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1.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(1): e17-e20, feb 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1353739

ABSTRACT

La hipertensión portopulmonar (HTPP) es una complicación infrecuente de la hipertensión portal, que sigue un curso progresivo con un pronóstico sombrío. Los reportes en pacientes pediátricos son escasos y con períodos de seguimiento cortos. Se describe una paciente con cirrosis descompensada que desarrolló HTPP resuelta mediante trasplante hepático, que permanece asintomática tras diez años de seguimiento.


Portopulmonary hypertension is an uncommon complication of portal hypertension, running a progressive course with a negative prognosis. Reports in pediatric patients are scarce with short follow up. We describe the case of decompensated cirrhosis who developed PoPH and resolved with liver transplantation, remaining asymptomatic after ten years of follow up.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Liver Transplantation , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/complications , Hypertension, Portal/complications , Hypertension, Pulmonary/etiology , Liver Cirrhosis/complications
2.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(1): S9-S18, feb 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1353852

ABSTRACT

La hipertensión portal es un síndrome complejo producido por un aumento de la resistencia al flujo venoso esplácnico a nivel de la vena porta o sus ramas, con una circulación sistémica hiperdinámica caracterizada por vasodilatación periférica y aumento del gasto cardíaco. El sitio de obstrucción al flujo portal puede ser prehepático (hígado normal), intrahepático (como en la cirrosis) o posthepático (síndrome de BuddChiari). En los pacientes pediátricos, las causas prehepáticas e intrahepáticas se reparten en proporciones casi iguales (aproximadamente el 50 % cada una). La expresión clínica y el impacto individual son muy variados, pero en todos los casos expresan un deterioro en la salud de los pacientes y la necesidad de corregir el problema, tanto en sus consecuencias como, idealmente, en sus causas.


Portal hypertension is a complex syndrome caused by increased resistance to the splachnic venous flow at the portal vein level, with a hyperdynamic systemic circulation characterized by peripheral vasodilation and high cardiac output. Portal flow can be obstructed at prehepatic (¨normal liver¨), intrahepatic (as in cirrhosis), or post-hepatic level (as in Budd-Chiari syndrome). In pediatric patients, prehepatic and intrahepatic causes are almost equally distributed (nearly 50% each). Clinical presentation and individual impact are heterogeneous, but in each case, it is the expression of a worsening condition and the need to solve the problem, either by treating its consequences or (ideally) its causes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Hypertension, Portal/diagnosis , Hypertension, Portal/etiology , Hypertension, Portal/drug therapy , Portal Vein , Vasodilation , Follow-Up Studies , Liver Cirrhosis/complications
3.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(1): S19-S61, feb 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1353860

ABSTRACT

La historia natural de la enfermedad hepática crónica (EHC) se caracteriza por una fase de cirrosis compensada asintomática seguida de una fase descompensada, que se acompaña de signos clínicos evidentes, de los cuales los más frecuentes son la ascitis, las hemorragias, la encefalopatía y la ictericia. Esta guía actualizada sobre el manejo de pacientes con EHC en la edad pediátrica fue confeccionada con el propósito de mejorar la práctica clínica de estos pacientes complejos y darle herramientas al pediatra de cabecera para un seguimiento adecuado. Para ello, un grupo de expertos subrayó la importancia del inicio temprano del tratamiento etiológico en cualquier grado de enfermedad hepática y ampliaron su labor jerarquizando las complicaciones de la cirrosis: ascitis, hemorragia digestiva, infecciones, malnutrición; aspectos endocrinológicos, neurológicos, oftalmológicos y gastrointestinales; y complicaciones vasculares pulmonares y renales. Se incluyeron, además, aspectos psicosociales, así como el cuidado del adolescente en su transición a la vida adulta.


The natural history of chronic liver disease (CLD) is characterized by a phase of asymptomatic compensated cirrhosis followed by a decompensated phase, accompanied by the development of evident clinical signs, the most frequent being ascites, hemorrhages, encephalopathy and jaundice. This updated guideline on the management of pediatric patients with CLD was developed with the purpose of improving the clinical practice of these complex patients and to provide the pediatrician with tools for an adequate follow-up. To this end, a group of experts, after stressing the importance of early initiation of etiologic treatment in any degree of liver disease, expanded their work to include a hierarchy of complications of cirrhosis: ascites, gastrointestinal bleeding, infections, malnutrition, endocrinological, neurological, ophthalmological, gastrointestinal, pulmonary vascular and renal complications. Psychosocial aspects including the care of the adolescent in their transition to adult life were also included.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Ascites/etiology , Jaundice , Follow-Up Studies , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology , Liver Cirrhosis/therapy
5.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 37(1): 96-105, 20211217. fig, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357579

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La resección quirúrgica es el tratamiento de elección de las neoplasias primarias y secundarias del hígado. Los pacientes con hepatocarcinoma de los segmentos centrales representan un reto, siendo la hepatectomía extendida la técnica más usada, sin embargo, el riesgo postquirúrgico de falla hepática es alto, dado que la resección puede comprometer entre el 65 % y el 80 % del volumen hepático. La mesohepatectomía es una alternativa que permite dejar un volumen hepático residual suficiente. El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar nuestra experiencia en el tratamiento de pacientes con hepatocarcinomas en segmentos centrales a quienes se les realizó mesohepatectomía. Serie de casos. Se presentan tres pacientes no cirróticos, con hepatocarcinoma en los segmentos 4, 5 y 8, que fueron atendidos en el Hospital San Vicente Fundación, en las sedes de Medellín y de Rionegro, entre 2018 y 2020. Resultados. La mesohepatectomía se realizó mediante ligadura selectiva de los pedículos del segmento 4 y del sector anterior derecho. Se utilizó aspirador ultrasónico y endograpadora para la transección hepática. La duración de la maniobra de Pringle varió entre 16 y 43 minutos. El sangrado promedio fue de 1000 ml. Solo un paciente presentó fuga biliar tipo B. No hubo mortalidad a 30 días. Conclusiones. La mesohepatectomía es una alternativa segura para pacientes con tumores en los segmentos centrales, que permite disminuir el riesgo de falla hepática luego de la resección.


Introduction. Surgical resection is the treatment of choice for primary and secondary neoplasms of the liver. Patients with central segment hepatocarcinoma represent a challenge, with extended hepatectomy being the most widely used technique. However, the postsurgical risk of liver failure is high since resection can compromise between 65% and 80% of liver volume. Mesohepatectomy is an alternative that allows a sufficient residual liver volume to be left. The objective of this work is to present treatment of patients with central segment hepatocarcinoma.Clinical cases. Three non-cirrhotic patients are presented, with hepatocarcinoma in segments 4, 5 and 8, who were treated at the San Vicente Fundación Hospital in Medellín and Rionegro, between 2018 and 2020.Results. Mesohepatectomy was performed by selective ligation of the pedicles of segment 4 and the right anterior sector. An ultrasonic aspirator and endostapler were used for liver transection. The duration of the Pringle ma-neuver ranged from 16 to 43 minutes. The average bleeding was 1000 cc. Only one patient had type B bile leakage. There was no 30-day mortality.Conclusions. Mesohepatectomy is a safe alternative for patients with tumors in the central segments, which reduces the risk of liver failure after resection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Liver Failure , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Liver Cirrhosis , Hepatectomy
6.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(6): 427-430, dic. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1353091

ABSTRACT

La enfermedad hepática grasa no alcohólica pediátrica (EHGNA) es la causa más frecuente en niños y adolescentes de enfermedad hepática crónica que no puede ser atribuida a otras causas genéticas, infecciosas, tóxicas o nutricionales. Puede evolucionar desde una esteatosis simple hasta un cuadro de esteatohepatitis no alcohólica, y progresar a fibrosis avanzada, cirrosis y riesgo aumentado de carcinoma hepatocelular. Su tratamiento consiste en el cambio en el estilo de vida, mediante la promoción de la disminución de peso con la incorporación de una dieta saludable y el aumento de actividad física. Para lograr este objetivo, es fundamental el acompañamiento familiar. Estas medidas beneficiarán la calidad de vida física, psíquica y social de estos niños. El objetivo de esta comunicación es sensibilizar a la comunidad pediátrica acerca de la importancia del manejo de estos pacientes y su entorno familiar, comprometiéndose en la modificación de los factores de riesgo socioeconómicos, para lograr una mejor calidad de vida de las futuras generaciones.


Pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in children and adolescents that cannot be attributed to other genetic, infectious, toxic or nutritional causes. It can evolve from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, and can progress to advanced fibrosis, cirrhosis, and an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. Its treatment consists of a change in lifestyle, promoting weight loss with the incorporation of a healthy diet and increased physical activity. To achieve this goal, family support is essential. These measures will benefit the physical, mental and social quality of life of these children. The objective of this communication is to sensitize the pediatric community about the importance of managing these patients and their family environment, committing to modifying socioeconomic risk factors, to achieve a better quality of life for future generations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Quality of Life , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/etiology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/therapy , Obesity , Physician's Role , Liver Cirrhosis
7.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 43(3): 280-286, July-Sept. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346270

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Transfusion in cirrhotic patients remains a challenge due to the absence of evidence-based guidelines. Our study aimed to determine the indication of transfusion and the associated transfusion thresholds in cirrhotic patients. Methods: This retrospective observational study was conducted in the Department of Transfusion Medicine at a tertiary care liver center from October 2018 to March 2019. The blood bank and patient records of cirrhotic patients admitted during the study period were retrieved and analyzed to determine the current transfusion practice. Results: A total of 992 cirrhotic patients were included in the study. Blood components were transfused to 402 (40.5%) patients. Sixty-nine (17.2%) patients were transfused to control/treat active bleeding, while 333 (82.8%) were transfused prophylactically. Packed red blood cells (65.4%) was the most commonly transfused blood component, followed by fresh frozen plasma (35.6%), among patients receiving transfusions (therapeutic & prophylactic). The mean pre-transfusion thresholds for: (i) packed red blood cell transfusion: hemoglobin less than 7 g/dL; (ii) fresh frozen plasma transfusion: international normalized ratio over 2.6; (iii) platelet concentrate transfusion: platelet count less than 40,700/µL, and; (iv) cryoprecipitate transfusion: fibrinogen less than 110 mg/dL. The average length of stay of the study population was 5 days (3-9. Conclusion: To conclude, 40.5% of our hospitalized cirrhotic patients were transfused, with the majority of the transfusions being prophylactic (82.8%). Separate guidelines are required for this patient population, as these patients have an altered hemostasis which responds differently to the transfusion of blood components.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Blood Coagulation Disorders , Blood Transfusion , Liver Cirrhosis , India
8.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(3): 344-352, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345307

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a decompensation of cirrhosis with an in-hospital mortality ranging from 20% to 40%. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to analyze if EASL-CLIF definition of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is able to predict mortality in cirrhotic patients with SBP. METHODS: Historical cohort study conducted in a public tertiary care teaching hospital. Data from medical records from January 2009 to July 2016 were obtained by searching the hospital electronic database for samples of ascites collected in the period. Electronic and physical medical records were analyzed and patients were included if they were over 18-years old, with cirrhosis and an ascites fluid compatible with SBP: 69 patients were included. Liver-specific scores were calculated and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used for univariate analysis and a stepwise approach to the Cox regression for multivariate analysis. RESULTS: All cause mortality was 44%, 56.5% and 74% for 28-, 90- and 365-day, respectively. The prevalence of ACLF was 58%. Of these, 65% grade 1, 17.5% grade 2 and 17.5% grade 3. In multivariate analysis, the use of proton-pump inhi­bitors, alanine transaminase lower than 40 U/L, hemoglobin higher than 9 g/dL, absence of ACLF and lower CLIF-SOFA and MELD scores were independently associated with higher survival for both 28- and 90-day interval. CONCLUSION: The presence of ACLF and higher CLIF-SOFA scores were independently associated with higher 28- and 90-day mortality in cirrhotic patients admitted due to SBP.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A peritonite bacteriana espontânea (PBE) é uma descompensação da cirrose com uma mortalidade intra-hospitalar de 20% a 40%. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo é analisar se a definição de insuficiência hepática crônica agudizada (IHCA) como definido pelo consórcio EASL-CLIF é capaz de predizer mortalidade em pacientes cirróticos com PBE. MÉTODOS: Coorte histórica conduzida em um hospital de ensino público terciário. Foram obtidos dados de prontuários médicos de janeiro de 2009 até julho de 2016, buscando no banco de dados eletrônico do hospital por todas as amostras de ascite coletadas no período. Prontuários eletrônicos e físicos foram analisados e os pacientes com mais de 18 anos com cirrose e líquido de ascite compatível com PBE foram incluídos. Foram incluídos 69 pacientes. Escores específicos para o fígado foram calculados e a análise de sobrevida de Kaplan-Meier foi utilizada para a análise univariada, e uma abordagem progressiva para a regressão logística de Cox foi usada para a análise multivariada. RESULTADOS: A mortalidade por todas as causas foi 44%, 56,5% e 74% para 28-, 90- e 365-dias, respectivamente. A prevalência de IHCA foi de 58%. Desses, 65% grau 1, 17,5% grau 2 e 17,5% grau 3. Na análise multivariada, o uso de inibidores da bomba de prótons, alanina transaminase menor que 40 U/L, hemoglobina acima de 9 g/dL, ausência de IHCA e menores valores dos escores CLIF-SOFA e MELD foram independentemente associados com maior sobrevida para ambos intervalos de 28- e 90-dias. CONCLUSÃO: A presença de IHCA e maiores valores de CLIF-SOFA foram independentemente associados em maior mortalidade para pacientes cirróticos admitidos por PBE no intervalo de 28- e 90-dias.


Subject(s)
Humans , Peritonitis , Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure/complications , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Liver Cirrhosis/complications
9.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(3): 308-315, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345290

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Liver cirrhosis (LC) causes several musculoskeletal changes. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that the peripheral and inspiratory muscle endurance are reduced in patients with liver cirrhosis. METHODS: Twenty-one patients with LC (LC group; 61±14 years) and 18 age-matched subjects (control group; 56±17 years) had accepted to participate in this cross-sectional observational study. To assess peripheral muscle endurance, all volunteers performed a rhythmic handgrip exercise at 45% of their maximum voluntary contraction. A metronome was used to control the contraction-relaxation cycles at 60/min. The inspiratory muscle endurance was assessed using PowerBreath®. Participants underwent inspiratory muscle exercise at 60% of their maximal inspiratory muscle strength. The time until failure characterized the muscle endurance for both handgrip and inspiratory muscle exercises. Additionally, the quality of life of the participants was assessed. RESULTS: The muscle endurance was lower in the LC group when compared to the control group for both handgrip (67 vs 130 s, P<0.001) and inspiratory muscle exercises (40 vs 114 s, P<0.001). The peripheral muscle endurance was directly correlated with the total quality of life score (r=0.439, P=0.01) and to the following domains: fatigue (r=0.378 e P=0.030), activity (r=0.583, P=0.001), systemic symptoms (r=0.316, P=0.073) and preoccupation (r=0.370, P=0.034). The inspiratory muscle endurance was inversely correlated with the total quality of life score (r=0.573, P=0.001) and the following domains: fatigue (r=0.503, P=0.002), activity (r=0.464, P=0.004), systemic symptoms (r=0.472, P=0.004), abdominal symptoms (r=0.461, P=0.005), emotional function (r=0.387, P=0.02) and preoccupation (r=0.519, P=0.001). CONCLUSION: Both peripheral and inspiratory muscle endurance were lower in LC patients when compared to the control group.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A cirrose hepática (CH) causa várias alterações musculoesqueléticas. OBJETIVO: Testar a hipótese de que as resistências dos músculos periféricos e inspiratórios estão reduzidas em pacientes com CH. MÉTODOS: Vinte e um pacientes com CH (grupo CH; 61±14 anos) e 18 indivíduos pareados por idade (grupo controle; 56±17 anos) aceitaram participar deste estudo observacional transversal. Para avaliar a resistência muscular periférica, todos os voluntários realizaram um exercício de preensão manual rítmica a 45% de sua contração voluntária máxima. Um metrônomo foi usado para controlar os ciclos de contração-relaxamento a 60/min. A resistência muscular inspiratória foi avaliada com o PowerBreath®. Os participantes foram submetidos a exercícios musculares inspiratórios a 60% de sua força muscular inspiratória máxima. O tempo até a falha caracterizou a resistência muscular para os exercícios de preensão manual e de músculos inspiratórios. Além disso, foi avaliada a qualidade de vida dos participantes. RESULTADOS: A resistência muscular foi menor no grupo CH quando comparada ao grupo controle tanto para os exercícios de preensão manual (67 vs 130 s, P<0,001) quanto para os músculos inspiratórios (40 vs 114 s, P<0,001). A resistência muscular periférica foi diretamente correlacionada com o escore total de qualidade de vida (r=0,439, P=0,01) e com os seguintes domínios: fadiga (r=0,030, P=0,378), atividade (r=0,378 e P=0,030), sintomas sistêmicos (r=0,316, P=0,073) e preocupação (r=0,370, P=0,034). A resistência muscular inspiratória foi inversamente correlacionada com o escore total de qualidade de vida (r=0,573, P=0,001) e com os seguintes domínios: fadiga (r=0,503, P=0,002), atividade (r=0,464, P=0,004), sintomas sistêmicos (r=0,472, P=0,004), sintomas abdominais (r=0,461, P=0,005), função emocional (r=0,387, P=0,02) e preocupação (r=0,519, P=0,001). CONCLUSÃO: As resistências musculares periférica e inspiratória foram menores nos pacientes com CH quando comparados ao grupo controle.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Aged , Quality of Life , Hand Strength , Respiratory Muscles , Cross-Sectional Studies , Exercise Tolerance , Dyspnea , Liver Cirrhosis , Middle Aged
10.
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 50(3): e1095, 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1357318

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El carcinoma hepatocelular es un tumor hipervascular compuesto por vasos sanguíneos anormales, constituye la forma más frecuente de cáncer primario del hígado. Alrededor del 90 por ciento de estos tumores se desarrollan sobre una enfermedad hepática previa. Un aumento en la carga vascular debido a la hipertensión portal conlleva a sangrado. Objetivo: Presentar un paciente a quien se le practicó laparotomía exploradora de urgencia por hemoperitoneo de gran cuantía secundario a una rotura intratumoral sobre un hígado cirrótico. Caso clínico: Paciente de 66 años de edad, con antecedentes patológicos de diabetes mellitus tipo 2, hiperplasia benigna de próstata, alcoholismo crónico y cirrosis hepática. Acudió al cuerpo de guardia por dolor abdominal difuso y signos de hipovolemia aguda. Se realizó laparotomía de urgencia y se constata hemoperitoneo de gran cuantía, secundario a una rotura intratumoral. Se le realizó aspiración de contenido hemático, electrocoagulación y compresión por empaquetamiento. Se controló el sangrado. El paciente tuvo una evolución tórpida y falleció 24 horas posteriores a la laparotomía. Conclusiones: El hemoperitoneo secundario a rotura de un carcinoma hepatocelular, es una complicación poco frecuente, pero fatal; por lo que se hace necesario su estudio para lograr un diagnóstico y tratamiento oportuno(AU)


Introduction: Hepatocellular carcinoma is a hypervascular tumor made up of abnormal blood vessels. It is the most frequent form of primary liver cancer. About 90 percent of these tumors develop over a previous liver disease. An increase in vascular load due to portal hypertension leads to bleeding. Objective: To present a patient who underwent emergency exploratory laparotomy due to large hemoperitoneum secondary to an intratumoral rupture of a cirrhotic liver. Clinical case: A 66-year-old male patient with a pathological history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, benign prostatic hyperplasia, chronic alcoholism and liver cirrhosis. He came to emergency due to diffuse abdominal pain, as well as signs of acute hypovolemia. An emergency laparotomy was performed, confirming a large hemoperitoneum secondary to an intratumoral rupture. Blood content aspiration, electrocoagulation and compression by packing were performed, managing to control bleeding. He had a torpid evolution, dying 24 hours after the laparotomy. Conclusions: Hemoperitoneum secondary to rupture of a hepatocellular carcinoma is a rare, but fatal complication; therefore, its study is necessary to achieve a timely diagnosis and treatment(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Prostatic Hyperplasia , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Hypovolemia , Hemoperitoneum , Liver Cirrhosis , Liver Neoplasms
11.
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 50(3): e1370, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1357301

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La cirrosis hepática representa en Perú el 9,1 por ciento de las causas de mortalidad. Existe poca evidencia sobre la influencia de variables epidemiológicas y clínicas en la mortalidad de pacientes con cirrosis hepática en Latinoamérica, en especial en países en vías de desarrollo, como Perú. Objetivo: Identificar los factores asociados a la mortalidad en pacientes cirróticos. Métodos: Estudio trasversal en pacientes cirróticos atendidos en el Hospital Cayetano Heredia, de Piura, Perú, en el año 2017. La variable dependiente fue la mortalidad hospitalaria y las variables independientes fueron las características epidemiológicas, clínicas y de laboratorio. Se utilizó la prueba exacta de Fisher y la prueba de t para estimar los factores asociados a la mortalidad. Resultados: De 52 pacientes, la frecuencia de mortalidad debido a cirrosis fue de 35,4 por ciento. Tener ascitis moderada (p = 0,004), grado de encefalopatía (p = 0,001), leucocitosis (p = 0,004), enfermedad descompensada según índice de Child Pugh (p = 0,023), índice de Meld entre 30-39 puntos (p < 0,001) y niveles de creatinina (p = 0,009) resultaron asociados a una mayor frecuencia de mortalidad. Conclusión: La presencia de ascitis moderada, grado de encefalopatía, leucocitosis, enfermedad descompensada según índice de Child Pugh, índice de Meld entre 30-39 y los niveles de creatinina, están asociados a la mortalidad en pacientes cirróticos(AU)


Introduction: Liver cirrhosis represents 9,1 percent of causes of mortality in Peru. There is little evidence on the influence of epidemiological and clinical variables on the mortality of patients with liver cirrhosis in Latin America, especially in developing countries such as Peru. Objective: To identify the factors associated with mortality in cirrhotic patients. Methods: Cross-sectional study in cirrhotic patients treated at the Cayetano Heredia Hospital in Piura, Peru, year 2017. The dependent variable was hospital mortality and the independent variables were epidemiological, clinical and laboratory characteristics. Fisher's exact test and the T test were used to estimate the factors associated with mortality. Results: Of 52 patients, the frequency of mortality due to cirrhosis was 35,4 percent. Have moderate ascites (p = 0,004), degree of encephalopathy (p = 0,001), leukocytosis (p = 0,004), decompensated disease according to the Child Pugh index (p = 0,023), Meld index between 30-39 points (p < 0,001) and creatinine levels (p = 0,009) were associated with a higher frequency of mortality. Conclusion: The presence of moderate ascites, degree of encephalopathy, leukocytosis, decompensated disease according to the Child Pugh index, Meld index between 30-39, creatinine levels are associated with mortality in cirrhotic patients(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Ascites/complications , Hospital Mortality , Liver Cirrhosis/mortality , Peru , Brain Diseases/mortality , Epidemiologic Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies
12.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(2): 252-256, June 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287277

ABSTRACT

Abstract The clinical management of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection presents several challenges today. WHO's goal is to eliminate it by 2030. It is an ambitious goal and difficult to meet given the barriers to care that arise. This is possible today thanks to the discovery of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). This treatment achieves a high cure rate and is virtually free of adverse effects. To try to comply with this, in addition to the use of DAAs, it is necessary to reduce the rate of undiagnosed patients and facilitate the access of those diagnosed to care and treatment. For that, it is proposed to carry out a simplified treatment of HCV. This involves reducing controls during and after treatment. This simplification varies according to whether patients have cirrhosis or not. In this way, it seeks to increase significantly the number of patients treated and cured to reduce the burden on public health of this disease.


Resumen El manejo clínico de la infección por el virus la hepatitis C (HCV) presenta varios desafíos en la actualidad. El objetivo de la OMS es eliminarlo para el 2030. Es un objetivo ambicioso y muy difícil de cumplir dadas las barreras al cuidado que se presentan. Sin embargo, esto es posible hoy gracias al descubrimiento de los antivirales de acción directa (AAD). Este tratamiento logra una alta tasa de curación y prácticamente está libre de efectos adversos. Para tratar de cumplirlo, además del uso de los AAD, es nece sario reducir la tasa de pacientes no diagnosticados y facilitar el acceso de los diagnosticados al cuidado y el tratamiento. Para eso se propone llevar adelante el tratamiento simplificado del HCV. Esto implica reducir los controles durante y después del tratamiento. Esta simplificación varía según los pacientes tengan o no cirrosis. De esta manera se busca aumentar significativamente el número de pacientes tratados y curados para así poder reducir el impacto en la salud pública de esta enfermedad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Hepacivirus , Liver Cirrhosis
13.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(2): 131-138, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285331

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Individuals with cirrhosis have a chronic systemic inflammation associated with an immune dysfunction, affecting the progression of the liver disease. The neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) was proposed as a marker of systemic inflammatory response and survival in patients with cirrhosis. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the prognostic role of NLR in cirrhotic patients and its relation with inflammatory cytokines(IL-6, IL-10 and IL-17). METHODS: In this prospective study two groups were evaluated: 1) Stable cirrhotic in outpatient follow-up (n=193); 2) Hospitalized cirrhotic for acute decompensation for at least 48 hours (n=334) with admission and 48 hours tests evaluation. Circulating inflammatory cytokines were available for 130 hospitalized patients. RESULTS: In outpatients with stable cirrhosis, NLR correlated with MELD score and other variables associated with severity of disease. However, after a median of 32 months of follow up NLR was not associated with mortality (HR 1.058, 95%CI 0.900-1.243; P=0.495). In hospitalized patients, NLR at 48-hour after admission was independently associated with 90-day survival (HR 1.061, 95%CI 1.020-1.103; P=0.003) in multivariate Cox-regression analysis. The 90-day Kaplan-Meier survival probability was 87% for patients with a 48-hour NLR <3.6 and 62% for NLR ≥3.6 (P<0.001). Elevation of NLR in the first 48 hours was also independently associated with mortality (HR 2.038, 95%CI 1295-3207; P=0.002). The 90-day Kaplan-Meier survival probability was 83% when NLR did not increase and 62% when NLR increased (P<0.001). IL-6, IL-10 and IL-17 at admission were positively correlated with both admission and 48-hour NLR. Lower levels of baseline IL-10 were associated with NLR increase during first 48-hour. CONCLUSION: NLR evaluated at 48 hours of hospitalization and its early increase after admission were independently associated with short-term mortality in patients hospitalized for acute decompensation of cirrhosis.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Na cirrose há um quadro crônico de inflamação sistêmica associada a disfunção imune, que impactam na progressão da doença hepática. A razão neutrófilo-linfócito (RNL) foi proposta como um marcador de resposta inflamatória sistêmica e sobrevida em pacientes com cirrose hepática. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o papel de RNL como marcador prognóstico em portadores de cirrose hepática e sua relação com citocinas inflamatórias (IL-6, IL-10 e IL-17). MÉTODOS: É um estudo prospectivo com duas coortes: 1) pacientes cirróticos estáveis em acompanhamento ambulatorial (n=193); 2) pacientes cirróticos hospitalizados por descompensação aguda por no mínimo 48 horas (n=334) com avaliação de exames de admissão de 48 horas. Citocinas inflamatórias séricas estavam disponíveis em 130 pacientes hospitalizados. RESULTADOS: Nos pacientes ambulatoriais com cirrose estável, RNL se correlacionou com MELD e outras variáveis associadas com gravidade da doença. Entretanto, após uma mediana de 32 meses de seguimento, RNL não apresentou associação com mortalidade (HR 1.058, 95%CI 0.900-1.243; P=0.495). Nos pacientes hospitalizados, RNL de 48 horas após a admissão apresentou associação independente com sobrevida em 90 dias (HR 1.061, 95%CI 1.020-1.103; P=0.003) na regressão multivariada de Cox. A probabilidade de sobrevivência pela curva de Kaplan-Meier em 90 dias foi de 87% em pacientes com RNL de 48 horas <3.6 e 62% nos pacientes com RNL ≥3.6 (P<0.001). A elevação de RNL nas primeiras 48 horas também foi um fator independente associado a mortalidade (HR 2.038, 95%CI 1295-3207; P=0.002). A avaliação de sobrevida em 90 dias pela curva de Kaplan-Meier foi de 83% nos pacientes em que RNL não apresentou elevação e 62% nos que apresentaram elevação de RNL (P<0.001). IL-6, IL-10 e IL-17 na admissão se correlacionaram positivamente com RNL de admissão e de 48 horas. Níveis mais baixos de IL-10 basal foram associados com elevação de RNL nas primeiras 48 horas. CONCLUSÃO: RNL avaliada em 48 horas de hospitalização e sua elevação precoce após a admissão foram fatores independentemente associados a mortalidade em curto prazo nos pacientes hospitalizados com descompensação aguda da cirrose.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lymphocytes , Neutrophils/pathology , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology
14.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(2): 139-144, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285330

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent liver disease in the world, and its prevalence is increasing alongside obesity. In United States, NAFLD is already the second leading cause of liver transplantation. The spectrum of the disease ranges from simple steatosis, which has a benign course, to steatohepatitis, which may progress to cirrhosis and its complications. The rising of noninvasive methods for diagnosing and staging non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and fibrosis decreases the need of liver biopsy, as well as the costs and the occurrence of complications related to it. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the performance of the triglyceride-glucose index to evaluate steatosis, NASH and liver fibrosis in obese patients with NAFLD. METHODS: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study. Every medical record of patients who were candidates for bariatric surgery at a leading hospital in Southern Brazil were analyzed. The triglyceride-glucose index (TyG Index), a method composed only of two simple laboratory tests (serum triglycerides and fasting glucose levels), was performed prior to surgery. The TyG Index performance regarding the anatomopathological findings was evaluated, and the AUROC curve was calculated to evaluate the best cut-off point for diagnosing steatosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and liver fibrosis grade. Also, the NAFLD fibrosis Score (NFS) was evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 423 patients were evaluated. The TyG Index with a cut-off point of 8.76 excluded significant simple steatosis (grade 2-3) in obese patients, with 67.6% sensitivity, 65.1% specificity, 46.3% positive predictive value (PPV), 81.8% negative predictive value (NPV), 65.8% accuracy and 0.66 AUROC (P=0.005). In the evaluation of NASH, the TyG Index with a cut-off point of 8.82 excluded significant NASH (grade 2-3) with 57.3% sensitivity, 58.6% specificity, 33.7% PPV, 78.8% NPV, 58.2% accuracy and 0.58 AUROC (P=0.022). When evaluating liver fibrosis, the TyG Index with a cut-off point of 8.91 showed a sensitivity of 61.8%, a specificity of 62.5%, a PPV of 13.8 and a NPV of 94.4% for exclusion of advanced fibrosis (F3-4), with a 62.4% accuracy and 0.69 AUROC (P<0.001). When analyzing the performance of NFS in the diagnosis of advanced fibrosis, the cut-off point <-1.455 excluded advanced fibrosis with sensitivity of 59.4%, specificity of 51%, PPV of 11%, NPV of 92.4% and accuracy of 51.7%. However, the cut-off point of 0.676 to diagnose advanced fibrosis presented sensitivity of 21.9%, specificity of 83%, PPV of 11.7%, NPV of 91.2% and 77.3% accuracy. The AUROC was 0.54 (P=0.480). CONCLUSION: TyG Index did not perform well in the diagnosis of significant steatosis and NASH. However, it was able to exclude advanced fibrosis in obese patients who are candidates for bariatric surgery.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A doença hepática gordurosa não-alcoólica (DHGNA) é a doença hepática mais prevalente no mundo. Nos Estados Unidos, a DHGNA já é a segunda causa de transplante hepático. O espectro da doença abrange desde a esteatose simples, que apresenta curso benigno, até esteato-hepatite não-alcoólica (EHNA), que pode progredir para cirrose e suas complicações. O desenvolvimento de métodos não invasivos para o diagnóstico e estadiamento da EHNA e da fibrose hepática visa diminuir a necessidade de biópsia hepática, um procedimento invasivo e não raro associado a complicações. OBJETIVO: Analisar o desempenho do índice triglicerídeo-glicose (TyG Index) para o diagnóstico e estadiamento da DHGNA em pacientes obesos. MÉTODOS: Este é um estudo transversal retrospectivo. Foram analisados todos os prontuários de pacientes candidatos a cirurgia bariátrica em um hospital de referência do Sul do Brasil e calculado o TyG Index, um escore composto por dois exames laboratoriais (triglicerídeos e glicose de jejum), realizados previamente à cirurgia. O desempenho do TyG Index em relação aos achados anatomopatológicos hepáticos foi avaliado, e calculada a curva ROC para avaliação de esteatose simples, EHNA e fibrose hepática. O NAFLD Fibrosis Score (NFS) também foi avaliado. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliados 423 pacientes. O melhor ponto de corte do TyG Index para a exclusão de esteatose simples significativa (grau 2-3) foi de 8,76, com sensibilidade 67,6%, especificidade 65,1%, valor preditivo positivo (VPP) 46,3%, valor preditivo negativo (VPN) 81,8%, acurácia 65,8% e AUROC 0,66 (P=0,005). Na avaliação de EHNA significativa (grau 2-3), o melhor ponto de corte foi de 8,82 com sensibilidade 57,3%, especificidade 58,6%, VPP 33,7%, VPN 78,8%, acurácia 58,8% e AUROC 0,58 (P=0,022). Em relação à fibrose avançada (grau 3-4), o melhor ponto de corte do TyG Index foi de 8,91 com sensibilidade 61,8%, especificidade 62,5%, VPP 13,8%, VPN 94,4%, acurácia 62,4% e AUROC 0,69 (P<0,001). Ao analisarmos o desempenho do NFS no diagnóstico de fibrose avançada, o ponto de corte de <-1,455 excluiu fibrose avançada com sensibilidade 59,4%, especificidade 51%, VPP 11%, VPN 92,4% e acurácia 51,7%. Entretanto, o ponto de corte de 0,676 para fibrose avançada apresentou sensibilidade de 21,9%, especificidade 83%, VPP 11,7%, VPN 91,2% e acurácia 77,3%. A AUROC foi de 0,54 (P=0,480). CONCLUSÃO: O TyG Index não apresentou bom desempenho para o diagnóstico e estadiamento da esteatose simples e da EHNA. Entretanto, foi capaz de excluir fibrose avançada em pacientes obesos candidatos a cirurgia bariátrica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/complications , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/pathology , Triglycerides , Biopsy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Glucose , Liver/pathology , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Obesity
15.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(2): 246-252, Apr.-June 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285328

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Cirrhosis is a chronic and progressive liver disease that occurs from prolonged hepatocellular injury. Malnutrition causes complications in cirrhosis patients that worsen the condition to liver failure. Both are closely linked and increase the chances of morbidity and mortality. Regular nutritional screening and monitoring is prime concern for such patients including comprehensive dietary history, laboratory tests, and evaluation of muscle loss and strength capabilities to determine the degree of frailty. For efficient assessment of liver cirrhosis patients Subjective Global Assessment has been used worldwide. The nutritional objectives for such individuals should be to regain liver functions, to prevent complications associated, and to overcome nutritional deficiencies causing malnutrition. METHODS: We conducted a literature review using PubMed, Google Scholar and Science Direct for this purpose, a total of 130 articles were reviewed out of which 80 (from the past 5 years) including originally published research, review articles and abstracts were also included. Exclusion criteria of the selected studies was year of publication, irrelevancy and animal studies based on the purpose of current study. The aim of this study was to check nutritional management in patients having complications of liver cirrhosis. RESULTS: According to the guidelines, for the conservation of normal nutritional status of the malnourished patients', energy should be provided 35 kcal/kg/day while to prevent hypoalbuminemia and maintain the protein stores in the body, 1.5 g/kg/day protein has been recommended. Carbohydrates and fats for cirrhosis patients are recommended 50% to 60% and 10% to 20% of the total dietary intake respectively. CONCLUSION: Initial identification and prevention of malnutrition have the probability to lead to better health outcomes, prevention of complications of the disease, and improving quality of life.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A cirrose hepática é uma doença crônica e progressiva que ocorre por lesão hepatocelular prolongada. A desnutrição causa complicações em pacientes com cirrose que pioram a condição para insuficiência hepática. A cirrose e a desnutrição estão intimamente ligadas e aumentam as chances de morbidade e mortalidade. O rastreamento e monitoramento nutricional regulares são as principais preocupações para esses pacientes, incluindo histórico alimentar abrangente, testes laboratoriais e avaliação de capacidades de perda muscular e força para determinar o grau de fragilidade. Para uma avaliação eficiente de pacientes com cirrose hepática, a Avaliação Global Subjetiva tem sido usada em todo o mundo. Os objetivos nutricionais desses indivíduos devem ser recuperar as funções hepáticas, prevenir complicações associadas e superar deficiências nutricionais que causam desnutrição. MÉTODOS: Realizada uma revisão de literatura usando PubMed, Google Scholar e Science Direct para este fim, e um total de 130 artigos foram revisados dos quais 80 (dos últimos 5 anos), incluindo pesquisas publicadas originalmente. Artigos de revisão e resumos também foram incluídos. Os critérios de exclusão dos estudos selecionados foram ano de publicação, irrelevância e estudos em animais com base na finalidade do estudo atual. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar o manejo nutricional em pacientes com complicações da cirrose hepática. RESULTADOS: De acordo com as diretrizes, para a conservação do estado nutricional normal dos pacientes desnutridos, a energia deve ser fornecida 35 kcal/kg/dia, enquanto para prevenir hipoalbuminemia e manter os estoques de proteínas no corpo, 1,5 g/kg/dia de proteína foi recomendada. Carboidratos e gorduras para pacientes com cirrose são recomendados de 50% a 60% e 10% a 20% da ingestão alimentar total, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: A identificação inicial e a prevenção da desnutrição têm a probabilidade de levar a melhores desfechos de saúde, prevenção de complicações da doença e melhoria da qualidade de vida.


Subject(s)
Humans , Nutrition Assessment , Malnutrition/etiology , Malnutrition/prevention & control , Quality of Life , Nutritional Status , Liver Cirrhosis/complications
16.
Rev. inf. cient ; 100(3): e3455, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289633

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: La cirrosis hepática es una de las enfermedades más frecuentes en nuestro país, y la presencia de infecciones y su descompensación constituyen motivos de ingreso hospitalario en estos pacientes. Objetivo: Identificar las enfermedades asociadas al cuidado sanitario más frecuentes en pacientes cirróticos ingresados. Método: Se realizó un estudio de cohorte en 90 pacientes con diagnóstico de cirrosis hepática, ingresados en el Hospital General Provincial "Carlos Manuel de Céspedes" de provincia Granma, en el período comprendido desde enero de 2017 hasta septiembre de 2020. La población estuvo conformada por la totalidad de pacientes mayores de 18 años y de ambos sexos. Los datos se recogieron de las historias clínicas hospitalarias. En el análisis estadístico se empleó el estadígrafo Chi-cuadrado obtenido a partir de tablas de contingencia, y para medir la fuerza de la misma los riesgos relativos (RR), se utilizó un nivel de significación (valor p) menor de 0,05. Resultados: La mayoría de los pacientes fueron del sexo masculino, descompensados con Child-Pugh (B), el alcohol como la etiología más frecuente de la cirrosis, a los que se les realizaron cuidados sanitarios como la colocación de sonda vesical, abordaje venoso central y periférico, así como intubación endotraqueal. Las principales infecciones asociadas al cuidado sanitario observadas en estos pacientes fueron la flebitis, bacteriemia, la infección del tracto urinario y la neumonía. Conclusiones: Las infecciones asociadas al cuidado sanitario según orden de frecuencia fueron la flebitis, la bacteriemia, la pielonefritis, neumonía y cistitis.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Liver cirrhosis has been confirmed as one of the most common diseases in Cuba. Infection and decompensated cirrhosis constitute the cause of hospitalization. Objective: To identify the most frequent health care-associated diseases in hospitalized cirrhotic patients. Method: A cohort study involving 90 hospitalized patients with cirrhosis was conducted at the Hospital General Provincial "Carlos Manuel de Céspedes" in Granma, from January 2017 through September 2020. The total patients underwent study were over 18 years old and both sex. Data were collected from patients´ hospitalization history. Chi-square test was utilized for statistical analysis and to measure its power (the relative risk), a P-value less than 0.05 was used. Results: Most patients were male, decompensated with Child-Pugh class B. All hospitalized patients who underwent health care such as bladder catheter placement, central and peripheral venous approach, as well as endotracheal intubation, alcohol was considered the major etiological factor cause of cirrhosis. The main healthcare-associated infections observed in these patients were phlebitis, bacteremia, urinary tract infection and pneumonia. Conclusions: The healthcare-associated infections in order of frequency were phlebitis, bacteremia, pyelonephritis, pneumonia and cystitis.


RESUMO Introdução: A cirrose hepática é uma das doenças mais frequentes em nosso país, e a presença de infecções e sua descompensação constituem motivos de internação nesses pacientes. Objetivo: Identificar as doenças associadas aos cuidados de saúde mais frequentes em pacientes cirróticos hospitalizados. Método: Foi realizado um estudo de coorte em 90 pacientes com diagnóstico de cirrose hepática, internados no Hospital Geral Provincial "Carlos Manuel de Céspedes" da província de Granma, no período de janeiro de 2017 a setembro de 2020. A população foi constituída por para todos os pacientes com mais de 18 anos de idade e de ambos os sexos. Os dados foram coletados em prontuários hospitalares. Na análise estatística, foi utilizada a estatística Qui-quadrado obtida em tabelas de contingência e, para medir a força dos riscos relativos (RR), foi utilizado um nível de significância (p-valor) menor que 0,05. Resultados: A maioria dos pacientes era do sexo masculino, descompensados com Child-Pugh (B), sendo o álcool a etiologia mais frequente da cirrose, que realizaram cuidados de saúde como colocação de cateter vesical, abordagem venosa central e periférica, além de intubação endotraqueal. As principais infecções associadas aos cuidados de saúde observadas nestes pacientes foram flebite, bacteremia, infecção do trato urinário e pneumonia. Conclusões: As infecções associadas aos cuidados de saúde em ordem de frequência foram flebite, bacteremia, pielonefrite, pneumonia e cistite.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Infections , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Phlebitis , Pneumonia , Pyelonephritis , Prospective Studies , Bacteremia , Cystitis , Ethanol
17.
Rev. Assoc. Méd. Rio Gd. do Sul ; 65(2): 01022105, Abr. - Jun. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1367471

ABSTRACT

RESUMO A hemocromatose hereditária (HH) é uma doença genética autossômica recessiva, a mais comum encontrada em caucasianos, causada pelo acúmulo de ferro em diferentes órgãos, predominantemente no fígado, causando sua disfunção. As mutações hereditárias relacionadas ao gene HFE representam quase 90% dos casos de hemocromatose entre as populações de descendência europeia. A absorção excessiva do ferro ocasiona acúmulo em órgãos como coração, pâncreas e fígado ocasionando diversas manifestações clínicas. Além dos sintomas gerais, a progressiva sobrecarga de ferro causa uma das principais complicações, a cirrose hepática. A regressão da fibrose pode ser alcançada após o tratamento, promovendo a remoção do estímulo e restaurando a função do fígado. Caso a HH não seja tratada ou o tratamento não tenha sido efetivo, o paciente pode evoluir para um estado fibrótico de cirrose irreversível, que pode culminar com o carcinoma hepatocelular (CHC), complicação responsável por 45% das mortes em pacientes com HH. Nesse sentido, nota-se a importância de compreender os métodos diagnósticos, rastreamento e tratamento, de maneira a possibilitar manejos precoces e evitar complicações potencialmente fatais. Além disso, o fato da população dos estados do sul do Brasil ser composta em sua maioria por descendentes norte-europeus - os mais acometidos pela HH - justifica a importância de literaturas e estudos clínicos mais recentes e realizados nessa região com o objetivo de compreender a evolução clínica da doença e estabelecer medidas preventivas para a manifestação de lesões hepáticas. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Hemocromatose, HFE, diagnóstico, cirrose hepática, carcinoma hepatocelular


ABSTRACT Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is an autosomal recessive genetic disease, the most common found in Caucasians, caused by the accumulation of iron in different organs, predominantly in the liver, causing its dysfunction. Inherited mutations related to the HFE gene represent almost 90% of cases of hemochromatosis among populations of European descent. Excessive iron absorption causes accumulation in organs such as the heart, pancreas and liver, causing several clinical manifestations. In addition to the general symptoms, progressive iron overload causes one of the main complications, liver cirrhosis. Regression of fibrosis can be achieved after treatment, promoting stimulus removal and restoring liver function. If HH is not treated or the treatment has not been effective, the patient may progress to a fibrotic state of irreversible cirrhosis, which can culminate in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a complication responsible for 45% of deaths in patients with HH. In this sense, the importance of understanding diagnostic methods, screening and treatment is noted, in order to enable early management and avoid potentially fatal complications. In addition, the fact that the population of the southern states of Brazil is composed mostly of North European descendants ­ the most affected by HH ­ justifies the importance of more recent literature and clinical studies carried out in this region in order to understand the clinical course of the disease and establish preventive measures for the manifestation of liver damage. KEYWORDS: Hemochromatosis, HFE, diagnosis, liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma


Subject(s)
Humans , Diagnosis , Hemochromatosis Protein , Hemochromatosis , Liver Cirrhosis , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular
18.
Rev. argent. cir ; 113(1): 83-91, abr. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1288177

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Antecedentes: la ascitis es una complicación de frecuente aparición en el paciente cirrótico que al producir un aumento de la presión intraabdominal puede originar una hernia de la pared abdominal; el defecto umbilical latente es su localización más habitual. Objetivo: presentar la incidencia y los beneficios que ofrece la resolución electiva de la patología um bilical en estos pacientes. Material y método: se presentan 15 pacientes, todos masculinos, que fueron intervenidos por hernia umbilical sintomática en forma electiva en el medio hospitalario. El período comprende desde enero del año 2015 a enero de 2019. El 100% de los enfermos cursa un cuadro de cirrosis hepática, con antecedentes de etilismo crónico. Se efectuó la reparación de la hernia con cierre del defecto y malla supraaponeurótica de polipropileno en la mayoría de los casos. Resultados: los pacientes fueron evaluados desde el punto de vista clínico con la escala (score) de Child en el preoperatorio. Se procedió a la evacuación de la ascitis en todos los casos y el control posoperatorio se efectuó cada 30 días los primeros 6 meses. Luego dos veces al año. No se evidenció recidiva. Dos pacientes no volvieron al control luego del año de la cirugía y 1 paciente falleció por la enfermedad de base a los 6 meses de la cirugía. Conclusiones: los enfermos con cirrosis hepática y hernia umbilical deben ser intervenidos quirúrgica mente en forma electiva. La observación y abstención quirúrgica conllevan el riesgo de rotura del saco herniario con alta morbimortalidad.


ABSTRACT Background: Background: Ascites is a common complication in patients with cirrhosis, and elevated intraabdominal pressure can lead to the development of abdominal wall hernias, particularly in patients with latent umbilical defects. Objectives: The aim of this study was to report the incidence and benefits of elective surgery for the management of umbilical hernias in cirrhotic patients with ascites. Material and methods: Between January 2015 and January 2019 15 patients with symptomatic umbi lical hernia underwent elective surgery in a public hospital; 100% were men with a history of alcoho lism and were hospitalized due to liver cirrhosis. The defect was closed, and a polypropylene mesh was placed in the supra-aponeurotic plane in most cases. Results: The preoperative risk was estimated using the Child-Pugh score. Ascites was evacuated in all the cases. Patients were followed-up every 30 days during the first 6 months and then twice a year. There were no hernia recurrences. Two patients were lost to follow-up 12 months after surgery and 1 patient died 9 months after the procedure due to progression of cirrhosis. Conclusions: Patients with liver cirrhosis and umbilical hernia should undergo elective surgery. Wat chful waiting is associated with higher risk of hernia rupture and high morbidity and mortality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hernia, Umbilical/complications , Liver Cirrhosis , Ascites , Hernia, Abdominal , Conservative Treatment , Hernia , Hernia, Umbilical/drug therapy
19.
Rev. medica electron ; 43(2): 3074-3090, mar.-abr. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1251927

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: la cirrosis hepática de etiología viral representa un impactante problema de salud a nivel mundial, no solo por su elevada tasa de prevalencia, sino por los costos generados en la atención médica. Objetivos: determinar el comportamiento de los pacientes cirróticos, de etiología viral, en la provincia de Matanzas. Materiales y métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo-retrospectivo en 47 pacientes con cirrosis hepática de etiología viral, atendidos en el Servicio de Gastroenterología del Hospital Universitario Clínico Quirúrgico Comandante Faustino Pérez Hernández, de Matanzas, de enero de 2016 a enero de 2018. Los resultados de las variables analizadas se expusieron en tablas de doble entrada. Resultados: el 68,1 % de los pacientes correspondió a cirrosis por virus C. Predominaron los mayores de 50 años, con carga viral entre 4-6,9 log10, y atendidos en régimen ambulatorio. En el 57,4 % se detectaron signos endoscópicos de hipertensión portal, que se corroboraron en el doppler hepático. La ascitis asociada a diferentes sepsis fueron las complicaciones más registradas. El 55,4 % fue clasificado como Child-Pugh A, y el 76,6 % en etapa clínica compensada. Conclusiones: el diagnóstico y seguimiento de la cirrosis hepática viral sigue siendo un verdadero reto para la comunidad médica. De ahí los esfuerzos que han de realizarse para su control desde las fases compensadas, para retardar la aparición de complicaciones (AU).


ABSTRACT Introduction: viral etiology liver cirrhosis is an impacting health problem around the world, not only because of its high prevalence rate but also because of the costs generated by its medical care. Objective: to determine the behavior of the patients with viral etiology liver cirrhosis in the province of Matanzas. Materials and methods: a descriptive-retrospective study was carried out in 47 patients with viral etiology liver cirrhosis treated in the service of Gastroenterology of the Hospital "Comandante Faustino Perez" of Matanzas, from January 2016 to January 2018. The results of the analyzed variables were shown in double-entry tables. Results: 68.1% of the patients presented cirrhosis caused by C virus, Patients elder 50 years old predominated, with 4-6.9 log10, treated in ambulatory regimen. Endoscopic signs of portal hypertension were found in 57.4%. It was corroborated with liver Doppler. Ascites associated to different sepsis were the most frequently registered complications. 55.4% were classified as Child-Pugh A, and 76.6% were in compensated clinical stage. Conclusions: viral liver cirrhosis diagnosis and follow-up is still a true challenge for the medical community, and hence the efforts that should be made to control it from the compensated stages to delay the appearance of complications (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Virus Diseases/etiology , Liver Cirrhosis/etiology , Global Health/standards , Chronic Disease/epidemiology , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnosis , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Liver Diseases/complications , Liver Diseases/diagnosis
20.
Medisan ; 25(2)mar.-abr. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1250345

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El consumo excesivo y prolongado de alcohol se asocia a una morbilidad elevada por afecciones hepáticas y de otros órganos. Objetivo: Precisar las lesiones hepáticas y su relación con otras enfermedades asociadas al alcohol y el estado nutricional en pacientes con enfermedad hepática alcohólica. Métodos: Se efectuó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal de 270 pacientes con enfermedad hepática alcohólica, atendidos en el Servicio de Medicina Interna y la consulta especializada de Hepatología del Hospital Provincial Docente Clinicoquirúrgico Saturnino Lora de Santiago de Cuba, quienes fueron examinados clínicamente para detectar síntomas y signos de enfermedades hepática y asociadas al alcohol en diferentes sistemas, durante el decenio 2010-2019. Resultados: Predominaron los hombres (234), de los cuales 117 estuvieron en el grupo de 25 - 44 años de edad. La forma clínica preponderante fue la cirrosis hepática en 109 pacie2ntes, de ellos una proporción importante eran bebedores con más de 20 años de exposición al hábito. La enfermedad por reflujo gastroesofágico junto a las formas de gastropatía y la polineuropatía en 89 y 96 afectados, respectivamente, fueron las comorbilidades más asociadas a la lesión hepática. Se observaron diferentes grados de desnutrición en 167 afectados (61,8 %), de los cuales primaron aquellos con cirrosis hepática, de estos 51 (49,0 %) presentaron desnutrición moderada y 31 (49,2 %) grave. Conclusiones: Resulta elevada la presencia de comorbilidades en pacientes con enfermedad hepática alcohólica, lo cual se asocia al deterioro nutricional y a una exposición prolongada al hábito nocivo.


Introduction: The excessive and prolonged consumption of alcohol is associated with a high morbidity due to hepatic disorders and affections of other organs. Objective: To specify the hepatic lesions and their relationship with other diseases associated with alcohol and the nutritional state in patients with alcoholic hepatic disease. Methods: An observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study of 270 patients with alcoholic hepatic disease was carried out. They were assisted in the Internal Medicine Service and in the specialized visit of Hepatology from Saturnino Lora Teaching Clinical Surgical Provincial Hospital in Santiago de Cuba who were clinically examined to detect symptoms and signs of hepatic disease and those associated with alcohol in different systems, during the decade 2010-2019. Results: There was a prevalence of men (234), of which 117 were in the group of 25 - 44 years of age. The preponderant clinical form was the hepatic cirrhosis in 109 patients, an important proportion of them were drinkers with more than 20 years of exhibition to the habit. The disease due to gastroesophagic reflux along with the forms of gastropathy and polyneuropathy in 89 and 96 affected patients, respectively, were the comorbidities more associated with the hepatic lesion. Different degrees of malnutrition were observed in 167 affected patients (61.8 %), of which those with hepatic cirrhosis prevailed, of these 51 (49.0 %) presented moderate malnutrition and 31 (49.2 %) a serious one. Conclusions: The presence of comorbidities in patients with alcoholic hepatic disease is high, which is associated to the nutritional deterioration and a prolong exposure to the harmful habit.


Subject(s)
Comorbidity , Liver Cirrhosis , Liver Diseases, Alcoholic/epidemiology , Nutritional Status
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