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1.
Respirar (Ciudad Autón. B. Aires) ; 16(1): 67-77, Marzo 2024.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1551223

ABSTRACT

La tasa de reintubación orotraqueal luego de la extubación se registra entre un 10 a 20%. La aplicación de soportes respiratorios no-invasivos (SRNI) posterior a la extuba-ción como cánula nasal de alto-flujo, ventilación no invasiva (dos niveles de presión) y presión positiva continua en la vía aérea demostraron ser seguras y efectivas post ex-tubación. El período pre-destete representa un momento crucial en el manejo de los pa-cientes críticos ya que el fracaso de la extubación, definido como la necesidad de reintu-bación dentro de los 2 a 7 días, demostró peores resultados al aumentar la mortalidad entre un 25-50%. Esta situación conlleva al requerimiento de ventilación mecánica prolongada, neumonía asociada a la ventilación mecánica y estancias prolongadas de internación. Por lo tanto, es esencial identificar a los pacientes que se beneficiarán utilizando SRNI post extubación.


The rate of re-intubation after extubation is recorded at 10-20%. The use of non-invasive respiratory support (NIRS) post-extubation such as high-flow nasal cannula, non-invasive ventilation (bilevel pressure) and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) have been shown to be safe and effective post-extubation. The pre-weaning period represents a crucial time in the management of critically ill patients, as extubation failure, defined as the need for reintubation within 2-7 days, showed worse outcomes with mortality increasing by 25-50%. This situation leads to the requirement for prolonged mechanical ventilation, ventilator-associated pneumonia and long lengths of hospital stay. Therefore, it is essential to identify patients who will benefit from NIRS post extubation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure/statistics & numerical data , Airway Extubation/statistics & numerical data , Noninvasive Ventilation/statistics & numerical data , Cannula/statistics & numerical data , Intubation, Intratracheal/statistics & numerical data , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , Mortality , Review
2.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 41(1): 7-19, feb. 2024. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1559661

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El síndrome respiratorio agudo severo coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), de alta morbimortalidad, carece a la fecha de preparar esta revisión, de una terapia específica altamente eficaz. Famotidina se ha postulado como una opción terapéutica viable, basado en trabajos de cohorte retrospectiva y modelos computacionales guiados por inteligencia artificial. Objetivo: Recopilar la mejor evidencia científica disponible para determinar la efectividad y eficacia de famotidina en el tratamiento de pacientes hospitalizados con COVID-19, para reducir el riesgo de progresión de la enfermedad, intubación, muerte y tiempo de estancia hospitalaria. Material y Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda en PubMed, EBSCO, Scopus, Web of Science y Cochrane Central, de artículos originales que reporten las variables de interés asociadas al uso de famotidina en pacientes hospitalizados con COVID- 19. Los investigadores independientemente evaluaron y seleccionaron los estudios, se extrajeron los datos expuestos para las asociaciones de interés y se procesaron con el software Revman 5.3. Resultados: En la búsqueda se obtuvo un total de 126 artículos potenciales para la revisión, de los cuales 14 fueron seleccionados para el análisis. En el metaanálisis se incluyeron un total de 47.044 pacientes, de los cuales 6.647 fueron los usuarios de famotidina. El riesgo de intubación se vio reducido en el grupo no expuesto a famotidina, aunque sin significancia estadística, (RR 1,43 IC95% 0,42-4,83), en cuanto a la mortalidad no se evidenció reducción significativa en el grupo de famotidina (RR 0,95 IC 95% 0,70-1,29). Se observó reducción en el tiempo de estancia hospitalaria (DM -1,60 -2,89, -0,31) y finalmente se mostró que no hay presencia de asociación entre el uso de famotidina y el desenlace compuesto de reducción del riesgo de ingreso a UCI, intubación y muerte (RR 1,03 IC 95% 0,46-2,34). Conclusión: Famotidina no presenta efectividad ni eficacia en la reducción de riesgo de intubación o ingreso a UCI ni de mortalidad en pacientes hospitalizados por COVID-19. La eficacia en la reducción de la estancia hospitalaria no es consistente y se necesitan más ensayos clínicos con buena calidad metodológica para definirla.


Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), with high morbidity and mortality, lacks, at the time of preparing this review, a highly effective specific therapy. Famotidine has been postulated as a viable therapeutic option, based on retrospective cohort investigations and computational models guided by artificial intelligence. Aim: The objective of this study was to compile the best scientific evidence available to determine the effectiveness and efficacy of famotidine in the treatment of hospitalized patients with COVID-19, to reduce the risk of disease progression, intubation, death, and time to hospital stay. Methods: A search was carried out in PubMed, EBSCO, Scopus, Web of Science, and Central Cochrane, for original articles that report the variables of interest associated with the use of famotidine in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. The investigators independently evaluated and selected the studies, the exposed data for the associations of interest were extracted and processed with Revman 5.3 software. Results: The search yielded a total of 126 potential articles for the review, of which 14 were selected for analysis. A total of 47,044 patients were included in the meta-analysis of which 6,647 were famotidine users. The risk of intubation was reduced in the group not exposed to famotidine, although without statistical significance (RR 1.43 IC95% 0.42 - 4.83), regarding mortality there was no significant reduction in the famotidine group (RR 0.95 IC 95 % 0.70-1.29). A reduction in the length of hospital stay was observed (MD -1.60 -2.89, -0.31) and finally it was shown that there is no association between the use of famotidine and the composite outcome of reduced risk of ICU admission, intubation and death. (RR 1.03 95% CI 0.46-2.34). Conclusion: Famotidine does not show effectiveness or efficacy in reducing the risk of intubation or ICU admission or mortality in patients hospitalized for COVID-19. The efficacy in reducing hospital stay is not consistent and more clinical trials with good methodological quality are needed to define it.


Subject(s)
Humans , Famotidine/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Risk , COVID-19/mortality , Histamine H2 Antagonists/therapeutic use , Hospitalization , Intubation, Intratracheal
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007307

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION@#During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, multiple guidelines have recommended videolaryngoscope (VL) for tracheal intubation. However, there is no evidence that VL reduces time to tracheal intubation, and this is important for COVID-19 patients with respiratory failure.@*METHODS@#To simulate intubation of COVID-19 patients, we randomly assigned 28 elective surgical patients to be intubated with either McGrath™ MAC VL or direct laryngoscope (DL) by specialist anaesthetists who donned 3M™ Jupiter™ powered air-purifying respirators (PAPR) and N95 masks. The primary outcome was time to intubation.@*RESULTS@#The median time to intubation was 61 s (interquartile range [IQR] 37-63 s) and 41.5 s (IQR 37-56 s) in the VL and DL groups, respectively ( P = 0.35). The closest mean distance between the anaesthetist and patient during intubation was 21.6 ± 4.8 cm and 17.6 ± 5.3 cm in the VL and DL groups, respectively ( P = 0.045). There were no significant differences in the median intubation difficulty scale scores, proportion of successful intubations at the first laryngoscopic attempt and proportion of intubations requiring adjuncts. All the patients underwent successful intubation with no adverse event.@*CONCLUSION@#There was no significant difference in the time to intubation of elective surgical patients with either McGrath™ VL or DL by specialist anaesthetists who donned PAPR and N95 masks. The distance between the anaesthetist and patient was significantly greater with VL. When resources are limited or disrupted during a pandemic, DL could be a viable alternative to VL for specialist anaesthetists.


Subject(s)
Humans , COVID-19 , Intubation, Intratracheal , Laryngoscopes , Laryngoscopy , Respiratory Protective Devices , Video Recording
4.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 43(Supl. 1): 181-193, ago. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533903

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La colonización por microorganismos patógenos de los dispositivos médicos usados en las unidades de cuidados intensivos es un factor de riesgo para el aumento de infecciones asociadas con la atención en salud y, por lo tanto, al de la morbilidad y la mortalidad de los pacientes intubados. En Colombia, no se ha descrito la colonización por hongos de los tubos endotraqueales, con lo cual se podrían considerar nuevas opciones terapéuticas para el beneficio de los pacientes. Objetivo. Describir los hongos que colonizan los tubos endotraqueales de los pacientes en unidades de cuidados intensivos, junto con su perfil de sensibilidad a los antifúngicos. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo, en dos centros hospitalarios durante 12 meses. Se recolectaron tubos endotraqueales de pacientes de las unidades de cuidados intensivos. Estos fueron procesados para cultivar e identificar hongos, y para establecer su perfil de sensibilidad a los antifúngicos. Resultados. Se analizaron 121 tubos endotraqueales obtenidos de 113 pacientes. De estos, el 41,32 % se encontró colonizado por los hongos Candida albicans (64,61 %), C. no-albicans (30,77 %), Cryptococcus spp. (3,08 %) o mohos (1,54 %). Todos los hongos evaluados presentaron una gran sensibilidad a los antifúngicos, con un promedio del 91 %. Conclusión. Se encontró colonización fúngica en los tubos endotraqueales de pacientes con asistencia respiratoria mecánica. El perfil de sensibilidad en estos pacientes fue favorable. Se requiere un estudio clínico para correlacionar los microorganismos colonizadores y su capacidad de generar infección.


Introduction. Medical device colonization by pathogenic microorganisms is a risk factor for increasing infections associated with health care and, consequently, the morbidity and mortality of intubated patients. In Colombia, fungal colonization of endotracheal tubes has not been described, and this information could lead to new therapeutic options for the benefit of patients. Objective. To describe the colonizing fungi of the endotracheal tubes from patients in the intensive care unit, along with its antifungal sensitivity profile. Materials and methods. We conducted a descriptive, observational study in two health centers for 12 months. Endotracheal tubes were collected from patients in intensive care units. Samples were processed for culture, fungi identification, and antifungal sensitivity profile assessment. Results. A total of 121 endotracheal tubes, obtained from 113 patients, were analyzed: 41.32 % of the tubes were colonized by Candida albicans (64.62%), C. non-albicans (30.77%), Cryptococcus spp. (3.08%) or molds (1.54%). All fungi evaluated showed a high sensitivity to antifungals, with a mean of 91%. Conclusion. Fungal colonization was found in the endotracheal tubes of patients under invasive mechanical ventilation. The antifungal sensitivity profile in these patients was favorable. A clinical study is required to find possible correlations between the colonizing microorganisms and infectivity.


Subject(s)
Microbiota , Intubation, Intratracheal , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated , Mycobiome , Intensive Care Units
5.
Cambios rev. méd ; 22(1): 862, 30 Junio 2023. ilus, tabs
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1451458

ABSTRACT

de la deglución, los cuales representan todas las alteraciones del proceso fisiológico encargado de llevar el alimento desde la boca al esófago y después al estómago, salvaguardando siempre la protección de las vías respiratorias. OBJETIVO. Definir el manejo óptimo, de la disfagia en pacientes con antecedente de infección severa por COVID-19. METODOLOGÍA. Se realizó una revisión de la literatura científica en las bases de datos PubMed y Elsevier que relacionan el manejo de la disfagia y pacientes con antecedente de infección severa por SARS-CoV-2. Se obtuvo un universo de 134 artículos que cumplieron los criterios de búsqueda. Se seleccionaron 24 documentos, para ser considerados en este estudio. RESULTADOS. La incidencia de disfagia posterior a infección severa por SARS-CoV-2 fue del 23,14%, siendo la disfagia leve la más frecuente 48,0%. Los tratamientos clínicos más empleados en el manejo de la disfagia fueron rehabilitación oral y cambio de textura en la dieta en el 77,23% de los casos, mientras que el único tratamiento quirúrgico empleado fue la traqueotomía 37,31%. Un 12,68% de pacientes recuperó su función deglutoria sin un tratamiento específico. La eficacia de los tratamientos clínicos y quirúrgicos en los pacientes sobrevivientes de la infección severa por SARS-CoV-2 fue del 80,68%, con una media en el tiempo de resolución de 58 días. CONCLUSIÓN. La anamnesis es clave para el diagnóstico de disfagia post COVID-19. El tratamiento puede variar, desde un manejo conservador como cambios en la textura de la dieta hasta tratamientos más invasivos como traqueotomía para mejorar la función deglutoria.


INTRODUCTION. The difficulty to swallow or dysphagia is included within the problems of swallowing, which represent all the alterations of the physiological process in charge of carrying the food from the mouth to the esophagus, and then to the stomach, always taking into account the protection of the airways. OBJECTIVE. To define the optimal management, both clinical and surgical, for the adequate treatment of dysphagia produced as a consequence of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODOLOGY. A review of the scientific literature was carried out using both PubMed and Elsevier databases, which relate the management of dysphagia and patients with a history of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS. The incidence of dysphagia following severe SARS-CoV-2 infection was of 23,14%, with mild dysphagia being the most frequent 48,00%. The most frequently used clinical treatments for dysphagia management were oral rehabilitation and change in dietary texture in 77,23% of cases, while tracheotomy was the only surgical treatment used 37,31%. A total of 12,68% of patients recovered their swallowing function without specific treatment. The efficacy of clinical and surgical treatments in survivors of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection was 80,68%, with a mean resolution time of 58 days. CONCLUSION. An adequate medical history is key to the diagnosis of post-COVID-19 dysphagia. Treatment can range from conservative management such as changes in diet texture to more invasive treatments such as tracheotomy to improve swallowing function.


Subject(s)
Rehabilitation , Respiration, Artificial , Tracheotomy , Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Deglutition/physiology , COVID-19 , Otolaryngology , Rehabilitation of Speech and Language Disorders , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Speech , Tertiary Healthcare , Pulmonary Medicine , Deglutition Disorders , Respiratory Mechanics , Enteral Nutrition , Aerophagy , Dysgeusia , Ecuador , Exercise Therapy , Pathologists , Gastroenterology , Anosmia , Glossopharyngeal Nerve , Intensive Care Units , Intubation, Intratracheal
7.
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(3): 351-353, May-June 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439623

ABSTRACT

Abstract Stenting for lower tracheal stenosis is a tricky situation and for the safe conduct of anesthesia, it is imperative to maintain spontaneous respiration. Airway topicalization is routinely recommended for anticipated difficult airway. We report a case of upper airway obstruction following lidocaine nebulization in a patient to be taken for tracheal stenting for lower tracheal stenosis. We would like to highlight that close monitoring of the patient is advisable during airway topicalization to detect any airway obstruction at the earliest and how fiberoptic intubation can play a pivotal role to secure the airway in an emergency scenario.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tracheal Stenosis/surgery , Airway Obstruction/etiology , Anesthesia , Airway Management , Intubation, Intratracheal , Lidocaine
8.
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(2): 227-229, March-Apr. 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439582

ABSTRACT

Abstract A male patient was scheduled for urgent amputation of his right forearm. His right forearm was stuck inside the insertion slot of a meat grinder, resulting in severe pain to his injured arm. His upper body could not move to sit in a semi-upright position. An endotracheal tube was successfully placed after rapid sequence intubation using a video laryngoscope from behind the patient on the first attempt. This case report is the first documentation of successful anesthetic induction with subsequent endotracheal intubation using a video laryngoscope from behind an injured patient whose upper body was upright with limited positioning.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Laryngoscopes , Anesthetics , Forearm/surgery , Sitting Position , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Laryngoscopy/methods
9.
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(2): 153-158, March-Apr. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439590

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose Several bedside clinical tests have been proposed to predict difficult tracheal intubation. Unfortunately, when used alone, these tests show less than ideal prediction performance. Some multivariate tests have been proposed considering that the combination of some criteria could lead to better prediction performance. The goal of our research was to compare three previously described multivariate models in a group of adult patients undergoing general anesthesia. Methods This study included 220 patients scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia. A standardized airway evaluation which included modified Mallampati class (MM), thyromental distance (TMD), mouth opening distance (MOD), head and neck movement (HNM), and jaw protrusion capacity was performed before anesthesia. Multivariate models described by El-Ganzouri et al., Naguib et al., and Langeron et al. were calculated using the airway data. After anesthesia induction, an anesthesiologist performed the laryngoscopic classification and tracheal intubation. The sensitivity, specificity, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of the models were calculated. Results The overall incidence of difficult laryngoscopic view (DLV) was 12.7%. The area under curve (AUC) for the Langeron, Naguib, and El-Ganzouri models were 0.834, 0.805, and 0.752, respectively, (Langeron > El-Ganzouri, p= 0.004; Langeron = Naguib, p= 0.278; Naguib = El-Ganzouri, p= 0.101). The sensitivities were 85.7%, 67.9%, and 35.7% for the Langeron, Naguib, and El-Ganzouri models, respectively. Conclusion The Langeron model had higher overall prediction performance than that of the El-Ganzouri model. Additionally, the Langeron score had higher sensitivity than the Naguib and El-Ganzouri scores, and therefore yielded a lower incidence of false negatives.


Subject(s)
Laryngoscopes , Neck , ROC Curve , Intubation, Intratracheal , Laryngoscopy
10.
Acta méd. costarric ; 65(1): 12-20, ene.-mar. 2023. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1527608

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo. Esta investigación tiene como objetivo describir la población atendida y los beneficios del programa "Lineamiento de atención integral por Cuidados Paliativos en el Área de Salud de Palmares, para pacientes con SARS-CoV-2 severo" con ventilación mecánica asistida, hospitalizados en unidades de cuidados intensivos de la Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social durante la pandemia en Costa Rica, del 10 de junio al 31 de octubre del 2021. Métodos. Estudio descriptivo mixto de la población y los beneficios del programa por medio de indicadores cuantitativos obtenidos del informe de aplicación y cualitativos a través de la realización de una encuesta de satisfacción a usuarios en el período de estudio. Resultados. El programa atendió a 13 pacientes, brindó apoyo en manejo del duelo a los familiares de cinco pacientes que ya habían fallecido y a los cuidadores de ocho pacientes hospitalizados, también ofreció 70 consultas médicas en un período promedio de 62 días. La edad promedio de los pacientes fue de 55 años; doce pacientes presentaban algún factor de riesgo, siendo la obesidad y la falta de esquema de vacunación completo (dos dosis) los más frecuentes. Durante la implementación del programa fallecieron cinco pacientes más, obteniendo una tasa de mortalidad del 78%. A los pacientes que sobrevivieron se les atendió en promedio por 135 días. Con el apoyo del equipo, los pacientes lograron la recuperación clínica de las complicaciones respiratorias y funcionales. Lograron independencia total de actividades básicas de la vida diaria y reinserción social en menos de tres meses después del alta hospitalaria. En general, se documentó una percepción positiva del programa en el 100% de los usuarios, con cambios en el nivel de sufrimiento manifestado por las familias y el apoyo en el manejo del duelo. Conclusión. Con la optimización de uso de los recursos ya existentes en la Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social y la participación social, este programa abordó aspectos no atendidos previamente para los pacientes que sufrieron COVID 19 severo, como el manejo del sufrimiento y/o duelo durante la hospitalización y al egreso. Además, el programa colaboró en la recuperación clínica y funcional de los usuarios sobrevivientes y documentó múltiples beneficios percibidos por el paciente, sus familias, la institución y la sociedad, como el abordaje del sufrimiento, la adecuada atención al duelo, la organización de los recursos asistenciales y la pronta recuperación física, emocional y social del paciente sobreviviente.


Abstract Aim. This research aims to describe the population served and the benefits of the program "Guidelines for integral care for patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 by Palliative Care at the Area de Salud de Palmares " to patients with assisted mechanical ventilation, hospitalized in intensive care units of the Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social during the pandemic in Costa Rica, from June 10 to October 31, 2021. Methods. This study is a mixed descriptive investigation that analyzes quantitative indicators from the report on the program's application and qualitative indicators from a satisfaction survey for the users in the study period. Results. The program treated 13 patients, provided grief management support to the relatives of five patients who had already died and to the caregivers of eight hospitalized patients, and offered 70 medical consultations in an average period of 62 days. The average age of the patients was 55 years; twelve patients had some risk factors, and obesity and lack of a complete vaccination schedule (two doses) were the most frequent. During the program implementation, five more patients died, obtaining a mortality rate of 78%. The average treatment day for surviving patients was 135 days. Through the team's support, patients accomplished clinical recovery from respiratory and functional complications. They got independent basics activities of daily living and social reintegration in less tan three months after discharge. A positive perception of the program was documented in 100% of the program's users, with changes in the level of suffering manifested by the families and the support in grief management. Conclusion. With the optimization of the use of existing resources in the the Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social and the social participation, this program addressed aspects not previously attended to patients who suffered severe COVID 19, such as the management of suffering and/or grief during hospitalization and upon discharge. In addition, the program helped in the clinical and functional recovery of the surviving users, and documented multiple benefits perceived by the patient, their families, the institution, and society, such as the approach to suffering, adequate bereavement care, organization of care resources, and early physical, emotional and social recovery of the survivor patient.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Critical Care/methods , COVID-19/complications , Intubation, Intratracheal/mortality , Costa Rica
11.
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(1): 91-100, Jan.-Feb. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420641

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Postoperative cough may occur after tracheal intubation, but it is indistinct which drug is best at diminishing these events. Additionally, airway reflexes are commonly accompanied by severe hemodynamics responses during emergence. Objectives To evaluate the role of topical airway anesthesia on immediate post-extubation cough/bucking and extubation time. Methods Randomized clinical trials from MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and LILACS published until December 23, 2020 were included. Our primary outcome was postoperative cough/bucking incidence which was compared between local anesthetics and controls. Extubation times were likewise considered. Predisposition appraisal and subgroup, affectability investigations were likewise performed. Results The pooled analysis found a 45% reduction in cough incidence after treatment with topical airway local anesthetic (RR = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.42 to 0.72; p< 0.001). The number needed to treat (NNT) was 4.61. The intervention showed no differences in reduction of the extubation time (mean difference = -0.07; 95% CI: -0.14 to 0.28; p= 0.49). Conclusion Topical airway anesthesia demonstrated better than placebo or no medication in reducing immediate post-extubation cough/bucking. Further studies could have this objective to combine the different ways to perform better outcomes for patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cough/prevention & control , Intubation, Intratracheal , Postoperative Period , Airway Extubation , Anesthesia, General , Anesthesia, Local , Anesthetics, Local
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971065

ABSTRACT

Neonates born through meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) may develop complications including meconium aspiration syndrome, persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborn and death. The approach to the resuscitation of these neonates has significantly evolved for the past few decades. Initially, under direct visualization technique, neonates with MSAF were commonly suctioned below the vocal cords soon after delivery. Since 2015, Neonatal Resuscitation Program (NRP®) of the American Academy of Pediatrics has recommended against "routine" endotracheal suctioning of non-vigorous neonates with MSAF but favored immediate resuscitation with positive pressure ventilation via face-mask bagging. However, the China neonatal resuscitation 2021 guidelines continue to recommend routine endotracheal suctioning of non-vigorous neonates born with MSAF at birth. This review article discusses the differences and the rationales in the approach in the resuscitation of neonates with MSAF between Chinese and American NRP® guidelines over the past 60 years.


Subject(s)
Female , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Child , Meconium Aspiration Syndrome/therapy , Meconium , Resuscitation , Amniotic Fluid , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Infant, Newborn, Diseases , China
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1011077

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the clinical data of laryngeal airway diseases in infants and provide reference for the standardized diagnosis and treatment of the disease. Methods:From June 2022 to August 2023, analyze the clinical data of 4 cases of children with laryngeal airway diseases recently admitted to Department of Otolaryngology, Fuzhou Children's Hospital of Fujian Province, and summarize the experience and lessons of diagnosis and treatment by consulting relevant literature. Results:Three cases had symptoms such as laryngeal wheezing, dyspnea, backward growth and development, etc. After electronic laryngoscopy, the first case was diagnosed with laryngeal softening (severe, type Ⅱ), and the angular incision was performed. While cases 2, 3 diagnosed with case 2 and 3 were diagnosed with laryngeal cyst and underwent laryngeal cyst resection. All three cases underwent low-temperature plasma surgery under visual laryngoscope, and the symptoms were relieved after operation. Case 4 was laryngeal wheezing and dyspnea after extubation under general anesthesia. The electronic laryngoscopy showeded early stage of globetic stenosis, and endoscopic pseudomembrane clamping was performed, and the postoperative symptoms were relieved. Conclusion:Infants and young children with laryngeal airway diseases should pay attention to the early symptoms and be diagnosed by electronic laryngoscopy as soon as possible. With good curative effect and few complications, low-temperature plasma surgery under visual laryngoscope is recommended. The formation of pseudomembrane under the gluteal caused by tracheal intubation causes rapid onset and rapid development. The pseudomembrane extraction by clamping is convenient and fast, with good curative effect.


Subject(s)
Infant , Child , Humans , Child, Preschool , Respiratory Sounds/etiology , Larynx , Laryngeal Diseases/surgery , Laryngoscopy , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Dyspnea/surgery , Cysts/surgery
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1011018

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the perioperative airway management and treatment of newborns with micrognathia and laryngomalacia. Methods:From January to December 2022, a total of 6 newborns with micrognathia and laryngomalacia were included. Preoperative laryngoscopy revealed concomitant laryngomalacia. These micrognathia were diagnosed as Pierre Robin sequences. All patients had grade Ⅱ or higher symptoms of laryngeal obstruction and required oxygen therapy or non-invasive ventilatory support. All patients underwent simultaneous laryngomalacia surgery and mandibular distraction osteogenesis. The shortened aryepiglottic folds were ablated using a low-temperature plasma radiofrequency during the operation. Tracheal intubation was maintained for 3-5 days postoperatively. Polysomnography(PSG) and airway CT examination were performed before and 3 months after the surgery. Results:Among the 6 patients, 4 required oxygen therapy preoperatively and 2 required non-invasiveventilatory support. The mean age of patients was 40 days at surgery. The inferior alveolar nerve bundle was not damaged during the operation, and there were no signs of mandibular branch injury such as facial asymmetry after the surgery. Laryngomalacia presented as mixed type: type Ⅱ+ type Ⅲ. The maximum mandibular distraction distance was 20 mm, the minimum was 12 mm, and the mean was 16 mm. The posterior airway space increased from a preoperative average of 3.5 mm to a postoperative average of 9.5 mm. The AHI decreased from a mean of 5.65 to 0.85, and the lowest oxygen saturation increased from a mean of 78% to 95%. All patients were successfully extubated after the surgery, and symptoms of laryngeal obstruction such as hypoxia and feeding difficulties disappeared. Conclusion:Newborns with micrognathia and laryngomalacia have multi-planar airway obstruction. Simultaneous laryngomalacia surgery and mandibular distraction osteogenesis are safe and feasible, and can effectively alleviate symptoms of laryngeal obstruction such as hypoxia and feeding difficulties, while significantly improving the appearance of micrognathia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Micrognathism/surgery , Laryngomalacia/surgery , Treatment Outcome , Mandible/surgery , Airway Obstruction/surgery , Intubation, Intratracheal , Laryngeal Diseases , Osteogenesis, Distraction , Oxygen , Retrospective Studies
15.
Singapore medical journal ; : 651-656, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007299

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION@#Laryngeal mask airway (LMA), which is used in difficult airway maintenance conditions during emergencies, is rarely used in prolonged surgery despite its advantages over endotracheal tube (ETT). In this study, we conducted a comparative analysis of intraoperative gas exchanges between second-generation LMA and ETT during prolonged laparoscopic abdominal surgery.@*METHODS@#Prolonged surgery was defined as a surgery lasting more than 2 h. In total, 394 patients who underwent laparoscopic liver resection via either second-generation LMA or ETT were retrospectively analysed. The following parameters were compared between the two groups of patients: end-tidal pressure of carbon dioxide (ETCO2), tidal volume (TV), respiratory rate (RR), peak inspiratory pressure (PIP), arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2), pH and ratio of arterial partial pressure of oxygen to fractional inspired oxygen (PFR) during surgery. In addition, the incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs), including pulmonary aspiration, was compared.@*RESULTS@#The values of ETCO2, TV, RR and PIP during pneumoperitoneum were comparable between the two groups. Although PaCO2 at 2 h after induction was higher in patients in the LMA group (40.5 vs. 38.5 mmHg, P < 0.001), the pH and PFR values of the two groups were comparable. The incidence of PPC was similar.@*CONCLUSION@#During prolonged laparoscopic abdominal surgery, second-generation LMA facilitates adequate intraoperative gas exchange and may serve as an alternative to ETT.


Subject(s)
Humans , Laryngeal Masks , Carbon Dioxide , Retrospective Studies , Intubation, Intratracheal , Laparoscopy/adverse effects , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Oxygen
16.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 752-756, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982667

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the efficacy of arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2), procalcitonin (PCT) combined with ROX index in predicting the timing of tracheal intubation in patients with acute severe pancreatitis (SAP).@*METHODS@#A case-control study was conducted. A total of 148 patients with SAP admitted to Hunan Provincial People's Hospital from January 2019 to December 2022 were selected as the research objects. According to whether endotracheal intubation was used after admission during hospitalization, the patients were divided into the intubation group (102 cases) and non-intubation group (46 cases). Gender, age, white blood cell count (WBC), lymphocyte count (LYM), platelet count (PLT), C-reactive protein (CRP), hemoglobin (Hb), PCT, PaO2, arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2), arterial bicarbonate ion (HCO3-) 1 day after admission, arterial lactic acid (Lac), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2), oxygenation index (PaO2/FiO2), blood pressure, worst ROX index (ROX index = SpO2/FiO2/RR) within 30 minutes of admission and 30 minutes before intubation of the two groups were measured. Multivariate Logistic regression was used to analyze the independent risk factors for the timing of endotracheal intubation in patients with SAP. The receiver operator characteristic curve (ROC curve) was used to determine the optimal predictive cut-off value for endotracheal intubation.@*RESULTS@#There were no significant differences in age, gender, WBC, LYM, CRP, Hb, LDH, HR and blood pressure at admission between the two groups. The PLT, Lac, PCT and RR in the intubation group were significantly higher than those in the un-intubation group, and HCO3-, PaO2, SpO2, PaO2/FiO2, the worst ROX index within 30 minutes after admission and 30 minutes before intubation were significantly lower than those in the non-intubation group (all P < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that the worst ROX index within 30 minutes before intubation was the largest negative influencing factor for the timing of tracheal intubation in SAP patients [odds ratio (OR) = 0.723, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) was 0.568-0.896, P = 0.000], followed by PaO2 (OR = 0.872, 95%CI was 0.677-1.105, P < 0.001). PCT was the positive influencing factor (OR = 1.605, 95%CI was 1.240-2.089, P < 0.001). ROC curve analysis showed that the area under the ROC curve (AUC) of PaO2, PCT, the worst ROX index within 30 minutes before intubation and the combination to evaluate the tracheal intubation time of patients with SAP were 0.715, 0.702, 0.722 and 0.808, the sensitivity was 78.1%, 75.0%, 81.5% and 89.3%, the specificity was 66.7%, 59.0%, 73.2% and 86.4%, and the best cut-off value was 60.23 mmHg (1 mmHg ≈ 0.133 kPa), 2.72 μg/L, 4.85, and 0.58, respectively. The AUC of the combination of PaO2, PCT and the worst ROX index within 30 minutes before intubation predicted the timing of tracheal intubation in patients with SAP was significantly greater than using each index alone (all P < 0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The worst ROX index within 30 minutes before intubation combined with PaO2 and PCT is helpful for clinicians to make a decision for tracheal intubation in patients with SAP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Procalcitonin , Oxygen , Case-Control Studies , Partial Pressure , Retrospective Studies , Pancreatitis/therapy , Intubation, Intratracheal , Prognosis , ROC Curve
17.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 482-486, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982618

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the incidence and infection regularity of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in patients undergoing tracheal intubation and to provide reference for the prevention and treatment of VAP infection in the future.@*METHODS@#A retrospective study was conducted to collect the microbial data of airway secretion cultures from 72 patients with endotracheal intubation admitted to the emergency ward of Shanghai Fifth People's Hospital from May 2020 to February 2021, and the species of microorganisms and intubation time were statistically analyzed.@*RESULTS@#Among 72 patients with endotracheal intubation, males were more than females (58.33% vs. 41.67%); Patients over 60 years old accounted for 90.28%; pneumonia was the main primary disease, accounting for 58.33%. Pathogenic tests showed that: (1) 72 patients were infected with Acinetobacter baumannii (AB), Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) 48 hours after intubation, 51.39% (37/72), 27.78% (20/72), and 26.39% (19/72), respectively. The infection rate of AB was significantly higher than that of KP and PA. Within 48 hours of intubation, the infection rates of AB, KP, and PA were 20.83% (15/72), 13.89% (10/72), and 4.17% (3/72), respectively. Of the 42 patients with primary pneumonia, 61.90% (26/42) were infected with one or more of the three pathogenic bacteria AB, KP, and PA 48 hours after intubation, indicating a change in the etiology of the pathogenic bacteria, with the main pathogenic bacteria transitioning from other pathogenic bacteria to AB, KP, and PA. (2) AB, KP, and PA were prone to cause late onset VAP (i.e., intubation ≥ 5 days). Respectively, among VAP patients infected with AB, late onset VAP accounted for 59.46% (22/37). Among patients infected with KP, 75.00% (15/20) had late onset VAP. Among patients infected with PA, late onset VAP accounted for 94.74% (18/19), indicating a higher proportion of late onset VAP caused by PA and KP. (3) Infection was closely related to intubation time, and the pipeline can be replaced according to the peak period of infection. AB and KP infections peaked within 4 days after intubation, reaching 57.69% (30/52) and 50.00% (15/30), respectively. It is recommended to replace the tubes or undergo sensitive antimicrobial therapy around 3-4 days after starting the machine. The proportion of PA infection after 7 days of intubation was 72.73% (16/22), and it was considered to replace the pipeline after 7 days. (4) Most of the three pathogenic bacteria, AB, KP, and PA were carbapenem resistant pathogens with multiple drug resistance. Except for PA, the infection rate of carbapenem resistant bacteria (CRAB, CRKP) was significantly higher than that of non-carbapenem resistant bacteria (AB, KP), accounting for 86.54% (45/52) and 66.67% (20/30) of the corresponding infection cases, respectively, while CRPA only accounts for 18.18% (4/22).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The main differences in VAP infection caused by AB, KP, and PA pathogens are infection time, infection probability, and carbapenem resistance. Targeted prevention and treatment measures can be implemented for patients with intubation.


Subject(s)
Female , Male , Humans , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated , Retrospective Studies , China , Intubation, Intratracheal , Acinetobacter baumannii , Klebsiella pneumoniae
18.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 358-361, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982593

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of different fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) baseline levels before endotracheal intubation on the time of expiratory oxygen concentration (EtO2) reaching the standard in emergency patients with the EtO2 as the monitoring index.@*METHODS@#A retrospective observational study was conducted. The clinical data of patients receiving endotracheal intubation in the emergency department of Peking Union Medical College Hospital from January 1 to November 1 in 2021 were enrolled. In order to avoid interference with the final result due to inadequate ventilation caused by non-standard operation or air leakage, the process of the continuous mechanical ventilation after FiO2 was adjusted to pure oxygen in patients who had been intubated was selected to simulate the process of mask ventilation under pure oxygen before intubation. Combined with the electronic medical record and the ventilator record, the changes of the time required to reach 0.90 of EtO2 (that was, the time required to reach the standard of EtO2) and the respiratory cycle required to reach the standard after adjusting FiO2 to pure oxygen under different baseline levels of FiO2 were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#113 EtO2 assay records were collected from 42 patients. Among them, 2 patients had only one EtO2 record due to the FiO2 baseline level of 0.80, while the rest had two or more records of EtO2 reaching time and respiratory cycle corresponding to different FiO2 baseline level. Among the 42 patients, most of them were male (59.5%), elderly [median age was 62 (40, 70) years old] patients with respiratory diseases (40.5%). There were significant differences in lung function among different patients, but the majority of patients with normal function [oxygenation index (PaO2/FiO2) > 300 mmHg (1 mmHg ≈ 0.133 kPa), 38.0%]. In the setting of ventilator parameters, combined with the slightly lower arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide of patients [33 (28, 37) mmHg], mild hyperventilation phenomenon was considered to be widespread. With the increased in FiO2 baseline level, the time of EtO2 reaching standard and the number of respiratory cycles showed a gradually decreasing trend. When the FiO2 baseline level was 0.35, the time of EtO2 reaching the standard was the longest [79 (52, 87) s], and the corresponding median respiratory cycle was 22 (16, 26) cycles. When the FiO2 baseline level was increased from 0.35 to 0.80, the median time of EtO2 reaching the standard was shortened from 79 (52, 78) s to 30 (21, 44) s, and the median respiratory cycle was also reduced from 22 (16, 26) cycles to 10 (8, 13) cycles, with statistically significant differences (both P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The higher the FiO2 baseline level of the mask ventilation in front of the endotracheal intubation in emergency patients, the shorter the time for EtO2 reaching the standard, and the shorter the mask ventilation time.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Female , Intubation, Intratracheal , Respiration , Ventilators, Mechanical , Arteries , Blood Gas Analysis
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970449

ABSTRACT

Objective To reveal the current situation of palliative care for patients who died in Peking Union Medical College Hospital,so as to guide the practice of palliative care for patients in terminal stage. Methods A retrospective study was conducted on patients who died in Peking Union Medical College Hospital from January 1,2019 to December 31,2019.The general clinical data of the patients,whether they received palliative care,and the treatment details including invasive rescue measures,symptom controlling,and psychological,social,and spiritual care status before dying were collected for descriptive analysis. Results A total of 244 inpatients died in 2019,including 135 males and 109 females,with an average age of (65.9±16.4) years (1 day to 105 years).Among the 244 patients,112 (45.9%) died of neoplastic diseases and 132 (54.1%) died of non-neoplastic diseases.Sixty-one (25.0%) patients received palliative care before death,and they were mainly distributed in internal medicine departments such as nephrology (100.0%),gastroenterology (80.0%),and geriatrics (72.7%).Twenty-nine patients received sound palliative care,with all symptoms under control and no invasive treatment before death,and twenty-six patients received psychological,social,and spiritual care.Compared with the patients who were not exposed to the concept of palliative care,the patients who received palliative care showed decreased probabilities of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (0 vs 20.2%;χ2=13.009,P<0.001),tracheal intubation (3.3% vs 48.6%;χ2=38.327,P<0.001),and invasive mechanical ventilation (4.9% vs 47.5%;χ2=33.895,P<0.001) and an increased probability of psychological,social,and spiritual care (54.1% vs 2.4%;χ2=91.486,P<0.001). Conclusion The concept of palliative care has a positive impact on the death of end-stage patients.Palliative care services can increase the probability of end-stage patients receiving psychological,social,and spiritual care and reduce the use of invasive treatment.


Subject(s)
Female , Male , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Palliative Care , Retrospective Studies , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Hospitals , Intubation, Intratracheal
20.
Rev. baiana enferm ; 37: e52988, 2023. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1529691

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: descrever as boas práticas realizadas pela equipe multiprofissional durante a aspiração de vias aéreas inferiores em pacientes adultos, internados na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva. Método: estudo quantitativo, observacional, descritivo e prospectivo, norteado pela ferramenta STROBE, realizado em uma Unidade de Terapia Intensiva adulto, entre maio e agosto de 2022. A amostra foi composta por 25 observações e a coleta de dados através de checklist, incluídos os profissionais de enfermagem, fisioterapia e medicina. Os dados foram processados no Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, sendo calculadas as frequências absolutas e relativas. Resultados: a maioria das aspirações foram realizadas pela equipe de enfermagem, 20 (80%) profissionais não regularam a fração inspirada de oxigênio antes e após o procedimento, 06 (60%) profissionais não clampearam a sonda durante a sua inserção. O uso de máscara (100%), capote (92%) e luva (100%) foram as boas práticas com maior aderência entre os participantes. Conclusão: reforça-se a necessidade de incentivar os treinamentos abordando as boas práticas durante a aspiração endotraqueal.


Objetivos: describir las buenas prácticas realizadas por el equipo multiprofesional durante la aspiración de vías aéreas inferiores en pacientes adultos, ingresados en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos. Método: estudio cuantitativo, observacional, descriptivo y prospectivo, guiado por la herramienta STROBE, realizado en una unidad de cuidados intensivos adulta, entre mayo y agosto de 2022. La muestra fue compuesta por 25 observaciones y la recogida de datos a través de checklist, incluidos los profesionales de enfermería, fisioterapia y medicina. Los datos fueron procesados en el Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, siendo calculadas las frecuencias absolutas y relativas. Resultados: la mayoría de las aspiraciones fueron realizadas por el equipo de enfermería, 20 (80%) profesionales no regularon la fracción inspirada de oxígeno antes y después del procedimiento, 06 (60%) profesionales no clampearon la sonda durante su inserción. El uso de máscara (100%), capucha (92%) y guante (100%) fueron las mejores prácticas con mayor adherencia entre los participantes. Conclusión: se refuerza la necesidad de incentivar los entrenamientos abordando las buenas prácticas durante la aspiración endotraqueal.


Objective: to describe the good practices performed by the multiprofessional team during lower airway aspiration in adult patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit. Method: quantitative, observational, descriptive and prospective study, guided by the STROBE tool, conducted in an adult intensive care unit, between May and August 2022. The sample consisted of 25 observations and data collection through checklist, including nursing, physiotherapy and medicine professionals. The data were processed in the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, and the absolute and relative frequencies were calculated. Results: most aspirations were performed by the nursing team, 20 (80%) professionals did not regulate the inspired fraction of oxygen before and after the procedure, 06 (60%) professionals did not clamp the tube during its insertion. The use of mask (100%), cloak (92%) and glove (100%) were the best practices with greater adherence among participants. Conclusion: there is the need to encourage training addressing good practices during endotracheal aspiration.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Suction/methods , Practice Guideline , Airway Management/methods , Intubation, Intratracheal/nursing
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