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1.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e243885, 2023. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1422418

ABSTRACT

Esta é uma pesquisa qualitativa, em formato de ensaio, que realiza o estudo comparado de duas obras literárias, de A. Von Chamisso e E. T. A. Hoffmann, e de uma anotação do diário deste último para problematizar a repercussão de algumas formas de desestabilizações do Eu na dinâmica psíquica da neurose. O foco dos textos referidos está no fenômeno do duplo na sua forma negativizada, isto é, como o desaparecimento da imagem exterior que dá suporte ao Eu. As ausências da sombra e do reflexo são entendidas como representações metafóricas de uma alteração do Eu que engendra repercussões importantes na homeostase psíquica, sobretudo nas relações sociais de troca. Explora-se daí a menção no diário de Hoffmann de instrumentos ópticos para interrogar o uso desses aparelhos como modelos metapsicológicos na psicanálise. Salienta-se, ainda, a participação de processos de natureza estética na dinâmica psíquica do infamiliar, tomando como referência a ligação entre o conto de Hoffmann e o relato de Stendhal sobre a sua estadia em Florença.(AU)


This is a qualitative research, in essay format, which performs the comparative study of two literary works, by A. Von Chamisso and E. T. A. Hoffmann, and an annotation in the latter's diary to problematize the repercussion of some forms of destabilization of the Ego's in the psychic dynamics of neurosis. The focus of the referred texts is on the phenomenon of the double in its negative form, that is, as the disappearance of the outer image that supports the Ego. The absences of the shadow and the reflection are understood as metaphorical representations of an alteration of the Ego that generates important repercussions on psychic homeostasis, above all in social relationships of exchange. Thus, we analyze the mention of optical instruments in Hoffmann's diary to question the use of these devices as metapsychological models in psychoanalysis. Note, also, the participation of processes of aesthetic nature in the psychic dynamics of the uncanny, taking as reference the connection between Hoffmann's short story and Stendhal's account of his stay in Florence.(AU)


Este ensayo cualitativo realiza un estudio comparativo de dos obras literarias de A. Von Chamisso y de E. T. A. Hoffmann, junto con una anotación en el diario de este último para problematizar la repercusión de algunas formas de desestabilizaciones de la función del Yo en la dinámica psíquica de la neurosis. Los textos se centran en el fenómeno del doble en su forma negativa, como la desaparición de la imagen exterior que sostiene el Yo. Se entienden las ausencias de la penumbra y el reflejo como una representación metafórica de una alteración de la función del Yo que genera importantes repercusiones en la regulación psíquica, sobre todo en las relaciones de intercambio social. Se analiza la presencia en el diario de Hoffmann de instrumentos ópticos para discutir el uso de estos dispositivos como modelos metapsicológicos en psicoanálisis. Se destaca la reverberación de procesos de naturaleza estética en la dinámica psíquica de lo ominoso, tomando como referencia la conexión entre el cuento de Hoffmann y el relato de Stendhal sobre su estancia en Florencia.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Personal Space , Psychoanalysis , Literature , Narcissism , Psychology , Psychopathology , Psychosomatic Medicine , Psychotic Disorders , Unconscious, Psychology , Unconsciousness , Behavioral Sciences , Behavioral Symptoms , Depersonalization , Double Bind Interaction , Extraversion, Psychological , Metacognition , Emotional Regulation , Narcissistic Personality Disorder , Inhibition, Psychological
2.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e244422, 2023. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1431118

ABSTRACT

Funções executivas (FE) referem-se ao conjunto de habilidades que, de forma integrada, coordenam o comportamento e a cognição. Assim, o comprometimento no desenvolvimento das FE está ligado a vários desfechos negativos ao longo da vida. Portanto, a avaliação dessas habilidades na infância é essencial para identificar e prevenir prejuízos na vida adulta. Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar evidências de validade do Teste Informatizado para Avaliação das Funções Executivas (Tafe) pelo critério de idade e pelo padrão de correlação entre medidas do TAFE e outras medidas de FE. Para isso, foi utilizada uma amostra de 51 crianças, entre 4 e 10 anos de idade, matriculadas em uma escola privada na cidade de Goiânia (GO), da pré-escola ao 4º ano do ensino fundamental. Como instrumentos, foram utilizados, além do Tafe, as tarefas de Bloco de Corsi, Teste de Trilhas A e B, Teste de Trilhas Pré-Escolares, Teste de Stroop Pré-Escolares e Subteste Dígitos da Escala Wechsler de Inteligência. Foram conduzidas análises estatísticas Kruskal Wallis para verificar a evidência de validade por relação com idade e análises de correlação não paramétrica de Spearman para avaliar as evidências de validade convergente. O instrumento investigado mostrou-se efetivo para discriminar entre as diferentes faixas etárias, assim, sensível ao desenvolvimento das FE. Os resultados obtidos no Tafe correlacionaram-se aos obtidos em outros testes que também avaliaram FE, mostrando claros padrões de convergência. Logo, as análises dos resultados fornecem evidências de validade ao Tafe, derivadas a partir de diferentes estratégias de investigação.(AU)


Executive functions (EF) refer to the set of skills that, in an integrated way, coordinate behavior and cognition. Thus, the commitment in developing EF is linked to several negative outcomes throughout life. Therefore, the assessment of these abilities in childhood is essential to identify and prevent possible harm in adult life. This study aimed to investigate evidences of validity of the Computerized Test for Evaluation of Executive Functions (TAFE) by the age criterion and by the pattern of correlation between TAFE measures and other EF measures. To this end, a sample of 51 children, between 4 and 10 years old, enrolled in a private school in the municipality of Goiânia (GO), from preschool to the 4th year of elementary school, was used. As instruments, in addition to TAFE, the tasks of Corsi Block, Trails Test A and B, Preschool Trails Test, Preschool Stroop Test and the Digits Subtest of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale were used. Kruskal Wallis statistical analyzes were conducted to verify the evidence of validity by age criteria and Spearman's nonparametric correlation analysis to assess evidence of convergent validation. The instrument investigated was effective to discriminate between different age groups, thus being sensitive to the development of EF. The results obtained in TAFE were correlated with those obtained in other tests that also assess FE, showing patterns of convergence. Therefore, the analysis of the results provides validation evidence to TAFE, derived from different investigation methods.(AU)


Las funciones ejecutivas (FE) se refieren al conjunto de habilidades que coordinan la conducta y la cognición. Así, el deterioro en el desarrollo de FE está relacionado con varios resultados negativos durante la vida. Por tanto, la valoración de estas habilidades en la infancia es fundamental para identificar y prevenir posibles daños en la vida adulta. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo investigar la evidencia de validez de la Prueba Computarizada para Evaluación de Funciones Ejecutivas (Tafe) por el criterio de edad y convergencia entre las medidas Tafe y otras medidas de FE. Para ello, se utilizó una muestra de 51 niños, de entre 4 y 10 años de edad, matriculados en un colegio privado de Goiânia (Goiás, Brasil) desde la preescolar hasta 4.º de primaria. Como instrumentos, además del Tafe, se utilizaron las tareas de Bloque de Corsi, el Test de los senderos A y B, el Test de los Senderos Preescolares, el Test de Stroop Preescolar y la Subprueba de Dígitos de la Escala Wechsler de Inteligencia. Se realizaron análisis estadísticos de Kruskal Wallis para verificar la validez por criterios de edad y análisis de correlación no-paramétrica de Spearman para evaluar la evidencia de validez convergente. Tafe demostró ser efectivo para discriminar entre diferentes grupos de edad, así es sensible al desarrollo de FE. Los resultados en Tafe se correlacionaron con los obtenidos en otras pruebas de FE, lo que muestra claros patrones de convergencia. Por tanto, el análisis aporta evidencias de validez para Tafe, derivadas de diferentes estrategias de investigación.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Cognition , Pliability , Inhibition, Psychological , Memory, Short-Term , Perception , Aptitude Tests , Play and Playthings , Play Therapy , Primary Health Care , Problem Solving , Psychological Phenomena , Psychological Tests , Psychology , Mental Recall , Recreation , Retention, Psychology , Attention , Schools , Auditory Perception , Social Adjustment , Social Support , Speech Perception , Stress, Psychological , Task Performance and Analysis , Technology , Therapeutics , Thinking , Wechsler Scales , Behavior , Behavioral Sciences , Neurosciences , Adaptation, Psychological , Child , Child Care , Child, Preschool , Environmental Monitoring , Organizations , Child Health , Cognitive Dissonance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Consciousness , Intuition , Neurobehavioral Manifestations , Behavioral Disciplines and Activities , Self Efficacy , Creativity , Recognition, Psychology , Personal Autonomy , Access to Information , Comprehension , Growth and Development , Discrimination, Psychological , Education , Emotions , Planning , Cerebrum , Resilience, Psychological , Executive Function , Stroop Test , Mindfulness , Spatial Memory , Self-Control , Metacognition , Wechsler Memory Scale , Memory and Learning Tests , Self-Management , Mentalization , Frustration , Systematic Review , Emotional Regulation , Multidimensional Scaling Analysis , Self-Testing , Functional Status , Social Interaction , Cognitive Training , Processing Speed , Psychological Growth , Higher Nervous Activity , Human Activities , Imagination , Language Development , Language Development Disorders , Learning , Mental Processes , Motor Activity , Neuropsychological Tests , Neuropsychology
3.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e264922, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1529231

ABSTRACT

Este artigo propõe o estudo sobre o conceito de outro como semelhante e como objeto. Partindo de textos que interpelam a alteridade na psicanálise e remetendo aos temas do complexo semelhante, da satisfação, da perda, do luto, da negativa, da repetição; avalia o conceito de outro articulando textos de diversos autores. A partir da psicanálise freudiana, estuda o das Ding e a negação, discriminando com estes termos um objeto estruturante na origem do psiquismo. Aborda textos técnicos da psicanálise para delimitar o tema da repetição. Também a recordação e a repetição são vinculadas ao objeto e estudadas na perspectiva da filosofia moderna. São retomados temas do diálogo platônicos para definir o lugar do erótico e da amizade. No fim do presente artigo, propomos o termo clássico grego Oikos com valor equivalente ao da Coisa freudiana e como esta aparece em escritos psicanalíticos.(AU)


This article studies the concept of other as similar and object. It is based on texts that question the alterity in psychoanalysis and refers to the themes of otherness complex, loss, grief, negative, repetition, and evaluates the concept of other, using articles of diverse authors. Based on Freudian psychoanalysis, it studies the Thing and the denial and discriminates a structuring object in the origin of psychism. It approaches technical texts of psychoanalysis to delimitate the theme of repetition. The recordation and repetition are also linked to the object and studied from the perspective of modern philosophy. Themes of the platonic dialogues are resumed to define the place of the erotic and the friendship. In the end of the article, we propose the greek classic term Oikos, with equal value to the Freudian Thing, as this one appears in psychoanalytic writings.(AU)


Este artículo estudia el concepto Otro como semejante y como objeto. A partir de textos que interpelan la alteridad en psicoanálisis y que se refieren a temas del complejo semejante, de la satisfacción, de la pérdida, del duelo, de la negación, de la repetición, se evalúa el concepto de Otro articulando textos de diferentes autores. Basado en el psicoanálisis freudiano, se aborda Ding y la negación, discriminando con estos términos un objeto estructurante en el origen de lo psíquico. Se abordan textos técnicos del psicoanálisis para delimitar el tema de la repetición; el recuerdo y la repetición son vinculadas al objeto y estudiadas desde la perspectiva de la filosofía moderna; y se retoman temas de los diálogos platónicos para definir el lugar de lo erótico y la amistad. Al culminar este artículo se propone leer el término griego clásico Oikos con un valor equivalente al de la Cosa freudiana como aparece en los escritos psicoanalíticos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Philosophy , Psychoanalysis , Psychology , Humans , Object Attachment , Perception , Pleasure-Pain Principle , Projection , Psychopathology , Psychosexual Development , Rationalization , Rejection, Psychology , Repression, Psychology , Repression-Sensitization , Safety , Social Behavior , Social Responsibility , Sublimation, Psychological , Superego , Thinking , Truth Disclosure , Unconscious, Psychology , Beauty , Volition , Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms , Technical Cooperation , Symbolism , Attitude , Singularities , Homeopathic Cure , Mortality , Adolescent , Staff Development , Communication , Conflict, Psychological , Conscience , Consciousness , Privacy , Knowledge , Metaphor , Life , Empiricism , Address , Affect , Neurolinguistic Programming , Textbook , Virtues , Personal Autonomy , Moral Development , Research Subjects , Depressive Disorder , History, Ancient , Dreams , Drive , Education , Ego , Erotica , Academies and Institutes , Scientific Domains , User Embracement , Ethics , Extraversion, Psychological , Fantasy , Theory of Mind , Hope , Self-Control , Moral Status , Symbolic Interactionism , Freudian Theory , Psychological Distress , Food Social Space , Greece , Hate , Id , Identification, Psychological , Imagination , Individuality , Inhibition, Psychological , Interpersonal Relations , Judgment , Jungian Theory , Language , Libido , Love , Memory , Mythology
4.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e248137, 2023. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1431128

ABSTRACT

Objetivamos apresentar uma proposta de atendimento psicossocial grupal oferecida para mulheres adultas que cometeram ofensa sexual, cuidadoras e mães. A experiência está sendo desenvolvida no Distrito Federal, Brasil, com pessoas do gênero feminino provenientes de encaminhamento judicial. Carece que os profissionais das áreas da justiça, saúde, serviço social e psicologia avancem no estudo e na compreensão desta temática, de modo a pensarem a atuação e o apoio terapêutico a essas mulheres. O modo de atendimento é focal e breve, com ênfase na criação de um ambiente lúdico como facilitador das interações grupais e da discussão sobre os temas: identidade; confiança nas relações afetivas e sociais; vivência pessoal com violência física e sexual; configuração de gênero; e expressão da sexualidade e futuro. A abordagem individual também se baseia no enfoque dos temas mencionados. O oferecimento de ajuda à mulher cuidadora ou à mãe tem participação ativa na interrupção do circuito abusivo sexual, pois essa violência é extremamente ocultada, ocasionando uma prolongada vulnerabilidade para as vítimas. Ressalta-se o valor do texto indicando a descrição de ação voltada para uma população permanentemente não estudada e evitada em seu reconhecimento. Os limites desta proposta encontram-se na falta de outras iniciativas que possibilitem uma discussão sobre essa experiência.(AU)


We aim to present a proposal of a group psychosocial intervention offered for adult female sexual offenders, caregivers, and mothers. The intervention is being developed at Federal District, Brazil, with female people coming from judicial referrals. Professionals in the areas of justice, health, social work, and psychology need to advance in the study and understanding this theme to think about action and therapeutic support for these women. The intervention is a focal and brief approach, with emphasis on the creation of a ludic environment as a facilitator of group interactions and discussion about the themes: identity; trust in affective and social relationships; personal experience with physical and sexual violence; gender configuration; and sexuality expression and future. The individual approach is also based on focusing on these themes. The offering of help to the female caregiver or the mother has an active participation in the interruption of the sexual offense circuit, since this violence is extremely hidden, bringing a prolonged condition of vulnerability to the victims. The value of this text is highlighted indicating the description of an action directed to a population that is permanently not studied and whose recognition is avoided. The limits of this proposal are found in the absence of other initiatives that would allow a discussion about this experience.(AU)


Este texto presenta una propuesta de atención psicosocial grupal destinada a mujeres adultas que han cometido delito sexual, a cuidadoras y madres. La intervención se está desarrollando en el Distrito Federal (Brasil), con personas del género femenino provenientes de remisiones judiciales. Es necesario que los profesionales de las áreas de justicia, salud, trabajo social y psicología avancen en el estudio y comprensión de esta temática para pensar en el desempeño y apoyo terapéutico de estas mujeres. El servicio es enfocado y breve, con énfasis en la creación de un ambiente lúdico como facilitador de interacciones grupales y discusión sobre los temas: identidad; confianza en las relaciones afectivas y sociales; experiencia personal con violencia física y sexual; configuración de género; y expresión de la sexualidad y el futuro. El enfoque individual también se centra en estos temas. La oferta de ayuda a la mujer cuidadora o a la madre es importante para la interrupción del circuito de abuso sexual, ya que esta violencia es extremadamente oculta y provoca una vulnerabilidad prolongada a las víctimas. Se destaca el valor del texto con la descripción de la acción dirigida a una población que no es objeto de estudios ni reconocida. Los límites de esta propuesta se encuentran en la ausencia de otras iniciativas que permitan un debate sobre esta experiencia.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Sex Offenses , Gender Identity , Psychosocial Intervention , Anxiety , Parent-Child Relations , Pedophilia , Perception , Art Therapy , Prejudice , Sex Work , Psychology , Psychopathology , Public Policy , Quality of Life , Rape , Rejection, Psychology , Safety , Sex Education , Shame , Social Environment , Social Justice , Social Problems , Socioeconomic Factors , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Taboo , Torture , Battered Child Syndrome , World Health Organization , Child Abuse, Sexual , Brazil , Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral , Family , Child Abuse , Child Advocacy , Child Welfare , Liability, Legal , Women's Health , Parenting , Sexual Harassment , Coercion , Domestic Violence , Conflict, Psychological , Contraception , Crime Victims , Statistics , Crime , Hazards , Dangerous Behavior , Denial, Psychological , Trust , Aggression , Sexology , Human Rights Abuses , Depression , Fear , Criminals , Sexual Health , Human Trafficking , Criminal Behavior , Physical Abuse , Recidivism , Rights of Prisoners , Androcentrism , Freedom , Adverse Childhood Experiences , Respect , Emotional Abuse , Information Avoidance , Social Deprivation , Psychological Well-Being , Handling, Psychological , Hate , Health Promotion , Human Rights , Incest , Infections , Inhibition, Psychological , Life Change Events , Loneliness , Love , Deception , Malpractice , Masturbation , Narcissism
5.
Subj. procesos cogn ; 26(2): 30-57, nov. 28, 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1401876

ABSTRACT

La batería de Autorregulación Cognitiva -TAC-es una herramienta informatizada para la evaluación de los principales procesos ejecutivos en una modalidad de administración presencial. Aunque sus características técnicas hacen viable su administración en una modalidad remota y asincrónica aún no cuenta con evidencias de validez y confiabilidad de sus puntuaciones en una modalidad de administración no presencial. Por ello, este estudio propone obtener evidencias de las propiedades psicométricas de la Tarea de los Dedos -TAC-en su modalidad de administración remota y asincrónica para la evaluación de la Inhibición comportamental y la flexibilidad cognitiva en personas adultas. Para cumplir con este objetivo, se analizó la presencia de dos efectos experimentales que aportan validez de constructo y se comparó su desempeño en las dos modalidades de administración. Finalmente, se analizó la confiabilidad de las puntuaciones a través del método de división por mitades. Los resultados obtenidos aportan evidencia empírica de las propiedades psicométricas del instrumento(AU)


The cognitive self-regulation battery -TAC-is a computerized tool designed to evaluate the work memory, three inhibitory processes and cognitive flexibility. There is still no evidence of validity and reliability of their scores in remote administration mode. The goal of this work is to obtain evidence of reliability and validity for the tac fingers task in remote and asynchronous administration mode for cognitive flexibility and behavioral inhibition evaluation in the adult population. It was analyzed iftwo experimental effects were detected. Its presence indicates the activation or participation of cognitive flexibility and behavioral inhibition in the resolution of activities proposed by the task. Also, the performance of the participants in both modalities was compared. The internal consistency was analyzed through the method of division by halves. The results obtained provide empirical evidence of psychometric properties of TAC fingers task for evaluation of cognitive flexibility and behavioral inhibition in the adult population(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Remote Consultation , Behavior Control/methods , Emotional Regulation , Cognitive Psychology , Inhibition, Psychological
6.
Av. psicol. latinoam ; 39(1): 1-25, ene.-abr. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1366996

ABSTRACT

El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo desarrollar y validar el Cuestionario de Funciones Ejecutivas (CUFE), un cuestionario accesible para evaluar las tres principales funciones ejecutivas (memoria de trabajo, inhibición y flexibilidad cognitiva) en niños de 9 a 12 años y, así, proporcionar valores descriptivos de referencia y evidencias acerca de su confiabilidad y validez. Para ello se analizó su funcionamiento en una muestra de 269 niños argentinos de 9 a 12 años de edad, alumnos del segundo ciclo de la escuela primaria. El análisis factorial exploratorio reveló una estructura de tres factores que explicaban 49.08 % de la varianza, con cargas factoriales unidimensionales y satisfactorias. Los factores retenidos presentaron buenos índices de confiabilidad y fueron llamados: memoria de trabajo, inhibición y flexibilidad y con-trol emocional. La memoria de trabajo se asoció con la comprensión lectora, el cálculo matemático y las calificaciones escolares de Prácticas del lenguaje y Matemática. Las restantes dos subescalas se asociaron con las calificaciones escolares de ambas asignaturas. Las dimensiones del cuestionario coinciden con los actuales modelos teóricos de funcionamiento ejecutivo. En función de las evidencias de validez y confiabilidad, el CUFE se presenta como un instrumento ecológico y valioso para la medición de las funciones ejecutivas en el contexto de la evaluación infantil


The present study aimed to develop and validate an accessible questionnaire to assess the three core execu-tive functions (working memory, inhibition, cognitive flexibility) in children aged 9-12 years: the Executive Function Questionnaire (CUFE), and to provide descrip-tive baseline values and evidence about its reliability and validity. The questionnaire was tested on a sample of 269 Argentinean children from 9 to 12 years old. Children attended elementary schools in Mar del Plata's city. The exploratory factorial analysis revealed a three-factor structure that explained 49.08% of the variance. The items were unidimensional and showed satisfactory factor loadings. The retained factors presented good reliability and were called working memory, inhibition and flexibility, and emotional control. Working memory was associated with reading comprehension, mathemat-ical skills, and school grades (language practices and mathematics). Inhibition and flexibility, and emotional control were associated with school grades. The factors were consistent with current theoretical models on executive functioning. Based on the evidence obtained, the cufe represents an ecological and valuable instru-ment for measuring executive functions on children


O presente estudo teve como objetivo desenvolver e validar um questionário acessível para avaliar as três principais funções executivas (memória de trabalho, inibição, flexibilidade cognitiva) em crianças de 9 a 12 anos: o Questionário de Funções Executivas (cufe); e fornecer valores de referência descritivos e evidên-cias sobre sua confiabilidade e validade. Para tanto, foi analisado seu funcionamento em uma amostra de 269 crianças argentinas entre 9 e 12 anos, estudantes do se-gundo ciclo do ensino fundamental. A análise fatorial exploratória revelou uma estrutura de três fatores que explicou 49.08% da variância, com cargas fatoriais unidi-mensionais satisfatórias. Os fatores retidos apresentaram bons índices de confiabilidade e foram denominados Memória de trabalho, Inibição e Flexibilidade e con-trole emocional. A memória de trabalho foi associada à compreensão de leitura, ao cálculo matemático e às notas escolares de Prática de Linguagem e Matemática. As duas subescalas restantes foram associadas às notas escolares de ambas as disciplinas. As dimensões do ques-tionário coincidem com os modelos teóricos atuais de funcionamento executivo. Com base nas evidências de validade e confiabilidade, o cufe apresenta-se como um instrumento ecológico e valioso para a mensuração das funções executivas no contexto da avaliação infantil


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Memory, Short-Term , Argentina , Child , Surveys and Questionnaires , Reproducibility of Results , Educational Measurement , Inhibition, Psychological
7.
Subj. procesos cogn ; 25(1): 149-170, ene.-jun. 2021.
Article in Spanish | BINACIS, UNISALUD, LILACS | ID: biblio-1283729

ABSTRACT

La memoria de trabajo (MT) mantiene y manipula información de manera temporal, por lo que interviene en importantes procesos cognitivos como la comprensión del lenguaje y el razonamiento. La inhibición perceptiva (IP) controla el ingreso de información irrelevante a la MT, permitiendo que acceda información pertinente y no se sature la MT. Por ende, ambos procesos necesitan actuar conjuntamente. En este trabajo se buscó determinar la relación existente entre IP y MT en estudiantes de 4º y 6º año de escuela primaria (de 8-9 y 11-12 años respectivamente) y 3er año de escuela secundaria (15-16 años) de Mar del Plata, Argentina, y comparar el rendimiento de esos grupos. Se encontró que la IP y la MT verbal continuaron mejorando durante la adolescencia, que las modalidades verbal y viso-espacial poseen mecanismos de control específicos, y que la modalidad compleja de la tarea verbal insume mayor control inhibitorio que la simple(AU)


Working memory (WM) is a system that mantains and manipulates information temporally, so it intervenes in important cognitive processes such as language comprehension and reasoning. Perceptual inhibition (PI) prevents irrelevant information from entering WM, allowing access to relevant information and avoiding saturation of WM. Therefore, both processes need to act together. The purpose of this study was to determine the relation between WM and PI in 8- to 9-year-olds and 11- to 12-year-old elementary school students, and 15- to 16-year-old high school students from Mar del Plata, Argentina, and to compare these groups´ performance. Results showed that PI and verbal WM continued to improve during adolescence; also, that verbal and visuospatial modalities possess specific, functionally independent control mechanisms, and that the complex verbal task requires greater inhibitory control than the simple one(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Inhibition, Psychological , Memory, Short-Term , Education, Primary and Secondary
8.
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 42(4): 340-347, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1145185

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Deficits in executive functioning, especially in inhibitory control, are present in children born very premature and/or with very low birth weight (VP/VLBW) and in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Objective To evaluate whether ADHD imposes additional inhibitory control (IC) deficits in preschoolers born VP/VLBW. Methods 79 VP/VLBW (4 to 7 years) children were assessed for ADHD using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Aged Children - Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL). IC was measured with Conners' Kiddie Continuous Performance Test (K-CPT 2) and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function - Preschool Version (BRIEF-P).Results: No significant differences were found between ADHD (n = 24) and non-ADHD children (n = 55) for any of the measures (p = 0.062 to p = 0.903). Both groups had deficits in most K-CPT 2 scores compared to normative samples, indicating poor IC and inconsistent reaction times. Conclusions ADHD does not aggravate IC deficits in VP/VLBW children. Either neuropsychological tasks and parent reports of executive functions (EFs) may not be sensitive enough to differentiate VP/VLBW preschoolers with and without ADHD, or these children's EFs are already so impaired that there is not much room for additional impairments imposed by ADHD.


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/physiopathology , Child Behavior/physiology , Child Development/physiology , Infant, Very Low Birth Weight/physiology , Executive Function/physiology , Infant, Extremely Premature/physiology , Inhibition, Psychological , Case-Control Studies
9.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 326-332, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985120

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the impulse control and event-related potential (ERP) characteristics of patients with mental disorders caused by traumatic brain injury (TBI) in forensic psychiatry identification and to provide objective auxiliary indicators for forensic psychiatry identification. Methods Thirty patients (TBI group) with mental disorders caused by traumatic brain injury, who were identified as mild psychiatric impairment by judicial psychiatry, including 24 males and 6 females, as well as the thirty people in the control group participated in the study. All the participants completed Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11) and ERP induced by Go/NoGo tasks. BIS-11 and ERP data were collected and analyzed. Results The results of the BIS-11 showed that the total score and subscale scores of the TBI group were higher compared to the control group (P<0.05). Moreover, the TBI group exhibited significantly lower NoGo-N2 amplitude and lower NoGo-P3 amplitude than the control group. The NoGo-N2 amplitude was larger than the Go-N2 amplitude, and the NoGo-P3 amplitude was larger than the Go-P3 amplitude in both groups (P<0.05). Conclusion Traumatic brain injury could impair impulse control of mild psychiatric impairment patients, and the amplitudes of NoGo-N2 and NoGo-P3 could be important parameters to evaluate the impulse control of patients with mental disorders caused by traumatic brain injury.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/complications , Electroencephalography , Evoked Potentials , Inhibition, Psychological , Mental Disorders/physiopathology , Neuropsychological Tests , Reaction Time
10.
Rev. Subj. (Impr.) ; 19(3): 1-10, set.-dez. 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1092246

ABSTRACT

Freud descreveu, em seu trabalho "Inibição, sintoma e angústia" (1926/2014b), duas formas de inibição da ação: uma relacionada à evitação da reatualização de conflitos psíquicos, da instauração de um novo ato de recalcamento e da emissão de angústia-sinal (inibição específica); outra conexa a situações de empobrecimento de energia disponível no eu (inibição generalizada). Os autores do presente artigo buscam aprofundar a descrição do mecanismo metapsicológico do segundo tipo de inibição - ao qual propõem a designação alternativa de "inibição econômica" -, baseando-se, para isso, no modelo de trauma desenvolvido por Freud em "Além do princípio do prazer" (1920/2010c). Essa forma de inibição é uma medida emergencial do eu cuja finalidade é alterar o gerenciamento de energia em favor de tarefas psíquicas prioritárias, que demandam elevado custo energético para sua realização.


In the work "Inhibition, Symptom and Anguish" (1926/2014b), Freud described two forms of action inhibition: one related to the avoidance of the re-actualization of psychic conflicts, the establishment of a new act of repression and the emission of signal anguish ( specific inhibition); another related to situations of energy depletion available in the self (generalized inhibition). The authors of this paper seek to deepen the description of the meta-psychological mechanism of the second type of inhibition - which they propose the alternative designation of "economic inhibition" - based on Freud's trauma model in "Beyond the Principle of pleasure" (1920/2010c). This form of inhibition is an emergency measure of the self whose purpose is to alter energy management in favor of priority psychic tasks that demand a high energy cost to accomplish.


Freud describió, en su trabajo "Inhibición, síntoma y angustia" (1926/2014b), dos formas de inhibición de la acción: una relacionada a la evitación de la reactualización de conflictos psíquicos, de la implantación de un nuevo acto de represión y de la emisión de señal de angustia (inhibición específica); otra en conexión con situaciones de empobrecimiento de energía disponible en el yo (inhibición generalizada). Los autores de este trabajo buscan profundizar la descripción del mecanismo metapsicológico del segundo tipo de inhibición - a lo cual proponen la designación alternativa de "inhibición económica"-, basándose, para eso, en el modelo de trauma desarrollado por Freud en "Más allá del principio del placer" (1920/2010c). Esta forma de inhibición es una medida de emergencia del yo cuya finalidad es alterar la gestión de energía en favor de tareas psíquicas prioritarias, que demandan elevado coste energético para su realización.


Freud a décrit dans son œuvre "Inhibition, Symptôme et Angoisse" (1926/2014b) deux catégories de l'inhibition de l'action: une liée à éviter réactualiser les conflits psychiques, de l'instauration d'un nouveau acte de répression et de l'émission de l'angoisse-signe (inhibition spécifique); l'autre liée aux situations appauvrissement de l'énergie disponible en soi (inhibition généralisée). Les auteurs du présent article cherchent approfondir la description du mécanisme métapsychologie du second type d'inhibition - auquel ils proposent la désignation alternative « inhibition économique ¼. À cause de cela, ils se son basés dans le modèle de traumatisme développé par Freud dans «Au delà du principe de plaisir ¼ (1920/2010c). Cette forme d'inhibition est une mesure d'urgence chez le soi dont le but est de modifier la gestion de l'énergie en faveur de tâches psychiques prioritaires, lesquelles nécessitent un coût énergétique élevé.


Subject(s)
Inhibition, Psychological , Repression, Psychology , Combat Disorders
11.
Investig. psicol ; 24(1): .58-67, jun. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1371491

ABSTRACT

La inhibición perceptual es el proceso encargado de suprimir la interferencia de distractores externos. A pesar del rol central que juega la inhibición en dominios heterogéneos (como la salud mental, las habilidades académicas, o el desarrollo), la investigación en la temática muestra una comprensión limitada del desarrollo de este proceso, que además ha focalizado su estudio en contextos neutrales. Por ello, el objetivo del estudio fue analizar el desarrollo de la inhibición perceptual en contextos emocionales y neutrales en población infantil. Participaron del estudio 407 niños/as de 8 a 12 años, que fueron evaluados con una tarea informatizada basada en el paradigma de flancos y del distractor enteramente irrelevante. Los resultados mostraron que este proceso se desarrolla de manera progresiva y gradual, sin diferencias en función del contexto o dominio de aplicación. De este modo, permiten extender los resultados hallados principalmente en contextos neutrales, al contexto emocional. Este estudio constituye un aporte a la comprensión del desarrollo de este proceso inhibitorio, en ambos contextos (emocionales y neutrales)


Perceptual inhibition is the process responsible for suppressing the interference generated by external distractors. Despite the fact that inhibition plays a central role in heterogeneous domains (such as mental health, well-being, academic skills, and even development), research shows a limited understanding of the development of this process and has also focused mostly on neutral contexts. For this reason, this work aims to analyze the development of perceptual inhibition in emotional and neutral contexts in children. To this end, 407 children aged 8 to 12 years participated in the study. They were evaluated with a computerized task based on the flanker paradigm and the entirely irrelevant distractor paradigm. The results showed that perceptual inhibition develops gradually, and shows no differences depending on the context or domain. These findings allow the extension of previous results found in neutral contexts to the emotional context. This study constitutes a contribution to the understanding of development of this inhibitory process in both contexts (emotional and neutral)


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Inhibition, Psychological , Behavior Control , Emotions
12.
Cienc. Serv. Salud Nutr ; 10(1): 35-45, abr. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1103566

ABSTRACT

Introducción: niveles altos de ansiedad, inhibición, temor, miedo, tristeza constituyen barreras psicológicas que obstaculizan el proceso de aprendizaje; mientras que, niveles altos de autoestima y motivación permiten alcanzar un eficiente dominio de competencias comunicativas de idiomas extranjeros. Objetivo: identificar las barreras psicológicas que obstaculizan la adquisición de competencias comunicativas en inglés en estudiantes de bachillerato de los colegios públicos de la parroquia Tulcán, provincia del Carchi, Ecuador. Métodos: se trata de un estudio descriptivo, transversal. Del universo de estudio conformado por 827 estudiante se seleccionó una muestra mediante muestreo estratificado, además de los 11 docentes de inglés. La información se recolectó a través de un cuestionario, cuya confiabilidad se evaluó a través del coeficiente α de Cronbach, los que mostraron que que el cuestionario es altamente confiable (docentes: α = 0.98; estudiantes: α = 0.99). Los datos se procesaron a través hojas de cálculo y se analizaron aplicando técnicas de estadística descriptiva. Resultados: la muestra incluyó 11 docentes y 270 estudiantes. Las barreras psicológicas que influeyen en el aprendizaje del idioma inglés son la ansiedad ante el idioma, el miedo al fracaso escolar y el temor a cometer errores. Conclusión: el presente estudio pone de manifiesto que las emociones negativas siguen presentes en el aula de inglés, las cuales obstaculizan el proceso de aprendizaje del idioma.


Introduction: while high levels of anxiety, inhibition, fear, sadness set up psychological barriers that hinder the learning process, high levels of self-esteem and motivation facilitates an efficient domain of communicative competences of foreign languages. Objective: identify psychological barriers that affect the adquisition of communicative competences of English language of high school students of public schools from Tulcán parish, Carchi province, Ecuador. Methods: the present work is a descriptive cross-sectional study. From the universe of study which included 827 students a sample was selected by stratified sampling. The final sample also included all English teacheres (n = 11). Information was collected by a questionnaire, whose reliability was evaluated by Cronbach's α, which showed that the questionnaire was reliable (teachers: α = 0.98; students: α = 0.99). Data was processed using spreadsheets and analyzed applying descriptive statistic techniques. Results: the final sample incluyded 11 teachers and 270 students. Psychological barriers that affect the learning of English language include anxiety about the new language, fear of school failure and fear of making mistakes. Conclusions: the present study shows that negative emotions are still present in the English classroom, which hinder the learning process of the language.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Anxiety , Emotions , Fear , Learning , Ecuador , Inhibition, Psychological
13.
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 41(1): 22-30, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-985348

ABSTRACT

Objective: In schizophrenia, scores reflecting deficits in different cognitive processes are strongly correlated, making it difficult to establish a solid relationship between different cognitive mechanisms and other features of this disorder. The objective of this study was to explore whether three frequently postulated executive functions (updating, shifting, and inhibition) could be compared between groups and considered independently in terms of their respective roles in functional outcome. Methods: This study relied on confirmatory factor analysis of schizophrenia patients (n=141) and healthy controls (n=119). The main analyses examined the degree to which three executive functions (updating, set-shifting, and inhibition) could be separated in schizophrenia and compared this model among groups. Structural equation modeling analysis was also performed to examine the extent to which executive function components contribute to functional outcome in schizophrenia. Results: Multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis with unconstrained model parameters indicated that the full three-factor model may fit the data in both groups (χ2 = 61.48, degrees of freedom = 34, p < 0.001, comparative fit index = 0.95; standardized root mean square residual = 0.037; root mean square error of approximation = 0.04; Akaike's information criteria = 169.49; normed fit index = 0.90), although there was also a good data fit for the patient group with a two-factor model. In the patient group, structural equation modeling suggested that shifting and (principally) updating were associated with the general measure of functional outcome (regression path coefficients: 0.34, p < 0.005; 0.39, p < 0.005, respectively), although when combined the mechanisms fail to contribute. Conclusion: This data suggests that the factor structure may be similar but not identical between groups, and both updating and shifting may play an important role in functional outcome in schizophrenia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Schizophrenia/physiopathology , Executive Function/physiology , Inhibition, Psychological , Memory Disorders/physiopathology , Case-Control Studies , Educational Status , Middle Aged , Neuropsychological Tests
14.
Rev. chil. neuropsicol. (En línea) ; 13(2): 58-62, dic. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1100358

ABSTRACT

El trastorno de Tourette (TT) es un trastorno del neurodesarrollo que aparece en la primera infancia caracterizado por la presencia de tics fónicos y motores que dificultan la socialización y el proceso de aprendizaje escolar. El TT posee una variada comorbilidad que incluye el trastorno por déficit de atención con hiperactividad (TDAH), el trastorno obsesivo compulsivo (TOC), y dificultades de aprendizaje y del comportamiento. Presentamos el caso de un adolescente de 13 años diagnosticado con TT y con TDAH a los 6 y 10 años respectivamente. El paciente ha tenido una escolarización dificultosa y se encuentra con tratamiento médico de clozapina, aripiprazol, haloperidol y litio. Se aplica una batería neuropsicológica para evaluar la atención e inhibición, organización visuoespacial, memoria de trabajo, flexibilidad cognitiva, memoria verbal y memoria no-verbal, con el propósito de describir su perfil cognitivo de funciones ejecutivas y memoria. El estudio reveló que la atención está deteriorada pero que la inhibición se encuentra preservada; esto confirma el diagnóstico de TDAH y establece el subtipo de inatento para el caso en estudio. Las demás funciones ejecutivas evaluadas se encuentran severamente descendidas, situación que es coincidente con el perfil desarrollado por otros autores para el TT con comorbilidad TDAH. Sin embargo, no es claro si la disfuncionalidad ejecutiva se debe al TDAH que presenta, o a factores sociales y culturales derivados de las dificultades de escolarización causadas por el TT.


Tourette's disorder (TD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that appears in early childhood characterized by the presence of phonic and motor tics that hinder socialization and the school learning process. TD has a varied comorbidity that includes attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), learning and behavioral difficulties. We present the case of a 13-year-old adolescent diagnosed with TD and with ADHD at 6 and 10 years old respectively. The patient has had a difficult schooling and is under medical treatment of clozapine, aripiprazole, haloperidol and lithium. A neuropsychological battery is applied to evaluate the attention and inhibition, visuospatial organization, working memory, cognitive flexibility, verbal memory and non-verbal memory, with the purpose of describing its cognitive profile of executive functions and memory. The study revealed that the attention is impaired but that the inhibition is preserved; This confirms the diagnosis of ADHD and establishes the inattentive subtype for the case under study. The other executive functions evaluated are severely descended, a situation that coincides with the profile developed by other authors for TD with comorbid ADHD. However, it is not clear if the executive dysfunctionality is due to the ADHD it presents, or to social and cultural factors derived from the difficulties of schooling caused by the TD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/physiopathology , Tourette Syndrome/physiopathology , Attention , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/complications , Tourette Syndrome/complications , Executive Function/physiology , Inhibition, Psychological , Learning Disabilities/physiopathology , Memory, Short-Term/physiology
15.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1026224

ABSTRACT

El presente trabajo se enmarca en el proyecto de investigación UBACyT 2018-2020: "Evaluación de Cambio Psíquico en Pacientes con Ataques de Pánico y/o Consumos problemáticos" dirigido por la Dra. Silvia Quesada. En el mismo abordaremos una vertiente de la discusión epistemológico-clínica en torno de la anorexia mental, problemática y población de interés para la investigación. Nos valdremos de la herramienta utilizada por Lacan en su seminario sobre la angustia, conocida como "el cuadro de los afectos" con el fin de discriminar ciertas categorías. El mismo nos permitirá sostener una lectura de la anorexia como transestructural, disquisición que abre la posibilidad de ubicar su función y uso dependiendo de la estructura y el tipo clínico. Para ello, tomaremos las notaciones realizadas por Lacan en el correr del seminario sobre el cuadro, haciendo un contrapunto con su conceptualización de anorexia mental. En un apartado final, expondremos conclusiones y líneas de investigación ulteriores.


The present work is part of the research project UBACyT 2018-2020: "Evaluation of Psychic Change in Patients with Panic Attacks and / or Problematic Consumption" directed by Dr. Silvia Quesada. In the same we will approach a slope of the epistemological-clinical discussion around the mental anorexia, problematic and population of interest for the investigation. We will use the tool introduced by Lacan in his seminar on anguish, known as "the picture of affects" in order to discriminate certain categories. It will allow us to hold a reading of anorexia as trans-structural, a disquisition that opens the possibility of locating its function and use depending on the structure and the clinical type. For this, we will take the notations made by Lacan in the course of the seminar on the table making a counterpoint with his conceptualization of mental anorexia. In a final section, we will present conclusions and further lines of investigation.


Subject(s)
Anorexia , Acting Out , Inhibition, Psychological
16.
Rev. latinoam. psicol ; 50(1): 1-8, jan.-abr. 2018. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-978640

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo desse estudo foi verificar se os adolescentes que experimentaram álcool apresentavam menor controle inibitório e maior impulsividade do que aqueles que nunca beberam. A amostra foi coletada em seis escolas públicas e privadas de Porto Alegre e fizeram parte deste estudo 122 adolescentes entre 13 e 16 anos, de ambos os sexos. Os instrumentos utilizados foram: Questionário do início do uso de drogas, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS, adaptada para a faixa etária, que mede impulsividade e possui 3 subescalas que são: motora, desatenção e não-planejamento), Go/NoGo Task (tarefa computadorizada que avalia controle inibitório através de número de erros) e Five Digits Test (instrumento que avalia controle inibitório através de duas medidas, flexibilidade e inibição). Foi realizada uma comparação entre dois grupos, adolescentes que já consumiram álcool e os que ainda não haviam consumido. Os dois grupos foram comparados por testes t de Student para as variáveis impulsividade e controle inibitório. Houve diferença estatisticamente significativa na impulsividade em todas as sub-escalas da BIS, mas não houve diferença nas variáveis de controle inibitório. A literatura relata que comportamentos impulsivos na adolescência ocorrem por falta de maturação completa da região pré-frontal e isso pode estar associado com o consumo de álcool precoce, o qual explicaria a maior impulsividade dos adolescentes que já utilizaram álcool.


Abstract The aim of this study was verify if adolescents who tried alcohol beverage showed less inhibitory control and higher impulsivity compared with those who never drank. The sample was collected in six public and private schools in Porto Alegre and were tested 122 adolescents age between 13 and 16 years, from both sexes. The instruments used were: Questionnaire about early drug use, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (adapted for age group which measure impulsiveness and is divides in three subscales, motor, attentional and non-planning), Go/NoGo task (computerized task which evaluate inhibitory control through number of errors) and Five Digits Test (test that evaluate inhibitory control through two measures, flexibility and inhibition). A comparison was made between two groups, adolescents who already consumed alcohol and those who did not. The groups were compared with Student's t test in impulsiveness and inhibitory control variables. There were significant differences in impulsivity variables in all subscales of the BIS, but there were no significant differences in other inhibitory control variables. The literature reports that impulsive behaviors during adolescence occur for lack of full maturation of the prefrontal region and this may be associated with early alcohol consumption, what can explain the higher scores of impulsivity in the adolescents that already used alcohol found in this study.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adolescent , Alcohol Drinking , Impulsive Behavior , Inhibition, Psychological
17.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 566-572, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777038

ABSTRACT

The neurocircuitries that constitute the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) circuit provide a framework for bridging gaps between neuroscience and executive function in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but it has been difficult to identify the mechanisms for regulating emotional problems from the understanding of ADHD comorbidity with disruptive behavior disorders (DBD). Research based on "cool" and "hot" executive functional theory and the dual pathway models, which are thought of as applied response inhibition and delay aversion, respectively, within the neuropsychological view of ADHD, has shed light on emotional responding before and after decontextualized stimuli, while CSTC circuit-related domains have been suggested to explain the different emotional symptoms of ADHD with or without comorbid DBD. This review discusses the role of abnormal connections in each CSTC circuit, especially in the emotion circuit, which may be responsible for targeted executive dysfunction at the neuroscience level. Thus, the two major domains - abstract thinking (cool) and emotional trait (hot) - trigger the mechanism of onset of ADHD.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Pathology , Psychology , Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders , Pathology , Psychology , Brain , Cerebral Cortex , Corpus Striatum , Emotions , Inhibition, Psychological , Neuropsychological Tests , Thalamus
18.
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 39(3): 216-225, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-904581

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective Impairments involving inhibitory control have been considered central deficits in drug users, but it appears that dysfunctions may be specific to users' drug of choice. This article aims to review recent findings on inhibitory control impairment in samples of crack and/or cocaine users. Methods Searches were conducted on the PubMed, PsycINFO, and Web of Knowledge databases in two stages according to eligibility criteria. Initially, databases were searched and the titles and abstracts of results were analyzed and then selected articles were read in full. Inclusion criteria were: empirical articles written in English, Portuguese, or Spanish, published in the last ten years and involving the assessment of inhibitory control in crack and/or cocaine users. Results The database searches returned a total of 3,796 titles, 56 of them were selected initially and then a further 20 were excluded. Thirty-six articles were included in this review. In 90% of the studies reviewed the presence of inhibitory control deficits was reported, verified by impaired cognitive processing and response monitoring, as well as high levels of impulsiveness, regardless of the pattern of crack and/or cocaine consumption (recreational or chronic). Former users showed high levels of impulsiveness even after long periods of abstinence. Conclusions Crack and/or cocaine users may have inhibitory control deficits, irrespective of different consumption patterns. High levels of impulsiveness can represent a factor of vulnerability to drug use and relapse.


Resumo Objetivo Prejuízos envolvendo o controle inibitório têm sido considerados déficits centrais em usuários de substâncias psicoativas, contudo parece haver disfunções específicas de acordo com a droga de escolha. Este artigo teve por objetivo revisar os achados recentes sobre alterações do controle inibitório em amostras de usuários de cocaína e/ou crack. Método A pesquisa foi realizada nas bases de dados PubMed, PsycINFO e Web of Knowledge, em duas etapas, de acordo com os critérios de elegibilidade: inicialmente foi feita uma pesquisa nas bases de dados com análise dos títulos e resumos; após, os artigos foram lidos na íntegra. Os critérios de inclusão foram: artigos empíricos publicados em inglês, português ou espanhol, nos últimos 10 anos e que tenham avaliado o controle inibitório em usuários de cocaína e/ou crack. Resultados Do total de 3.796 resultados, 56 títulos foram selecionados, sendo 20 excluídos. Como resultado, 36 artigos foram incluídos na revisão. Em 90% dos estudos revisados, foi relatada a presença de déficits de controle inibitório, verificados através de prejuízos no processamento cognitivo e no monitoramento de respostas, além de níveis elevados de impulsividade, independentemente do padrão de consumo de cocaína e/ou crack (uso recreativo ou crônico). Usuários em abstinência apresentaram níveis elevados de impulsividade, mesmo após longos períodos sem uso da droga. Conclusão Usuários de cocaína e/ou crack podem apresentar prejuízos de controle inibitório apesar dos diferentes padrões de consumo. Níveis elevados de impulsividade podem constituir fator de vulnerabilidade para o uso de drogas e para a recaída.


Subject(s)
Humans , Crack Cocaine , Cocaine-Related Disorders/psychology , Drug Users/psychology , Inhibition, Psychological , Cognition , Executive Function
19.
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 39(3): 173-179, July-Sept. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-904583

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction In the assessment of older adults with very low formal education, typical tests of selective attention and inhibitory control are biased by reading abilities. In this sense, we aim to assess the psychometric characteristics of the Five Digits Test (FDT), a numerical Stroop paradigm, in older adults without cognitive disorders, with mild cognitive impairment, and with dementia. Methods We assessed 211 Brazilian older adults with low formal education using the FDT and other cognitive measures. Construct validity and reliability were assessed by correlations and internal consistency. Results The FDT test had weak correlations with crystalized intelligence tests and moderate-high correlations with fluid intelligence measures and tests of global cognitive status and executive functions. The split-half coefficient of reliability showed high internal consistency (>0.900). Conclusion Together, the results suggest that the FDT is a valid and reliable measure for the assessment of processing speed and executive functions in older adults with low formal education.


Resumo Introdução Na avaliação de idosos com educação formal muito baixa, os testes típicos de atenção seletiva e controle inibitório são enviesados devido à dependência de habilidades básicas de leitura. Nesse sentido, pretende-se avaliar as características psicométricas do Teste dos Cinco Dígitos (Five Digits Test, FDT), teste de paradigma Stroop-numérico, em idosos sem transtornos cognitivos, em pacientes com comprometimento cognitivo e em pacientes com demência. Métodos Foram avaliados 211 idosos brasileiros com baixa escolarização formal por meio do FDT e outras medidas cognitivas. Analisamos a validade de construto e a confiabilidade por correlações e consistência interna. Resultados O FDT apresentou correlações fracas com testes de inteligência cristalizada e correlações de moderadas ou fortes com medidas de inteligência fluida, medidas cognitivas globais e testes de funções executivas. O teste apresentou consistência interna elevada (>0.900). Conclusão Em conjunto, os resultados sugerem que o FDT é uma medida válida e confiável para a avaliação da velocidade de processamento e funções executivas em idosos com baixa escolaridade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Attention , Executive Function , Stroop Test , Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Inhibition, Psychological , Brazil , Reproducibility of Results , Educational Status , Intelligence , Middle Aged , Motor Activity
20.
Psicol. rev. (Belo Horizonte) ; 23(1): 182-200, jan. 2017.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-984862

ABSTRACT

Este artigo tem como objetivo explicitar a gênese e os efeitos da inibição no desenvolvimento do indivíduo, do ponto de vista da obra de Winnicott. Para tanto, foi realizado um estudo teórico, com uma análise conceitual e estrutural da obra do autor, buscando mostrar como ele compreendeu a inibição. Neste estudo, foi possível distinguir diversos tipos de inibição, tais como dos instintos, da agressividade, do brincar, entre outros. Nas considerações finais, salientamos que as fases mais primitivas do desenvolvimento emocional são as mais suscetíveis ao uso da inibição como um mecanismo de defesa contra a angústia, logo a provisão ambiental tem uma importância decisiva. É importante ressaltar que, no entanto, nem sempre a inibição resulta numa patologia, uma vez que Winnicott acredita que somente uma criança saudável é capaz de organizar defesas, inclusive a própria inibição, para lidar pontualmente com os seus medos de ser e estar no mundo


The aim of this article is to clarify the genesis and effects of inhibition in the individual’s emotional development, from the point of view of Winnicott’s work. It is a theoretical study with a conceptual and structural analysis of Winnicott’s work, trying to show how he understood inhibition. In this study, we could clarify different types of inhibition, for example: inhibition of instincts, inhibition of play and others. In the conclusion, we emphasize that the beginnings of the individual’s emotional development are the phases that are more susceptible for inhibition against anxiety to appear. Then, the environmental provision is of decisive importance. It is important that we note that inhibition is not always result in pathology, because Winnicott believed that only a healthy child can organize defenses, such as inhibition, to deal promptly with their fears of being and to be in the world


Este artículo trata de explicar la génesis y los efectos de la inhibición en el desarrollo de la persona, desde el punto de vista de la obra de Winnicott. Para esto, se realizó un estudio teórico con un análisis conceptual y estructural de la obra del autor, intentando mostrar cómo él entendía la inhibición. En este estudio, fue posible distinguir diferentes tipos de inhibición, tales como la de los instintos, de la agresividad, del juego, entre otros. En la conclusión, observamos que las etapas más tempranas del desarrollo emocional son las más susceptibles a la utilización de la inhibición como un mecanismo de defensa contra la ansiedad, por lo que la provisión ambiental es de una importancia decisiva. Es importante destacar, sin embargo, que no siempre la inhibición desemboca en una patología, ya que Winnicott cree que sólo un niño sano es capaz de organizar las defensas, incluyendo la propia inhibición, para hacer frente con prontitud a sus temores de ser y estar en el mundo


Subject(s)
Pathology , Child Development , Inhibition, Psychological
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