survival rate of LPS-stimulated zebrafish (P<0.05 or P<0.01). In addition, ethyl lithospermate also inhibited the mRNA expression levels of of IL-6, TNF-α, IκBα, STAT3, and NF-κB in LPS-stimulated zebrafish (P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#Ethyl lithospermate exerts anti-Inflammatory effected by inhibiting the NF-κB and STAT3 signal pathways in RAW 264.7 macrophages and zebrafish.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides , Zebrafish , NF-KappaB Inhibitor alpha/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , STAT3 Transcription Factor/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010994

ABSTRACT

In the context of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), characterized by dysregulated lipid metabolism in hepatocytes, the quest for safe and effective therapeutics targeting lipid metabolism has gained paramount importance. Sanhuang Xiexin Tang (SXT) and Baihu Tang (BHT) have emerged as prominent candidates for treating metabolic disorders. SXT combined with BHT plus Cangzhu (SBC) has been used clinically for Weihuochisheng obese patients. This retrospective analysis focused on assessing the anti-obesity effects of SBC in Weihuochisheng obese patients. We observed significant reductions in body weight and hepatic lipid content among obese patients following SBC treatment. To gain further insights, we investigated the effects and underlying mechanisms of SBC in HFD-fed mice. The results demonstrated that SBC treatment mitigated body weight gain and hepatic lipid accumulation in HFD-fed mice. Pharmacological network analysis suggested that SBC may affect lipid metabolism, mitochondria, inflammation, and apoptosis-a hypothesis supported by the hepatic transcriptomic analysis in HFD-fed mice treated with SBC. Notably, SBC treatment was associated with enhanced hepatic mitochondrial biogenesis and the inhibition of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/NF-κB pathways. In conclusion, SBC treatment alleviates NAFLD in both obese patients and mouse models by improving lipid metabolism, potentially through enhancing mitochondrial biogenesis. These effects, in turn, ameliorate inflammation in hepatocytes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mice , Animals , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Organelle Biogenesis , Retrospective Studies , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Obesity/metabolism , Liver , Inflammation/metabolism , Body Weight , Lipid Metabolism , Lipids , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects
4.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 569-574, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007772

ABSTRACT

Sleep is an extremely important physiological state to maintain human life. Sleep disorders can not only cause anxiety and depression, but also induce multi-system diseases that seriously affect brain function and physical health. The neuroinflammation is a key pathological process after sleep disorders, which can induce a series of nervous system diseases. In recent years, the role of microglia activation in neuroinflammation has been paid more and more attention and become a research hotspot in this field. The imbalance of the central microenvironment after sleep disorders leads to changes in the activation and polarization of microglia, which triggers neuroinflammatory response. The activation and polarization of microglia in the sleep disorders are regulated by multiple signaling pathways and complex molecular mechanisms. This paper summarizes five signaling pathways of microglia activation in central inflammation induced by sleep disorders, including P2X7 receptor (P2X7R), p38MAPK, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/NF-κB, JAK/STAT, and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR) pathways, in order to provide reference for further research and clinical treatment targets selection of sleep disorders.


Subject(s)
Humans , Neuroinflammatory Diseases , Microglia/metabolism , Signal Transduction/physiology , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Sleep Wake Disorders/metabolism
5.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 4-16, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971606

ABSTRACT

C-type lectins (CTLs) represent a large family of soluble and membrane-bound proteins which bind calcium dependently via carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs) to glycan residues presented on the surface of a variety of pathogens. The deconvolution of a cell's glycan code by CTLs underpins several important physiological processes in mammals such as pathogen neutralization and opsonization, leukocyte trafficking, and the inflammatory response. However, as our knowledge of CTLs has developed it has become apparent that the role of this innate immune family of proteins can be double-edged, where some pathogens have developed approaches to subvert and exploit CTL interactions to promote infection and sustain the pathological state. Equally, CTL interactions with host glycoproteins can contribute to inflammatory diseases such as arthritis and cancer whereby, in certain contexts, they exacerbate inflammation and drive malignant progression. This review discusses the 'dual agent' roles of some of the major mammalian CTLs in both resolving and promoting infection, inflammation and inflammatory disease and highlights opportunities and emerging approaches for their therapeutic modulation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Inflammation/metabolism , Lectins, C-Type/metabolism , Mammals/metabolism , Membrane Proteins , Polysaccharides/metabolism
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971516

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the mechanism by which fibroblasts with high WNT2b expression causes intestinal mucosa barrier disruption and promote the progression of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).@*METHODS@#Caco-2 cells were treated with 20% fibroblast conditioned medium or co-cultured with fibroblasts highly expressing WNT2b, with the cells without treatment with the conditioned medium and cells co-cultured with wild-type fibroblasts as the control groups. The changes in barrier permeability of Caco-2 cells were assessed by measuring transmembrane resistance and Lucifer Yellow permeability. In Caco-2 cells co-cultured with WNT2b-overexpressing or control intestinal fibroblasts, nuclear entry of β-catenin was detected with immunofluorescence assay, and the expressions of tight junction proteins ZO-1 and E-cadherin were detected with Western blotting. In a C57 mouse model of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced IBD-like enteritis, the therapeutic effect of intraperitoneal injection of salinomycin (5 mg/kg, an inhibitor of WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway) was evaluated by observing the changes in intestinal inflammation and detecting the expressions of tight junction proteins.@*RESULTS@#In the coculture system, WNT2b overexpression in the fibroblasts significantly promoted nuclear entry of β-catenin (P < 0.01) and decreased the expressions of tight junction proteins in Caco-2 cells; knockdown of FZD4 expression in Caco-2 cells obviously reversed this effect. In DSS-treated mice, salinomycin treatment significantly reduced intestinal inflammation and increased the expressions of tight junction proteins in the intestinal mucosa.@*CONCLUSION@#Intestinal fibroblasts overexpressing WNT2b causes impairment of intestinal mucosal barrier function and can be a potential target for treatment of IBD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mice , Animals , Caco-2 Cells , beta Catenin/metabolism , Culture Media, Conditioned/pharmacology , Tight Junctions/metabolism , Intestinal Mucosa , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Tight Junction Proteins/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Fibroblasts/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Glycoproteins/metabolism , Wnt Proteins/pharmacology , Frizzled Receptors/metabolism
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981912

ABSTRACT

Inflammation underlies a wide variety of physiological and pathological processes, and plays a pivotal role in controlling pathogen infection. C1q/tumor necrosis factor (TNF) related proteins (CTRPs), a newly discovered adipokine family with conservative structure and wide distribution, has attracted increasing attention. The CTRP family consists of more than 15 members which fall into the characteristic C1q domain. Increasing studies have demonstrated that CTRPs are involved in the onset and development of inflammation and metabolism as well as related diseases, including myocardial infarction, sepsis and tumors. Here, we first clarified the characteristic domains of CTRPs, and then elucidated their roles in inflammatory-related diseases. Taken together, the information presented here provides new perspectives for therapeutic strategies to improve inflammatory and metabolic abnormalities.


Subject(s)
Humans , Complement C1q/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Myocardial Infarction
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981910

ABSTRACT

Objective To identify the relationship between nephritis activity, autophagy and inflammation in patients with SLE. Methods Western blot analysis was used to detect the expression of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) and P62 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of SLE patients with lupus nephritis and non-lupus nephritis patients. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interferon γ (IFN-γ) in the serum of SLE patients were determined by ELISA. The correlation between LC3II/LC3I ratio and SLE disease activity score (SLEDAI), urinary protein, TNF-α and IFN-γ levels was analyzed by Pearson method. Results The expression of LC3 was increased and P62 was decreased in SLE patients. TNF-α and IFN-γ were increased in the serum of SLE patients. LC3II/LC3I ratio was positively correlated with SLEDAI (r=0.4560), 24 hour urine protein (r=0.3753), IFN-γ (r=0.5685), but had no correlation with TNF-α (r=0.04 683). Conclusion Autophagy is found in PBMCs of SLE, and the autophagy is correlated with renal damage and inflammation in patients with lupus nephritis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Autophagy-Related Proteins/metabolism , Lupus Nephritis/urine , Kidney , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/metabolism
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981887

ABSTRACT

Macrophage as a crucial component of innate immunity, plays an important role in inflammation and infection immunity. Notch signal pathway is a highly conserved pathway, which regulates cellular fate and participates in numerous pathological processes. At present, a lot of literature has confirmed the role of Notch signaling in regulating the differentiation, activation and metabolism of macrophage during inflammation and infection. This review focuses on how Notch signaling promotes macrophage pro-inflammatory and anti-infective immune function in different inflammatory and infectious diseases. In this regulation, Notch signaling interact with TLR signaling in macrophages or inflammatory-related cytokines including IL-6, IL-12, and TNF-α. Additionally, the potential application and challenges of Notch signaling as a therapeutic target against inflammation and infectious diseases are also discussed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Signal Transduction , Macrophages , Cytokines/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Communicable Diseases , Receptors, Notch/metabolism
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981880

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the ameliorative effect of salidroside on diabetes retinopathy (DR) rats and its mechanism. Methods Male SD rats were randomly divided into blank group, model group, low-dose and high-dose salidroside treatment groups. Except for the blank group, other groups were modeled by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. After successful modeling, treatment groups were injected intraperitoneally with [50 mg/(kg.d)] and [100 mg/(kg.d)] salidroside respectively, for 4 weeks; the blank group and model group were injected with corresponding doses of saline. ELISA was used to measure the expression levels of antioxidant-related enzyme activity and inflammatory factors in blood glucose and serum of rats in each group. Retinal tissue lesions were detected by HE staining, and the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) in retinal tissues were detected by immunohistochemical staining. Western blot analysis was used to detect the expression of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) , nuclear factor κB p65 (NF-κB p65), phosphorylated p38 MAPK (p-p38 MAPK), and phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-AKT) proteins. Results Compared with model group, salidroside could significantly reduce blood glucose level and increase body mass in DR rats. The serum levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were significantly increased, while the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and IL-1β were reduced. The protein expression of VEGF, ICAM-1, NF-κB p65 and p-p38 MAPK was significantly decreased, while the protein expression of PI3K and p-AKT was increased. Conclusion Salidroside can reduce DR in rats by inhibiting oxidative stress and immune inflammatory response, which may be related to the reduction of abnormal expression of VEGF and ICAM-1 and the activation of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Blood Glucose , Diabetes Mellitus , Inflammation/metabolism , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Retinal Diseases , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981393

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to investigate the effect of diosgenin on mammalian target of rapamycin(mTOR), fatty acid synthase(FASN), hypoxia inducible factor-1α(HIF-1α), and vascular endothelial growth factor A(VEGFA) expression in liver tissues of rats with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD) and explore the mechanism of diosgenin on lipogenesis and inflammation in NAFLD. Forty male SD rats were divided into a normal group(n=8) fed on the normal diet and an experimental group(n=32) fed on the high-fat diet(HFD) for the induction of the NAFLD model. After modeling, the rats in the experimental group were randomly divided into an HFD group, a low-dose diosgenin group(150 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)), a high-dose diosgenin group(300 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)), and a simvastatin group(4 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)), with eight rats in each group. The drugs were continuously given by gavage for eight weeks. The levels of triglyceride(TG), total cholesterol(TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C), alanine transaminase(ALT), and aspartate transaminase(AST) in the serum were detected by the biochemical method. The content of TG and TC in the liver was detected by the enzyme method. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) was used to measure interleukin 1β(IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor α(TNF-α) in the serum. Lipid accumulation in the liver was detected by oil red O staining. Pathological changes of liver tissues were detected by hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining. The mRNA and protein expression levels of mTOR, FASN, HIF-1α, and VEGFA in the liver of rats were detected by real-time fluorescence-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction(PCR) and Western blot, respectively. Compared with the normal group, the HFD group showed elevated body weight and levels of TG, TC, LDL-C, ALT, AST, IL-1β, and TNF-α(P<0.01), increased lipid accumulation in the liver(P<0.01), obvious liver steatosis, up-regulated mRNA expression levels of mTOR, FASN, HIF-1α, and VEGFA(P<0.01), and increased protein expression levels of p-mTOR, FASN, HIF-1α, and VEGFA(P<0.01). Compared with the HFD group, the groups with drug treatment showed lowered body weight and levels of TG, TC, LDL-C, ALT, AST, IL-1β, and TNF-α(P<0.05, P<0.01), reduced lipid accumulation in the liver(P<0.01), improved liver steatosis, decreased mRNA expression levels of mTOR, FASN, HIF-1α, and VEGFA(P<0.05, P<0.01), and declining protein expression levels of p-mTOR, FASN, HIF-1α, and VEGFA(P<0.01). The therapeutic effect of the high-dose diosgenin group was superior to that of the low-dose diosgenin group and the simvastatin group. Diosgenin may reduce liver lipid synthesis and inflammation and potentiate by down-regulating the mTOR, FASN, HIF-1α, and VEGFA expression, playing an active role in preventing and treating NAFLD.


Subject(s)
Rats , Male , Animals , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/metabolism , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Cholesterol, LDL , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Liver , Inflammation/metabolism , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Body Weight , Mammals
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981319

ABSTRACT

Tripterygium glycosides liposome(TPGL) were prepared by thin film-dispersion method, which were optimized accor-ding to their morphological structures, average particle size and encapsulation rate. The measured particle size was(137.39±2.28) nm, and the encapsulation rate was 88.33%±1.82%. The mouse model of central nervous system inflammation was established by stereotaxic injection of lipopolysaccharide(LPS). TPGL and tripterygium glycosides(TPG) were administered intranasally for 21 days. The effects of intranasal administration of TPG and TPGL on behavioral cognitive impairment of mice due to LPS-induced central ner-vous system inflammation were estimated by animal behavioral tests, hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining of hippocampus, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction(RT-qPCR) and immunofluorescence. Compared with TPG, TPGL caused less damage to the nasal mucosa, olfactory bulb, liver and kidney of mice administered intranasally. The behavioral performance of treated mice was significantly improved in water maze, Y maze and nesting experiment. Neuronal cell damage was reduced, and the expression levels of inflammation and apoptosis related genes [tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), interleukin-1β(IL-1β), BCL2-associated X(Bax), etc.] and glial activation markers [ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1(IBA1) and glial fibrillary acidic protein(GFAP)] were decreased. These results indicated that liposome technique combined with nasal delivery alleviated the toxic side effects of TPG, and also significantly ameliorated the cognitive impairment of mice induced by central nervous system inflammation.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Tripterygium , Liposomes , Glycosides/therapeutic use , Administration, Intranasal , Lipopolysaccharides , Central Nervous System , Cognitive Dysfunction/drug therapy , Inflammation/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Cardiac Glycosides
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982404

ABSTRACT

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most prevalent cardiac arrhythmia seen in clinical settings, which has been associated with substantial rates of mortality and morbidity. However, clinically available drugs have limited efficacy and adverse effects. We aimed to investigate the mechanisms of action of andrographolide (Andr) with respect to AF. We used network pharmacology approaches to investigate the possible therapeutic effect of Andr. To define the role of Andr in AF, HL-1 cells were pro-treated with Andr for 1 h before rapid electronic stimulation (RES) and rabbits were pro-treated for 1 d before rapid atrial pacing (RAP). Apoptosis, myofibril degradation, oxidative stress, and inflammation were determined. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was performed to investigate the relevant mechanism. Andr treatment attenuated RAP-induced atrial electrophysiological changes, inflammation, oxidative damage, and apoptosis both in vivo and in vitro. RNA-seq indicated that oxidative phosphorylation played an important role. Transmission electron microscopy and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content assay respectively validated the morphological and functional changes in mitochondria. The translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) to the nucleus and the molecular docking suggested that Andr might exert a therapeutic effect by influencing the Keap1-Nrf2 complex. In conclusions, this study revealed that Andr is a potential preventive therapeutic drug toward AF via activating the translocation of Nrf2 to the nucleus and the upregulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) to promote mitochondrial bioenergetics.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Atrial Fibrillation/metabolism , Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1/metabolism , Signal Transduction , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/pharmacology , Molecular Docking Simulation , Oxidative Stress , Energy Metabolism , Mitochondria/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Heme Oxygenase-1
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008640

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to analyze the effect of matrine on tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α)-induced inflammatory response in human umbilical vein endothelial cells(HUVECs) and explore whether the underlying mechanism was related to the miR-25-3p-mediated Krüppel-like factor 4(Klf4) pathway. The HUVEC cell inflammation model was induced by TNF-α stimulation. After 24 or 48 hours of incubation with different concentrations of matrine(0.625, 1.25, and 2.5 mmol·L~(-1)), CCK-8 assay was used to detect cell proliferation. After treatment with 2.5 mmol·L~(-1) matrine for 48 h, the expression of TNF-α, interleukin-6(IL-6), interleukin-1β(IL-1β), and Klf4 mRNA and miR-25-3p was detected by real-time fluorescence-based quantitative PCR, and the protein expression of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, and Klf4 was detected by Western blot. The anti-miR-25-3p was transfected into HUVECs, and the effect of anti-miR-25-3p on TNF-α-induced cell proliferation and inflammatory factors was detected by the above method. The cells were further transfected with miR-25-3p and incubated with matrine to detect the changes in proliferation and expression of related inflammatory factors, miR-25-3p, and Klf4. The targeting relationship between miR-25-3p and Klf4 was verified by bioinformatics analysis and dual luciferase reporter gene assay. The results displayed that matrine could inhibit TNF-α-induced HUVEC proliferation, decrease the mRNA and protein expression of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β, increase the mRNA and protein expression of Klf4, and reduce the expression of miR-25-3p. Bioinformatics analysis showed that there were specific complementary binding sites between miR-25-3p and Klf4 sequences. Dual luciferase reporter gene assay confirmed that miR-25-3p negatively regulated Klf4 expression in HUVECs by targeting. The inhibition of miR-25-3p expression can reduce TNF-α-induced cell proliferation and mRNA and protein expression of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β. MiR-25-3p overexpression could reverse the effect of matrine on TNF-α-induced cell proliferation and the mRNA and protein expression of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, and Klf4. This study shows that matrine inhibits the inflammatory response induced by TNF-α in HUVECs through miR-25-3p-mediated Klf4 pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Matrines , Interleukin-6/genetics , Signal Transduction , Antagomirs , Inflammation/metabolism , Luciferases/pharmacology , RNA, Messenger , Apoptosis
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008616

ABSTRACT

This study aims to explore the neuroprotective effect of bilobalide(BB) and the mechanisms such as inhibiting inflammatory response in macrophage/microglia, promoting neurotrophic factor secretion, and interfering with the activation and differentiation of peripheral CD4~+ T cells. BB of different concentration(12.5, 25, 50, 100 μg·mL~(-1)) was used to treat the RAW264.7 and BV2 cells for 24 h. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide(MTT) assay and cell counting kit-8(CCK-8) were employed to detect the cytotoxicity of BB and appropriate concentration was selected for further experiment. Lipopolysaccharide(LPS) was applied to elicit inflammation in RAW264.7 and BV2 cells, mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages(BMDMs), and primary microglia, respectively. The effect of BB on cell proliferation and secretion of inflammatory cytokines and neurotrophic factors was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). Spleen monocytes of C57BL/6 female mice(7-8 weeks old) were isolated, and CD4~+ T cells were separated by magnetic beads under sterile conditions. Th17 cells were induced by CD3/CD28 and the conditioned medium for eliciting the inflammation in BMDMs. The content of IL-17 cytokines in the supernatant was detected by ELISA to determine the effect on the activation and differentiation of CD4~+ T cells. In addition, PC12 cells were incubated with the conditioned medium for eliciting inflammation in BMDMs and primary microglia and the count and morphology of cells were observed. The cytoto-xicity was determined by lactate dehydrogenase(LDH) assay. The result showed that BB with the concentration of 12.5-100 μg·mL~(-1) had no toxicity to RAW264.7 and BV2 cells, and had no significant effect on the activity of cell model with low inflammation. The 50 μg·mL~(-1) BB was selected for further experiment, and the results indicated that BB inhibited LPS-induced secretion of inflammatory cytokines. The experiment on CD4~+ T cells showed that the conditioned medium for LPS-induced inflammation in BMDMs promoted the activation and differentiation of CD4~+ T cells, while the conditioned medium of the experimental group with BB intervention reduced the activation and differentiation of CD4~+ T cells. In addition, BB also enhanced the release of neurotrophic factors from BMDMs and primary microglia. The conditioned medium after BB intervention can significantly reduce the death of PC12 neurons, inhibit neuronal damage, and protect neurons. To sum up, BB plays a neuroprotective role by inhibiting macrophage and microglia-mediated inflammatory response and promoting neurotrophic factors.


Subject(s)
Female , Rats , Mice , Animals , Bilobalides/pharmacology , Neuroprotection , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , Culture Media, Conditioned/pharmacology , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Macrophages/metabolism , Microglia , Cytokines/metabolism , Nerve Growth Factors/pharmacology , Inflammation/metabolism
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986966

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of electroacupuncture on osteoarthritis in rats and explore the possible mechanism.@*METHODS@#Thirty SD rats were randomly divided into osteoarthritis model group, electro-acupuncture group and control group (n=10), and in the former two groups, early osteoarthritis was induced using a modified DMM surgical modeling method. After successful modeling, the rats in the electro-acupuncture group were treated with electro-acupuncture at bilateral "Housanli" and "Anterior knee point". Behavioral tests of the rats were performed and scored using the LequesneMG scale. Subchondral bone degeneration was observed in each group, and serum levels of IL-1β, ADAMTS-7, MMP-3 and COMP were measured using ELISA. The mRNA and protein expressions of IL-1β, Wnt-7B, β-catenin, ADAMTS-7, and MMP-3 in the cartilage tissue of the knee joints were detected using RT-PCR and Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#In behavioral tests, the rats in the model and electroacupuncture groups had significantly higher LequesneMG scores after modeling than those in the control group (P < 0.05). After 20 days of treatment, LequesneMG scores were significantly lowered in rats in the electroacupuncture as compared with the model rats (P < 0.05). Imaging examination revealed obvious subchondral bone damage in both the electroacupuncture group and the model group, but the damages were significantly milder with former group. Compared with the model rats, the rats receiving electroacupuncture had significantly lower serum levels of IL-1β, ADAMTS-7, MMP-3 and COMP (P < 0.05) with also lower expressions of IL-1β, Wnt-7B, β-catenin, ADAMTS-7 and MMP-3 in the cartilage tissues at both the mRNA and protein levels (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Electroacupuncture can alleviate joint pain and improve subchondral bone damage in rats with osteoarthritis by reducing IL-1β levels in the joint cartilage tissue and serum to alleviate joint inflammation and by reducing such cytokines as ADAMTS-7 and MMP-3 via regulating the Wnt-7B/β-catenin signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Electroacupuncture , Matrix Metalloproteinase 3/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , beta Catenin/metabolism , Osteoarthritis/metabolism , Wnt Signaling Pathway , Cartilage, Articular , Inflammation/metabolism
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986963

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of Akt2 inhibitor on macrophage polarization in the periapical tissue in a rat model of periapical inflammation.@*METHODS@#Rat models of periapical inflammation were established in 28 normal SD rats by opening the pulp cavity of the mandibular first molars, followed by injection of normal saline and Akt2 inhibitor into the left and right medullary cavities, respectively. Four rats without any treatment served as the healthy control group. At 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after modeling, 7 rat models and 1 control rat were randomly selected for observation of inflammatory infiltration in the periapical tissues by X-ray and HE staining. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression and localization of Akt2, macrophages and the inflammatory mediators. RT-PCR was performed to detect the mRNA expressions of Akt2, CD86, CD163, inflammatory mediators, miR-155-5p and C/EBPβ to analyze the changes in macrophage polarization.@*RESULTS@#X-ray and HE staining showed that periapical inflammation was the most obvious at 21 days after modeling in the rats. Immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR showed that compared with those in the control rats, the expressions of Akt2, CD86, CD163, miR-155-5p, C/EBPβ, and IL-10 increased significantly in the rat models at 21 days (P < 0.05). Compared with saline treatment, treatment with the Akt2 inhibitor significantly decreased the expression levels of Akt2, CD86, miR-155-5p and IL-6 and the ratio of CD86+M1/CD163+M2 macrophages (P < 0.05) and increased the expression levels of CD163, C/EBPβ and IL-10 in the rat models (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Inhibition of Akt2 can delay the progression of periapical inflammation in rats and promote M2 macrophage polarization in the periapical inflammatory microenvironment possibly by reducing miR-155-5p expression and activating the expression of C/EBPβ in the Akt signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , MicroRNAs/genetics , Interleukin-10 , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Macrophages/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936338

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of wogonoside on high glucose-induced dysfunction of human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (hRMECs) and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic retinopathy in rats and explore the underlying molecular mechanism.@*METHODS@#HRMECs in routine culture were treated with 25 mmol/L mannitol or exposed to high glucose (30 mmol/L glucose) and treatment with 10, 20, 30, 40 μmol/L wogonoside. CCK-8 assay and Transwell assay were used to examine cell proliferation and migration, and the changes in tube formation and monolayer cell membrane permeability were tested. ROS, NO and GSH-ST kits were used to evaluate oxidative stress levels in the cells. The expressions of IL-1β and IL-6 in the cells were examined with qRT-PCR and ELISA, and the protein expressions of VEGF, HIF-1α and SIRT1 were detected using Western blotting. We also tested the effect of wogonoside on retinal injury and expressions of HIF-1α, ROS, VEGF, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and SIRT1 proteins in rat models of STZ-induced diabetic retinopathy.@*RESULTS@#High glucose exposure caused abnormal proliferation and migration, promoted angiogenesis, increased membrane permeability (P < 0.05), and induced inflammation and oxidative stress in hRMECs (P < 0.05). Wogonoside treatment concentration-dependently inhibited high glucose-induced changes in hRMECs. High glucose exposure significantly lowered the expression of SIRT1 in hRMECs, which was partially reversed by wogonoside (30 μmol/L) treatment; interference of SIRT1 obviously attenuated the inhibitory effects of wogonoside against high glucose-induced changes in proliferation, migration, angiogenesis, membrane permeability, inflammation and oxidative stress in hRMECs. In rat models of STZ-induced diabetic retinopathy, wogonoside effectively suppressed retinal thickening (P < 0.05), alleviated STZ-induced retinal injury, and increased the expression of SIRT1 in the retinal tissues (P < 0.001).@*CONCLUSION@#Wogonoside alleviates retinal damage caused by diabetic retinopathy by up-regulating SIRT1 expression.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Diabetic Retinopathy/metabolism , Endothelial Cells , Flavanones , Glucose/pharmacology , Glucosides , Inflammation/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Neovascularization, Pathologic/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Sirtuin 1/metabolism , Streptozocin/pharmacology , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936322

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the role of heat shock protein 90α (HSP90α) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway in allergic airway inflammation induced by house dust mite (HDM) in bronchial epithelial cells.@*METHODS@#A HDM- induced asthmatic cell model was established in human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells by exposure to a concentration gradient (200, 400 and 800 U/mL) of HDM for 24 h. To test the effect of siHSP90α and HSP90 inhibitor 17-AAG on HDM-induced asthmatic inflammation, HBE cells were transfected with siHSP90α (50 nmol, 12 h) or pretreated with 17-AAG (900 nmol, 6 h) prior to HDM exposure (800 U/mL) for 24 h, and the changes in the expression of HSP90α and ER stress markers were assessed. We also tested the effect of nasal drip of 17-AAG, HDM, or their combination on airway inflammation and ER stress in C57BL/6 mice.@*RESULTS@#In HBE cells, HDM exposure significantly up-regulated the expression of HSP90α protein (P=0.011) and ER stress markers XBP-1 (P=0.044), ATF-6α (P=0.030) and GRP-78 (P=0.027). Knocking down HSP90α and treatment with 17-AAG both significantly inhibited HDM-induced upregulation of XBP-1 (P=0.008). In C57BL/6 mice, treatment with 17-AAG obviously improved HDM-induced airway inflammation and significantly reduced the number of inflammatory cells in the airway (P=0.014) and lowered the levels of IL-4 (P=0.030) and IL-5 (P=0.035) in alveolar lavage fluid. Immunohistochemical staining showed that the expressions of XBP-1 and GRP-78 in airway epithelial cells decreased significantly after the treatment of 17-AAG.@*CONCLUSIONS@#HSP90α promotes HDM-induced airway allergic inflammation possibly by upregulating ER stress pathway in bronchial epithelial cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Asthma/metabolism , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Epithelial Cells , Inflammation/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Pyroglyphidae
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936314

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the expression of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK Ⅱ) in pancreatic tissues of mice with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) and explore the protective effect of KN93, a CaMK Ⅱ inhibitor, against pancreatic injury in SAP and the possible mechanism.@*METHODS@#Thirty-six healthy male C57 mice were randomly divided into sham operation group, SAP group, KN93 group and SAP + KN93 group (n=9). Serum and pancreatic tissue samples were collected 24 h after modeling. The pathological changes in the pancreatic tissues were observed using HE staining. Serum lipase and amylase activities and the levels of inflammatory factors were detected using ELISA. Western blotting was used to detect the expressions of CaMK Ⅱ, p-CaMK Ⅱ, p-NF-κB, MAPK and p-MAPK in mouse pancreas.@*RESULTS@#Compared with those in sham operation group, the expressions of p-CaMK Ⅱ, p-NF-κB and p-MAPK were significantly increased in SAP group (P < 0.05). KN93 treatment obviously alleviated pathological injuries of the pancreas in SAP mice, and significantly lowered serum levels of lipase, amylase and inflammatory factors (TNF-α and IL-6) and phosphorylation levels of NF-κB, ERK and MAPK proteins (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#The activity of CaMK Ⅱ is significantly increased in the pancreatic tissue of SAP mice. KN93 can alleviate pancreatic injury and inflammation in SAP mice possibly through the ERK/MAPK signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Acute Disease , Inflammation/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Pancreas/pathology , Pancreatitis/pathology
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