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1.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 86(4): 427-433, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132621

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Tonsillectomy is one of the most common surgeries in the head and neck worldwide. This operation is carried out by different methods, the most frequent of which are the cold dissection and bipolar electrocautery techniques. Objective This study was conducted to assess and compare postoperative morbidity between cold dissection and bipolar electrocautery. Methods This prospective randomized clinical trial was performed on 534 patients who underwent tonsillectomy in Vali-e-Asr Hospital of Birjand, east of Iran from October, 2013 to October, 2015. The patients were systematically selected for cold dissection technique or bipolar electrocautery technique groups. Time of surgery, amount of intraoperative blood loss, postoperative hemorrhage, the intensity of local pain 4 and 24 hours after operation and nausea and/or vomiting were recorded and compared in the two groups to decide which technique is better. The data were analyzed in SPSS software (ver-22). The p-value less than 0.5 was considered significant. Results In this study, 51.7% of the cold dissection technique patients and 50.6% of the bipolar electrocautery technique participants were male. Compared to the cold dissection technique, the average intraoperative blood loss was significantly lower (p < 0.001) in the bipolar electrocautery technique group, while the intensity of local pain 4 and 24 hours after the operation was significantly higher (p < 0.001). Other variables showed no significant differences between the two groups. Conclusion Based on the findings of the present investigation, the bipolar electrocautery technique is suggested for tonsillectomy in children, while the cold dissection technique is preferred for adult patients.


Resumo Introdução A tonsilectomia é uma das cirurgias mais comuns de cabeça e pescoço em todo o mundo. Essa cirurgia é feita por diferentes métodos, os mais frequentes são a dissecção a frio e por eletrocauterização bipolar. Objetivo Este estudo foi feito para avaliar e comparar a morbidade pós-operatória na dissecção a frio e eletrocauterização bipolar. Método Este ensaio clínico prospectivo e randomizado foi feito em 534 pacientes submetidos a tonsilectomia no Vali-e-Asr Hospital de Birjand, no leste do Irã, de outubro de 2013 a outubro de 2015. Os pacientes foram selecionados de forma sistemática para o grupo submetido à técnica de dissecção a frio ou para o grupo com uso da técnica de eletrocauterização bipolar. Para a avaliação acerca da melhor técnica, os seguintes parâmetros foram registrados e comparados entre os dois grupos: tempo de cirurgia, quantidade de perda sanguínea intraoperatória, hemorragia pós-operatória, intensidade da dor local 4 e 24 horas após a cirurgia e ocorrência de náuseas e/ou vômitos. Os dados foram analisados no software SPSS (versão 22). O valor de p inferior a 0,5 foi considerado significante. Resultados Neste estudo, 51,7% dos participantes do grupo técnica de dissecção a frio e 50,6% do grupo técnica de eletrocauterização bipolar eram do sexo masculino. No grupo operado pela técnica de eletrocauterização bipolar a média de perda sanguínea intraoperatória foi significantemente menor (p < 0,001) em comparação à técnica de dissecção a frio, enquanto a intensidade da dor local 4 e 24 horas após a cirurgia foi significativamente maior (p < 0,001). As outras variáveis não apresentaram diferenças significantes entre os dois grupos. Conclusão Com base nos achados da presente investigação, para a tonsilectomia em crianças sugere-se o uso da técnica de eletrocauterização bipolar, enquanto a técnica de dissecção a frio é recomendada para pacientes adultos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Tonsillectomy , Pain, Postoperative , Prospective Studies , Postoperative Hemorrhage , Electrocoagulation , Iran
3.
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 176-180, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827844

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE@#Trauma is a major health concern. Length of hospital stay (LOS) has been targeted as an important metric to assess trauma care. This study aims to evaluate the risk factors that affect LOS among trauma patients in a trauma center in Southwestern Iran.@*METHODS@#This cross-sectional study was conducted on patients admitted to Rajaee Trauma Center, Shiraz, Iran between January 1, 2018 and December 30, 2018. The inclusion criteria were age above 15 years and having traffic accident injuries, including car, motorcycle and pedestrian injury mechanisms. The exclusion criteria were existing diseases including cardiovascular, cerebral, renal, and pulmonary diseases prior to this study, dead upon arrival or within 48 h after admission, and stay at the hospital for less than 6 h. The risk variables analyzed for prolonged LOS were age, gender, mechanism of traffic accident injury, infection during hospital stay, type of injury, injury severity score, surgery during hospitalization, and survival. Poisson regression was performed to evaluate the partial effects of each covariate on trauma hospitalization (≥3 days as longer stay).@*RESULTS@#This study was conducted on 14,054 patients with traffic accident injury and the mean age was (33.89 ± 15.78) years. Additionally, 74.35% of the patients were male, with male to female ratio of 2.90. The result of Poisson regression indicated that male patients, higher age, combination of thoracic injuries, onset of infected sites, and surgery patients were more susceptible to have a longer LOS. Considering the site of injury, patients with face injuries followed by those with thorax injuries had the highest means of LOS (3.74 days and 3.36 days, respectively). Simultaneous existence of surgical intervention and infection in a patient had the greatest impact on prolonged LOS.@*CONCLUSION@#This study identified that age, gender, mechanism of injury, infection, type of injury, survival, and ISS could lead to prolongation of LOS, but the affect can be reduced by eliminating modifiable risk factors.


Subject(s)
Accidental Injuries , Accidents, Traffic , Adult , Age Factors , Facial Injuries , Female , Humans , Iran , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Thoracic Injuries , Wound Infection , Young Adult
4.
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 152-158, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827842

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE@#Successful application experiences on public-private partnership (PPP) in different countries, suggest that PPP could be an option in road traffic injury (RTI) prevention. The present study aims at investigating the applicability of PPP policy in RTI prevention in Iran based on the experts' perspectives.@*METHODS@#This is a qualitative study with grounded theory approach which has been conducted in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran in 2018. The participants were 22 experts in the field of RTIs selected using purposive sampling method. Data were collected by semi-structured interviews and analyzed with content-analysis method.@*RESULTS@#The results were classified under 5 main themes (applicability, scopes and services, challenges, advantages, and strategies) for applying PPP policy and 37 sub-themes. Due to the prevalence of RTIs, the present challenges in public sector, existence of qualified private sector, and successful experiences in other areas, there are opportunities for private sector partnership in prevention of RTIs. Private sector could participate in different scopes and services regarding RTI prevention, including road construction and maintenance, maintenance and provision of vehicles safety and public education. The main challenges including legislation issues, ambiguities in collaboration, political and organizational unsustainability, government's financial hardship and lack of experienced experts in the field of RTI. However, there are significant advantages including high efficiency in program implementation, covering the weaknesses of public sector, effective and efficient management on application of PPP in RTI prevention. The strategies include identifying and prioritizing the assignable activities, identifying the qualified private sector, developing PPP policies and legal frameworks, creating a common language between public and private parties, trying to meet the expectations of the private sector by public sector, developing a comprehensive and sound contract, and cultivating public culture to accept private sector in the field of RTI prevention.@*CONCLUSION@#This study sought to determine whether PPP could be used as strategy to reduce the burden of RTIs in Iran. But it requires a lot of preliminary studies to provide the context and conditions for applying this policy.


Subject(s)
Accidental Injuries , Accidents, Traffic , Adult , Expert Testimony , Female , Humans , Iran , Male , Middle Aged , Public-Private Sector Partnerships , Qualitative Research
5.
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 145-148, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827840

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE@#The blunt abdominal trauma (BAT) is a common emergency and is significantly associated with morbidity and mortality. Our study was conducted to achieve the goal that a new scoring system could be used for the BAT patients.@*METHODS@#The statistical population of this study was 1000 patients with BAT referred to emergency department of Imam Hossein Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Sampling was carried out in a convenience non-random manner and continued to reach the required sample size. All the patients with BAT due to road traffic accidents, falls, and other direct blunt traumas such as punctures and kickbacks were included in the study. Exclusion criteria were after 3 months of pregnancy, under the age of 18, warfarin taking, no reliable medical history providing and penetrating trauma. The study questionnaire was based on BAT scoring system. The data were analyzed by SPSS V20 software. The receiver operating characteristic curve was used to analyze the effectiveness of the new scoring system in predicting the BAT patients' outcome.@*RESULTS@#The mean age of the patients (n = 1000) was (35.79 ± 13.09) years. The mean score of patients was (6.29 ± 5.80). Based on this scoring system, the patients were divided into three categories. The first group was patients at low risk with score of less than 8, the second group was patients at moderate risk with score of 8-12 and the third group was patients at high risk with score of 12-24. The score of 661 (66.1%) patients were low, 109 (10.9%) were moderate and 230 (23%) had a high score. The association between hip fracture and abdominal tenderness with abdominal injury was significant (p < 0.001). Cronbach's alpha was 0.76 showing the reliability of this questionnaire to predict the future of patients.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The study tool has a sensitivity to predict the BAT patients' outcome, and has a proper specificity that can be used to reduce the use of harmful modalities such as computed tomography scan.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Injuries , Diagnosis , Adult , Diagnosis , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Humans , Iran , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Risk , Sensitivity and Specificity , Surveys and Questionnaires , Trauma Severity Indices , Wounds, Nonpenetrating , Diagnosis , Young Adult
6.
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 219-223, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827828

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE@#Motorcycle accident is a major cause of road traffic injuries and the motorcyclists are considered as vulnerable road users. The present study aimed to determine the epidemiological characteristics of fatal motorcycle crashes in Iran.@*METHODS@#In this cross-sectional study, a total of 28,356 motorcycle traffic fatalities registered in the Legal Medicine Organization of Iran were analyzed during the period between March 2011 and March 2017. The examined variables included demographic characteristics, helmet use, crash mechanisms, crash location, position state, type of counterpart vehicle, cause of death and place of death. In the study, road traffic mortalities involving drivers and/or passenger of motorcycles were included. Cases or events registered without these conditions were excluded from the study. To analyse the data, SPSS statistics 25 and GraphPad Prism 8 softwares were used.@*RESULTS@#Of the 122,682 fatal traffic injury cases, 28,356 (23.1%) were motorcycle users, of whom 95.3% were male and 4.7% were female. Most of the motorcycle fatalities belonged to the age group of 18-24 years (29.1%). Head trauma was the major cause of death (59.0%). Also, the overall proportion of safety helmet use among motorcycle crash victims was estimated at 37.4%. Most of the road traffic crash cases (46.8%) happened out of city and half of people (49.9%) died in hospital. About 77.4% of the victims were motorcycle riders and 21.1% were pillion passengers. The highest rate of mortality belonged to the self-employed (38.4%) and then workers (21.8%) and students (10.2%). In addition, most fatalities occurred in people with low education (77.5%) and the least occurred in university graduates (5.5%). Among 31 provinces of Iran, Fars had the highest (9.3%) occurrence rate and Kohgiluyeh and Buyer-Ahmad had the lowest (0.5%). Most of the crash mechanisms were due to motorcycle-vehicle crashes (80.2%), followed by rollover (9.8%).@*CONCLUSION@#Comprehensive public education and special rules are needed to reduce the rate of deaths in motorcycle crashes.


Subject(s)
Accidental Injuries , Epidemiology , Mortality , Accidents, Traffic , Mortality , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Educational Status , Female , Head Protective Devices , Health Education , Humans , Iran , Epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Motorcycles , Registries , Young Adult
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826320

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The increasing production of un-recycled waste is a great threat to public health. Therefore, assessment and measurement of people's beliefs and perceptions with regard to these threats can contribute to the development of suitable educational messages promoting waste separation behaviors. This study aimed to carry out the scale development and psychometric evaluation of behaviors and beliefs associated with waste separation among female students.@*METHOD@#This methodological research was performed in 2019. The primary questionnaire was developed based on the assessment of waste separation beliefs and behaviors based on the extended parallel process model. Afterwards, to confirm the content and face validity of the research tool, the opinions of 14 faculty members and certain students were asked for, respectively. In order to assess the construct validity of the questionnaire, exploratory factor analysis was performed based on the data collected from 386 female students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran. The internal and external reliability of the tool was determined through estimating Cronbach's alpha and test-retest based on intraclass correlation (ICC) index, respectively.@*RESULTS@#The mean age and academic semester of the students were 22 ± 1.9 years and 5.58 ± 2.6, respectively. The primary version of the questionnaire was designed with 65 items; one item was omitted during the content validity process. Construct validity with factor analysis technique yielded nine dimensions including 64 items with a factor loading above 0.3. The overall reliability of the research tool was confirmed at Cronbach's alpha of 0.87. Furthermore, the ICC of the entire questionnaire was 0.89.@*CONCLUSION@#According to the results of the study, the final 64-item questionnaire could be used by various researchers to assess waste separation beliefs and behaviors considering suitable psychometric features.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Iran , Medical Waste Disposal , Psychometrics , Students, Medical , Psychology , Young Adult
8.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 19: e206579, jan.-dez. 2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1116568

ABSTRACT

Aim: The purpose of this examination is determining the predictors of oral health behaviors among Iranian students in district 1 Tehran based on the health belief model with added commitment to plan construct. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 351 four grade female students in the first district of Tehran, Iran in 2017. The multi­stage random cluster sampling method was used to recruit students. The inclusion criteria were being in four ­ graded level of elementary schools of the 1st district in Tehran, being female students aged between 9-11 years and being physically and psychologically healthy student. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the variables that predict oral health behaviors. Results: Totally, (N= 31.8%) students reported that they were brushing less than twice a day and (N= 55.2% ) students claimed using of dental floss once a week or less than once a day. The results indicated that perceived self-efficacy (OR=1.46, 95% CI=0.57-3.78, P<0.001), commitment to plan (OR=1.13, 95% CI=1.04-1.23, P<0.001) and cues to action (OR=1.42, 95% CI=1.14­1.76, P=0.002) were the significant predicting variables of brushing twice a day, and use of dental floss once a day or more (OR=1.02, 95% CI=0.23-3.53, P=0.003). Conclusion: This study has shown the effectiveness of the health belief model with added commitment to plan construct to predict oral health behavior in female students. Thus, it seems that the model as a acceptable framework for designing training programs to improve oral health behavior in students


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Students , Health Behavior , Oral Health , Health Education, Dental , Iran
9.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1056894

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To investigate the impacts of toothache on the daily activities of children aged 5 to 9 years. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted among 465 children (220 boys and 245 girls) aged between 5-9 years, using the Child Dental Pain Questionnaire (Child-DPQ), in the city of Kerman. They were categorized into two groups based on the clinical status: (1) untreated dental caries and (2) no dental caries or treated dental caries. For data analysis, the Chi-square, Mann-Whitney test, multiple logistic regressions, Spearman's correlation coefficient and t-test were used. Results: Regarding the severity of pain, about 28.3% reported mild pain, 30.1% moderate pain, and 21.9% very severe pain. The prevalence of reported dental pain increased by increasing the number of reported dental visits and more strongly among those having dmft>1. Toothache in children caused to stop eating (73.3%) and to sleep (63.8.1%) and provoked a dental visit in more than 40%. Conclusion: The toothache stopped many children eating and sleeping and provoked a dental visit in more than 40%. Among the children under study, 55.9% had to miss school.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Toothache/etiology , Child , Surveys and Questionnaires , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Iran , Chi-Square Distribution , Logistic Models , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Statistics, Nonparametric
10.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1135500

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To identify the prevalence of Internet addiction (IA) and associated factors among Iranian medical students. Material and Methods: The cross-sectional survey was conducted on a random sample of 400 students. The self-administered questionnaire consisted of two sections: the first section was sociodemographic data, data about student's relations, and Internet use characteristics; the second part aimed at assessment of the level of IA using Young's 20-item scale for IA. Data analyzed in SPSS 20 at 0.05 significant level. Results: Considering their familiarity with the Internet, 80.3% stated personal experience and 12.3% individuals stated educational periods held outside the university. The most locations of using the Internet were dormitories (21.0%) and houses (43.5%). Concerning hours of Internet use, 45.2% used the Internet more than two hours per day. One hundred sixty-eight individuals (42.0%) stated that they used the Internet less than 15% for university activities. One hundred eighty-eight individuals (47.0%) used VPN and 75.5% were dissatisfied with Internet speed 61.2%. A total of 64.3% had a poor dependency on the Internet and the prevalence of IA was 3.5%. The mean score of IA questionnaire was 43.98 ± 15.92 from 125. The mean score of IA was higher in the male sex, but there was no significant correlation between sex and IA (p>0.05). There was not a significant correlation between the field of study and the year of entrance. Conclusion: The prevalence of Internet addiction among medical students was low. Identification of factors associated with IA can help in the planning of preventive programs to raise students' knowledge about the hazards IA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Students, Medical , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Recognition, Psychology , Internet-Based Intervention , Iran , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1135524

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To assess the prevalence of soft tissue calcifications and their panoramic radiographic characteristics. Material and Methods: This descriptive retrospective study evaluated 2027 panoramic radiographs. The type and location of calcifications and the age and gender of patients were evaluated by two radiologists. Data were analyzed via SPSS and the Chi-square, Fisher's exact and Kappa tests were used to compare the categorical demographic variables among the groups. The confidence interval was set to 95% and p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The prevalence of calcified stylohyoid ligament was 11.24%. This value was 3.99% for tonsillolith, 1.33% for calcified carotid plaque, 0.69% for antrolith, 0.39% for calcified lymph node, 0.29% for phleboliths, and 0.19% for sialoliths. The prevalence of these conditions had no significant association with gender or age (p=0.102). The prevalence of bilateral calcified stylohyoid ligament, tonsillolith, and a calcified carotid plaque was significantly higher (p<0.001). The most prevalent type of calcified stylohyoid ligament, according to O'Carroll's classification, belonged to types 1, 4, 3 and 2 (p<0.001). The most commonly observed radiographic pattern was multiple, well-defined tonsilloliths (75.3%, p<0.001). Conclusion: The prevalence of soft tissue calcifications on panoramic radiographs was relatively low in this Iranian population. The most calcifications were respectively calcified stylohyoid ligament, tonsillolith, calcified carotid plaque, antrolith, calcified lymph node, phleboliths and sialoliths. Calcified stylohyoid ligament, tonsillolith and calcified carotid plaque were more bilaterally. Thereby panoramic imaging can help in primary assessment, epidemiologic and screening evaluation of these calcifications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Temporomandibular Joint , Tooth Calcification , Radiography, Panoramic/instrumentation , Radiologists , Hyoid Bone , Chi-Square Distribution , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric , Iran/epidemiology
12.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1056884

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To validate the ultrashort (5-item) Persian version of OHIP by investigating its psychometric properties. Material and Methods: Construct validity was assessed by examining the correlation between OHIP-5 scores and self-reported oral health status, judgment for dental treatment needs and the number of natural teeth. Reliability was calculated using Cronbach's alpha and corrected item-total correlation. Effect size (ES) and Standardized Response Mean (SRM) were calculated for the responsiveness of the scale and factor analysis was done by measuring Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO), Bartlett's sphericity test and scree plot. Results: In 430 subjects (mean age 41.56+/-11.35 years, 56% female) the correlations between OHIP-5 scores and mentioned items were significant (p<0.01) indicating sufficient construct validity. The reliability coefficient (Cronbach's alpha) of the OHIP-5 was above the recommended 0.7 thresholds (0.809) and considered well. For evaluation of responsiveness, the ES was measured to be 5.604 and the SRM was 1.5. Moreover, in the confirmatory factor analysis, the unidimensional model for OHIP5 approved by indices (KMO=0.81, p<0.001 for Bartlett sphericity). Conclusion: The Persian version of OHIP-5 is a precise, valid, reliable and unidimensional instrument for assessing oral health-related quality of life among the general adult population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Quality of Life/psychology , Oral Health , Surveys and Questionnaires/standards , Reproducibility of Results , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Iran
13.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1056891

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To evaluate oral health literacy among pregnant women in Kerman, Iran. Material and Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted on 169 pregnant women referring to government institute. Data were collected by demographic profile (including age, number of children, educational level, dental attendance before pregnancy and economic status), 17-item oral health literacy questionnaire consisting of four domains (including reading comprehension, numeracy, listening, and decision-making skills), self-assessment oral health status, DMFT index and oral health behavior. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 21 software using ANOVA and Chi-square tests at a significance level of 0.05. Results: The mean age of participants was 27.92 ± 5.25 years, 38.2% of them had bachelor's degree, 35.8% had dental attendance before pregnancy and 29.1% brushed daily their teeth twice or more. Dentists were the most frequent source of oral health information. Moreover, 60.0% believed their oral health was to be moderate, and 59.4% had inadequate oral health literacy. There was also a significant correlation between educational level, monthly income and dental attendance before pregnancy. Conclusion: Our results showed inadequate oral health literacy among pregnant women, highlighting the necessity of dental consultation before pregnancy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Health Behavior , Health Education, Dental/methods , Pregnant Women , Health Literacy/methods , Iran/epidemiology , Chi-Square Distribution , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires , Analysis of Variance
14.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1101297

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To compare the effectiveness of two types of commercially available photostimulable phosphor plate (PSP) protective barrier envelopes to prevent microbiological contamination. Material and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 80 barrier envelopes were tested in 40 volunteers. The PSP plates were placed individually in Asia Teb and Soredex protective barrier envelopes and were placed in the mouth for two minutes, similar to periapical films. The protective barrier envelopes were then removed under sterile conditions, and the sensors were placed on different culture media. The number of colonies on each plate was counted. Data were analyzed using SPSS via McNemar and Wilcoxon tests. Results: Bacterial growth was noted in 17.5% of PSPs with Soredex, and 32.5% of PSPs with Asia Teb barrier envelopes. Gram-positive bacilli were the most commonly isolated bacteria. The difference between the Asia Teb and Soredex barrier envelopes for the protection of microbiological contamination was not significant (p>0.05). Conclusion: The use of different types of protective barrier envelopes was not sufficient for prevention of microbiological contamination of PSP plates, and some adjunct modalities were required to decrease microbiological contamination of PSP plates.


Subject(s)
Humans , Effectiveness , Radiography, Dental, Digital/instrumentation , Gram-Positive Bacteria/immunology , Microbiology , Mouth , Plastics , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Statistics, Nonparametric , Iran
15.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1101302

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To determine the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth restored with three different diameters of glass fiber posts and metal-ceramic crowns. Material and Methods: Thirty human maxillary canines were selected and subjected to root canal therapy. The teeth were randomly divided into three groups of glass fiber posts with 1.4 mm diameter (Group I), 1.6 mm diameter (Group II), and 2.0 mm diameter (Group III). The teeth were restored with metal-ceramic crowns and subjected to the compressive load applied at 45º angle to the longitudinal axis until fracture. The mode of failure was determined. Data were analyzed using ANOVA, followed by Tukey's post hoc multiple comparisons test (p<0.05). Results: The mean fracture resistance of groups I, II and III was 574 ± 91.2 N, 617 ± 85.21 N and 467 ± 99.43 N, respectively. No significant difference was noted between groups I and II, while the fracture resistance was significantly different between groups I and III (p<0.05) and groups II and III (p<0.05). No case of post fracture alone occurred in any group. Conclusion: The diameter of glass fiber posts can affect the fracture resistance of teeth. Based on the results, increasing the diameter of the post up to 1.6 mm may increase the fracture resistance of root, although excessive diameters are not recommended.


Subject(s)
Humans , Root Canal Therapy , Tooth , Tooth, Nonvital , Material Resistance , Flexural Strength , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Iran
16.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(4): 1370-1374, Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040139

ABSTRACT

Sex determination from bones is of vital importance in anthropological studies and medico-legal cases. The present study focused on measurements of the humerus, and evaluation of the differences in sex present in the morphology through statistical analysis. In our study, 61 dry adult humerus bones of known sex (35 males and 26 female) were studied. Damaged bones were excluded from the study. Each humerus was measured for 10 parameters; measurements were taken by using a sliding caliper as described in anthropology textbooks and previous studies. The osteometric data of the humerus of the present study is statistically analyzed and in both sexes are compared. Statistical tests were applied to the metrical data obtained to assess whether the differences between the means of each parameter are statistically significant between male and female. We found more discriminatory parameters for the identification of sex from humerus. In this study we found in men positive correlations between AR and epicondylar width (0.471**) and midshaft with length of humerous (0.481**); the correlation of these parameters was not found in females. Conversely we found in female, positive correlations between medial and lateral angle with mid shaf t circumference (0.488**) and width of epicondylar and maximum length (0.511**) and medial angle, with medial and lateral angle (0.498**) and maximum width with length of humerous (0.512**); correlation of these parameters were not observed in males. In previous studies authors did not analyze relationship between total humeral length and the measurements of their segments related to possible differences among populations, by sex separately. This may be due to genetic, nutritional and socio-economic differences in the individuals or may be due to hypo masculinity in female humerus and hyper masculinity in male humerus.


La determinación del sexo a partir de los huesos es de vital importancia en los estudios antropológicos y en los casos médico-legales. El presente estudio se centró en las mediciones del húmero y en evaluar las diferencias de sexo presentes en la morfología a través del análisis estadístico. En nuestra investigación, se estudiaron 61 húmeros adultos secos (35 hombres y 26 mujeres). Los huesos dañados fueron excluidos del estudio. Cada húmero se midió para 10 parámetros; las mediciones se realizaron utilizando un calibrador deslizante como está descrito en textos de antropología y estudios anteriores. Los datos osteométricos del húmero se analizaron estadísticamente y se compararon ambos sexos. Se aplicaron pruebas estadísticas a los datos métricos obtenidos para evaluar si las diferencias entre las medias de cada parámetro eran estadísticamente significativas entre hombres y mujeres. Se observó que existen parámetros más discriminatorios para la identificación del sexo a partir del húmero. En este estudio, encontramos en los hombres correlaciones positivas entre AR y ancho epicondilar (0,471**) y vástago medio con la longitud de del húmero (0,481**) que no tienen esta correlación de parámetros en mujeres. Además, encontramos correlaciones positivas entre mujeres: ángulo medial y lateral con circunferencia del eje medio t (0,488**) y ancho epicondilar y longitud máxima (0,511**) y ángulo medial con ángulo medial y lateral (0.498**), y ancho máximo con longitud de húmero (0.512**) no se observaron estos parámetros de correlación en el hombre. En estudios anteriores, los autores no analizaron la relación entre la longitud humeral total y las medidas de los segmentos con las posibles diferencias entre la población agrupada por sexo. Esto se podría deber a la diferencia genética, nutricional y socioeconómica en los individuos o la hipocomunidad en el húmero femenino y la hiper masculinidad en el húmero de los hombres.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Sex Determination by Skeleton/methods , Humerus/anatomy & histology , Iran
17.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(6): 419-426, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089319

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is responsible for one of the most common human viral infections. An estimated 257 million people are living with chronic HBV infection worldwide, and mortality has reached 900,000 deaths in recent years. In 2001, the World Health Organization reported a prevalence of chronic hepatitis B infection in Iran between 2-7%. Objective: To assess the effect of the national HBV mass vaccination program after 25 years. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in vaccinated and unvaccinated people according to the year of birth. Blood samples were obtained from each enrolled person and data about demographic variables, and medical and vaccination history were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Persons were considered uninfected if they were negative for both HBsAg and anti-HBc. Also, Vaccine effectiveness was measured by calculating the risk of disease among vaccinated and unvaccinated persons and defining the percentage risk reduction of infection in the vaccinated group. Results: A total of 2720 persons were interviewed. The rate of HBV breakthrough infection among the vaccinated group was significantly lower than in unvaccinated group. One hundred ninety-four cases with positive HBV markers of infection were identified. The risk ratio of HBV infection was 0.71, 95% CI: 0.54-0.94 (vaccinated/unvaccinated). The estimated vaccination effectiveness against Hepatitis B infection was 29% (95% CI: 6%-46%). Conclusions: Iran has successfully combined hepatitis B vaccination into regular immunization programs. The WHO goal of reducing HBsAg prevalence to an equivalent of 1% by 2020 has been reached. With respect to vaccination effectiveness and low prevalence of the disease in the country, catch-up hepatitis B vaccination programs for adolescents can guarantee the immunity of the population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Hepatitis B Vaccines/administration & dosage , Immunization Programs/statistics & numerical data , Hepatitis B, Chronic/prevention & control , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires , Retrospective Studies , Hepatitis B, Chronic/immunology , Hepatitis B, Chronic/epidemiology , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Iran/epidemiology
18.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 8(4): 305-309, nov. 5, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1145352

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Deciduous teeth play an important role in proper growth. Tooth eruption is a complicated process in which different mechanisms are involved. Early or delayed tooth eruption depends on different factors, with the impact of some already established. There are apparent controversy regarding the effect of some factors on time of the first deciduous tooth eruption among the conducted studies. The current study aimed to evaluate factors affecting the time of the first deciduous tooth eruption. Materials and Methods: One hundred and sixty eligible infants referring to the healthcare centers of Tabriz, Iran, were randomly selected; the demographic data including weight and height at birth, head circumference, mother's age and level of education, birth rank in the family and type of feeding were recorded, in addition to the time of the first deciduous tooth eruption. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 21 by ANOVA and t test.Results: Out of 54.1% female and 45.9% male participating infants, 78.3% had normal weight at birth. Results showed a significant relationship between weight at birth and timing of the first deciduous tooth eruption, among the evaluated factors. Conclusions: Although no significant relationship was observed between gender, type of feeding, mother's level of education and birth rank in the family, and time of the first deciduous tooth eruption, there was a significant relationship between the weight at birth and the timing of the first deciduous tooth eruption. Infants with higher or lower abnormal weight at birth had delayed deciduous tooth eruption.


Introducción: los dientes primarios juegan un papel importante en el crecimiento adecuado. La erupción dental es un proceso complexo en el que intervienen diferentes mecanismos. La erupción temprana o tardía de los dientes depende de diferentes factores, con el impacto de algunos ya establecido. Existe controversia entre los estudios realizados con respecto al efecto de algunos factores que afectan la erupción del primero diente primario. El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar los factores que afectan el periodo de erupción del primero diente primario o temporal. Materiales y Métodos: Ciento sesenta bebés referidos a los centros de salud de Tabriz, Irán, fueron seleccionados al azar; Se registraron los datos demográficos, incluidos el peso y la estatura al nacer, la circunferencia de la cabeza, la edad y el nivel de educación de la madre, el rango de nacimiento en la familia y el tipo de alimentación, además del momento de la primera erupción del diente primario. Los datos fueron analizados por ANOVA y t-test utilizando SPSS versión 21. Resultados: de los lactantes participantes (54,1% femeninos, 45,9% masculinos) el 78,3% tenía peso normal al nacer. Entre los factores evaluados, los resultados mostraron una relación significativa entre el peso al nacer y el momento de la erupción del primero diente primario. Conclusiones: aunque no se observó una relación significativa entre sexo, tipo de alimentación, nivel de educación de la madre y rango de nacimiento en la familia, y el period de erupción del primero diente primario, hubo una relación significativa entre el peso al nacer y el momento de la primera erupción dental decidua. En los lactantes con peso anormal al nacer se había retrasado la primera erupción de los dientes primarios.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Tooth, Deciduous , Tooth Eruption , Time Factors , Maternal Age , Iran
19.
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 41(3): 254-261, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1043527

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Anxiety sensitivity plays a prominent role in the etiology of anxiety disorders. This construct has attracted widespread interest from experts and researchers. The Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI-3) is the most common scale for measuring anxiety sensitivity. Objective: To analyze the psychometric properties and factor structure of the ASI-3 in Iranian student samples. Methods: 220 students (135 women, 85 men) from Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences were selected by the convenience sampling method to evaluate the psychometric properties and analyze the factor structure of the ASI-3. The subjects were also asked to complete the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II (AAQ-II), Whiteley Index, Intolerance of Uncertainty, and Neuroticism scales. LISREL and SPSS were used to analyze the data. Cronbach's alpha and correlation coefficients were calculated and confirmatory factor analysis was conducted. Results: The results of the confirmatory factor analysis revealed a three-factor structure with physical, cognitive, and social components (comparative fit index = 0.94; normed fit index = 0.91; root mean square error of approximation = 0.09). The ASI-3 had positive and significant correlations with health anxiety (0.59), intolerance of uncertainty (0.29), and neuroticism (0.51). Furthermore, the ASI-3 had a negative and significant correlation with the AAQII (-0.58). Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the whole scale and for the physical, cognitive, and social concerns factors were 0.90, 0.74, 0.79, and 0.78, respectively. The invariance of the index was significant compared to the original English version. Conclusion: In general, the results support the adequacy of the psychometric properties of the Persian version of the ASI-3. Theoretical and applied implications will be discussed.


Resumo Introdução: A sensibilidade à ansiedade desempenha um papel proeminente na etiologia dos transtornos de ansiedade. Esse construto tem atraído grande interesse entre especialistas e pesquisadores. O Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI-3; em português, Escala de Sensibilidade à Ansiedade) é a medida mais utilizada para medir sensibilidade à ansiedade. Objetivo: Analisar as propriedades psicométricas e a estrutura fatorial do ASI-3 em estudantes iranianos. Métodos: Para avaliar as propriedades psicométricas e analisar a estrutura fatorial do ASI-3, 220 estudantes (135 mulheres, 85 homens) da Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Irã, foram selecionados via amostragem por conveniência. Eles foram solicitados a completar os seguintes instrumentos: Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II (AAQ-II), Whiteley Index, Intolerance of Uncertainty e Neuroticism. Os programas LISREL e SPSS foram utilizados para analisar os dados. Alfa de Cronbach e coeficientes de correlação foram calculados, e foi realizada análise fatorial confirmatória. Resultados: Os resultados da análise fatorial confirmatória revelaram uma estrutura de três fatores, incluindo componentes físicos, cognitivos e sociais [comparative fit index (CFI) = 0,94; normed fit index (NFI) = 0,91; root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0,09]. O ASI-3 demonstrou correlações positivas e significativas com ansiedade em relação à saúde (0,59), intolerância à incerteza (0,29) e neuroticismo (0,51). Além disso, o ASI-3 teve uma correlação negativa e significativa com o AAQII (-0,58). Os coeficientes alfa de Cronbach para toda a escala e para os fatores preocupação física, cognitiva e social foram 0,90, 0,74, 0,79 e 0,78, respectivamente. A invariância do índice foi significativa em relação à versão original. Conclusão: Em geral, os resultados sugerem que as propriedades psicométricas da versão persa do ASI-3 são adequadas. Implicações teóricas e práticas serão discutidas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Anxiety Disorders/diagnosis , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales/standards , Surveys and Questionnaires/standards , Psychometrics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Iran
20.
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(4): 429-433, July-Aug. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038308

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Background: Behçet disease is a prototypical systemic autoimmune disease, caused by a complex interplay between environmental and genetic factors. The transmembrane immunoglobulin and mucin domain-3 (TIM-3) is a distinct member of the TIM family that is preferentially expressed on Th1 cells and plays a role in Th1-mediated autoimmune or inflammatory diseases, such as Behçet disease. Objective: The aim of this study was to test the potential association between TIM-3 gene polymorphisms and Behçet disease. Methods: Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms of TIM-3 (rs9313439 and rs10515746) were genotyped in 212 patients with Behçet disease and 200 healthy controls. Typing of the polymorphisms was performed using multiplex PCR amplification. Results: There were no significant differences in allele and genotype frequencies between the Behçet disease patients and controls who were successfully genotyped. Similar results were also found after stratification by gender, age, or clinical features. Study limitations: Lack of studies on various racial or ethnic groups and small sample size. Conclusion: This study failed to demonstrate any association between the tested TIM-3 polymorphisms and Behçet disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Behcet Syndrome/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 2/genetics , Case-Control Studies , Logistic Models , Risk Factors , Risk Assessment , Alleles , Genetic Association Studies , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Gene Frequency , Iran
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