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Rev. panam. salud pública ; 38(6): 450-456, nov.-dic. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-788102


OBJETIVO:Investigar el patrón de distribución espacial de la tasa de homicidios y su relación con las características sociodemográficas en las delegaciones de Benito Juárez, Coyoacán y Cuauhtémoc de la Ciudad de México en el año 2010. MÉTODOS: Estudio inferencial de corte transversal que usa métodos de análisis espacial para estudiar la asociación espacial de la tasa de homicidios y las características demográficas. La asociación espacial fue determinada a través del cociente de localización, análisis de regresión múltiple y el uso de la regresión geográficamente ponderada. RESULTADOS: Los homicidios muestran un patrón de localización heterogéneo con altas tasas en zonas con uso del suelo no residencial, con baja densidad de población y baja marginación. CONCLUSIONES: El uso de herramientas de análisis espacial son instrumentos poderosos para el diseño de políticas de seguridad pública preventiva y recreativa que busquen reducir la mortalidad por causas externas como homicidios.

OBJECTIVE:Investigate the spatial distribution pattern of the homicide rate and its relation to sociodemographic features in the Benito Juárez, Coyoacán, and Cuauhtémoc districts of Mexico City in 2010. METHODS: Inferential cross-sectional study that uses spatial analysis methods to study the spatial association of the homicide rate and demographic features. Spatial association was determined through the location quotient, multiple regression analysis, and the use of geographically weighted regression. RESULTS: Homicides show a heterogeneous location pattern with high rates in areas with non-residential land use, low population density, and low marginalization. CONCLUSIONS: Spatial analysis tools are powerful instruments for the design of prevention- and recreation-focused public safety policies that aim to reduce mortality from external causes such as homicides.

Animals , Cattle , Female , Humans , Male , Rats , Hypoxia/metabolism , Cation Transport Proteins/metabolism , Hypertension, Pulmonary/metabolism , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/metabolism , Animals, Congenic , Hypoxia/genetics , Arterioles/metabolism , Cell Hypoxia , Cell Proliferation , Cells, Cultured , Chronic Disease , Cation Transport Proteins/deficiency , Cation Transport Proteins/genetics , Chromosomes, Mammalian/genetics , Gene Knockdown Techniques , Homeostasis , Hypertension, Pulmonary/genetics , Intracellular Space/metabolism , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/cytology , Rats, Inbred WKY , Zinc/metabolism
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-42471


Bucillamine is used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. This study investigated the protective effects of bucillamine against cisplatin-induced damage in auditory cells, the organ of Corti from postnatal rats (P2) and adult Balb/C mice. Cisplatin increases the catalytic activity of caspase-3 and caspase-8 proteases and the production of free radicals, which were significantly suppressed by pretreatment with bucillamine. Bucillamine induces the intranuclear translocation of Nrf2 and thereby increases the expression of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gamma-GCS) and glutathione synthetase (GSS), which further induces intracellular antioxidant glutathione (GSH), heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2). However, knockdown studies of HO-1 and SOD2 suggest that the protective effect of bucillamine against cisplatin is independent of the enzymatic activity of HO-1 and SOD. Furthermore, pretreatment with bucillamine protects sensory hair cells on organ of Corti explants from cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity concomitantly with inhibition of caspase-3 activation. The auditory-brainstem-evoked response of cisplatin-injected mice shows marked increases in hearing threshold shifts, which was markedly suppressed by pretreatment with bucillamine in vivo. Taken together, bucillamine protects sensory hair cells from cisplatin through a scavenging effect on itself, as well as the induction of intracellular GSH.

Animals , Antioxidants/metabolism , Apoptosis/drug effects , Caspase 3/metabolism , Caspase 8/metabolism , Cell Line , Cisplatin/toxicity , Cysteine/analogs & derivatives , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Gene Knockdown Techniques , Glutathione/metabolism , Heme Oxygenase-1/genetics , Intracellular Space/metabolism , Male , Metabolic Detoxication, Phase II/genetics , Mice , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/genetics , Nitric Oxide/biosynthesis , Organ of Corti/drug effects , RNA Interference , Rats , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase/genetics
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 47(6): 483-491, 06/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-709445


Extracellular matrix and costamere proteins transmit the concentric, isometric, and eccentric forces produced by active muscle contraction. The expression of these proteins after application of passive tension stimuli to muscle remains unknown. This study investigated the expression of laminin and dystrophin in the soleus muscle of rats immobilized with the right ankle in plantar flexion for 10 days and subsequent remobilization, either by isolated free movement in a cage or associated with passive stretching for up to 10 days. The intensity of the macrophage response was also evaluated. One hundred and twenty-eight female Wistar rats were divided into 8 groups: free for 10 days; immobilized for 10 days; immobilized/free for 1, 3, or 10 days; or immobilized/stretched/free for 1, 3, or 10 days. After the experimental procedures, muscle tissue was processed for immunofluorescence (dystrophin/laminin/CD68) and Western blot analysis (dystrophin/laminin). Immobilization increased the expression of dystrophin and laminin but did not alter the number of macrophages in the muscle. In the stretched muscle groups, there was an increase in dystrophin and the number of macrophages after 3 days compared with the other groups; dystrophin showed a discontinuous labeling pattern, and laminin was found in the intracellular space. The amount of laminin was increased in the muscles treated by immobilization followed by free movement for 10 days. In the initial stages of postimmobilization (1 and 3 days), an exacerbated macrophage response and an increase of dystrophin suggested that the therapeutic stretching technique induced additional stress in the muscle fibers and costameres.

Animals , Female , Dystrophin/metabolism , Immobilization/methods , Laminin/metabolism , Macrophages/metabolism , Muscle Stretching Exercises/methods , Muscle, Skeletal/physiology , Blotting, Western , Dystrophin/isolation & purification , Extracellular Matrix/metabolism , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Intracellular Space/metabolism , Laminin/isolation & purification , Mechanotransduction, Cellular/physiology , Muscle, Skeletal/injuries , Rats, Wistar
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-35840


Apoptosis has an important role in maintaining tissue homeostasis in cellular stress responses such as inflammation, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and oxidative stress. T-cell death-associated gene 51 (TDAG51) is a member of the pleckstrin homology-like domain family and was first identified as a pro-apoptotic gene in T-cell receptor-mediated cell death. However, its pro-apoptotic function remains controversial. In this study, we investigated the role of TDAG51 in oxidative stress-induced apoptotic cell death in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). TDAG51 expression was highly increased by oxidative stress responses. In response to oxidative stress, the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species was significantly enhanced in TDAG51-deficient MEFs, resulting in the activation of caspase-3. Thus, TDAG51 deficiency promotes apoptotic cell death in MEFs, and these results indicate that TDAG51 has a protective role in oxidative stress-induced cell death in MEFs.

Animals , Apoptosis , Embryo, Mammalian/cytology , Fibroblasts/enzymology , Gene Expression Regulation , Intracellular Space/metabolism , Mice , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/genetics , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Transcription Factors/deficiency
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2010 Apr; 47(2): 67-74
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135246


The heme-regulated inhibitor (HRI), a member of the eIF-2 kinase family is crucial for regulating protein synthesis during stress. In addition to heme, stress proteins Hsp90 and Hsp70 are known to regulate HRI. The present study aims to determine the physical association of these Hsps in the regulation of HRI activation during oxidative stress using human K562 cells as a model. Extracts from the stress-induced cells were used for determining HRI kinase activity by measuring eIF-2 phosphorylation, and Hsp-HRI interaction by immunoprecipitation and immunoblot analyses. The results indicate a significant increase in both Hsp70 and Hsp90 expression during AAPH (2, 2’-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride)-induced oxidative stress. Further, their interaction with HRI, which correlates well with its increased HRI kinase activity leads to inhibition of protein synthesis. Thus, we demonstrate that Hsps play an important role in the regulation of initiation of protein synthesis during oxidative stress.

Amidines/chemistry , Amidines/pharmacology , Animals , Enzyme Activation/drug effects , HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins/metabolism , HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins/metabolism , Hemin/pharmacology , Humans , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , Intracellular Space/drug effects , Intracellular Space/metabolism , K562 Cells , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Phosphorylation/drug effects , Protein Biosynthesis/drug effects , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 70(2): 105-119, Apr. 2010. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-633729


Between the 1950s and 1980s, scientists were focusing mostly on how the genetic code is transcribed to RNA and translated to proteins, but how proteins are degraded has remained a neglected research area. With the discovery of the lysosome by Christian de Duve it was assumed that cellular proteins are degraded within this organelle. Yet, several independent lines of experimental evidence strongly suggested that intracellular proteolysis is largely non-lysosomal, but the mechanisms involved remained obscure. The discovery of the ubiquitin-proteasome system resolved the enigma. We now recognize that degradation of intracellular proteins is involved in regulation of a broad array of cellular processes, such as cell cycle and division, regulation of transcription factors, and assurance of the cellular quality control. Not surprisingly, aberrations in the system have been implicated in the pathogenesis of human disease, such as malignancies and neurodegenerative disorders, which led subsequently to an increasing effort to develop mechanism-based drugs.

Entre los años 1950 y 1980 los científicos focalizaron sus estudios sobre la forma en que el código genético es transcripto al ARN y traducido a las proteínas, dejando de lado la forma en que éstas se degradan. Con el descubrimiento de los lisosomas por Christian de Duve se asumió que las proteínas se degradaban en el interior de esa organela. Sin embargo, varias líneas de trabajo independientes sugerían fuertemente que la proteólisis intracelular era en su mayor parte no lisosómica, aunque se desconocían sus mecanismos. El descubrimiento del sistema ubiquitina-proteosoma resolvió el enigma. Ahora sabemos que la degradación intracelular de proteínas participa en la regulación de un amplio espectro de procesos celulares como la división y el ciclo celular, la regulación de los factores de transcripción y el control de la calidad celular. No es sorpresa entonces que las aberraciones del sistema estén relacionadas con la patogénesis de enfermedades humanas como tumores y desórdenes neurodegenerativos, lo que llevó luego a un esfuerzo para desarrollar drogas basadas en este mecanismo.

Humans , Intracellular Space/metabolism , Lysosomes/metabolism , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism , Proteins/metabolism , Ubiquitin/metabolism , Drug Delivery Systems , Dietary Proteins/metabolism , Neoplasms/metabolism , Neurodegenerative Diseases/metabolism , Protein Transport
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2009. 79 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-564729


Objetivos - A resistência à insulina está associada com o aumento do teor de gordura intramiocelular (GIMC) e com níveis séricos da adiponectina (ADP) diminuídos. A ADP por sua vez está envolvida na oxidação de gordura muscular. Entretanto, a relação entre ambas continua controversa. O objetivo deste estudo é explorar a relação entre a ADP e a GIMC em adultos não diabéticos, além de estudar o papel da rosiglitasona (RSG) sobre a distribuição da gordura entre os compartimentos musculares. Desenho do estudo - Este estudo compreende duas fases: uma fase transversal (corte-transversal) e uma fase longitudinal, de intervenção terapêutica com uma droga, num desenho aberto. Local - Laboratório de Pesquisas Clínicas e Experimentais em Biologia Vascular (Biovasc) - UERJ. Material e métodos - Na fase transversal, 24 pacientes obesos, não diabéticos, com síndrome metabólica (SM) e 9 controles magros e saudáveis foram estudados. Foi realizada a Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Nuclear Magnética (1H-ERNM) para quantificar a gordura extramiocelular (GEMC) e a GIMC. Estas, associadas à ADP e aos parâmetros antropométricos e bioquímicos, foram avaliadas e comparadas nos dois grupos. Durante a fase longitudinal, 15 destes pacientes foram reestudados, através da 1H-ERNM, após o tratamento com RSG por 6 meses. Da mesma forma, as variáveis antropométricas e metabólicas foram reavaliadas. Resultados - Fase transversal: os pacientes com SM apresentaram maior índice de massa corporal (IMC), cintura abdominal, relação cintura-quadril (RCQ), e níveis de glicemia, insulina e triglicerídeos e menores níveis de HDL-c, quando comparados com o grupo controle. Da mesma forma o HOMA-RI [3.25 (2.58-4.13) vs 1.02 (0.73-1.29); p<0.0001] e a GIMC [266.1 (189.9-296.3) vs 72.85 (55.3-109.4) unidades arbitrárias-UA, p<0.0001] estavam aumentados enquanto o QUICKI [0.32 (0.31-0.33) vs 0.38 (0.37-0.40); p<0.0001] e a ADP [8.6 (4.05-15.95) vs 21.1 (12.9-24.4) ug/ml; p=0.02) estavam diminuídos...

Study objective - insulin resistance (IR) is associated with intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) content and low serum adiponectin (ADP) levels. ADP is also involved in muscle fat oxidation but the relationship between them is still controversial. We aimed to further explore the relationship between ADP and IMCL content in non-diabetic adults and the role of rosiglitazone (RSG) in muscle fat compartment distribution in an adult population of obese non-diabetic metabolic syndrome patients. Design - this study comprises two phases: a cross-sectional and a longitudinal, open-label, drug-interventional one. Setting - Laboratory for Clinical and Experimental Research on Vascular Biology (Biovasc) at the State University of Rio de Janeiro. Material and Methods - during the cross-sectional phase, 24 obese, non-diabetic patients with metabolic syndrome (MS) and 9 lean healthy controls were studied. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMRS) was performed to quantify IMCL, as well as extramyocellular lipid (EMCL) content. The latter plus serum ADP, anthropometrics and biochemical parameters were evaluated and compared in these two groups. During the longitudinal phase, fifteen of the MS patients were studied by means of 1H-NMRS before and after treatment with 8mg/day of RSG for 6 months. Anthropometrical and metabolic variables were assessed. Measurements and main results - cross-sectional phase: MS patients had higher body mass index (BMI), waist, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), glucose, insulin and triglycerides and lower HDL-c as compared to controls. HOMA-IR (3.25 [2.58-4.13] vs 1.02 [0.73-1.29]; p<0.0001) and IMCL content (266.1 [189.9-296.3] vs 72.85 [55.3-109.4) AU, p<0.0001] were higher, and QUICKI (0.32 [0.31-0.33] vs 0.38 [0.37-0.40]; p<0.0001) and ADP (8.6 [4.05-15.95] vs 21.1 [12.9-24.4] ug/ml; p=0.02) lower in MS compared to controls. IMCL content was directly associated with glucose, insulin, triglycerides and HOMA-IR and inversely to HDLc, QUICKI...

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Adipose Tissue , Adiponectin/blood , Muscle Cells/metabolism , Intracellular Space , Intracellular Space/metabolism , Lipids/analysis , Obesity/metabolism , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Metabolic Syndrome/metabolism , Thiazolidinediones/pharmacology , Biomarkers/blood
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-174058


Na+ -Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) transports Ca2+ coupled with Na+ across the plasma membrane in a bi-directional mode. Ca2+ flux via NCX mediates osteogenic processes, such as formation of extracellular matrix proteins and bone nodules. However, it is not clearly understood how the NCX regulates cellular Ca2+ movements in osteogenic processes. In this study, the role of NCX in modulating Ca2+ content of intracellular stores ([Ca2+](ER)) was investigated by measuring intracellular Ca2+ activity in isolated rat osteoblasts. Removal of extracellular Na+ elicited a transient increase of intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+](i)). Pretreatment of antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (AS) against NCX depressed this transient Ca2+ rise and raised the basal level of [Ca2+](i). In AS-pretreated cells, the expression and activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), an osteogenic marker, were decreased. However, the cell viability was not affected by AS-pretreatment. Suppression of NCX activity by the AS-pretreatment decreased ATP-activated Ca2+ release from intracellular stores and significantly enhanced Ca2+ influx via store operated calcium influx (SOCI), compared to those of S-pretreated or control cells. These results strongly suggest that NCX has a regulatory role in cellular Ca2+ pathways in osteoblasts by modulating intracellular Ca2+ content.

Alkaline Phosphatase/metabolism , Animals , Calcium/metabolism , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Cell Survival , Cells, Cultured , Cytoplasm/metabolism , Endoplasmic Reticulum/metabolism , Intracellular Space/metabolism , Oligodeoxyribonucleotides, Antisense/pharmacology , Osteoblasts/drug effects , Rats , Signal Transduction , Sodium/physiology , Sodium-Calcium Exchanger/physiology