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Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(2): 256-267, mar. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1395304


Gentamicin induced acute nephrotoxicity (GIAN) is considered as one of the important causes of acute renal failure. In recent years' great effort has been focused on the introduction of herbal medicine as a novel therapeutic agent for prevention of GIAN. Hence, the current study was designed to investigate the effect of green coffee bean extract (GCBE) on GIAN in rats. Results of the present study showed that rat groups that received oral GCBE for 7 days after induction of GIAN(by a daily intraperitoneal injection of gentamicin for 7days), reported a significant improvement in renal functions tests when compared to the GIAN model groups. Moreover, there was significant amelioration in renal oxidative stress markers (renal malondialdehyde, renal superoxide dismutase) and renal histopathological changes in the GCBE-treated groups when compared to GIAN model group. These results indicate that GCBE has a potential role in ameliorating renal damage involved in GIAN.

La nefrotoxicidad aguda inducida por gentamicina (GIAN) se considera una de las causas importantes de insuficiencia renal aguda. En los últimos años, el gran esfuerzo se ha centrado en la introducción de la medicina herbal como un nuevo agente terapéutico para la prevención de GIAN. Por lo tanto, el estudio actual fue diseñado para investigar el efecto del extracto de grano de café verde (GCBE) sobre la GIAN en ratas. Los resultados del presente estudio mostraron que los grupos de ratas que recibieron GCBE oral durante 7 días después de la inducción de GIAN (mediante una inyección intraperitoneal diaria de gentamicina durante 7 días), informaron una mejora significativa en las pruebas de función renal en comparación con los grupos del modelo GIAN. Además, hubo una mejora significativa en los marcadores de estrés oxidativo renal (malondialdehído renal, superóxido dismutasa renal) y cambios histopatológicos renales en los grupos tratados con GCBE en comparación con el grupo del modelo GIAN. Estos resultados indican que GCBE tiene un papel potencial en la mejora del daño renal involucrado en GIAN.

Animals , Male , Rats , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Gentamicins/toxicity , Coffea/chemistry , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Acute Kidney Injury/prevention & control , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Superoxide Dismutase/analysis , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Coffee , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/pathology , Kidney Function Tests , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Antioxidants/pharmacology
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929020


OBJECTIVES@#Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand activated transcription factors and belongs to bile acid receptor. Studies have shown that the expression of FXR in renal tissue can reduce renal injury via regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism, inhibition of inflammatory response, reduction of oxidative stress and renal fibrosis. However, it is unclear whether FXR is involved in autophagy in renal diseases. This study aims to investigate the role of FXR in cisplatin-induced acute renal injury and whether its mechanism is related to autophagy regulation.@*METHODS@#Twelve male WT or FXR-KO mice at 12 weeks were randomly divided into a WT group, a WT+cisplatin group, a FXR-KO group, and a FXR-KO+cisplatin group, with 6 mice in each group. The WT+cisplatin group and the FXR-KO+cisplatin group were intraperitoneally injected with cisplatin (20 mg/kg), and the WT group and the FXR-KO group were intraperitoneally injected with equal volume of cisplatin solvent. Seventy-two hours later, the mice were killed and blood and renal tissue samples were collected. The levels of SCr and BUN were detected by immunoturbidimetry. After the staining, the pathological changes of renal tissue were observed under optical microscope. The protein levels of LC3 and p62 were detected by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The clearance of damaged mitochondria and the accumulation of lysosomal substrate were observed under electron microscope. The apoptosis of renal tubular epithelial cells was detected by TUNEL.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the WT group or the FXR-KO group, both SCr and BUN levels in the WT+cisplatin group or the FXR-KO+cisplatin group were significantly increased (P<0.01 or P<0.001), and SCr and BUN levels in the FXR-KO+cisplatin group were significantly higher than those in the WT+cisplatin group (both P<0.05). Under the light microscope, there were no obvious pathological changes in the renal tissue of mice in the WT group and the FXR-KO group. Both the WT+cisplatin group and the FXR-KO+cisplatin group had vacuolar or granular degeneration of renal tubular epithelial cells, flat cells, lumen expansion, brush edge falling off, and even exposed basement membrane and tubular formation. The scores of renal tubular injury in the WT+cisplatin group and the FXR-KO+cisplatin group were significantly higher than those in the WT group and the FXR-KO group, respectively (both P<0.001), and the score in the FXR-KO+cisplatin group was significantly higher than that in the WT+cisplatin group (P<0.05). Under the transmission electron microscope, the mitochondria of mouse tubular epithelial cell in the WT+cisplatin group and the FXR-KO+cisplatin group was swollen, round, vacuolated, cristae broken or disappeared; the lysosome was uneven and high-density clumps, and the change was more obvious in the FXR-KO+cisplatin group. Western blotting showed that the ratio of LC3-II to LC3-I was decreased and the expression of p62 was increased in the WT+cisplatin group compared with the WT group and the FXR-KO+cisplatin group compared with FXR-KO group (P<0.05 or P<0.01); compared with the FXR-KO group, the ratio of LC3-II to LC3-I was decreased and the expression of p62 was increased significantly in the FXR-KO+cisplatin group (both P<0.05). Immunohistochemistry results showed that the expression of total LC3 and p62 in renal cortex of the WT+cisplatin group and the FXR-KO+cisplatin group was increased significantly, especially in the FXR-KO+cisplatin group. TUNEL results showed that the mice in the WT group and the FXR-KO group had negative staining or only a few apoptotic tubular epithelial cells, and the number of apoptotic cells in the WT+cisplatin group and the FXR-KO+cisplatin group were increased. The apoptosis rates of renal tubular epithelial cells in the WT+cisplatin group and the FXR-KO+cisplatin group were significantly higher than those in the WT group and the FXR-KO group, respectively (both P<0.001), and the apoptosis rate in the FXR-KO+cisplatin group was significantly higher than that in the WT+cisplatin group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Knockout of FXR gene aggravates cisplatin induced acute renal injury, and its mechanism may be related to inhibiting autophagy and promoting apoptosis.

Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Animals , Apoptosis/physiology , Cisplatin/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Kidney/pathology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929000


OBJECTIVES@#Acute kidney injury (AKI) can be caused by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), nephrotoxin, and sepsis, with poor prognosis and high mortality. Leptin is a protein molecule that regulates the body's energy metabolism and reproductive activities via binding to its specific receptor. Leptin can inhibit cardiomyocyte apoptosis caused by I/R, but its effect on I/R kidney injury and the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. This study aims to investigate the effect and mechanisms of leptin on renal function, renal histopathology, apoptosis, and autophagy during acute I/R kidney injury.@*METHODS@#Healthy adult male mice were randomly divided into 4 groups: a sham+wild-type mice (ob/+) group, a sham+leptin gene-deficient mice (ob/ob) group, an I/R+ob/+ group, and an I/R+ob/ob group (n=8 per group). For sham operation, a longitudinal incision was made on the back of the mice to expose and separate the bilateral kidneys and renal arteries, and no subsequent treatment was performed. I/R treatment was ischemia for 30 min and reperfusion for 48 h. The levels of BUN and SCr were detected to evaluate renal function; HE staining was used to observe the pathological changes of renal tissue; TUNEL staining was used to observe cell apoptosis, and apoptosis-positive cells were counted; Western blotting was used to detect levels of apoptosis-related proteins (caspase 3, caspase 9), autophagy-related proteins [mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), phosphorylated mTOR (p-mTOR), LC3 I, LC3 II], mTOR-dependent signaling pathway proteins [phosphate and tension homology (PTEN), adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), protein kinase B (AKT), extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK), phosphorylated PTEN (p-PTEN), phosphorylated AMPK (p-AMPK), phosphorylated AKT (p-AKT), phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK)].@*RESULTS@#There was no significant difference in the levels of BUN and SCr between the sham+ob/+ group and the sham+ob/ob group (both P>0.05). The levels of BUN and SCr in the I/R+ob/+ group were significantly higher than those in the sham+ob/+ group (both P<0.05). Compared with the mice in the sham+ob/ob group or the I/R+ob/+ group, the levels of BUN and SCr in the I/R+ob/ob group were significantly increased (all P<0.05). There was no obvious damage to the renal tubules in the sham+ob/+ group and the sham+ob/ob group. Compared with sham+ob/+ group and sham+ob/ob group, both the I/R+ob/+ group and the I/R+ob/ob group had cell damage such as brush border shedding, vacuolar degeneration, and cast formation. Compared with the I/R+ob/+ group, the renal tubules of the mice in the I/R+ob/ob group were more severely damaged. The pathological score of renal tubular injury showed that the renal tubular injury was the most serious in the I/R+ob/ob group (P<0.05). Compared with the sham+ob/+ group, the protein levels of caspase 3, caspase 9, PTEN, and LC3 II were significantly up-regulated, the ratio of LC3 II to LC3 I was significantly increased, and the protein levels of p-mTOR, p-PTEN, p-AMPK, p-AKT, and p-ERK were significantly down-regulated in the I/R+ob/+ group (all P<0.05). Compared with the sham+ob/ob group, the protein levels of caspase 3, caspase 9, PTEN, and LC3 II were significantly up-regulated, and the ratio of LC3 II to LC3 I was significantly increased, while the protein levels of p-mTOR, p-PTEN, p-AMPK, p-AKT, and p-ERK were significantly down-regulated in the I/R+ob/ob group (all P<0.05). Compared with the I/R+ob/+ group, the levels of p-mTOR, p-PTEN, p-AMPK, p-AKT were more significantly down-regulated, while the levels of caspase 3, caspase 9, PTEN, and LC3 II were more significantly up-regulated, and the ratio of LC3 II to LC3 I was more significantly increase in the I/R+ob/ob group (all P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Renal function and tubular damage, and elevated levels of apoptosis and autophagy are observed in mice kidneys after acute I/R. Leptin might relieve I/R induced AKI by inhibiting apoptosis and autophagy that through a complex network of interactions between mTOR-dependent signaling pathways.

AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Animals , Apoptosis , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/pharmacology , Autophagy , Caspase 3/metabolism , Caspase 9/metabolism , Female , Humans , Ischemia , Kidney/pathology , Leptin/pharmacology , Male , Mammals/metabolism , Mice , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Reperfusion/adverse effects , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 437-443, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935559


Objective: To study the clinicopathological features, immunophenotype, molecular changes, differential diagnosis and prognosis of eosinophilic vacuolated tumor (EVT) of the kidney. Methods: Four cases were collected retrospectively from 2014 to 2020 at Ningbo Diagnostic Pathology Center. The clinicopathologic features and immunophenotypic profile were studied by light microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) panel was used to detect cancer-associated mutation. Follow-up and literature review were also performed. Results: Among the 4 patients studied,2 were males and 2 were females. The age of the patients ranged from 44 to 63 years (the mean age: 51 years).Tumor size ranged from 1.5 to 4.2 cm (mean: 2.3 cm). Microscopically, tumors were well-circumscribed, unencapsulated. Thick-walled vessels and entrapped renal tubules were found within or at the periphery of the tumors. The tumors were predominantly composed of nest pattern, and focal tubular pattern. The tumor cells exhibited abundant, eosinophilic, granular cytoplasm and conspicuous, large nucleoli. Prominent intracytoplasmic vacuoles were seen. These cytoplasmic vacuoles varied in size and frequently coalesced into a large space. Loose fibromatous or hyaline stroma was focally noted. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells in all cases exhibited a CD117+/CK7-phenotype. All cases were positive for CD10 and p504s. MTOR, S6 and cathepsin K were positive in 4 cases. TFE3, CA9, Melan A and HMB45 were negative in all cases. SDHB retained expression. NGS demonstrated MTOR mutations in all cases, and TSC2 mutation in 2 cases. Conclusions: EVT is a rarely oncocytic renal tumor with unique morphology, immunohistochemical phenotype, molecular profile and an indolent behavior. Recognition of the characteristics of this novel but rare entity will allow for better classification of renal tumors.

Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/pathology , Female , Humans , Kidney/pathology , Kidney Neoplasms/pathology , Male , Retrospective Studies , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/genetics
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(4): 339-350, jul. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1349507


This study was aimed to explore the comparative efficacy of cinnamon bark extract, cinnamaldehyde and kaempferol against acetaminophen (APAP)-induced oxidative stress. Cinnamon bark extract, cinnamaldehyde and kaempferol were utilized or in-vivo analysis. From the results of in-vitro screening tests, cinnamon ethanolic extract was selected for in-vivo study in mouse model. For this, Balb/c albino mice were treated with cinnamon ethanolic extract (200 mg/kg), cinnamaldehyde (10 mg/kg) and kaempferol (10 mg/kg) orally for 14 days followed by single intraperitoneal administration of APAP during 8 hours. Blood and organ samples were collected for biochemical and histopathological analysis. The results showed that cinnamon bark ethanolic extract, cinnamaldehyde and kaempferol ameliorated APAP-induced oxidative stress and organ toxicity in mice. In conclusion, cinnamaldehyde and kaempferol possess comparable antioxidant potential even at 20-times less dose as compared to cinnamon bark ethanolic extract suggesting therapeutic potential in oxidative stress-related disorders.

Este estudio tuvo como objetivo explorar la eficacia comparativa del extracto de corteza de canela, cinamaldehído y kaempferol contra el estrés oxidativo inducido por acetaminofén (APAP). Se utilizaron extracto de corteza de canela, cinamaldehído y kaempferol para el análisis in vivo. De los resultados de las pruebas de detección in vitro, se seleccionó el extracto etanólico de canela para estudio in vivo en modelo de ratón. Para ello, los ratones albinos Balb/c fueron tratados con extracto etanólico de canela (200 mg/kg), cinamaldehído (10 mg/kg) y kaempferol (10 mg/kg) por vía oral durante 14 días, seguido de la administración intraperitoneal única de APAP durante 8 horas. Se recogieron muestras de sangre y órganos para análisis bioquímicos e histopatológicos. Los resultados mostraron que el extracto etanólico de la corteza de canela, el cinamaldehído y el kaempferol mejoraron el estrés oxidativo inducido por APAP y la toxicidad orgánica en ratones. En conclusión, el cinamaldehído y el kaempferol poseen un potencial antioxidante comparable, incluso a una dosis 20 veces menor en comparación con el extracto etanólico de la corteza de canela, lo que sugiere un potencial terapéutico en los trastornos relacionados con el estrés oxidativo.

Animals , Mice , Acrolein/analogs & derivatives , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Cinnamomum zeylanicum/chemistry , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Kaempferols/chemistry , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Acrolein/chemistry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Disease Models, Animal , Phytochemicals , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/pathology , Liver/drug effects , Liver/pathology , Acetaminophen/toxicity , Mice, Inbred BALB C
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887960


The liver and kidney fibrosis model was established by thioacetamide(TAA) and unilateral ureteral obstruction(UUO) in SD rats. The rats were randomly divided into three groups: model group, low and high-dose groups of C21 steroidal glycosides of Cynanchum auriculatum. Another blank control group was set. Four weeks later, serum was taken to detect the biochemical indexes of liver and kidney function. Urine protein and urine creatinine were detected by kits. Liver and kidney tissue samples were stained with HE and Masson staining, and hydroxyproline content was detected. Western blot was used to detect expressions of fibrotic proteins, inflammatory factors and TLR4 signaling pathways, so as to observe the preventive and therapeutic effects of C21 steroidal glycosides from C. auriculatum on hepatic and renal fibrosis and explore its molecular mechanism. Four weeks later, serum biochemical results showed that liver and kidney functions were seriously damaged, and pathological sections showed that inflammatory cell infiltration, decrease of parenchymal cells, and increase of interstitial fibrosis in liver and kidney tissues. The results showed that low and high doses(150, 300 mg·kg~(-1)) of C21 steroidal glycosides could significantly reduce the collagen deposition and the pathological changes of liver and kidney fibrosis compared with the model group. At the same time, we found that the expression levels of TLR4 and MyD88 signaling pathway proteins were significantly increased in the liver and kidney tissues of the model group, and a large number of NF-κB signaling pathway proteins migrated into the nucleus. On the contrary, the expression levels of TLR4, MyD88 signaling pathway proteins and the nuclear migration of NF-κB were significantly inhibited in the low and high dose groups of C21 steroidal glycosides from C. auriculatum. Therefore, it was speculated that the mechanism of C21 steroidal glycoside for preventive and therapeutic effect on hepatic and renal fibrosis was related to inhibit TLR4/MYD88/NF-κB inflammatory pathway, thus preventing hepatic and renal fibrosis.

Animals , Cynanchum , Fibrosis , Glycosides , Kidney/pathology , Liver , NF-kappa B/genetics , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Toll-Like Receptor 4/genetics
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(3): e9206, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153519


Renal fibrosis is one of the most significant pathological changes after ureteral obstruction. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling pathway plays essential roles in kidney fibrosis regulation. The aims of the present study were to investigate effects of microRNA-302b (miR-302b) on renal fibrosis, and interaction between miR-302b and TGF-β signaling pathway in murine unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) model. Microarray dataset GSE42716 was downloaded by retrieving Gene Expression Omnibus database. In accordance with bioinformatics analysis results, miR-302b was significantly down-regulated in UUO mouse kidney tissue and TGF-β1-treated HK-2 cells. Masson's trichrome staining showed that miR-302b mimics decreased renal fibrosis induced by UUO. The increased mRNA expression of collagen I and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and decreased expression of E-cadherin were reversed by miR-302b mimics. In addition, miR-302b up-regulation also inhibited TGF-β1-induced epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) of HK-2 cells by restoring E-cadherin expression and decreasing α-SMA expression. miR-302b mimics suppressed both luciferase activity and protein expression of TGF-βR2. However, miR-302b inhibitor increased TGF-βR2 luciferase activity and protein expression. Meanwhile, miR-302b mimics inhibited TGF-βR2 mRNA expression and decreased Smad2 and Smad3 phosphorylation in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, over-expression of TGF-βR2 restored the miR-302b-induced decrease of collagen I and α-SMA expression. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that miR-302b attenuated renal fibrosis by targeting TGF-βR2 to suppress TGF-β/Smad signaling activation. Our findings showed that elevating renal miR-302b levels may be a novel therapeutic strategy for preventing renal fibrosis.

Humans , Animals , Rats , Ureteral Obstruction/pathology , Signal Transduction , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism , MicroRNAs/genetics , Smad Proteins , Kidney Diseases/genetics , Fibrosis , Cell Line , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Kidney/pathology , Kidney Diseases/pathology
Clinics ; 76: e2096, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153992


OBJECTIVES To determine the role of the RBP4/PiC/SIRT3 signaling pathway in the opening of the mitochondria permeability transition pore (mPTP) in offspring rats with hypothyroidism during pregnancy. METHODS Sixty Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were employed in this study. Pregnancy was deemed successful when a sperm was found in the uterus. After one week of pregnancy, offspring rats were divided into the following groups: overall hypothyroidism group (OH group), subclinical hypothyroidism group (SCH group), and normal control group (CON group). The establishment of the hypothyroidism model was confirmed when the serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were higher than normal value and TT4 level was within the normal range. The renal mitochondria of offspring rats were extracted on the 14th postnatal day (P14) and 35th postnatal day (P35). RESULTS At P14, no significant differences in the degree of mPTP opening and expression of phosphoric acid carrier vector (PiC) were detected between the rats in the OH group and the SCH group. However, the expression level of silent mating-type information regulation 3 homolog (SIRT3) was markedly reduced. Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) expression increased in the rats from the OH group, relative to that in those from the SCH group. At P35, the degree of mPTP opening and the expression levels of PiC and RBP4 in the OH group were higher than those in the SCH group. However, SIRT3 expression in the OH group was lower than that observed in the SCH group. CONCLUSION RBP4 plays an important role in early renal mitochondrial damage and renal impairment in rats suffering from hypothyroidism during pregnancy. The RBP4/PiC/SIRT3 pathway is thus involved in the opening of the renal mPTP in offspring rats with hyperthyroidism.

Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Pregnancy Complications , Hypothyroidism/complications , Hypothyroidism/chemically induced , Kidney/metabolism , Kidney/pathology , Mitochondria , Permeability , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Retinol-Binding Proteins, Plasma
J. bras. nefrol ; 42(2): 245-249, Apr.-June 2020. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134812


Abstract One of the most common causes of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN) is pauci-immune crescentic glomerulonephritis (CrGN). In the majority of cases, this condition has a positive serologic marker, the anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs), but in approximately 10% there are no circulating ANCAs, and this subgroup has been known as the ANCA-negative pauci-immune CrGN. RPGN can be associated with systemic diseases, but there are only few case reports describing the association with mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD). The authors report a case of ANCA-negative CrGN associated with a MCTD.

Resumo Uma das causas mais comuns da glomerulonefrite rapidamente progressiva (GNRP) é a glomerulonefrite crescêntica (GNC) pauci-imune. Na maioria dos casos, a patologia apresenta um marcador sorológico positivo, o anticorpo anticitoplasma de neutrófilos (ANCA), mas em cerca de 10% dos pacientes não há ANCAs circulantes, perfazendo um subgrupo da patologia conhecido como GNC pauci-imune ANCA-negativa. A GNRP pode estar associada a doenças sistêmicas, mas são poucos os relatos de caso que descrevem sua associação com doença mista do tecido conjuntivo (DMTC). O presente artigo relata um caso de GNC ANCA-negativa associada a DMTC.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic , Glomerulonephritis/complications , Mixed Connective Tissue Disease/complications , Glomerulonephritis/immunology , Glomerulonephritis/pathology , Kidney/pathology , Kidney Glomerulus/pathology , Mixed Connective Tissue Disease/immunology
Int. j. morphol ; 38(2): 461-471, abr. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056463


This experiment was designed to study the administration of normal doses of one of recent antimalarial drug and coadministration of vitamin E on the kidney tissue. A total twenty-four adult male albino rats were used and divided into four groups: the first one served as a control, the second received artemether orally for three days consecutively. The rats of the third and fourth groups received the same dose of artemether concomitantly with 50 and 100 mg/kg vitamin E orally daily for 2 weeks. After the last dose, the rats were sacrificed and the kidney tissues with blood samples obtained and processed for light, electron microscopic and biochemical analysis. Histologically, artemether treated kidneys showed atrophied glomeruli with widened urinary space and kidney tubules were degenerated with disturbed contour and some vacuoles inside it. Ultrastructurally, the glomeruli of this group showed hypertrophic endothelial cells, irregularity of its basement membrane, disrupted foot processes and filtration slits. The kidney tubule cells showed loss of basal infoldings, cytoplasmic vacuolation, polymorphic damaged swollen mitochondria a loss of its microvilli towards its capillary lumen. Artemether plus vitamin E of the rat kidney groups showed improvement of morphological changes compared to the changes seen in artemether alone. These data were confirmed by biochemical findings with marked improvement of blood urea and creatinine levels and increase of anti-oxidant enzyme activities of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in the vitamin E treated groups. The results of this study revealed that vitamins E can improve the adverse changes of artemether of rat renal tissue.

Este proyecto fue diseñado para estudiar la administración de dosis normales de uno de los medicamentos antipalúdicos y de la administración de vitamina E en el tejido renal. Se utilizaron 24 ratas albinas machos adultas divididas en cuatro grupos: el primero sirvió como control, el segundo recibió arteméter por vía oral durante tres días consecutivos. Las ratas del tercer y cuarto grupos recibieron la misma dosis de arteméter concomitantemente con 50 y 100 mg / kg de vitamina E por vía oral diariamente durante 2 semanas. Después de la última dosis, las ratas fueron sacrificadas y se obtuvo el tejido renal de cada muestra los cuales fueron procesados para análisis con microscopías de luz y electrónica, además de exámenes bioquímicos. Histológicamente, los riñones tratados con arteméter mostraron atrofia glomerular con espacio urinario ensanchado y túbulos renales degenerados con contorno alterado y algunas vacuolas en su interior. Ultraestructuralmente, los glomérulos de este grupo mostraron células endoteliales hipertróficas, irregularidad de su membrana basal, procesos alterados del pie y hendiduras de filtración. Las células del túbulo renal mostraron pérdida de inflexiones basales, vacuolación citoplasmática, mitocondrias dañadas y pérdida de sus microvellosidades hacia la luz capilar. Arteméter más vitamina E en los grupos de riñón de rata mostraron una mejora de los cambios morfológicos, en comparación con los cambios observados en arteméter solamente. Estos datos fueron confirmados por hallazgos bioquímicos con una marcada mejoría de los niveles de urea y creatinina en sangre y un aumento de las actividades enzimáticas antioxidantes de la glutatión peroxidasa y la superóxido dismutasa en los grupos tratados con vitamina E. Los resultados de este estudio revelaron que la vitamina E puede mejorar los cambios adversos del arteméter del tejido renal de la rata.

Animals , Male , Rats , Vitamin E/pharmacology , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Artemether/toxicity , Vitamin E/administration & dosage , Microscopy, Electron , Biomarkers/analysis , Rats, Wistar , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/pathology , Kidney/ultrastructure , Antimalarials/toxicity
J. bras. nefrol ; 42(1): 59-66, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098349


ABSTRACT Introduction: Mast cells may be involved in inflammation and contribute to the onset of fibrosis in lupus nephritis (LN). Objective: This study aimed to correlate the presence of mast cells in kidney biopsy specimens of pediatric patients with LN with activity (AI) and chronicity (CI) indices and assess how effectively mast cells may be used as a prognostic factor. Method: The study included 40 patients aged 6-18 years diagnosed with LN at the Renal Disease Service of the Federal University of Triângulo Mineiro between 1996 and 2015. Workup and epidemiological data were evaluated vis-à-vis AI, CI, and mast cell counts (MCC). Results: Significant positive correlations were found between mast cell counts (MCC) and AI (p = 0.003; r: 0.66) and MCC and CI (p = 0.048; r: 0.48). The ROC curve showed that mast cells were highly sensitive and specific in the differentiation of patients with an AI > 12 from individuals with an AI ≤ 12. Serum creatinine levels were higher in individuals with class IV LN than in patients with class V disease [1.50 (0.40-20.90) vs. 0.70 (0.62-0.90), p = 0.04]. Blood urea nitrogen had a positive significant correlation with MCC (p = 0.002; r: 0.75). A trend toward a negative correlation was observed between MCC and serum albumin (p = 0.06; r: -0.5459). Kidney biopsies of patients with nephrotic syndrome had higher MCC [2.12 (0.41-5.140) vs. 0.53 (0.0-3.94), p = 0.07]. Conclusion: Inflammatory cell infiltration and morphological differences between cell types in the inflammatory infiltrate are relevant factors in the assessment of the LN. Mast cell analysis and AI/CI assessment may be relevant prognostic indicators for pediatric patients with LN.

RESUMO Introdução: Mastócitos podem participar da inflamação e contribuir para fibrose na nefrite lúpica (NL). Objetivo: Correlacionar mastócitos em biópsias renais (BR) de pacientes pediátricos com NL com índices de atividade (IA) e cronicidade (IC), avaliando sua efetividade como fator prognóstico. Metodologia: Foram estudados 40 pacientes, entre 6 e 18 anos, diagnosticados com NL pelo Serviço de Nefropatologia da UFTM entre 1996 e 2015. Dados laboratoriais e epidemiológicos foram correlacionados com IA, IC e contagem de mastócitos (CM). Resultados: Encontramos correlação positiva e significativa entre contagem de mastócitos (CM) e IA (p = 0,003; r: 0,66) e entre CM e IC (p = 0,048; r: 0,48). Conforme a curva Roc, os mastócitos têm alta sensibilidade e especificidade na diferenciação de pacientes com IA menor ou maior do que 12. A creatinina sérica foi mais elevada na classe IV em relação à classe V [1,50 (0,40 - 20,90) versus 0,70 (0,62 - 0,90), p = 0,04]. Ureia sérica apresentou correlação positiva e significativa com CM (p = 0,002; r: 0,75). Observou-se tendência à correlação negativa entre CM e albumina sérica (p = 0,06; r: -0,5459). BR de pacientes com síndrome nefrótica apresentaram maior CM [2,12 (0,41 - 5,140) versus 0,53 (0,0 - 3,94), p = 0,07]. Conclusão: Não apenas o infiltrado inflamatório como também a diferenciação morfológica dos tipos celulares que o constituem são importantes para a avaliação da NL. Isso indica que a análise dos mastócitos, juntamente com a dos IA e IC, pode ajudar os nefrologistas a definirem o prognóstico de pacientes pediátricos.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Severity of Illness Index , Lupus Nephritis/diagnosis , Kidney/pathology , Mast Cells/pathology , Prognosis , Biopsy , Blood Urea Nitrogen , Lupus Nephritis/complications , Lupus Nephritis/blood , Serum Albumin/analysis , Cell Count , Creatinine/blood , Nephrotic Syndrome/complications , Nephrotic Syndrome/pathology , Nephrotic Syndrome/blood
J. bras. nefrol ; 42(1): 113-117, Jan.-Mar. 2020. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098333


Abstract Introduction: Some cases of membranous nephropathy (MGN) present focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) typically associated with disease progression. However, we report a case of a patient who seemed to have MGN and FSGS, both primary. Case presentation: A 17-year-old female, Caucasian, presenting lower extremity edema associated with episodes of foamy urine and high blood pressure, had physical and laboratorial exams indicating nephrotic syndrome. A renal biopsy was performed and focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis were observed under light microscopy in some glomeruli presented as tip lesion, and in others it was accompanied by podocyte hypertrophy and podocyte detachment in urinary space, compatible with podocytopathy FSGS. Besides, there were thickened capillary loops with basement membrane irregularities due to "spikes" compatible with MGN stage II. Immunofluorescence showed finely granular IgG, IgG4, and PLA2R deposits in capillary loops and, in electron microscopy, subepithelial deposits and foot process effacement. These morphological findings are compatible with FSGS and MGN stage II. Conclusions: In the present case, clinical and morphological characteristics showed a possible overlap of primary FSGS and MGN as focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis does not seem to be related with MGN progression but with the podocytopathy FSGS.

Resumo Introdução: Alguns casos de nefropatia membranosa (NM) apresentam glomeruloesclerose segmentar e focal (GESF) tipicamente associada a progressão da doença. Contudo, relatamos o caso de uma paciente que parece ter NM e GESF, ambas primárias. Apresentação do caso: Uma jovem branca de 17 anos de idade com edema de membros inferiores associado a episódios de urina espumosa e hipertensão apresentou-se com achados físicos e laboratoriais sugestivos de síndrome nefrótica. Foi realizada biópsia renal. GESF foi observada por microscopia de luz em alguns glomérulos que apresentavam lesões de ponta, enquanto em outros o achado era acompanhado por hipertrofia podocitária e descolamento de podócitos no espaço urinário, compatíveis com podocitopatia GESF. Além disso, as alças capilares estavam espessadas com irregularidades na membrana basal devido a "espículas" compatíveis com NM estágio II. Imunofluorescência revelou depósitos finamente granulares de IgG, IgG4 e PLA2R nas alças capilares. Microscopia eletrônica exibiu depósitos subepiteliais e apagamento de pedicelos. Tais achados morfológicos são compatíveis com GESF e NM estágio II. Conclusões: No presente caso, as características clínicas e morfológicas revelaram uma possível sobreposição de GESF primária e NM, uma vez que a glomeruloesclerose segmentar e focal não parece estar relacionada com a progressão da NM, mas com a podocitopatia GESF.

Humans , Female , Adolescent , Glomerulosclerosis, Focal Segmental/complications , Glomerulosclerosis, Focal Segmental/diagnosis , Glomerulonephritis, Membranous/complications , Glomerulonephritis, Membranous/diagnosis , Nephrotic Syndrome/complications , Nephrotic Syndrome/diagnosis , Biopsy , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Glomerulosclerosis, Focal Segmental/pathology , Glomerulosclerosis, Focal Segmental/drug therapy , Glomerulonephritis, Membranous/pathology , Glomerulonephritis, Membranous/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome , Kidney/pathology , Nephrotic Syndrome/drug therapy
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(6): e8625, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1132515


Amyloidosis comprises a group of disorders that accumulate modified autologous proteins in organs, mainly the kidneys. Few studies have addressed the amyloid compartmental distribution and associated clinical outcomes. The aim of this study was to present a case series of renal amyloidosis correlating histopathological data with glomerular filtration rate (GFR) during kidney biopsy. We studied 53 cases reviewed by nephropathologists from 2000 to 2018 in a single kidney biopsy center in Brazil. GFR was estimated using the CKD-EPI formula. Cases were divided into Group A ≥60 and Group B <60 mL·min−1·(1.73 m2)−1 using the estimated GFR during kidney biopsy. Semiquantitative histopathological study was performed, including extension and distribution of amyloid deposits by compartments (glomeruli, tubulointerstitial tissue, and vessels). Statistical analyses were made to understand associations with lower GFR. No difference was seen for age, gender, proteinuria, hematuria, subtype of amyloid protein, arteriosclerosis, interstitial fibrosis/infiltrate, or glomerular and interstitial amyloid deposits. After a previous P value <0.1 in the descriptive analysis, the following variables were selected: globally sclerotic glomeruli, high blood pressure, and the extension of vascular amyloid deposition. A binary logistic regression model with GFR as the dependent variable showed history of hypertension and vascular amyloid to be robust and independent predictors of Group B <60 mL·min−1·(1.73 m2)−1. Beyond the histopathologic diagnosis of amyloidosis, a semiquantitative approach on renal biopsy could provide new insights. Vascular amyloid is an independent predictor of renal dysfunction in cases of renal amyloidosis.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Amyloid/physiology , Amyloidosis/pathology , Kidney/pathology , Kidney Diseases/pathology , Biopsy , Retrospective Studies , Amyloidosis/physiopathology , Kidney/physiopathology , Kidney Diseases/physiopathology
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(4): e9220, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089355


Rab7, an important member of the Rab family, is closely related to autophagy, endocytosis, apoptosis, and tumor suppression but few studies have described its association with renal fibrosis. In the early stage, our group studied the effects of Rab7 on production and degradation of extracellular matrix in hypoxic renal tubular epithelial cells. Because cell culture in vitro is different from the environment in vivo, it is urgent to understand the effects in vivo. In our current study, we established a renal fibrosis model in Rab7-knock-in mice (prepared by CRISPR/Cas9 technology) and wild type (WT) C57BL/6 mice using unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). Seven and 14 days after UUO, the expression of the Rab7 protein in WT mice, as well as the autophagic activity, renal function, and the degree of renal fibrosis in WT and Rab7-knock-in mice were examined by blood biochemical assay, hematoxylin-eosin and Masson staining, immunohistochemistry, and western blotting. We found that the Rab7 expression in WT mice increased over time. Furthermore, the autophagic activity constantly increased in both groups, although it was higher in the Rab7-knock-in mice than in the WT mice at the same time point. Seven days after UUO, the degree of renal fibrosis was milder in the Rab7-knock-in mice than in the WT mice, but it became more severe 14 days after surgery. Similar results were found for renal function. Therefore, Rab7 suppressed renal fibrosis in mice initially, but eventually it aggravated fibrosis with the activation of autophagy.

Animals , Male , Female , Rabbits , Autophagy/physiology , Ureteral Obstruction/complications , rab GTP-Binding Proteins/genetics , Kidney/pathology , Kidney Diseases/etiology , Fibrosis , RNA/isolation & purification , Signal Transduction , Up-Regulation , Mice, Knockout , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , rab GTP-Binding Proteins/metabolism
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292488


INTRODUCCIÓN: En 6 meses se notificaron más de 400 mil fallecidos por COVID-19. Han surgido múltiples investigaciones para comprender su etiopatogenia, siendo la autopsia médica uno de los mejores procedimientos para obtener información. Presentamos una revisión respecto a hallazgos post mortem publicados hasta mayo, 2020. RESULTADOS: Se recolectaron 12 estudios, de un total de 109 pacientes cuyo deceso fue por complicación respiratoria, predominó el sexo masculino, edad avanzada y con múltiples comorbilidades. El estudio PCR se realizó principalmente para diagnóstico. Se demostró ARN viral en riñón, hígado, corazón, cerebro y otros órganos. Los autores relataron presencia de micro y/o macro trombosis, en 50 de 109 casos, sobre todo a nivel pulmonar y renal, de tipo microscópica y relacionados a signos de shock. Desde la perspectiva anatomopatológica, se centra en alteraciones pulmonares y renales: daño alveolar difuso, injuria tubular aguda, microtrombos y otros signos de alteración microcirculatoria. Los estudios inmunohistoquímicos, de inmunofluoresencia y microscopía electrónica sugieren tropismo del virus por células epiteliales y estromales a nivel pulmonar y renal. En otros órganos se encuentran elementos morfológicos inespecíficos, atribuibles a patologías de base o shock. CONCLUSIÓN: El patrón histopatológico de daño alveolar difuso es frecuente, principalmente en fase exudativa o temprana. En el tejido renal destaca la injuria tubular aguda y daño microcirculatorio. El número y la descripción de muestras en otros órganos es reducida, siendo necesaria mayor casuística. La trombosis, es un trastorno prevalente en pulmones y riñones de pacientes con signos de shock. El tipo de trombo con más frecuencia descrito, es el microtrombo. Si bien se puede explicar como gatillante del fenómeno trombótico la interacción entre agente y huésped, otros factores deben ser estudiados para dilucidar la patogenia.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Thrombosis/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , Autopsy , Thrombosis/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/analysis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Kidney/pathology , Kidney/virology , Liver/pathology , Liver/virology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eAO5576, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133778


ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate anatomic factors and radiologist's experience in the detection of solid renal masses on ultrasonography. Methods: We searched for solid renal masses diagnosed on cross-sectional imaging from 2007 to 2017 that also had previous ultrasonography from the past 6 months. The following features were evaluated: nodule size, laterality, location and growth pattern, patient body mass index and radiologist's experience in ultrasound. In surgically resected cases, pathologic reports were evaluated. Unpaired t test and χ2 test were used to evaluate differences among subgroups, using R-statistics. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results: The initial search of renal nodules on cross-sectional imaging resulted in 428 lesions and 266 lesions were excluded. Final cohort included 162 lesions and, of those, 108 (67%) were correctly detected on ultrasonography (Group 1) and 54 (33%) were missed (Group 2). Comparison of Groups 1 and 2 were as follows, respectively: body mass index (27.7 versus 27.1; p=0.496), size (2.58cm versus 1.74cm; p=0.003), laterality (54% versus 59% right sided; p=0.832), location (27% versus 22% upper pole; p=0.869), growth pattern (25% versus 28% endophytic; p=0.131) and radiologist's experience (p=0.300). From surgically resected cases, histology available for Group 1 was clear cell (n=11), papillary (n=15), chromophobe (n=2) renal cell carcinoma, oncocytoma (n=1), and, for Group 2, clear cell (n=7), papillary (n=5) renal cell carcinoma, oncocytoma (n=2), angiomyolipoma, chromophobe renal cell carcinoma, and interstitial pyelonephritis (n=1, each). Conclusion: Size was the only significant parameter related to renal nodule detection on ultrasound.

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar os fatores anatômicos e a experiência do radiologista na detecção de massas renais sólidas na ultrassonografia. Métodos: Buscamos massas renais sólidas diagnosticadas em imagens seccionais, de 2007 a 2017, que também tivessem ultrassonografia prévia nos últimos 6 meses. As seguintes características foram avaliadas: tamanho do nódulo, lateralidade, localização e padrão de crescimento, índice de massa corporal do paciente e experiência do radiologista em ultrassonografia. Nos casos com ressecção cirúrgica, os laudos de patologia foram analisados. O teste t não pareado e o teste χ2 foram utilizados para avaliar as diferenças entre os subgrupos, usando R-statistics. A significância estatística foi estabelecida em p<0,05. Resultados: A pesquisa inicial de nódulos renais achados em imagens seccionais resultou em 428 lesões, com 266 exclusões. A coorte final incluiu 162 lesões e, destas, 108 (67%) foram detectadas corretamente na ultrassonografia (Grupo 1), e 54 (33%) não foram identificadas (Grupo 2). A comparação dos Grupos 1 e 2 mostrou índice de massa corporal (27,7 versus 27,1; p=0,496), tamanho (2,58cm versus 1,74cm; p=0,003), lateralidade (54% versus 59% no lado direito; p=0,832), localização (27% versus 22% no polo superior; p=0,869), padrão de crescimento (25% versus 28% endofítico; p=0,131) e experiência do radiologista (p=0,300). A histologia disponível para o Grupo 1 foi carcinoma renal de células claras (n=11), papilar (n=15), cromófobo (n=2), oncocitoma (n=1), e, para o Grupo 2, carcinoma renal de células claras (n=7), papilar (n=5), oncocitoma (n=2), angiomiolipoma, cromófobo e pielonefrite intersticial (n=1, cada). Conclusão: O tamanho foi o único parâmetro significativo relacionado à detecção de nódulos renais no ultrassom.

Humans , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography , Kidney/diagnostic imaging , Kidney Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Diagnosis, Differential , Radiologists , Kidney/pathology
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(supl.1): s10-s16, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057106


SUMMARY Fabry disease (FD) is a recessive monogenic inheritance disease linked to chromosome X, secondary to mutations in the GLA gene. Its prevalence is estimated between 1:8,454 and 1:117,000 among males and is probably underdiagnosed. Mutations in the GLA gene lead to the progressive accumulation of globotriaosylceramide (Gb3). Gb3 accumulates in lysosomes of different types of cells of the heart, kidneys, skin, eyes, central nervous system, and gastrointestinal system, and may lead to different clinical scenarios. The onset of symptoms occurs during childhood, with acroparesthesia, heat intolerance, and gastrointestinal symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and neuropathic pain. Subsequently, symptoms related to progressive impairment appear, such as angiokeratomas, cornea verticillata, left ventricular hypertrophy, myocardial fibrosis, proteinuria, and renal insufficiency. The latter being the main cause of death in FD. The gold standard for diagnosis is the genetic analysis in search of mutation, in addition to family history. In homozygous patients, the enzyme activity can also be used. Once the diagnosis is confirmed, the patient and their family should receive genetic counseling. The treatment, in turn, currently focuses mainly on replacing the enzyme that is absent or deficient by means of enzyme replacement therapy, with the purpose of avoiding or removing deposits of Gb3. Chaperones can also be used for the treatment of some cases. It is considered that the specific treatment should be initiated as soon as a diagnosis is obtained, which can change the prognosis of the disease.

Humans , Male , Female , Fabry Disease/pathology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/pathology , Enzyme Replacement Therapy , Kidney/pathology , Trihexosylceramides , Fabry Disease/complications , Fabry Disease/genetics , Fabry Disease/therapy , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/etiology
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(supl.1): s75-s81, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057102


SUMMARY The scenario of infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been undergoing changes in recent years, both in relation to the understanding of HIV infection and regarding the treatments available. As a result, the disease, which before was associated with high morbidity and mortality, is now seen as a chronic disease that can be controlled, regarding both transmission and symptoms. However, even when the virus replication is well controlled, the infected patient remains at high risk of developing renal involvement, either by acute kidney injury not associated with HIV, nephrotoxicity due to antiretroviral drugs, chronic diseases associated with increased survival, or glomerular disease associated to HIV. This review will cover the main aspects of kidney failure associated with HIV.

RESUMO O panorama da infecção pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV) vem sofrendo alterações nos últimos anos, tanto em relação ao entendimento da infecção pelo HIV quanto aos tratamentos disponíveis. Como resultado, a doença, que antes estava associada a alta morbimortalidade, é agora considerada uma doença crônica que pode ser controlada, tanto em relação à transmissão quanto aos sintomas. No entanto, mesmo quando a replicação viral é bem controlada, o paciente infectado tem um alto risco de desenvolver complicações renais, seja através de lesão renal aguda não relacionada ao HIV, por nefrotoxicidade causada por drogas antirretrovirais, por doenças crônicas associadas com o aumento da sobrevida ou por doença glomerular associada ao HIV. Esta revisão abordará os principais aspectos da insuficiência renal associada ao HIV.

Humans , HIV Infections/complications , AIDS-Associated Nephropathy/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Chronic Disease , Risk Factors , AIDS-Associated Nephropathy/pathology , Anti-HIV Agents/adverse effects , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/adverse effects , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Tenofovir/adverse effects , Atazanavir Sulfate/adverse effects , Kidney/pathology
Acta cir. bras ; 35(1): e202000106, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088526


Abstract Purpose To explore the role of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) in renal ischemia/reperfusion injury of diabetic rats. Methods Sixty adult male rats were randomly divided into 6 groups, including sham group (S group), ischemia-reperfusion group (I/R group), ischemia-reperfusion+ATRA group (A group), diabetic group (D group), diabetic ischemia-reperfusion group (DI/R group), diabetic ischemia-reperfusion +ATRA group (DA group). The levels of creatinine (Cr), cystatin C (Cys-C) and β2-microglobulin (β2-MG) were measured. Morphology of renal tissue was observed under light microscope. Results DJ-1, Nrf2, HO-1 and caspase-3 were detected by western blot. DJ-1, Nrf2, HO-1 and caspase-3 in I/R group, D group and DI/R group was higher than that in S group. Compared with I/R group, Nrf2 and HO-1 in A group was decreased, but caspase-3 was increased. However, Nrf2 in DA group was higher than that in DI/R group, HO-1 and caspase-3 in DA group were lower than that in DI/R group. Compared with group S, Cr, Cys-C and β2-MG in I/R group, A group, D group, and DI/R group were higher. Whereas the levels of Cr, Cys-C, β2-MG and renal injury score in DA group were lower than those in DI/R group. Conclusion ATRA has a protective effect on renal ischemia-reperfusion injury in diabetic rats, maybe relating to DJ/Nrf2 pathway.

Animals , Male , Rats , Tretinoin/therapeutic use , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/chemically induced , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/therapeutic use , Kidney/drug effects , Tretinoin/pharmacology , Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Streptozocin , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/pharmacology , Kidney/pathology
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(4): 580-584, Out.-Dec. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056602


Abstract In kidney biopsies reviews, scleroderma renal crisis (SRC) is characterized by vascular endothelial injuries, C4d deposits on peritubular vessels, and acute and chronic injuries coexisting on the same biopsy. The clinical signs of thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) are described in systemic sclerosis (SSc), nevertheless, it has not been related to acute injuries described on kidney biopsies. We report a case of SRC in a patient with scleroderma-dermatomyositis overlap syndrome, which also showed clinical and histopathological data of TMA. On fundus examination, a severe acute hypertensive retinopathy was found. The kidney biopsy showed severe endothelial damage with widening of mucoid cells at the level of the intima, focal concentric proliferation on most small arterioles, and C3, C4d, and IgM deposits along the capillary walls. The genetic study of complement only showed the presence of membrane cofactor protein (MCP) risk haplotypes, without other genetic complement disorders. We understand that in a patient with TMA and SSc, the kidney damage would be fundamentally endothelial and of an acute type; moreover, we would observe clear evidence of complement activation. Once further studies correlate clinical-analytical data with anatomopathological studies, it is likely that we will be forced to redefine the SRC concept, focusing on the relationship between acute endothelial damage and complement activation.

Resumo Nas revisões de biópsias renais, a crise renal esclerodérmica (CRE) é caracterizada por lesões endoteliais vasculares, depósitos de C4d em vasos peritubulares e lesões agudas e crônicas que coexistem na mesma biópsia. Os sinais clínicos de microangiopatia trombótica (MAT) são descritos na esclerose sistêmica (ES); no entanto, não foram relacionados às lesões agudas descritas nas biópsias renais. Relatamos um caso de CRE em um paciente com síndrome de superposição de esclerodermia-dermatomiosite, que também apresentou dados clínicos e histopatológicos de MAT. No exame de fundo do olho, foi encontrada uma retinopatia hipertensiva aguda grave. A biópsia renal mostrou lesão endotelial grave com alargamento das células mucoides ao nível da íntima, proliferação concêntrica focal na maioria das pequenas arteríolas e depósitos de C3, C4d e IgM ao longo das paredes dos capilares. O estudo genético do complemento mostrou apenas a presença de haplótipos de risco da proteína cofator de membrana (PCM), sem outros distúrbios genéticos do complemento. Entendemos que em um paciente com MAT e ES, o dano renal seria fundamentalmente endotelial e do tipo agudo; além disso, observaríamos evidências claras de ativação do complemento. Uma vez que novos estudos correlacionam dados clínico-analíticos com estudos anatomopatológicos, é provável que sejamos forçados a redefinir o conceito de CRE, enfocando a relação entre dano endotelial agudo e ativação do complemento.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Raynaud Disease/complications , Vision Disorders/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Kidney/blood supply , Capillaries/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Immunohistochemistry , Papilledema/pathology , Dermatomyositis/complications , Dermatomyositis/immunology , Hypertensive Retinopathy/diagnosis , Hypertensive Retinopathy/pathology , Hypertensive Retinopathy/drug therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Anemia, Hemolytic/diagnosis , Anemia, Hemolytic/etiology , Kidney/pathology , Kidney/diagnostic imaging