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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010107

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Transcription factor (TF) can bind specific sequences that either promotes or represses the transcription of target genes, and exerts important effects on tumorigenesis, migration, invasion. Staphylococcal nuclease-containing structural domain 1 (SND1), which is a transcriptional co-activator, is considered as a promising target for tumor therapy. However, its role in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) remains unclear. This study aims to explore the role of SND1 in LUAD.@*METHODS@#Data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC), and Human Protein Atlas (HPA) database was obtained to explore the association between SND1 and the prognosis, as well as the immune cell infiltration, and subcellular localization in LUAD tissues. Furthermore, the functional role of SND1 in LUAD was verified in vitro. EdU assay, CCK-8 assay, flow cytometry, scratch assay, Transwell assay and Western blot were performed.@*RESULTS@#SND1 was found to be upregulated and high expression of SND1 is correlated with poor prognosis of LUAD patients. In addition, SND1 was predominantly present in the cytoplasm of LUAD cells. Enrichment analysis showed that SND1 was closely associated with the cell cycle, as well as DNA replication, and chromosome segregation. Immune infiltration analysis showed that SND1 was closely associated with various immune cell populations, including T cells, B cells, cytotoxic cells and dendritic cells. In vitro studies demonstrated that silencing of SND1 inhibited cell proliferation, invasion and migration of LUAD cells. Besides, cell cycle was blocked at G1 phase by down-regulating SND1.@*CONCLUSIONS@#SND1 might be an important prognostic biomarker of LUAD and may promote LUAD cells proliferation and migration.


Subject(s)
Humans , Prognosis , Proteomics , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Oncogenes , Adenocarcinoma of Lung/genetics , Biomarkers , Endonucleases/genetics
2.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 943-949, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010102

ABSTRACT

So far, the monoclonal hypothesis of tumor occurrence and development cannot be justified. The genetic diversity selection hypothesis for the occurrence and development of lung cancer links Mendelian genetics with Darwin's theory of evolution, suggesting that the genetic diversity of tumor cell populations with polyclonal origins-monoclonal selection-subclonal expansion is the result of selection pressure. Normal cells acquire mutations in oncogenic driver genes and have a selective advantage over other cells, becoming tumor initiating cells; In the interaction with the tumor microenvironment (TME), the vast majority of initiating cells are recognized and killed by the human immune system. If immune escape occurs, the incidence of malignant tumors will greatly increase, and subclonal expansion, intratumour heterogeneity, etc. will occur. This article proposed the hypothesis of genetic diversity selection and analyzed its clinical significance.
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Subject(s)
Humans , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Clinical Relevance , Evolution, Molecular , Mutation , Tumor Microenvironment
3.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 934-942, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010101

ABSTRACT

Epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) are currently the first-line standard of care for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that harbor EGFR mutations. Nevertheless, resistance to EGFR-TKIs is inevitable. In recent years, although immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have significantly shifted the treatment paradigm in advanced NSCLC without driver mutation, clinical benefits of these agents are limited in patients with EGFR-mutated NSCLC. Compared with wild-type tumors, tumors with EGFR mutations show more heterogeneity in the expression level of programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1), tumor mutational burden (TMB), and other tumor microenvironment (TME) characteristics. Whether ICIs are suitable for NSCLC patients with EGFR mutations is still worth exploring. In this review, we summarized the clinical data with regard to the efficacy of ICIs in patients with EGFR-mutated NSCLC and deciphered the unique TME in EGFR-mutated NSCLC.
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Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , ErbB Receptors/metabolism , Immunotherapy , Mutation , B7-H1 Antigen/genetics , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Tumor Microenvironment
4.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 881-888, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010097

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Drug resistance is the main cause of high mortality of lung cancer. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of folic acid (FA) on the resistance of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells to Osimertinib (OSM) by regulating the methylation of dual specificity phosphatase 1 (DUSP1).@*METHODS@#The OSM resistant NSCLC cell line PC9R was establishd by gradually escalation of OSM concentration in PC9 cells. PC9R cells were randomly grouped into Control group, OSM group (5 μmol/L OSM), FA group (600 nmol/L FA), methylation inhibitor decitabine (DAC) group (10 μmol/L DAC), FA+OSM group (600 nmol/L FA+5 μmol/L OSM), and FA+OSM+DAC group (600 nmol/L FA+5 μmol/L OSM+10 μmol/L DAC). CCK-8 method was applied to detect cell proliferation ability. Scratch test was applied to test the ability of cell migration. Transwell assay was applied to detect cell invasion ability. Flow cytometry was applied to measure and analyze the apoptosis rate of cells in each group. Real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) method was applied to detect the expression level of DUSP1 mRNA in cells. Methylation specific PCR (MSP) was applied to detect the methylation status of the DUSP1 promoter region in each group. Western blot was applied to analyze the expression levels of DUSP1 protein and key proteins in the DUSP1 downstream mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway in each group.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the Control group, the cell OD450 values (48 h, 72 h), scratch healing rate, number of cell invasions, and expression of DUSP1 in the OSM group were obviously decreased (P<0.05); the apoptosis rate, the methylation level of DUSP1, the expression of p38 MAPK protein, and the phosphorylation level of extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK) were obviously increased (P<0.05); the cell OD450 values (48, 72 h), scratch healing rate, number of cell invasions, and expression of DUSP1 in the DAC group were obviously increased (P<0.05); the apoptosis rate, the expression of p38 MAPK protein, the phosphorylation level of ERK, and the methylation level of DUSP1 were obviously reduced (P<0.05). Compared with the OSM group, the cell OD450 values (48, 72 h), scratch healing rate, number of cell invasions, and expression of DUSP1 in the FA+OSM group were obviously decreased (P<0.05); the apoptosis rate, the methylation level of DUSP1, the expression of p38 MAPK protein, and the phosphorylation level of ERK were obviously increased (P<0.05). Compared with the FA+OSM group, the cell OD450 values (48, 72 h), scratch healing rate, number of cell invasions, and expression of DUSP1 in the FA+OSM+DAC group were obviously increased; the apoptosis rate, the methylation level of DUSP1, the expression of p38 MAPK protein, and the phosphorylation level of ERK were obviously reduced (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#FA may inhibit DUSP1 expression by enhancing DUSP1 methylation, regulate downstream MAPK signal pathway, then promote apoptosis, inhibit cell invasion and metastasis, and ultimately reduce OSM resistance in NSCLC cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Dual Specificity Phosphatase 1/pharmacology , Cell Proliferation , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/pharmacology , Methylation , Apoptosis , Cell Line, Tumor
5.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 889-900, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010096

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#In China, lung cancer remains the cancer with the highest incidence and mortality rate. Among early-stage lung adenocarcinomas (LUAD), the micropapillary (MPP) component is prevalent and typically exhibits high aggressiveness, significantly correlating with early metastasis, lymphatic infiltration, and reduced five-year survival rates. Therefore, the study is to explore the similarities and differences between MPP and non-micropapillary (non-MPP) components in malignant pulmonary nodules characterized by GGOs in early-stage LUAD, identify unique mutational features of the MPP component and analyze the relationship between the ZNF469 gene, a member of the zinc-finger protein family, and the prognosis of early-stage LUAD, as well as its correlation with immune infiltration.@*METHODS@#A total of 31 malignant pulmonary nodules of LUAD were collected and dissected into paired MPP and non-MPP components using microdissection. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed on the components of early-stage malignant pulmonary nodules. Mutational signatures analysis was conducted using R packages such as maftools, Nonnegative Matrix Factorization (NMF), and Sigminer to unveil the genomic mutational characteristics unique to MPP components in invasive LUAD compared to other tumor tissues. Furthermore, we explored the expression of the ZNF469 gene in LUAD using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database to investigate its potential association with the prognosis. We also investigated gene interaction networks and signaling pathways related to ZNF469 in LUAD using the GeneMANIA database and conducted Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis. Lastly, we analyzed the correlation between ZNF469 gene expression and levels of immune cell infiltration in LUAD using the TIMER and TISIDB databases.@*RESULTS@#MPP components exhibited a higher number of genomic variations, particularly the 13th COSMIC (Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer) mutational signature characterized by the activity of the cytidine deaminase APOBEC family, which was unique to MPP components compared to non-MPP components in tumor tissues. This suggests the potential involvement of APOBEC in the progression of MPP components in early-stage LUAD. Additionally, MPP samples with high similarity to APOBEC signature displayed a higher tumor mutational burden (TMB), indicating that these patients may be more likely to benefit from immunotherapy. The expression of ZNF469 was significantly upregulated in LUAD compared to normal tissue, and was associated with poor prognosis in LUAD patients (P<0.05). Gene interaction network analysis and GO/KEGG enrichment analysis revealed that COL6A1, COL1A1, COL1A2, TGFB2, MMP2, COL8A2 and C2CD4C interacted with ZNF469 and were mainly involved in encoding collagen proteins and participating in the constitution of extracellular matrix. ZNF469 expression was positively correlated with immune cell infiltration in LUAD (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The study has unveiled distinctive mutational signatures in the MPP components of early-stage invasive LUAD in the Asian population. Furthermore, we have identified that the elevated expression of mutated ZNF469 impacts the prognosis and immune infiltration in LUAD, suggesting its potential as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker in LUAD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Adenocarcinoma of Lung/genetics , China , Prognosis , Transcription Factors
6.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 130-139, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007670

ABSTRACT

Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a highly malignant tumor with a very poor prognosis; therefore, more effective treatments are urgently needed for patients afflicted with the disease. In recent years, emerging molecular classifications based on key transcription factors of SCLC have provided more information on the tumor pathophysiology, metastasis, immune microenvironment, and acquired therapeutic resistance and reflected the intertumoral heterogeneity of the various SCLC phenotypes. Additionally, advances in genomics and single-cell sequencing analysis have further revealed the high intratumoral heterogeneity and plasticity of the disease. Herein, we review and summarize these recent lines of evidence and discuss the possible pathogenesis of SCLC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Small Cell Lung Carcinoma/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Prognosis , Genomics , Phenotype , Tumor Microenvironment
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970733

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the expression of CD24 gene in human malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) cells and tissues, and evaluate its relationship with clinicopathological characteristics and clinical prognosis of MPM patients. Methods: In February 2021, UALCAN database was used to analyze the correlation between CD24 gene expression and clinicopathological characteristics in 87 cases of MPM patients. The TIMER 2.0 platform was used to explore the relationship between the expression of CD24 in MPM and tumor immune infiltrating cells. cBioportal online tool was used to analyze the correlation between CD24 and MPM tumor marker gene expression. RT-qPCR was used to analyze the expressions of CD24 gene in human normal pleural mesothelial cell lines LP9 and MPM cell lines NCI-H28 (epithelial type), NCI-H2052 (sarcoma type), and NCI-H2452 (biphasic mixed type). RT-qPCR was performed to detect the expressions of CD24 gene in 18 cases of MPM tissues and matched normal pleural tissues. The expression difference of CD24 protein in normal mesothelial tissue and MPM tissue was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. A Kaplan-Meier model was constructed to explore the influence of CD24 gene expression on the prognosis of MPM patients, and Cox regression analysis of prognostic factors in MPM patients was performed. Results: The CD24 gene expression without TP53 mutation MPM patients was significantly higher than that of patients in TP53 mutation (P<0.05). The expression of CD24 gene in MPM was positively correlated with B cells (r(s)=0.37, P<0.001). The expression of CD24 gene had a positive correlation with the expressions of thrombospondin 2 (THBS2) (r(s)=0.26, P<0.05), and had a negative correlation with the expression of epidermal growth factor containing fibulin like extracellular matrix protein 1 (EFEMP1), mesothelin (MSLN) and calbindin 2 (CALB2) (r(s)=-0.31, -0.52, -0.43, P<0.05). RT-qPCR showed that the expression level of CD24 gene in MPM cells (NCI-H28, NCI-H2052 and NCI-H2452) was significantly higher than that in normal pleural mesothelial LP9 cells. The expression level of CD24 gene in MPM tissues was significantly higher than that in matched normal pleural tissues (P<0.05). Immunohistochemistry showed that the expressions of CD24 protein in epithelial and sarcoma MPM tissues were higher than those of matched normal pleural tissues. Compared with low expression of CD24 gene, MPM patients with high expression of CD24 gene had lower overall survival (HR=2.100, 95%CI: 1.336-3.424, P<0.05) and disease-free survival (HR=1.800, 95%CI: 1.026-2.625, P<0.05). Cox multivariate analysis showed that compared with the biphasic mixed type, the epithelial type was a protective factor for the prognosis of MPM patients (HR=0.321, 95%CI: 0.172-0.623, P<0.001). Compared with low expression of CD24 gene, high expression of CD24 gene was an independent risk factor for the prognosis of MPM patients (HR=2.412, 95%CI: 1.291-4.492, P=0.006) . Conclusion: CD24 gene and protein are highly expressed in MPM tissues, and the high expression of CD24 gene suggests poor prognosis in MPM patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mesothelioma, Malignant , Mesothelioma/diagnosis , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Pleural Neoplasms/diagnosis , Prognosis , Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis , Extracellular Matrix Proteins , CD24 Antigen/genetics
8.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 991-1002, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007382

ABSTRACT

Lung cancer is the most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer death in China. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common histological type of lung cancer. Mutations of driver genes have major impacts on incidence and progression of lung cancer. Advances in molecular biology research and clinical research have promoted the discovery of rare tumor driver genes, as well as the development and application of new targeted drugs. Nearly 1% to 2% of NSCLCs harbor RET fusions, and this patient population may not respond well to traditional treatments like chemotherapy or radiation therapy. After the new highly selective RET inhibitors pralsetinib (BLU-667) and selpercatinib (LOXO-292) entered clinical application, the diagnosis and treatment of RET fusion positive NSCLC has made breakthrough progress. At present, there is a lack of guiding consensus on the standardized diagnosis and treatment of RET fusion-positive NSCLC in China. The Society of Cancer Precision of Chinese Anti-Cancer Association and Lung Cancer Expert Group of Chinese Medical Journal, invited 38 experts form respiratory medicine, medical oncology, oncology radiotherapy and pathology to form a consensus development group. Based on the existing research evidence, combined with China's clinical practice experience, a standardized process for the diagnosis and treatment of advanced RET fusion-positive NSCLC is proposed, including suitable populations and methods for RET gene fusion, treatment drug selection, treatment of resistance to highly selective RET inhibitors, and management of adverse reactions to treatment, with a view to providing guidance for clinicians.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , China , Consensus , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret/genetics
9.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 717-740, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007377

ABSTRACT

Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with oncogenic driver mutations was previously deemed " forbidden territory" for immunotherapy. With the growing understanding of the impact of target drugs on the immune microenvironment and the continuous generation of clinical evidence, immunotherapy is expected to bring new hope for the NSCLC with oncogenic driver mutations. This consensus is updated based on the Chinese expert consensus on immunotherapy for advanced non-small lung cancer with oncogenic driver mutations (2022 edition), and developed by the consensus expert panel through symposiums, combining the latest medical evidence and clinical practice. After thorough discussion, the expert panel reached new consensuses on 3 clinical questions: in patients with ALK fusion who are progressing on tyrosine kinase inhibitor(TKI) therapy, immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs)-based treatment is not recommended; ICIs-based treatment is recommended for patients with HER-2 mutations; ICIs-based treatment is recommended for NSCLC patients with MET exon 14 skipping after resistance to the targeted therapy. At the same time, with the continuous accumulation of clinical evidence, the recommendation levels of the three consensus opinions were adjusted in this update: the recommendation of ICIs combined with anti-angiogenesis therapy for patients with extensive progression after EGFR-TKIs resistance was adjusted to the level of strong; the ICIs recommendations for patients with advanced KRAS mutant and BRAF mutant NSCLC were adjusted to the level of consistent and strong, respectively. This updated consensus, combined with the latest evidence and clinical experience widely recognized by the expert panel in the immunotherapy of driver gene mutation advanced NSCLC, aims to provide standardized guidance for the clinical practice in China.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Consensus , Immunotherapy , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Mutation , Tumor Microenvironment , China
10.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 874-880, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010095

ABSTRACT

Epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) targeting EGFR are effective in EGFR mutation-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, but drug resistance is inevitable. With the application and expansion of individualized and combined therapy, more and more studies have shown that combined administration of Metformin effectively solves the problem of acquired drug resistance to EGFR-TKIs in clinical treatment and prolongs the survival of patients with NSCLC. EGFR-TKIs combined with Metformin is expected to be the treatment method of choice for NSCLC patients with EGFR-TKIs resistance. This paper intends to summarize the research progress of EGFR-TKIs combined with Metformin in the treatment of EGFR-TKIs acquired resistance in NSCLC, in order to provide a new idea for the treatment of NSCLC patients with acquired resistance to EGFR-TKIs.
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Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Metformin/therapeutic use , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , ErbB Receptors/metabolism , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , Mutation
11.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 813-821, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010089

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is the most common type of non-small cell lung cancer, and any change of miRNAs expression will affect the degree of target regulation, thus affecting intracellular homeostasis. This study verified that miR-186-5p could inhibit the proliferation, migration and invasion of LUAD cells by regulating PRKAA2.@*METHODS@#Previous investigations found that the expression of miR-186-5p was markedly suppressed in LUAD. Bioinformatics method is used to predict the target protein related to ferroptosis downstream and inquire about its expression level in LUAD and its influence on the survival of patients. Double luciferase verified the binding site of PRKAA2 and miR-186-5p. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blot were used to detect the expression of PRKAA2. The effects of miR-186-5p of LUAD cells as well as the mechanism by which miR-186-5p inhibits Fer-1's sensitivity to ferroptosis were confirmed by EdU, Transwell, and scratch assays. The effect of miR-186-5p on the amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in LUAD cells was discovered using ROS experiment. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) experiments were used to detect the effects of miR-186-5p and PRKAA2 on ferroptosis index of LUAD cells. The concentration of lipid ROS (L-ROS) in LUAD cells were measured using the L-ROS tests to determine the effects of miR-186-5p and PRKAA2.@*RESULTS@#The expression of PRKAA2 is up-regulated, and a high level of PRKAA2 expression was associated with a poor prognosis for patients with LUAD. Overexpression of miR-186-5p decreased the gene and protein expression of PRKAA2. By promoting ferroptosis, miR-186-5p overexpression prevented lung cancer cells from proliferating, invading, and migrating. ROS could be produced in higher amounts in LUAD cells due to miR-186-5p. Overexpression of miR-186-5p and knockdown PRKAA2 up-regulated MDA content and reduced GSH content in LUAD cells, respectively. miR-186-5p could increase the content of L-ROS and promote the ferroptosis sensitivity of LUAD cells by targeting PRKAA2.@*CONCLUSIONS@#miR-186-5p promotes ferroptosis of LUAD cells through targeted regulation of PRKAA2, thus inhibiting the proliferation, invasion and migration of LUAD.
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Subject(s)
Humans , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Ferroptosis/genetics , Reactive Oxygen Species , Adenocarcinoma of Lung/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics , 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine , Cell Proliferation/genetics , Cell Movement/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Cell Line, Tumor , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases
12.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 774-781, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010085

ABSTRACT

Lung cancer associated with cystic airspaces (LCCA) is a type of lung cancer characterized by the presence of cystic cavities in or around the tumor on imaging. Due to its high potential for misdiagnosis or underdiagnosis, the prognosis of LCCA patients is poor, necessitating further large-scale clinical studies to elucidate its characteristics. Currently, four imaging classification systems exist, and there has been a progressive increase in attention towards LCCA, particularly with regard to the study of its imaging features. The results indicate a correlation between the pathological features and imaging findings of LCCA; however, research on driver gene mutations and molecular subtyping associated with lung cancer remains insufficient. Due to the challenges associated with early diagnosis and the poorer prognosis compared to general types of lung cancer, this paper comprehensively reviews the research progress on LCCA, including its definition, etiology, pathogenesis, imaging features, histological and pathological features, treatment, and prognosis, aiming to serve as a valuable resource for clinical decision-making.
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Subject(s)
Humans , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Prognosis
13.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 765-773, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010084

ABSTRACT

Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world, and its treatment strategy is mainly surgery combined with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. However, long-term chemotherapy will result in drug resistance, which is also one of the difficulties in the treatment of lung cancer. Ferroptosis is an iron-dependent and lipid peroxidation-driven non-apoptotic cell death cascade, occurring when there is an imbalance of redox homeostasis in the cell. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is key for cellular antioxidant responses. Numerous studies suggest that Nrf2 assumes an extremely important role in regulation of ferroptosis, for its various functions in iron, lipid, and amino acid metabolism, and so on. In this review, a brief overview of the research progress of ferroptosis over the past decade will be presented. In particular, the mechanism of ferroptosis and the regulation of ferroptosis by Nrf2 will be discussed, as well as the role of the Nrf2 pathway and ferroptosis in tumor drug resistance, which will provide new research directions for the treatment of drug-resistant lung cancer patients.
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Subject(s)
Humans , Ferroptosis , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , Iron
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008989

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the potential biological functions and prognostic prediction values of non-apoptotic regulated cell death genes (NARCDs) in lung adenocarcinoma.Methods Transcriptome data of lung adenocarcinoma were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas and Gene Expression Omnibus databases. We identified differentially expressed NARCDs between lung adenocarcinoma tissues and normal tissues with R software. NARCDs signature was constructed with univariate Cox regression analysis and the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator Cox regression. The prognostic predictive capacity of NARCDs signature was assessed by Kaplan-Meier survival curve, receiver operating characteristic curve, and univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses. Functional enrichment of NARCDs signature was analyzed with gene set variation analysis, Gene Ontology, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. In addition, differences in tumor mutational burden, tumor microenvironment, tumor immune dysfunction and exclusion score, and chemotherapeutic drug sensitivity were analyzed between the high and low NARCDs score groups. Finally, a protein-protein interaction network of NARCDs and immune-related genes was constructed by STRING and Cytoscape software. Results We identified 34 differentially expressed NARCDs associated with the prognosis, of which 16 genes (ATIC, AURKA, CA9, ITGB4, DDIT4, CDK5R1, CAV1, RRM2, GAPDH, SRXN1, NLRC4, GLS2, ADRB2, CX3CL1, GDF15, and ADRA1A) were selected to construct a NARCDs signature. NARCDs signature was identified as an independent prognostic factor (P < 0.001). Functional analysis showed that there were significant differences in mismatch repair, p53 signaling pathway, and cell cycle between the high NARCDs score group and low NARCDs score group (all P < 0.05). The NARCDs low score group had lower tumor mutational burden, higher immune score, higher tumor immune dysfunction and exclusion score, and lower drug sensitivity (all P < 0.05). In addition, the 10 hub genes (CXCL5, TLR4, JUN, IL6, CCL2, CXCL2, ILA, IFNG, IL33, and GAPDH) in protein-protein interaction network of NARCDs and immune-related genes were all immune-related genes. Conclusion The NARCDs prognostic signature based on the above 16 genes is an independent prognostic factor, which can effectively predict the clinical prognosis of patients of lung adenocarcinoma and provide help for clinical treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Prognosis , Apoptosis , Regulated Cell Death , Adenocarcinoma of Lung/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Tumor Microenvironment
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008757

ABSTRACT

This study aims to investigate the effects of Blaps rynchopetera Fairmaire and/or cyclophosphamide on the proliferation and apoptosis of lung cancer cells and decipher the underlying mechanism. B. rynchopetera and cyclophosphamide-containing serum and blank serum were prepared from SD rats. Cell counting kit-8(CCK-8) assay was employed to examine the proliferation of lung cancer cell lines A549 and Lewis treated with corresponding agents. The Jin's formula method was used to evaluate the combined effect of the two drugs. According to the evaluation results, appropriate drug concentrations and lung cancer cell line were selected for subsequent experiments, which included control, B. rynchopetera, cyclophosphamide, B. rynchopetera + cyclophosphamide, and B. rynchopetera + Wnt/β-catenin pathway agonist lithium chloride(LiCl) groups. Immunocytochemistry was employed to measure the expression of proliferation-related proteins in Lewis cells after drug interventions. Flow cytometry was employed to determine the cell cycle and apoptosis. The expression levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen(PCNA), cyclinD1, B-cell lymphoma 2(Bcl-2), Bcl-2-assiocated X protein(Bax), Wnt1, and β-catenin were determined by Western blot. The results showed that B. rynchopetera and/or cyclophosphamide significantly inhibited the proliferation of A549 and Lewis cells. Compared with B. rynchopetera alone, the combination increased the inhibition rate on cell proliferation. The combination of B. rynchopetera and cyclophosphamide demonstrated a synergistic effect according to Jin's formula-based evaluation. Compared with the control group, the B. rynchopetera, cyclophosphamide, and B. rynchopetera + cyclophosphamide groups showed increased proportion of Lewis cells in G_0/G_1 phase, increased apoptosis rate, up-regulated expression of Bax, and down-regulated expression of PCNA, cyclinD1, Bcl-2, Wnt1, and β-catenin. Compared with the cyclophosphamide group, the combination group showed increased proportion of cells in G_0/G_1 phase, increased apoptosis rate, up-regulated expression of Bax, and down-regulated expression of PCNA, cyclinD1, Bcl-2, Wnt1, and β-catenin. Compared with the B. rynchopetera group, the B. rynchopetera + LiCl group had deceased proportion of cells in G_0/G_1 phase, decreased apoptosis rate, down-regulated expression of Bax, and up-regulated expression of PCNA, cyclinD1, Bcl-2, Wnt1, and β-catenin. The results indicated that B. rynchopetera could inhibit the proliferation, arrest the cell cycle, and induce the apoptosis of lung cancer cells by inhibiting the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Moreover, B. rynchopetera had a synergistic effect with cyclophosphamide.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Wnt Signaling Pathway , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , beta Catenin/metabolism , Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/metabolism , Rats, Inbred Lew , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Apoptosis , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/metabolism , Cell Proliferation , Cyclophosphamide , Cell Line, Tumor
16.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1937-1948, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980973

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Lung cancer prevails and induces high mortality around the world. This study provided real-world information on the evolution of clinicopathological profiles and survival outcomes of lung cancer, and provided survival information within stage I subtypes.@*METHODS@#Patients pathologically confirmed with lung cancer between January 2009 and December 2018 were identified with complete clinicopathological information, molecular testing results, and follow-up data. Shifts in clinical characteristics were evaluated using χ2 tests. Overall survival (OS) was calculated through the Kaplan-Meier method.@*RESULTS@#A total of 26,226 eligible lung cancer patients were included, among whom 62.55% were male and 52.89% were smokers. Non-smokers and elderly patients took increasingly larger proportions in the whole patient population. The proportion of adenocarcinoma increased from 51.63% to 71.80%, while that of squamous carcinoma decreased from 28.43% to 17.60%. Gene mutations including EGFR (52.14%), KRAS (12.14%), and ALK (8.12%) were observed. Female, younger, non-smoking, adenocarcinoma patients and those with mutated EGFR had better survival prognoses. Importantly, this study validated that early detection of early-stage lung cancer patients had contributed to pronounced survival benefits during the decade. Patients with stage I lung cancer, accounted for an increasingly considerable proportion, increasing from 15.28% to 40.25%, coinciding with the surgery rate increasing from 38.14% to 54.25%. Overall, period survival analyses found that 42.69% of patients survived 5 years, and stage I patients had a 5-year OS of 84.20%. Compared with that in 2009-2013, the prognosis of stage I patients in 2014-2018 was dramatically better, with 5-year OS increasing from 73.26% to 87.68%. Regarding the specific survival benefits among stage I patients, the 5-year survival rates were 95.28%, 93.25%, 82.08%, and 74.50% for stage IA1, IA2, IA3, and IB, respectively, far more promising than previous reports.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Crucial clinical and pathological changes have been observed in the past decade. Notably, the increased incidence of stage I lung cancer coincided with an improved prognosis, indicating actual benefits of early detection and management of lung cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Prognosis , Survival Rate , Mutation , ErbB Receptors/genetics , Neoplasm Staging , Retrospective Studies
17.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1422-1429, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980945

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are increasingly used as first-line therapy for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring no actionable mutations; however, data on their efficacy among patients presenting with intracranial lesions are limited. This study aimed to explore the efficacy and safety of ICIs combined with chemotherapy in advanced NSCLC patients with measurable brain metastasis at initial diagnosis.@*METHODS@#Our study retrospectively analyzed clinical data of a total of 211 patients diagnosed with driver gene mutation-negative advanced NSCLC with measurable, asymptomatic brain metastasis at baseline from Hunan Cancer Hospital between January 1, 2019 and September 30, 2021. The patients were stratified into two groups according to the first-line treatment regimen received: ICI combined with chemotherapy ( n = 102) or chemotherapy ( n = 109). Systemic and intracranial objective response rates (ORRs) and progression-free survival (PFS) were analyzed. Adverse events were also compared between the groups.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the chemotherapy-based regimen, the ICI-containing regimen was associated with a significantly higher intracranial (44.1% [45/102] vs . 28.4% [31/109], χ2 = 5.620, P = 0.013) and systemic (49.0% [50/102] vs . 33.9% [37/109], χ2 = 4.942, P = 0.019) ORRs and longer intracranial (11.0 months vs . 7.0 months, P <0.001) and systemic (9.0 months vs . 5.0 months, P <0.001) PFS. Multivariable analysis consistently revealed an independent association between receiving ICI plus platinum-based chemotherapy as a first-line regimen and prolonged intracranial PFS (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.52, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.37-0.73, P <0.001) and systemic PFS (HR = 0.48, 95% CI: 0.35-0.66, P <0.001). No unexpected serious adverse effects were observed.@*CONCLUSION@#Our study provides real-world clinical evidence that ICI combined with chemotherapy is a promising first-line treatment option for driver gene mutation-negative advanced NSCLC patients who present with brain metastasis at initial diagnosis.@*CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION@#https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ , OMESIA, NCT05129202.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Brain Neoplasms/genetics
18.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 279-290, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980722

ABSTRACT

Lung cancer is the malignant tumor with the highest incidence and mortality rate in China, among which non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for about 85%. BRAF mutation occurs about 1.5% to 5.5% in NSCLC patients, while BRAF V600 accounts for about 30% to 50% of all BRAF mutations. The overall prognosis of patients with BRAF-mutation is poor. At present, there are many clinical trials on BRAF-mutation NSCLC and new drugs constantly emerging. However, there is no standardized consensus on the diagnosis and treatment of BRAF-mutation NSCLC in China. The expert group of the Lung Cancer Professional Committee of the Chinese Anti-Cancer Association formulated this consensus by integrating foreign and domestic BRAF-mutation-related guidelines, consensus, and existing clinical trials, and combining with Chinese experts' clinical experience in the diagnosis and treatment of BRAF-mutation NSCLC. This consensus provides systematic recommendations for the clinical diagnosis and treatment process, rational drug choice, and adverse events management of BRAF-mutation NSCLC, aiming to provide reference for the standard of diagnosis and treatment of BRAF-mutation NSCLC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf/genetics , Consensus , Mutation
19.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 18-42, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971635

ABSTRACT

With the improved understanding of driver mutations in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), expanding the targeted therapeutic options improved the survival and safety. However, responses to these agents are commonly temporary and incomplete. Moreover, even patients with the same oncogenic driver gene can respond diversely to the same agent. Furthermore, the therapeutic role of immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in oncogene-driven NSCLC remains unclear. Therefore, this review aimed to classify the management of NSCLC with driver mutations based on the gene subtype, concomitant mutation, and dynamic alternation. Then, we provide an overview of the resistant mechanism of target therapy occurring in targeted alternations ("target-dependent resistance") and in the parallel and downstream pathways ("target-independent resistance"). Thirdly, we discuss the effectiveness of ICIs for NSCLC with driver mutations and the combined therapeutic approaches that might reverse the immunosuppressive tumor immune microenvironment. Finally, we listed the emerging treatment strategies for the new oncogenic alternations, and proposed the perspective of NSCLC with driver mutations. This review will guide clinicians to design tailored treatments for NSCLC with driver mutations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Mutation , Tumor Microenvironment/genetics
20.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 123-136, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971616

ABSTRACT

NDFIP1 has been previously reported as a tumor suppressor in multiple solid tumors, but the function of NDFIP1 in NSCLC and the underlying mechanism are still unknown. Besides, the WW domain containing proteins can be recognized by NDFIP1, resulted in the loading of the target proteins into exosomes. However, whether WW domain-containing transcription regulator 1 (WWTR1, also known as TAZ) can be packaged into exosomes by NDFIP1 and if so, whether the release of this oncogenic protein via exosomes has an effect on tumor development has not been investigated to any extent. Here, we first found that NDFIP1 was low expressed in NSCLC samples and cell lines, which is associated with shorter OS. Then, we confirmed the interaction between TAZ and NDFIP1, and the existence of TAZ in exosomes, which requires NDFIP1. Critically, knockout of NDFIP1 led to TAZ accumulation with no change in its mRNA level and degradation rate. And the cellular TAZ level could be altered by exosome secretion. Furthermore, NDFIP1 inhibited proliferation in vitro and in vivo, and silencing TAZ eliminated the increase of proliferation caused by NDFIP1 knockout. Moreover, TAZ was negatively correlated with NDFIP1 in subcutaneous xenograft model and clinical samples, and the serum exosomal TAZ level was lower in NSCLC patients. In summary, our data uncover a new tumor suppressor, NDFIP1 in NSCLC, and a new exosome-related regulatory mechanism of TAZ.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/metabolism , Carrier Proteins/metabolism , Cell Line , Cell Proliferation , Exosomes/metabolism , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Transcriptional Coactivator with PDZ-Binding Motif Proteins/metabolism
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