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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 35(4): 1553-1559, Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893168

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: This study represents a morphometric assessment of the anterior segment of the lumbar spine, focused on the vertebral body - intervertebral disk assembly, calculating some specific indicators and then completing direct morphometry data with the data resulting from the imaging interpretation and subsequently correlating the same to map an anatomic-imaging model. The study was carried out with anatomic items from personal archive and images obtained from Computer Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) assessment. The morphometric assessment was carried out for intervertebral disks, the disk height in the anterior and posterior sections and correlated with the disk angle degree. Direct morphometric data was compared and correlated with the data resulting from the imaging interpretation. Direct morphometric assessment was carried out for 11 vertebral blocks; the vertebral blocks were sectioned and turned into 22 vertebral semi-blocks allowing easy access to absolutely all dimensional values pursued, including the ones covered by the posterior arc. The assessment of imaging data was made with CT, CT 3D and MRI investigations from the 120 subjects in the study. The disk sizes were assessed by direct measurements on the anatomic items and directly measured by means of the software for modern imaging examination. In case of significant differences between the vertebral bodies, the calculation of disk sizes was made indirectly, on grounds of the geometric interpretation of the vertebral body face sizes. The vertebral body / intervertebral disk (IVD) assembly represents a dynamic structure, permanently subject to changes and adaptation, IVD being capable of incurring changes for the entire life time, including growth changes; the growth, however, is not lineal, but a succession of thickening and getting thinner, in full concordance with the structural stresses and changes occurring inside.


RESUMEN: El estudio representa una evaluación morfométrica del segmento anterior de la columna lumbar, centrado en el conjunto del cuerpo vertebral - disco intervertebral, calculando algunos indicadores específicos y completando los datos morfométricos directos. El objetivo del trabajo fue mapear un modelo de imagen anatómica con los datos de la interpretación de la imagen, posteriormente correlacionando los datos. El estudio se llevó a cabo con artículos anatómicos de archivos personales y de las imágenes obtenidas de tomografía computarizada (TC) y resonancia magnética (RM) de evaluación. La evaluación morfométrica se realizó en los discos intervertebrales, la altura del disco en las secciones anterior y posterior y se correlacionó con el grado del ángulo del disco. Se compararon los datos morfométricos directos y se correlacionaron con los datos resultantes de la interpretación de la imagen. Se realizó una evaluación morfométrica directa de 11 bloques vertebrales; Los bloques vertebrales se seccionaron y se convirtieron en 22 semibloques vertebrales permitiendo el fácil acceso a todos los valores dimensionales, incluyendo aquellos cubiertos por el arco posterior. La evaluación de los datos de imagen se realizó en 120 sujetos con CT, CT 3D y MRI. Los tamaños de los discos se evaluaron mediante medidas directas de los elementos anatómicos y se midieron con el software para la examinación de imágenes. En caso de diferencias significativas entre los cuerpos vertebrales, el cálculo de los tamaños de los discos se realizó indirectamente, debido a la interpretación geométrica de los tamaños de la cara del cuerpo vertebral. El conjunto cuerpo vertebral / disco intervertebral (CVDV) representa una estructura dinámica, permanentemente sujeta a transformaciones y adaptación, siendo (CVDV) capaz de incurrir en cambios durante toda la vida, incluyendo aquellos relacionados con crecimiento. El crecimiento, sin embargo, no es lineal, sino una sucesión de engrosamiento y adelgazamiento, en plena concordancia con las tensiones estructurales y los cambios que se producen en su interior.


Subject(s)
Humans , Intervertebral Disc/anatomy & histology , Intervertebral Disc/diagnostic imaging , Lumbar Vertebrae/anatomy & histology , Lumbar Vertebrae/diagnostic imaging , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
2.
Clinics ; 71(6): 297-301, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787420

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the correlation between the severity of intervertebral disc injury and the anteroposterior type of thoracolumbar vertebral fractures. METHODS: Fifty-six cases of thoracolumbar vertebral fractures treated in our trauma center from October 2012 to October 2013 were included in this study. The fractures were classified by the anteroposterior classification, whereas the severity of intervertebral disc injury was evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging. The Spearman correlation coefficient was used to analyze the correlation between the severity of intervertebral disc injury and the anteroposterior type of thoracolumbar fractures, whereas a χ2 test was adopted to measure the variability between different fracture types and upper and lower adjacent disc injuries. RESULTS: The Spearman correlation coefficients between fracture types and the severity of the upper and lower adjacent disc injuries were 0.739 (PU<0.001) and 0.368 (PL=0.005), respectively. It means that the more complex Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen (AO) classifications are the disc injury is more severe. There was also a significant difference in the severity of injury between the upper and lower adjacent discs near the fractured vertebrae (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In thoracolumbar spinal fractures, the severity of the adjacent intervertebral disc injury is positively correlated with the anteroposterior fracture type. The injury primarily involves intervertebral discs near the fractured end plate, with more frequent and severe injuries observed in the upper than in the lower discs. The presence of intervertebral disc injury, along with its severity, may provide useful information during the clinical decision-making process.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Thoracic Vertebrae/injuries , Injury Severity Score , Spinal Fractures/classification , Intervertebral Disc/injuries , Lumbar Vertebrae/injuries , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/standards , Retrospective Studies , Spinal Fractures/diagnostic imaging , Intervertebral Disc/diagnostic imaging
3.
Coluna/Columna ; 14(4): 320-323, Oct.-Dec. 2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-770243

ABSTRACT

The aim of this review is to present the imaging features of Schmorl's node (SN) occurring in conjunction with several etiologies. The SN is a relatively common finding in diagnostic spinal imaging. This condition is usually asymptomatic and its etiology is not always clear. Any disorder that weakens the subchondral bone of the vertebral body may lead to endplate disruption and consequent intravertebral disc herniation. SN is a common finding among asymptomatic patients, but may possibly be accompanied by symptoms in cases of trauma, hemispherical spondylosclerosis, calcific discitis with intravertebral migration, inflammatory diseases and neoplasms. Even though SN is generally associated with benign diseases, its presence does not exclude the possibility of concomitant malignancy in the vertebral body. Radiologists and spine surgeons must be aware of uncommon conditions that might be associated with SNs, as well as related radiological findings, in order to avoid misdiagnosis.


O objetivo desta revisão é apresentar as características de imagem do nódulo de Schmorl (NS) em conjunto com diversas etiologias. O NS é um achado relativamente comum nas imagens diagnósticas da coluna. Essa afecção geralmente é assintomática e sua etiologia nem sempre é clara. Qualquer doença que enfraqueça o osso subcondral do corpo vertebral pode levar à ruptura da placa terminal e, consequentemente, à hérnia intrassomática do disco intervertebral. O NS é comum em pacientes assintomáticos, mas pode eventualmente ser acompanhado de sintomas em casos de trauma, espondiloesclerose hemisférica, discite calcificada com migração intravertebral, doenças inflamatórias e neoplasias. Embora o NS seja, em geral, associado a doenças benignas, sua presença não exclui a possibilidade de doença maligna concomitante no corpo vertebral. Radiologistas e cirurgiões de coluna devem estar cientes das apresentações menos comuns do NS e dos achados radiológicos relacionados, a fim de evitar erros de diagnóstico.


El objetivo de esta revisión es presentar las características de imagen del nódulo de Schmorl (NS) que ocurren en conjunto con varias etiologías. El NS es un hallazgo relativamente común en imágenes diagnósticas de la columna vertebral. Esta condición suele ser asintomática y su etiología no siempre es clara. Cualquier enfermedad que debilita el hueso subcondral del cuerpo vertebral puede conducir a la ruptura de la placa terminal y la consiguiente hernia de disco intervertebral . El NS es un hallazgo frecuente en pacientes asintomáticos, pero, posiblemente, puede estar acompañada de síntomas en casos de trauma, espondiloesclerosis hemisférica, discitis calcificada con migración intravertebral, enfermedades inflamatorias y neoplasias. A pesar de que el NS se asocia generalmente con enfermedades benignas, su presencia no excluye la posibilidad de malignidad concomitante en el cuerpo vertebral. Los radiólogos y cirujanos de columna deben ser conscientes de las presentaciones menos comunes del NS, así como los hallazgos radiológicos relacionados, a fin de evitar un diagnóstico equivocado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Intervertebral Disc/diagnostic imaging , Spinal Diseases/diagnosis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Radiography
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-157420

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the changes in water content in the lumbar intervertebral discs by quantitative T2 MR imaging in the morning after bed rest and evening after a diurnal load. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty healthy volunteers were separately examined in the morning after bed rest and in the evening after finishing daily work. T2-mapping images were obtained and analyzed. An equally-sized rectangular region of interest (ROI) was manually placed in both, the anterior and the posterior annulus fibrosus (AF), in the outermost 20% of the disc. Three ROIs were placed in the space defined as the nucleus pulposus (NP). Repeated-measures analysis of variance and paired 2-tailed t tests were used for statistical analysis, with p < 0.05 as significantly different. RESULTS: T2 values significantly decreased from morning to evening, in the NP (anterior NP = -13.9 ms; central NP = -17.0 ms; posterior NP = -13.3 ms; all p < 0.001). Meanwhile T2 values significantly increased in the anterior AF (+2.9 ms; p = 0.025) and the posterior AF (+5.9 ms; p < 0.001). T2 values in the posterior AF showed the largest degree of variation among the 5 ROIs, but there was no statistical significance (p = 0.414). Discs with initially low T2 values in the center NP showed a smaller degree of variation in the anterior NP and in the central NP, than in discs with initially high T2 values in the center NP (10.0% vs. 16.1%, p = 0.037; 6.4% vs. 16.1%, p = 0.006, respectively). CONCLUSION: Segmental quantitative T2 MRI provides valuable insights into physiological aspects of normal discs.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Intervertebral Disc/diagnostic imaging , Lumbar Vertebrae/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Water/chemistry
5.
Coluna/Columna ; 13(1): 31-34, Jan-Mar/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-709628

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the reliability and reproducibility of Farfan modified and Frobin methods to measure the intervertebral disc height in radiographs with inter- and intraobserver comparison. METHOD: Six radiographs of different patients treated for low back pain have been collected and digitized, and five lumbar disc of each patient were evaluated by six examiners with different levels of experience. The measures were done in Image Pro Plus 6.0 software. RESULTS: When compared, both methods showed more than 95% concordance. In intraexaminer analysis, both also shown to be reliable and reproducible, with a high level of concordance. By comparing the correlation between classes of examiners, the higher the level of experience, the greater the agreement for both methods. CONCLUSION: Farfan modified and Frobin are reliable methods to measure the disc height in the lateral radiographs. The higher level of experience of the examiner, the higher was the correlation between measurements. .


OBJETIVO: Avaliar a confiabilidade e reprodutibilidade dos métodos de Farfan modificado e de Frobin, para aferição da altura radiográfica dos discos intervertebrais lombares, em comparação inter e intraobservadores. MÉTODO: Foram coletadas e digitalizadas imagens radiográficas de seis pacientes em acompanhamento ambulatorial por lombalgia, sendo avaliados cinco discos lombares de cada paciente. As mensurações foram realizadas no software Image Pro Plus versão 6.0, por seis examinadores com diferentes níveis de experiência. RESULTADOS: Ao serem comparados entre si, os métodos demonstraram concordância superior a 95%. Na análise intraexaminadores, ambos também demonstraram ser reprodutíveis e confiáveis com alta concordância. Ao comparar a concordância entre as classes dos examinadores, quanto maior o nível de experiência maior foi a concordância em ambos os métodos. CONCLUSÃO: Tanto o método de Farfan modificado quanto o de Frobin, podem ser utilizados de forma confiável para avaliar a altura discal nas radiografias em perfil. Quanto maior o nível de experiência do examinador, mais alta foi a concordância entre as aferições. .


OBJETIVO: Evaluar la confiabilidad y reproducibilidad de los métodos de Farfan modificado y Frobin para medición de la altura radiográfica de los discos intervertebrales lumbares por comparación inter e intraobservadores. MÉTODO: Imágenes radiográficas fueron recogidas y digitalizadas de 6 pacientes con queja de dolor lumbar; fueron evaluados cinco discos lumbares de cada paciente. Las mediciones fueron realizadas en el software Image Pro Plus versión 6.0, por seis examinadores con diferentes niveles de experiencia. RESULTADOS: Al ser comparados entre sí, los métodos demostraron concordancia superior a 95%. En el análisis intraexaminador, ambos métodos también se demostraron reproductibles y confiables con alta concordancia. Al comparar la concordancia entre las clases de los examinadores, cuanto mayor el nivel de experiencia mayor fue la concordancia entre ambos métodos. CONCLUSIÓN: Tanto el método de Farfan modificado como el de Frobin, pueden ser utilizados de forma confiable para evaluar la altura discal en las radiografías en perfil. Cuanto mayor el nivel de experiencia del examinador, mayor la concordancia entre ambas mediciones. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Intervertebral Disc/diagnostic imaging , Radiography , Low Back Pain , Evaluation Studies as Topic
6.
Coluna/Columna ; 11(4): 329-332, out.-dez. 2012. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-662459

ABSTRACT

A hérnia discal lombar é causa importante bem como a mais freqüente de lombalgia e ciática. Muitos dos casos podem prontamente ser diagnosticados através do simples exame semiológico. A ressonância nuclear magnética (RNM) estabelece um diagnóstico definitivo mesmo em bases ambulatoriais. Diversos tipos de cistos intraespinais com diferentes patogenias foram descritos no passado como cistos perineurais, cistos sinoviais, cistos aracnóides e cistos ganglionares, que são doenças difíceis de diferenciar da hérnia de disco lombar. Os autores observaram recentemente um caso de cisto intraespinal comunicante com o disco intervertebral correspondente, apresentando sinais e sintomas e mesmo alguns achados radiológicos indistinguíveis daqueles da herniação discal lombar. O diagnóstico foi estabelecido pela RNM e confirmado no momento da cirurgia. Este artigo descreve as características dessa entidade clínica, incluindo quadro clínico, aparência radiográfica e achados histológicos, a fim de discutir possíveis patogenias e tratamento.


Herniated lumbar disc is an important as well as the most common cause of low back pain and sciatica. Many cases can be readily diagnosed by simple semiological examination. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides a definitive diagnosis even in an outpatient basis. Several types of intraspinal cysts with different pathogenesis have been reported in the past, such as perineural cysts, synovial cysts, arachnoid cysts, and ganglion cysts, diseases that are difficult to differentiate from lumbar disc herniation. Recently, the authors have observed one case of intraspinal cyst communicating with the corresponding intervertebral disk, presenting clinical symptoms, signs, and even some radiographic findings undistinguishable from those of herniated disks. The diagnosis established by MRI and confirmed at surgery. This paper describes the features of this distinct clinical condition, including clinical findings, images, and histological aspects, to discuss possible pathogenesis and management.


Una hernia de disco lumbar es una causa importante, así como la más frecuente causa del dolor lumbar y ciática. Muchos casos pueden ser fácilmente diagnosticados por el examen semiológico simple. La resonancia magnética (RM) proporciona un diagnóstico definitivo, incluso en atención ambulatoria. Varios tipos de quistes intraespinales con diferentes patogénesis se han descrito en el pasado como quistes perineurales, quistes sinoviales, los quistes aracnoideos y quistes ganglionares, enfermedades que son difíciles de diferenciar de la hernia de disco lumbar. Los autores observaron recientemente un caso de quiste intraespinal, que en comunicación con el disco intervertebral correspondiente, presentando signos y síntomas e incluso algunos hallazgos radiológicos que no se distinguen de los de la hernia discal lumbar. El diagnóstico fue determinado por RM y confirmado en la cirugía. En este artículo se describen las características de esta entidad clínica, incluyendo el aspecto clínico, radiológico e histológico, para discutir la posible patogénesis y tratamiento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Intervertebral Disc/diagnostic imaging , Sciatica , Synovial Cyst , Low Back Pain , Intervertebral Disc Displacement
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-198890

ABSTRACT

Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) is currently the standard treatment for cervical disc disease. Some patients wish to be treated with a less invasive method, because of their social/physical situations. Here we present one method of treatments for socially/physically active patients. Three patients had triceps weakness and mild posterior neck pain. The offending lesions were at the C6-7 level. All were middle-aged soldiers with families. If conventional ACDF were performed, they would have to retire from the military according to the regulation. They had to be able to perform military drills after the treatment if they were going to be able to keep their jobs. Because of their social/physical situations, all wanted to choose method with that they could treat the disease and keep their jobs. For these reasons, the posterior cervical endoscopic discectomies were performed. Ruptured fragments were successfully removed in all. The arm pain improved by more than 90% in two patients by 7 days and in the other patient by 2 months, respectively (excellent outcome by Macnab's criteria). None of the operations caused instability. All of the patients are currently able to successfully perform their military drills without difficulty. The posterior cervical endoscopic discectomy may be a promising alternative for the physically/socially active patients.


Subject(s)
Adult , Cervical Vertebrae/diagnostic imaging , Diskectomy , Endoscopy , Humans , Intervertebral Disc/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome
8.
Middle East Journal of Anesthesiology. 2007; 19 (3): 683-692
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-84533

ABSTRACT

The objective of this article is to provide evidence supporting the idea that intervertebral disc is a source of low back pain. Diagnostic tests currently available for diagnosis of a painful disc are inadequate. Treatment protocols for low back pain generally ignore the presence of a painful disc. Pathological processes that may be responsible for discogenic pain are incompletely understood. Without diagnosis and treatment, disc disruption evolves to advanced stages of spinal dysfunction. New treatment modalities are becoming available which if applied early may stop disc disruption. We describe here two case reports where discogenic nature of patients' symptoms was suspected based on patients' history, MRI findings and discography. We highlight the inadequacies of spinal imaging and discography in detecting at painful disc. A treatment [Intradiscal electrothermal therapy] was then directed exclusively to the intervertebral discs. We provide arguments that link discal therapy to resolution of patients' symptoms. Resolution of patients' symptoms after the discal treatment raised our suspicion that pain emanated from the intervertebral discs. Intervertebral disc is a source of low back pain that is often ignored. No diagnostic test currently exists that can reliably confirm presence of a painful disc. Early diagnosis and treatment of a painful disc may reduce enormous pain and suffering from low back pain


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Low Back Pain/diagnostic imaging , Low Back Pain/therapy , Intervertebral Disc/diagnostic imaging , Electric Stimulation Therapy , Hot Temperature , Radiculopathy/therapy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Magnetic Resonance Imaging
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-98117

ABSTRACT

Discogenic pain is a leading cause of chronic low back pain. The authors investigated the efficacy of pressure-controlled discography to determine its role in clinical decision-making for the management of patients with discogenic pain. Pressure-controlled discography was performed in 21 patients (51 discs) with pain-provocation, followed by post-discography computerized tomography scans. Pain response was classified as positive response and negative response, and measured with visual analog scale scores. Discographic findings were graded by the modified Dallas discogram scale. Elastance, pain provocation on intradiscal pressure, pressure and volume of initial pain response, and pain response intensity were statistically analyzed. Elastance showed significant differences between Grade 0 and Grade 4 and 5. Decreased elastance with positive pain response group was a good indicator to imply that disc degeneration presumably is a pain generator. Results of pain response were well correlated with intradiscal pressure but not with the amount of injected volume. Among 31 discs of Grade 4 and 5, 74% showed negative pain response and 26% showed positive response. It was concluded that pressure-controlled discography was useful to diagnose discogenic pain and excellent guide in decision-making for spinal operations.


Subject(s)
Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Pressure , Pain Measurement , Middle Aged , Male , Low Back Pain/diagnostic imaging , Intervertebral Disc/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Aged , Adult
10.
JPMA-Journal of Pakistan Medical Association. 2004; 54 (12): 604-9
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-66914

ABSTRACT

To evaluate the diagnostic importance of myelography in spinal disorders, in correlation with clinical presentation of the patients. Patients selected for myelography had presented with history of various spinal disorders such as low backache, neurogenic claudication, paraparesis or paraplegia, quadriparesis or quadriplegia, trauma to spinal region and infective spondylitis. Patients excluded were those with history of allergies to iodinated contrast agents, seizures coagulopathy and pregnant women. Contrast agent was water soluble non ionic agent - Iohexol. Spinal Needles used were of 20,22 and 25 gauge. X-Ray machine with tilltable table was used for myelography. There were 1400 patients of whom 935 were males and 465 females with male to female ratio of 2.1. Age range was 8 to 65 years. Spinal disorders diagnosed on myelography were lumbar disc prolapse 866 [60%] cases, lumbar canal stenosis 113 [8%], thoracic disc protrusions 15 [1%], infective spondylitis 53 [4%] cases, spinal tumors 36 [2.5%], spinal dysraphism 28 [2%] and traumatic spine in 85 [6%] cases. Free flow of contrast agent with no block was found in 149 [10.64%] cases. These were subjected for MRI scan which revealed significant pathological lesion of surgical importance in 23 cases [1.64%] only. Myelography is the least expensive valuable diagnostic test in spinal disorders specially in lumbar disc prolapses and lumbar canal stenosis


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Spinal Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Myelography , Intervertebral Disc/diagnostic imaging , Spinal Stenosis/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging
12.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 153-160, 1995.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-122036

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of the hip flexion upon parameters that are indicators of spinal mobility. These parameters include intervertebral disc angle and lumbar curvature by measurement of the radiography in twenty eight healthy men. The state of knowledge of how these parameters relate to lumbar mobility have resolved. The results of the parameters showed negligible changes in relation to the mobility of lumbar spine according to angle of hip flexion except at L4-L5 intervertebral disc angle and lumbar curvature (p< 0.05). This results of study confirms that hip joint movement therapy can be applied to these norms in patient management in supine position of for the stable spinal injuries in the upper lumbar region during early phase.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Hip Joint/physiology , Humans , Intervertebral Disc/diagnostic imaging , Lumbar Vertebrae/physiology , Male , Middle Aged , Movement , Pelvis/physiology , Range of Motion, Articular , Supine Position
13.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-93753

ABSTRACT

A case of alkaptonuria with its various sequelae in the form of ochronosis, ochronotic arthropathy, spondylitis and prostatic calculi is reported. The case is of interest as it presented with hepatocellular failure and hepatitis B surface antigenaemia.


Subject(s)
Alkaptonuria/complications , Calcinosis/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Intervertebral Disc/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged
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