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Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929058


Acetaminophen, also known as N-acetyl-p-aminophenol (APAP), is commonly used as an antipyretic and analgesic agent. APAP overdose can induce hepatic toxicity, known as acetaminophen-induced liver injury (AILI). However, therapeutic doses of APAP can also induce AILI in patients with excessive alcohol intake or who are fasting. Hence, there is a need to understand the potential pathological mechanisms underlying AILI. In this review, we summarize three main mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of AILI: hepatocyte necrosis, sterile inflammation, and hepatocyte regeneration. The relevant factors are elucidated and discussed. For instance, N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI) protein adducts trigger mitochondrial oxidative/nitrosative stress during hepatocyte necrosis, danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are released to elicit sterile inflammation, and certain growth factors contribute to liver regeneration. Finally, we describe the current potential treatment options for AILI patients and promising novel strategies available to researchers and pharmacists. This review provides a clearer understanding of AILI-related mechanisms to guide drug screening and selection for the clinical treatment of AILI patients in the future.

Acetaminophen/toxicity , Analgesics, Non-Narcotic/toxicity , Animals , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/pathology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury, Chronic/pathology , Humans , Inflammation/metabolism , Liver/pathology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Necrosis/pathology
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928934


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the molecular mechanism underlying the anti-hepatic fibrosis activity of ethyl acetate fraction Dicliptera chinensis (L.) Juss. (EDC) in human hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in vitro and in a carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic fibrosis mouse model in vivo.@*METHODS@#For in vitro study, HSCs were pre-treated with platelet-derived growth factor (10 ng/mL) for 2 h to ensure activation and treated with EDC for 24 h and 48 h, respectively. The effect of EDC on HSCs was assessed using cell counting kit-8 assay, EdU staining, transmission electron microscopy, immunofluorescence staining, and Western blot, respectively. For in vivo experiments, mice were intraperitoneally injected with CCl4 (2 ° L/g, adjusted to a 25% concentration in olive oil), 3 times per week for 6 weeks, to develop a hepatic fibrosis model. Forty 8-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were divided into 4 groups using a random number table (n=10), including control, model, positive control and EDC treatment groups. Mice in the EDC and colchicine groups were intragastrically administered EDC (0.5 g/kg) or colchicine (0.2 mg/kg) once per day for 6 weeks. Mice in the control and model groups received an equal volume of saline. Biochemical assays and histological examinations were used to assess liver damage. Protein expression levels of α -smooth muscle actin (α -SMA) and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3B (LC3B) were measured by Western blot.@*RESULTS@#EDC reduced pathological damage associated with liver fibrosis, downregulated the expression of α -SMA and upregulated the expression of LC3B (P<0.05), both in HSCs and the CCl4-induced liver fibrosis mouse model. The intervention of bafilomycin A1 and rapamycin in HSCs strongly supported the notion that inhibition of autophagy enhanced α -SMA protein expression levels (P<0.01). The results also found that the levels of phosphoinositide (PI3K), p-PI3K, AKT, p-AKT, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), p-mTOR, and p-p70S6K all decreased after EDC treatment (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#EDC has anti-hepatic fibrosis activity by inducing autophagy and might be a potential drug to be further developed for human liver fibrosis therapy.

Acetates , Animals , Autophagy , Carbon Tetrachloride , Hepatic Stellate Cells , Liver/pathology , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 70-kDa , Signal Transduction , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927873


Objective To explore the potential targets of triclosan in the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD) and to provide new clues for the future research on the application of triclosan. Methods The targets of triclosan and NAFLD were obtained via network pharmacology.The protein-protein interaction network was constructed with the common targets shared by triclosan and NAFLD.The affinity of triclosan to targets was verified through molecular docking.Gene ontology(GO) annotation and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) pathway enrichment were carried out to analyze the key targets and the potential mechanism of action.NAFLD model was established by feeding male C57BL/6J mice with high-fat diet for 12 weeks.The mice were randomly assigned into a model group and a triclosan group [400 mg/(kg·d),gavage once a day for 8 weeks].The hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining was used for observation of the pathological changes and oil red O staining for observation of fat deposition in mouse liver.Western blotting was employed to detect the protein level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha(PPARα) in the liver tissue. Results Triclosan and NAFLD had 34 common targets,19 of which may be the potential targets for the treatment,including albumin(ALB),PPARα,mitogen-activated protein kinase 8(MAPK8),and fatty acid synthase.Molecular docking predicted that ALB,PPARα,and MAPK8 had good binding ability to triclosan.KEGG pathway enrichment showcased that the targets were mainly enriched in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling pathway,in which ALB and MAPK8 were not involved.Triclosan alleviated the balloon-like change and lipid droplet vacuole,decreased the lipid droplet area,and up-regulated the expression level of PPARα in mouse liver tissue. Conclusion PPARα is a key target of triclosan in the treatment of NAFLD,which may be involved in fatty acid oxidation through the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor signaling pathway.

Animals , Liver/pathology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Molecular Docking Simulation , Network Pharmacology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/drug therapy , PPAR alpha/therapeutic use , Triclosan/therapeutic use
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 532-546, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927530


For the detection of steatosis, quantitative ultrasound imaging techniques have achieved great progress in past years. Magnetic resonance imaging proton density fat fraction is currently the most accurate test to detect hepatic steatosis. Some blood biomarkers correlate with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, but the accuracy is modest. Regarding liver fibrosis, liver stiffness measurement by transient elastography (TE) has high accuracy and is widely used across the world. Magnetic resonance elastography is marginally better than TE but is limited by its cost and availability. Several blood biomarkers of fibrosis have been used in clinical trials and hold promise for selecting patients for treatment and monitoring treatment response. This article reviews new developments in the non-invasive assessment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Accumulating evidence suggests that various non-invasive tests can be used to diagnose NAFLD, assess its severity, and predict the prognosis. Further studies are needed to determine the role of the tests as monitoring tools. We cannot overemphasize the importance of context in selecting appropriate tests.

Elasticity Imaging Techniques/methods , Humans , Liver/pathology , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(6): 730-738, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1349983


ABSTRACT Objective: Identifying significant fibrosis is crucial to evaluate the prognosis and therapeutic interventions in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We assessed the performance of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography, APRI, FIB-4, Forns, NFS and BARD scores in determining liver fibrosis in severe obesity. Subjects and methods: A prospective study included 108 patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Liver biopsy specimens were obtained intraoperatively and classified according to the NAFLD Activity Score. Patients were assessed with serological markers and shear wave velocity of the liver was measured with the Siemens S2000 ultrasound system preoperatively. Optimal cut-off values were determined using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC). Results: In the entire cohort prevalence of NAFLD was 80.6%, steatohepatitis 25.9% and significant fibrosis 19.4%. The best tests for predicting significant fibrosis were FIB-4 and Forns scores (both AUROC 0.78), followed by APRI (AUROC 0.74), NFS (AUROC 0.68), BARD (AUROC 0.64) and ARFI (AUROC 0.62). ARFI elastography was successful in 73% of the patients. Higher body mass index (BMI) correlated with invalid ARFI measurements. In patients with BMI < 42 kg/m2, ARFI showed 92.3% sensitivity and 82,6% specificity for the presence of significant fibrosis, with AUROC 0.86 and cut-off 1.32 m/s. Conclusions: FIB-4 and Forns scores were the most accurate for the prediction of significant fibrosis in bariatric patients. Applicability and accuracy of ARFI was limited in individuals with severe obesity. In patients with BMI < 42 kg/m2, ARFI elastography was capable for predicting significant fibrosis with relevant accuracy.

Humans , Obesity, Morbid/complications , Obesity, Morbid/diagnostic imaging , Prospective Studies , Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/pathology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/diagnostic imaging , Acoustics , Biopsy , Risk Factors , ROC Curve , Liver/pathology , Liver/diagnostic imaging , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnostic imaging
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(4): 339-350, jul. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1349507


This study was aimed to explore the comparative efficacy of cinnamon bark extract, cinnamaldehyde and kaempferol against acetaminophen (APAP)-induced oxidative stress. Cinnamon bark extract, cinnamaldehyde and kaempferol were utilized or in-vivo analysis. From the results of in-vitro screening tests, cinnamon ethanolic extract was selected for in-vivo study in mouse model. For this, Balb/c albino mice were treated with cinnamon ethanolic extract (200 mg/kg), cinnamaldehyde (10 mg/kg) and kaempferol (10 mg/kg) orally for 14 days followed by single intraperitoneal administration of APAP during 8 hours. Blood and organ samples were collected for biochemical and histopathological analysis. The results showed that cinnamon bark ethanolic extract, cinnamaldehyde and kaempferol ameliorated APAP-induced oxidative stress and organ toxicity in mice. In conclusion, cinnamaldehyde and kaempferol possess comparable antioxidant potential even at 20-times less dose as compared to cinnamon bark ethanolic extract suggesting therapeutic potential in oxidative stress-related disorders.

Este estudio tuvo como objetivo explorar la eficacia comparativa del extracto de corteza de canela, cinamaldehído y kaempferol contra el estrés oxidativo inducido por acetaminofén (APAP). Se utilizaron extracto de corteza de canela, cinamaldehído y kaempferol para el análisis in vivo. De los resultados de las pruebas de detección in vitro, se seleccionó el extracto etanólico de canela para estudio in vivo en modelo de ratón. Para ello, los ratones albinos Balb/c fueron tratados con extracto etanólico de canela (200 mg/kg), cinamaldehído (10 mg/kg) y kaempferol (10 mg/kg) por vía oral durante 14 días, seguido de la administración intraperitoneal única de APAP durante 8 horas. Se recogieron muestras de sangre y órganos para análisis bioquímicos e histopatológicos. Los resultados mostraron que el extracto etanólico de la corteza de canela, el cinamaldehído y el kaempferol mejoraron el estrés oxidativo inducido por APAP y la toxicidad orgánica en ratones. En conclusión, el cinamaldehído y el kaempferol poseen un potencial antioxidante comparable, incluso a una dosis 20 veces menor en comparación con el extracto etanólico de la corteza de canela, lo que sugiere un potencial terapéutico en los trastornos relacionados con el estrés oxidativo.

Animals , Mice , Acrolein/analogs & derivatives , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Cinnamomum zeylanicum/chemistry , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Kaempferols/chemistry , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Acrolein/chemistry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Disease Models, Animal , Phytochemicals , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/pathology , Liver/drug effects , Liver/pathology , Acetaminophen/toxicity , Mice, Inbred BALB C
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(2): 139-144, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285330


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent liver disease in the world, and its prevalence is increasing alongside obesity. In United States, NAFLD is already the second leading cause of liver transplantation. The spectrum of the disease ranges from simple steatosis, which has a benign course, to steatohepatitis, which may progress to cirrhosis and its complications. The rising of noninvasive methods for diagnosing and staging non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and fibrosis decreases the need of liver biopsy, as well as the costs and the occurrence of complications related to it. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the performance of the triglyceride-glucose index to evaluate steatosis, NASH and liver fibrosis in obese patients with NAFLD. METHODS: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study. Every medical record of patients who were candidates for bariatric surgery at a leading hospital in Southern Brazil were analyzed. The triglyceride-glucose index (TyG Index), a method composed only of two simple laboratory tests (serum triglycerides and fasting glucose levels), was performed prior to surgery. The TyG Index performance regarding the anatomopathological findings was evaluated, and the AUROC curve was calculated to evaluate the best cut-off point for diagnosing steatosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and liver fibrosis grade. Also, the NAFLD fibrosis Score (NFS) was evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 423 patients were evaluated. The TyG Index with a cut-off point of 8.76 excluded significant simple steatosis (grade 2-3) in obese patients, with 67.6% sensitivity, 65.1% specificity, 46.3% positive predictive value (PPV), 81.8% negative predictive value (NPV), 65.8% accuracy and 0.66 AUROC (P=0.005). In the evaluation of NASH, the TyG Index with a cut-off point of 8.82 excluded significant NASH (grade 2-3) with 57.3% sensitivity, 58.6% specificity, 33.7% PPV, 78.8% NPV, 58.2% accuracy and 0.58 AUROC (P=0.022). When evaluating liver fibrosis, the TyG Index with a cut-off point of 8.91 showed a sensitivity of 61.8%, a specificity of 62.5%, a PPV of 13.8 and a NPV of 94.4% for exclusion of advanced fibrosis (F3-4), with a 62.4% accuracy and 0.69 AUROC (P<0.001). When analyzing the performance of NFS in the diagnosis of advanced fibrosis, the cut-off point <-1.455 excluded advanced fibrosis with sensitivity of 59.4%, specificity of 51%, PPV of 11%, NPV of 92.4% and accuracy of 51.7%. However, the cut-off point of 0.676 to diagnose advanced fibrosis presented sensitivity of 21.9%, specificity of 83%, PPV of 11.7%, NPV of 91.2% and 77.3% accuracy. The AUROC was 0.54 (P=0.480). CONCLUSION: TyG Index did not perform well in the diagnosis of significant steatosis and NASH. However, it was able to exclude advanced fibrosis in obese patients who are candidates for bariatric surgery.

RESUMO CONTEXTO: A doença hepática gordurosa não-alcoólica (DHGNA) é a doença hepática mais prevalente no mundo. Nos Estados Unidos, a DHGNA já é a segunda causa de transplante hepático. O espectro da doença abrange desde a esteatose simples, que apresenta curso benigno, até esteato-hepatite não-alcoólica (EHNA), que pode progredir para cirrose e suas complicações. O desenvolvimento de métodos não invasivos para o diagnóstico e estadiamento da EHNA e da fibrose hepática visa diminuir a necessidade de biópsia hepática, um procedimento invasivo e não raro associado a complicações. OBJETIVO: Analisar o desempenho do índice triglicerídeo-glicose (TyG Index) para o diagnóstico e estadiamento da DHGNA em pacientes obesos. MÉTODOS: Este é um estudo transversal retrospectivo. Foram analisados todos os prontuários de pacientes candidatos a cirurgia bariátrica em um hospital de referência do Sul do Brasil e calculado o TyG Index, um escore composto por dois exames laboratoriais (triglicerídeos e glicose de jejum), realizados previamente à cirurgia. O desempenho do TyG Index em relação aos achados anatomopatológicos hepáticos foi avaliado, e calculada a curva ROC para avaliação de esteatose simples, EHNA e fibrose hepática. O NAFLD Fibrosis Score (NFS) também foi avaliado. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliados 423 pacientes. O melhor ponto de corte do TyG Index para a exclusão de esteatose simples significativa (grau 2-3) foi de 8,76, com sensibilidade 67,6%, especificidade 65,1%, valor preditivo positivo (VPP) 46,3%, valor preditivo negativo (VPN) 81,8%, acurácia 65,8% e AUROC 0,66 (P=0,005). Na avaliação de EHNA significativa (grau 2-3), o melhor ponto de corte foi de 8,82 com sensibilidade 57,3%, especificidade 58,6%, VPP 33,7%, VPN 78,8%, acurácia 58,8% e AUROC 0,58 (P=0,022). Em relação à fibrose avançada (grau 3-4), o melhor ponto de corte do TyG Index foi de 8,91 com sensibilidade 61,8%, especificidade 62,5%, VPP 13,8%, VPN 94,4%, acurácia 62,4% e AUROC 0,69 (P<0,001). Ao analisarmos o desempenho do NFS no diagnóstico de fibrose avançada, o ponto de corte de <-1,455 excluiu fibrose avançada com sensibilidade 59,4%, especificidade 51%, VPP 11%, VPN 92,4% e acurácia 51,7%. Entretanto, o ponto de corte de 0,676 para fibrose avançada apresentou sensibilidade de 21,9%, especificidade 83%, VPP 11,7%, VPN 91,2% e acurácia 77,3%. A AUROC foi de 0,54 (P=0,480). CONCLUSÃO: O TyG Index não apresentou bom desempenho para o diagnóstico e estadiamento da esteatose simples e da EHNA. Entretanto, foi capaz de excluir fibrose avançada em pacientes obesos candidatos a cirurgia bariátrica.

Humans , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/complications , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/pathology , Triglycerides , Biopsy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Glucose , Liver/pathology , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Obesity
Rev. méd. Urug ; 37(supl.1): s43-s43, jun. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1361663
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879053


To study the effect and mechanism of extract of Quzhou Aurantii Fructus(QAF) on liver inflammation in CCl_4-induced liver fibrosis mice. Totally 60 C57 BL/6 male mice were randomly divided into control group(distilled water, oral), model group(distilled water, oral), colchicines group(Col, colchicines 2 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1), oral), low-dose QAF group(QAF-L, QAF 100 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1), oral) and high-dose QAF group(QAF-H, QAF 300 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1), oral) by random number table method. The model group and each administration group were injected with carbon tetrachloride(CCl_4) 1 mL·kg~(-1)(CCl_4-olive oil 1∶4), twice a week, totally 6 weeks. After the last administration, the mice were sacrificed, and serum and liver tissue were collected. Serum ALT and AST levels were measured in each group to observe the liver function of mice. The pathological changes and inflammatory cell infiltration in liver were observed by HE staining and F4/80 immunohistochemical staining. The mRNA expressions of TNF-α, IL-18 and IL-1β were detected by RT-PCR. The protein expressions of IκBα, p-IKKα/β, p-p65, NLRP3, caspase-1 and cleaved caspase-1 were analyzed by Western blot. The results showed that QAF significantly reduced serum ALT and AST levels, and alleviated the degree of liver damage.The results of immunohistochemistry showed that QAF significantly reduced liver inflammatory cell infiltration in liver fibrosis mice. The results of RT-PCR and Western blot showed that QAF significantly inhibited mRNA expressions of TNF-α, IL-18 and IL-1β in liver of fibrosis mice. QAF also suppressed the degradation of IκBα protein and reduced p-IKKα/β, p-p65, NLRP3 and cleaved caspase-1 protein expressions. In conclusion, QAF improves CCl_4-induced liver fibrosis in mice. The mechanism may be related to the inhibition of NF-κB/NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated inflammation signaling pathway.

Animals , Inflammasomes/genetics , Inflammation , Liver/pathology , Liver Cirrhosis/genetics , Male , Mice , NF-kappa B/genetics , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics , Plant Extracts
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887961


In order to investigate the effect of salidroside on inhibiting liver fibrosis and its relationship with CXC chemokine ligand 16(CXCL16) in vivo and in vitro, totally 45 C57 BL/6 J male mice were randomly divided into normal group, model group and salidroside group, with 15 mice in each group. The mice in model group and salidroside group were injected intraperitoneally with 15% carbontetrachloride(CCl_4) olive oil solution to establish liver fibrosis model, and the mice in normal group were injected intraperitoneally with the same dose of olive oil. Salidroside group was given with 100 mg·kg~(-1 )salidroside by gavage, while the normal group and model group received the same amount of double distilled water by gavage. All mice were sacrificed after 5 weeks of intragastric administration. The pathological changes of mouse liver were observed by hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining, and the degree of liver fibrosis was observed by sirius red staining. The protein expressions of collagen Ⅰ(ColⅠ), α-smooth muscle actin(α-SMA), fibronectin(FN), CXCL16, phosphorylated Akt(p-Akt), Akt in liver tissues were detected by Western blot. Hepatic stellate cell line JS 1 was cultured in vitro and divided into control group, model group(100 μg·L~(-1) CXCL16) and salidroside group(100 μg·L~(-1) CXCL16+1×10~(-5) mol·L~(-1) salidroside). Cell migration was detected by cell scratch, the mRNA expressions of ColⅠ and α-SMA were detected by RT-PCR, and the protein expressions of p-Akt and Akt were detected by Western blot. As compared with the normal group, the protein expressions of ColⅠ, α-SMA, FN, CXCL16, and p-Akt in the model group were significantly increased, and salidroside could reduce the expression of these indicators(P<0.05 or P<0.01). In vitro, CXCL16 could promote the migration of JS 1, increase the mRNA expressions of ColⅠ and α-SMA in JS 1, and enhance Akt phosphorylation in JS 1(P<0.05 or P<0.01). As compared with the model group, salidroside could inhibit the migration of JS 1 induced by CXCL16(P<0.05), and reduce the high expression of ColⅠ and α-SMA mRNA and the phosphorylation of Akt in JS 1 induced by CXCL16(P<0.05). In conclusion, salidroside might attenuate CCl_4-induced liver fibrosis in mice by inhibiting the migration, activation and Akt phosphorylation of hepatic stellate cells induced by CXCL16.

Animals , Carbon Tetrachloride , Chemokine CXCL16 , Glucosides , Hepatic Stellate Cells , Liver/pathology , Liver Cirrhosis/genetics , Male , Mice , Phenols
Acta cir. bras ; 36(11): e361106, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360062


ABSTRACT Purpose: To delve into the influence of paeoniflorin (PA) on abating primary biliary cholangitis (PBC)-induced liver fibrosis and its causative role. Methods: Our team allocated the mice to control group, PA group, PBC group and PBC+PA group. We recorded the weight change of mice in each group. We used Masson staining for determining liver fibrosis, immunofluorescence staining for measuring tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) expression, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) for assaying related gene expression, as well as Western blot for testing related protein expression. Results: The weight of PBC model mice declined. Twenty-four weeks after modeling, the positive rate of anti-mitochondrial antibody-M2 (AMA-M2) in PBC mice reached 100%. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), hydroxyproline (HYP), laminin (LN), procollagen type III (PC III), and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents saliently waxed (p<0.01). Meanwhile, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) activity patently waned (p<0.01). Liver fibrosis levels were flagrantly higher (p<0.01), and TNF-α, NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3), caspase-1, interleukin-18 (IL-18), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) protein or gene expression were manifestly up-regulated (p<0.01). PA could restore the weight of PBC mice, strikingly restrain the positive expression of AMA-M2, and down-regulate serum ALP, ALT, AST, HYP, LN, PC III, MDA in PBC mice (p<0.01). PA could also significantly up-regulate SOD and GSH-px levels (p<0.01), down-regulate IL-1β, IL-18, caspase-1, NLRP3, and TNF-α protein or gene expression in PBC mice (p<0.01) and inhibit liver fibrosis levels (p<0.01). Conclusions: PA can reduce PBC-induced liver fibrosis in mice and may function by curbing the formation of NLRP3.

Animals , Mice , Monoterpenes/pharmacology , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Glucosides/pharmacology , Liver Cirrhosis/prevention & control , Liver Cirrhosis/drug therapy , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Liver/pathology
Acta cir. bras ; 36(11): e361104, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360061


ABSTRACT Purpose: To investigate the underlying mechanism of hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (HSOS) induced by Gynura segetum by measuring autophagy in mouse models. Methods: The model group was administered G. segetum (30 g/kg/d) by gavage, while the normal control group was administered an equal volume of saline daily for five weeks. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), hepatic histopathological examinations, and Masson staining were performed to evaluate liver injury. Liver intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and P-selectin were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Hepatocellular apoptosis was assessed using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Protein expression levels of autophagy markers were measured using Western blot analysis. Results: Gynura segetum was found to significantly induce liver injury compared with control mice, as evidenced by the increase of serum transaminases, a decrease in triglyceride levels, and histopathological changes in mice. Gynura segetum remarkably induced hepatocellular apoptosis and upregulated the expressions of ICAM-1 and P-selectin and also downregulated the protein expression levels of LC3, Atg12 and cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein. Conclusions: Our results suggested that G. segetum induced liver injury with HSOS, and it was partly due to its ability to impair the autophagy pathway.

Animals , Mice , Hepatic Veno-Occlusive Disease/chemically induced , Hepatic Veno-Occlusive Disease/pathology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Autophagy , Apoptosis , Liver/pathology
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 34(2): e1608, 2021. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345008


ABSTRACT Background: Heart dysfunction and liver disease often coexist because of systemic disorders. Any cause of right ventricular failure may precipitate hepatic congestion and fibrosis. Digital image technologies have been introduced to pathology diagnosis, allowing an objective quantitative assessment. The quantification of fibrous tissue in liver biopsy sections is extremely important in the classification, diagnosis and grading of chronic liver disease. Aim: To create a semi-automatic computerized protocol to quantify any amount of centrilobular fibrosis and sinusoidal dilatation in liver Masson's Trichrome-stained specimen. Method: Once fibrosis had been established, liver samples were collected, histologically processed, stained with Masson's trichrome, and whole-slide images were captured with an appropriated digital pathology slide scanner. After, a random selection of the regions of interest (ROI's) was conducted. The data were subjected to software-assisted image analysis (ImageJ®). Results: The analysis of 250 ROI's allowed to empirically obtain the best application settings to identify the centrilobular fibrosis (CF) and sinusoidal lumen (SL). After the establishment of the colour threshold application settings, an in-house Macro was recorded to set the measurements (fraction area and total area) and calculate the CF and SL ratios by an automatic batch processing. Conclusion: Was possible to create a more detailed method that identifies and quantifies the area occupied by fibrous tissue and sinusoidal lumen in Masson's trichrome-stained livers specimens.

Resumo Racional: Tecnologias de imagem digital têm sido introduzidas ao diagnóstico patológico, permitindo avaliações quantitativas objetivas. A quantificação de tecido fibroso em biópsias de fígado é extremamente importante para a classificação, diagnóstico e graduação de doenças crônicas hepáticas. Objetivo: Criar um protocolo computadorizado semi-automático para quantificação de fibrose centrolobular e dilatação sinusoidal em amostras de fígado coradas por Tricrômico de Masson. Método: Uma vez instaurada a fibrose, amostras de fígado foram coletadas, processadas histologicamente, coradas por Tricrômico de Masson e WSI (Whole Slide Images) foram capturadas por scanner digital patológico apropriado. Uma seleção aleatória das regiões de interesse (ROI) foi realizada. Os dados foram submetidos a uma análise de imagem assistida por software (ImageJ®). Resultados: A análise de 250 ROIs permitiu obter-se empiricamente as melhores configurações capazes de identificar fibrose centrolobular (FC) e lúmen sinusoidal (LS). Após o estabelecimento das configurações de padrão de cor, uma Macro de autoria própria foi gravada para definir as medidas (área da fração e área total) e calcular as razões de FC e LS por processamento em grupo/lote (batch mode). Conclusão: Foi possível criar um método detalhado capaz de identificar e quantificar a área ocupada por tecido fibroso e lúmen sinusoidal em espécimes de fígado coradas por Tricrômico de Masson.

Humans , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Software , Fibrosis , Dilatation , Liver/pathology , Liver/diagnostic imaging , Liver Cirrhosis
Clinics ; 76: e3236, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345810


OBJECTIVES: The aim was to prospectively assess the variation in liver stiffness (LS) and the associated factors for LS progression in a cohort of naïve, non-responder (NR), and sustained virological response (SVR) chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients. METHODS: This was a longitudinal study on CHC patients prospectively followed with serial elastography (Fibroscan®). The LS progression rate was determined, and the associated factors for progression were assessed using multiple linear regression analysis. RESULTS: A total of 406 patients were followed up for 44 (35-53) months [naïve (29%), NR (24%), and SVR (47%)]. At the end of the follow-up period, the SVR group had a significant decrease in LS [11.8 (9.2) vs. 8.8 (8.4) kPa (p<0.001)], the NR group had a significant increase in LS [6.6 (5.2) vs. 7.1 (4.5) kPa (p=0.069)], and the naïve group had no change in LS [6.3 (3.0) vs. 6.0 (3.8) kPa (p=0.22)]. The related factors for LS progression were lack of SVR (p=0.002) and diabetes (p=0.05). In the non-diabetic SVR group, a negative rate of progression (-0.047 kPa/month) was observed, whereas in the diabetic SVR group, a positive rate of progression (+0.037 kPa/month) was observed. The highest rate of progression was observed in NR with diabetes at the rate of +0.044 kPa/month. CONCLUSION: LS in diabetes patients progresses despite SVR, suggesting the need for a close follow-up of this group post-treatment considering the risk of progression of liver disease even after SVR.

Humans , Hepatitis C, Chronic , Hepatitis C, Chronic/complications , Hepatitis C, Chronic/pathology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus , Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Longitudinal Studies , Liver/pathology , Liver/diagnostic imaging , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 19(3): 176-180, set 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1391950


A busca pelo corpo perfeito pode gerar graves consequências para a população que faz uso indiscriminado de substâncias visando a resultados rápidos. O caso relatado se refere a um pa- ciente de 21 anos, do sexo masculino, na cidade de São Paulo (SP), que apresentou quadro de síndrome colestática 15 dias após uso do anabolizante estanazolol para fins estéticos na ativi- dade física, evoluindo com hepatite medicamentosa grave, com aumento de transaminases, hiperrubilinemia às custas de bilirrubina direta e fatores de coagulação, sem resposta satis- fatória ao tratamento de suporte convencional, com melhora significativa após introdução de corticoterapia.

Searching for the perfect body image can cause severe conse- quences to the population using substances indiscriminately to reach results fast. The case reported refers to a male patient, 21 years old, from the city of São Paulo (SP), who developed choles- tatic syndrome 15 days after the use of the steroid Stanazol for aesthetic purposes during physical activity, progressing with se- vere drug-induced hepatitis, transaminases, bilirubin, and coagu- lation factors increase with no satisfactory response to the con- ventional support treatment, and significant improvement after the introduction of corticotherapy.

Humans , Male , Adult , Young Adult , Stanozolol/toxicity , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Anabolic Agents/toxicity , Ursodeoxycholic Acid/administration & dosage , Bilirubin/blood , Biopsy , Cholagogues and Choleretics/therapeutic use , Prednisone/administration & dosage , Cholestasis/diagnosis , Cholestasis/pathology , Cholesterol/blood , Cholestyramine Resin/administration & dosage , Catastrophic Illness , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/diagnosis , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/pathology , Transaminases/blood , Hydroxyzine/administration & dosage , Liver/pathology , Anticholesteremic Agents/therapeutic use , Antipruritics/therapeutic use
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1767-1778, Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134510


SUMMARY: Acrylamide (ACR) is a cytotoxic and carcinogenic material. It is a product of a Maillard reaction during the cooking of many types of fried fast food, e.g. potato chip fries, and chicken nuggets. ACR has a severe toxic effect on different body organs. This study investigates the hepatotoxic effect of ACR, and the protective effect of ascorbic acid and silymarin. For this purpose, forty adult, male, albino rats were divided into four groups and received the following treatments for fourteen days: Group I: (the control) normal saline; Group II: ACR only; Group III: ACR and ascorbic acid; and Group IV: ACR and silymarin. Under a light microscope, the liver from rats treated with ACR only presented disturbed liver architecture, degenerated hepatocytes, reduced glycogen contents, congested central vein, and increased collagen fibres with areas of fibrosis. Immunohistochemical examination revealed an increased mean number of CD68-, and α-SMA-positive cells. This indicates the presence of large numbers of stellate macrophages (Kupffer cells) and Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). The combination of ACR with either ascorbic acid or silymarin resulted in less hepatic degeneration, less fibrosis and fewer CD68 and α-SMA positive cells compared to the ACR only group. In conclusion, treatment with silymarin or ascorbic acid along with ACR appears to alleviate ACR-induced hepatotoxicity with more protection in silymarin treated rats.

RESUMEN: La acrilamida (ACR) es un material citotóxico y cancerígeno. Es producto de la reacción de Maillard durante la cocción de muchos tipos de comida rápida y frita, por ejemplo: papas fritas y nuggets de pollo. ACR tiene un efecto tóxico severo en diferentes órganos del cuerpo. Este estudio investigó el efecto hepatotóxico del ACR y el efecto protector del ácido ascórbico y la silimarina. Con este fin, cuarenta ratas albinas machos adultas se dividieron en cuatro grupos y recibieron los siguientes tratamientos durante catorce días: Grupo I (control), solución salina normal; Grupo II, solo ACR; Grupo III, ACR y ácido ascórbico; y Grupo IV, ACR y silimarina. Bajo microscopio óptico, el hígado de ratas tratadas con ACR solo presentó alteración de su arquitectura, entre ellos hepatocitos degenerados, contenido reducido de glucógeno, vena central congestionada y aumento de fibras de colágeno con áreas de fibrosis. El examen inmunohistoquímico reveló un aumento del número medio de células CD68 y α-SMA positivas. Esto indica la presencia de un gran número de macrófagos estrellados (células de Kupffer) y células estrelladas hepáticas (HSC). La combinación de ACR con ácido ascórbico o silimarina resultó en menos degeneración hepática, menos fibrosis y menos células positivas para CD68 y α-SMA en comparación con el grupo de ACR solo. En conclusión, el tratamiento con silimarina o ácido ascórbico junto con ACR parece aliviar la hepatotoxicidad inducida por ACR.

Animals , Male , Rats , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Silymarin/pharmacology , Acrylamide/toxicity , Liver/drug effects , Immunohistochemistry , Antigens, CD/analysis , Actins/analysis , Hepatocytes , Hepatic Stellate Cells , Liver/metabolism , Liver/pathology
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(4): 361-365, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142340


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic liver disease, characterized by necroinflammation and autoimmune etiology. Studies evaluating the characteristics of patients with AIH are scarce in Brazil. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to evaluate the profile of patients with AIH in a specialized center in Southern Brazil and to verify factors related to treatment response. METHODS: this was a retrospective cohort study, which analyzed demographic, epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and histologic data. Patients with AIH diagnosed according to the criteria of the International Autoimmune Hepatitis Group (IAIHG) were included. In liver biopsies, the degree of fibrosis, histological activity, presence of hepatocyte rosettes, plasma cell infiltrates, and confluent necrosis were evaluated. In the statistical analysis, the significance level was 5%. RESULTS: Forty adults patients diagnosed with AIH were included. The evaluated population predominantly consisted of women (75.0%) and the average age at diagnosis was 44.2 years. The association with extrahepatic autoimmune diseases occurred in 20.0% of cases. Clinically, 35.0% of patients presented with acute onset hepatitis, 37.5% with cirrhosis, and 27.5% with other forms of presentation. The most common clinical manifestation was jaundice (47.5%). Thirty-five patients were treated, and of these, 97.1% used prednisone combined with azathioprine. The average treatment time was 2.7 years. Response to treatment was complete or partial in 30 (85.7%) and absent in 5 (14.3%) patients. There was no statistically significant difference when evaluating response to treatment in relation to forms of presentation, histological findings, and the presence of autoantibodies. Regarding fibrosis, regression was observed in 18.75% of the cases. CONCLUSION: Most patients with AIH were young at presentation and of female sex. The association with extrahepatic autoimmune diseases and cirrhosis at presentation was seen in a considerable proportion of patients. Treatment was effective, but there were no clinical, histological or serological parameters capable of predicting treatment response.

RESUMO CONTEXTO: A hepatite autoimune (HAI) é uma doença hepática crônica, de caráter necroinflamatório e etiologia autoimune. Os estudos que avaliam as características de pacientes com HAI são escassos no Brasil. OBJETIVO: Nosso objetivo foi avaliar o perfil dos pacientes com HAI atendidos em um centro de referência do sul do Brasil e verificar fatores relacionados à resposta ao tratamento. MÉTODOS: Este foi um estudo de coorte retrospectivo, que analisou dados demográficos, epidemiológicos e clínicos. Nas biópsias hepáticas, foram avaliados o grau de fibrose, a atividade histológica, a presença de rosetas, de infiltrado plasmocitário e de necrose confluente. Na análise estatística, o nível de significância foi de 5%. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 40 pacientes adultos com diagnóstico de HAI. Houve predomínio do sexo feminino (75,0%), e a média de idade no diagnóstico foi de 44,2 anos. A associação com doenças autoimunes extra-hepáticas ocorreu em 20,0% dos casos. Clinicamente, 35,0% dos pacientes se apresentaram sob forma de hepatite aguda, 37,5% com cirrose e 27,5% com outras formas de apresentação. A manifestação clínica mais comum na apresentação foi a icterícia (47,5%). Trinta e cinco pacientes foram tratados, sendo que destes, 97,1% utilizaram prednisona associada com azatioprina. A média do tempo de tratamento foi 2,7 anos. A resposta ao tratamento foi completa ou parcial em 30 (85,7%) e ausente em 5 (14,3%) pacientes. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa quando avaliada a resposta ao tratamento em relação à forma de apresentação, aos achados histológicos e à presença de autoanticorpos. Em relação à fibrose, foi observada regressão em 18,75% dos casos. CONCLUSÃO: A maioria dos pacientes era jovem no momento do diagnóstico e do sexo feminino. A associação com doenças autoimunes extra-hepáticas e com cirrose na apresentação foi vista em uma parcela considerável dos casos. O tratamento foi eficaz, mas não houve parâmetros clínicos, histológicos ou sorológicos capazes de prever a resposta ao tratamento.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/diagnosis , Liver/pathology , Azathioprine/therapeutic use , Brazil/epidemiology , Prednisone/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/drug therapy , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/epidemiology , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Jaundice/epidemiology , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Middle Aged
Int. j. morphol ; 38(1): 35-37, Feb. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056393


Ectopic liver tissue is a rare developmental abnormality. It is often asymptomatic and is commonly found incidentally, during surgery or autopsy. It has been reported in various abdominal and extra-abdominal sites, most often in the gall bladder. We are reporting an incidentally found mass in the left subdiafragmatic region, diagnosed as ectopic liver in abdominal CT and intraoperatively. We aim to assess the importance of imaging examinations in the differential diagnosis of intraabdominal masses ranging from benign to malignant entities and to point out that despite the low incidence of ectopic liver, it is necessary to be aware of this diagnostic possibility.

El tejido hepático ectópico es una rara anormalidad del desarrollo. A menudo es asintomático y generalmente se encuentra de manera incidental, durante la cirugía o la autopsia. Se ha informado en varios sitios abdominales y extraabdominales, con mayor frecuencia en la vesícula biliar. Reportamos el caso de una masa encontrada en la región subdiafragmática izquierda, diagnosticada como hígado ectópico en la TC abdominal e intraoperatoriamente. Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar la importancia de los exámenes por imágenes en el diagnóstico diferencial de masas intraabdominales que incluyen masas benignas como también malignas, y señalar que a pesar de la baja incidencia de hígado ectópico, es necesario tener en cuenta esta posibilidad en el diagnóstico.

Humans , Aged , Choristoma/diagnostic imaging , Abdomen/pathology , Liver/pathology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Abdomen/diagnostic imaging
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 114(2): 234-242, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088869


Abstract Background: Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a complex syndrome which comprises structural and functional alterations in the heart in maintaining the adequate blood demand to all tissues. Few investigations sought to evaluate oxidative DNA damage in CHF. Objective: To quantify the DNA damage using the comet assay in left ventricle (LV), lungs, diaphragm, gastrocnemius and soleus in rats with CHF. Methods: Twelve male Wistar rats (300 to 330 g) were selected for the study: Sham (n = 6) and CHF (n = 6). The animals underwent myocardial infarction by the ligation of the left coronary artery. After six weeks, the animals were euthanized. It was performed a cell suspension of the tissues. The comet assay was performed to evaluate single and double strand breaks in DNA. Significance level (p) considered < 0.05. Results: The CHF group showed higher values of left ventricle end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP), pulmonary congestion, cardiac hypertrophy and lower values of maximal positive and negative derivatives of LV pressure, LV systolic pressure (p < 0.05). CHF group showed higher DNA damage (% tail DNA, tail moment and Olive tail moment) compared to Sham (p < 0.001). The tissue with the highest damage was the soleus, compared to LV and gastrocnemius in CHF group (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Our results indicates that the CHF affects all tissues, both centrally and peripherically, being more affected in skeletal muscle (soleus) and is positively correlated with LV dysfunction.

Resumo Fundamento: A insuficiência cardíaca crônica (ICC) é uma síndrome complexa que compreende alterações estruturais e funcionais no coração, mantendo demanda sanguínea adequada a todos os tecidos. Poucas investigações procuraram avaliar o dano oxidativo ao DNA na ICC. Objetivo: Quantificar o dano ao DNA utilizando o ensaio cometa no ventrículo esquerdo (VE), pulmões, diafragma, gastrocnêmio e sóleo em ratos com ICC. Métodos: Doze ratos Wistar machos (300 a 330 g) foram selecionados para o estudo: placebo (n = 6) e ICC (n = 6). Os animais foram submetidos a infarto do miocárdio através de ligadura da artéria coronária esquerda. Após seis semanas, os animais foram sacrificados. Foi realizada uma suspensão celular dos tecidos. O ensaio cometa foi realizado para avaliar as quebras de fita simples e dupla no DNA. Nível de significância (p) < 0,05. Resultados: O grupo ICC apresentou maiores valores de pressão diastólica final do ventrículo esquerdo (PDFVE), congestão pulmonar, hipertrofia cardíaca e menores valores de derivados máximos positivos e negativos da pressão do VE, pressão sistólica do VE (p < 0,05). O grupo ICC apresentou maior dano ao DNA (% de DNA da cauda, momento da cauda e momento da cauda de Olive) em comparação ao placebo (p < 0,001). O tecido com maior dano foi o sóleo, comparado ao VE e ao gastrocnêmio no grupo ICC (p < 0,05). Conclusão: Nossos resultados indicam que a ICC afeta todos os tecidos, de maneira central e periférica, sendo mais afetada no músculo esquelético (sóleo) e está positivamente correlacionada com a disfunção do VE.

Animals , Male , DNA Damage/genetics , Heart Failure/genetics , Reference Values , Rats, Wistar , Oxidative Stress , Muscle, Skeletal/pathology , Comet Assay , Single-Cell Analysis , Heart Failure/pathology , Heart Ventricles/pathology , Hemodynamics , Liver/pathology , Lung/pathology , Myocardial Infarction/genetics , Myocardial Infarction/pathology