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Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 474-488, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929086


Astrocytes are increasingly recognized to play an active role in learning and memory, but whether neural inputs can trigger event-specific astrocytic Ca2+ dynamics in real time to participate in working memory remains unclear due to the difficulties in directly monitoring astrocytic Ca2+ dynamics in animals performing tasks. Here, using fiber photometry, we showed that population astrocytic Ca2+ dynamics in the hippocampus were gated by sensory inputs (centered at the turning point of the T-maze) and modified by the reward delivery during the encoding and retrieval phases. Notably, there was a strong inter-locked and antagonistic relationship between the astrocytic and neuronal Ca2+ dynamics with a 3-s phase difference. Furthermore, there was a robust synchronization of astrocytic Ca2+ at the population level among the hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex, and striatum. The inter-locked, bidirectional communication between astrocytes and neurons at the population level may contribute to the modulation of information processing in working memory.

Animals , Humans , Mice , Astrocytes , Hippocampus/physiology , Memory, Short-Term/physiology , Neurons/physiology , Population Dynamics
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928222


Transcranial magneto-acoustic-electrical stimulation is a new non-invasive neuromodulation technology, in which the induced electric field generated by the coupling effect of ultrasound and static magnetic field are used to regulate the neural rhythm oscillation activity in the corresponding brain region. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of transcranial magneto-acoustic-electrical stimulation on the information transfer and communication in neuronal clusters during memory. In the experiment, twenty healthy adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into a control group (five rats) and stimulation groups (fifteen rats). Transcranial magneto-acoustic-electrical stimulation of 0.05~0.15 T and 2.66~13.33 W/cm 2 was applied to the rats in stimulation groups, and no stimulation was applied to the rats in the control group. The local field potentials signals in the prefrontal cortex of rats during the T-maze working memory tasks were acquired. Then the coupling differences between delta rhythm phase, theta rhythm phase and gamma rhythm amplitude of rats in different parameter stimulation groups and control group were compared. The experimental results showed that the coupling intensity of delta and gamma rhythm in stimulation groups was significantly lower than that in the control group ( P<0.05), while the coupling intensity of theta and gamma rhythm was significantly higher than that in the control group ( P<0.05). With the increase of stimulation parameters, the degree of coupling between delta and gamma rhythm showed a decreasing trend, while the degree of coupling between theta and gamma rhythm tended to increase. The preliminary results of this paper indicated that transcranial magneto-acoustic-electrical stimulation inhibited delta rhythmic neuronal activity and enhanced the oscillation of theta and gamma rhythm in the prefrontal cortex, thus promoted the exchange and transmission of information between neuronal clusters in different spatial scales. This lays the foundation for further exploring the mechanism of transcranial magneto-acoustic-electrical stimulation in regulating brain memory function.

Animals , Rats , Acoustics , Electric Stimulation , Memory, Short-Term/physiology , Rats, Wistar , Theta Rhythm/physiology , Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(1): 36-41, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137146


Abstract Background and objectives: This clinical trial aimed to evaluate the effects of two different inhalation anesthetic agents on postoperative olfactory memory and olfactory function in patients who underwent micro laryngeal surgery. Methods: This randomized prospective controlled study consisted of 102 consecutive patients with a voice disorder. The patients underwent micro laryngeal surgery for voice disorders under general anesthesia. Patients who did not meet inclusion criteria and/or declined to participate (n = 34) were excluded from the study. Patients were divided into two groups. Four patients from Group 1 and four patients from Group 2 were lost to follow-up. Group 1 (n = 30) received sevoflurane, and Group 2 (n = 30) received desflurane during anesthesia. We compared the results by performing the pre-op and post-op Connecticut Chemosensory Clinical Research Center Olfactory test. Results: Thirty-three patients (55%) were male and 27 (45%) were female. The mean age was 48.18 ± 13.88 years (range: 19‒70 years). Preoperative and postoperative olfactory functions did not show a significant difference within the groups postoperatively (p > 0.05). Preoperative and postoperative olfactory memory showed a significant decrease 3 hours after the surgery (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Olfactory functions and memory were not affected by desflurane in the early postoperative period. Although sevoflurane did not affect olfactory functions, it had a temporary negative effect on olfactory memory in the early postoperative period.

Resumo Introdução e objetivos: O estudo avaliou o efeito pós-operatório de dois agentes anestésicos inalatórios distintos na memória olfativa de curta duração e na função olfativa em pacientes submetidos à microcirurgia de laringe. Método: O estudo prospectivo controlado randomizado avaliou, consecutivamente, 102 pacientes com alteração vocal submetidos à microcirurgia de laringe sob anestesia geral. Trinta e quatro pacientes não obedeceram aos critérios de inclusão e/ou não aceitaram participar do estudo e foram excluídos. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos. Quatro pacientes do Grupo 1 e quatro do Grupo 2 foram perdidos durante o seguimento. O Grupo 1 (n = 30) recebeu sevoflurano durante a anestesia e o Grupo 2 (n = 30), desflurano. Comparamos resultados pré e pós-operatórios de memória olfativa e funções olfativas, realizando o Connecticut Chemosensory Clinical Research Center Olfactory test. Resultados: Foram incluídos um total de 33 (55%) homens e 27 (45%) mulheres. A idade média foi 48,18 ± 13,88 anos (variação: 19-70 anos). As funções olfativas pré e pós-operatórias não apresentaram diferença estatisticamente significante dentro dos grupos no pós-operatório (p > 0,05). A memória olfativa pré e pós-operatória não mostrou diminuição estatisticamente significante quando avaliada três horas após a cirurgia (p< 0,05). Conclusões: Memória e funções olfativas não foram alteradas pelo desflurano no pós-operatório imediato. Embora o sevoflurano não tenha alterado as funções olfativas, causou efeito temporário negativo na memória olfativa no pós-operatório imediato.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Smell/drug effects , Smell/physiology , Anesthetics, Inhalation/pharmacology , Sevoflurane/pharmacology , Desflurane/pharmacology , Memory, Short-Term/drug effects , Memory, Short-Term/physiology , Postoperative Period , Prospective Studies , Larynx/surgery , Middle Aged
CoDAS ; 32(2): e20180107, 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055900


RESUMO Objetivo Investigar o desempenho lexical e a habilidade de memória de curto prazo verbal em crianças prematuras em idade pré-escolar, e comparar os resultados com seus pares nascidos a termo. Método Participaram do estudo 40 pré-escolares com idade entre 4 e 5 anos e 11 meses divididos em dois grupos, sendo 20 nascidos prematuros e 20 nascidos a termo. Os grupos não diferiram quanto à idade, renda familiar e escolaridade materna. Foram utilizados testes de vocabulário expressivo e memória de curto prazo verbal. A análise estatística inferencial foi realizada por meio dos testes de Mann-Whitney e exato de Fisher. Resultados O desempenho dos grupos não diferiu na tarefa de vocabulário, mas o grupo de prematuros apresentou desempenho inferior ao de seus pares na tarefa de repetição de não palavras. Conclusão Nesta amostra, o desempenho dos pré-escolares que nasceram prematuros foi estatisticamente inferior ao daqueles nascidos a termo apenas na tarefa de repetição de não palavras. Assim, o nascimento prematuro esteve associado a desempenho no vocabulário expressivo compatível com o esperado para a idade, porém com prejuízos na memória de curto prazo verbal.

ABSTRACT Purpose To investigate lexical performance and verbal short-term memory ability in premature infants at preschool age and compare the results with their full-term peers. Methods Forty preschool children aged between 4 and 5 years and 11 months participated on the study and were equally divided into two groups considering their gestational age: preterm and full-term. Groups did not differ on age, family income and maternal education. Participants were paired according to their chronological age and their socioeconomic status. Their performance was assessed using expressive vocabulary and verbal short-term memory tests. Inferential statistical analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney and the Fisher exact test. Results Group performance did not differ on vocabulary, but premature children showed an inferior performance on nonword repetition tasks. Conclusion These data indicates that preschoolers born premature performed statistically lower than their peers born full-term on nonword repetition task. Thus, premature birth was associated to vocabulary development on typically developing range, but also to verbal short-term memory impairments.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Vocabulary , Memory, Short-Term/physiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Twins , Infant, Premature , Child Development/physiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Gestational Age , Language Development , Language Tests
Rev. chil. neuropsicol. (En línea) ; 15(2): 1-7, 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361721


Los niños con trastorno por déficit de atención con hiperactividad (TDAH) presentan fallas en diversos componentes de las funciones ejecutivas (FE) como en el control inhibitorio y la memoria de trabajo (MT), las cuales además pueden predecir alteraciones en la regulación emocional (RE). Estas alteraciones son comunes en los niños con TDAH y pueden manifestarse mediante fallas en la conducta social (CS). El presente estudio tiene un diseño de investigación no experimental, transeccional correlacional-causal. El objetivo fue determinar qué componente de las FE media la interacción entre la RE y la CS en niños con TDAH. Participaron 234 niños de ambos sexos entre 6 y 12 años distribuidos en dos grupos: 138 niños con desarrollo típico y 96 niños con TDAH. Los resultados muestran que la MT fue el componente de las FE que medió de manera significativa la relación entre la RE y la CS principalmente para el grupo con TDAH en presentación combinada (ß = -.16; IC 95% [-0.30, -0.01], p < .001). Se concluye que, para comprender las fallas en la RE en los niños con TDAH, es importante evaluar la MT y tomar en cuenta el tipo de presentación predominante del trastorno, lo cual pudiera predecir el impacto que tienen dichos déficits sobre la CS.

Children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) present failures in various components of the executive functioning (EF) such as inhibitory control and working memory (WM), which can also predict alterations in emotional regulation (ER). These deficits are common in children with ADHD and it can be manifested through failures in social behavior (SB). The present study has a non-experimental, transectional correlational-causal research design. The aim was to determine which component of EF mediates the interaction between ER and SB in children with ADHD. 234 male and female children between 6 and 12 years old participated, divided in two groups: 138 children with typical development and 96 children with ADHD. The results show that WM was the component of EF that significantly mediated the relationship between ER and SB, mainly for the group with ADHD in combined presentation (ß = -.16; 95% CI [-0.30, -0.01], p <.001). It is concluded that, to understand ER failures in children with ADHD, it is important to evaluate WM and take into account the type of predominant presentation in the disorder, which could predict the impact that these deficits have on SC.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/psychology , Social Behavior , Emotional Regulation/physiology , Memory, Short-Term/physiology , Attention
Rev. chil. neuropsicol. (En línea) ; 15(2): 29-36, 2020. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361781


Introducción: Estudios multidisciplinarios que involucran mecanismos hormonales, neuronales, conductuales y de cognición contribuyen en las neurociencias. Los estrógenos localizados en el hipocampo y en la corteza prefrontal, pueden afectar la memoria de trabajo. Objetivo: evaluar neuropsicológicamente y comparar el desempeño en memoria de trabajo verbal y visual, durante la premenopausia, perimenopausia y postmenopausia. Se hipotetizó el peor desempeño en memoria de trabajo verbal en etapa de perimenopausia y, la mejor competencia en memoria de trabajo visual para mujeres en etapa de postmenopausia. Método: Estudio exploratorio, no experimental, transversal, con muestreo no probabilístico. 59 mujeres saludables de la población general en edad mediana. Variables clínicas y memoria de trabajo. Resultados: En la memoria de trabajo verbal no hubo diferencia significativa. En la memoria de trabajo visual, hubo diferencia significativa e importante (Ɛ2 R = .23, p = .001 y Ɛ2 R = .12, p = .047) en subpruebas que involucran la visoconstrucción, a diferencia de la subprueba de elección múltiple que no hubo diferencia significativa con el peor desempeño en la perimenopausia. Conclusiones: La memoria de trabajo se encuentra disociada, observando en la memoria de trabajo verbal el rendimiento en función del envejecimiento reproductivo y en la memoria de trabajo visual afectación por fluctuaciones hormonales, siendo una función sensible para detectar fallas cognoscitivas en forma temprana, que pudieran asociarse con enfermedades neurodegenerativas en la vejez. Es relevante considerar al momento de valorar a las mujeres, la etapa del climaterio que estén transitando, por la posible comorbilidad en el SNC.

Introduction: Multidisciplinary studies involving hormones, neurons, behavioral and cognitive functions promote neurosciences. Estrogens located in the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex can affect working memory. Aim: Neuropsychological evaluation and comparison the efficiency in verbal and visual working memory in premenopausal, perimenopausal and postmenopausal stages. It was hypothesized the worst performance in verbal working memory in perimenopause stage, and the best competition in visual working memory in the postmenopausal stage. Method: Exploratory, non-experimental, cross-sectional study, with non-probability sampling. 59 healthy women from the general population. Study clinical, mental health and working memory. Results: There was no significant difference in verbal working memory. In visual working memory there was significant and relevant difference (Ɛ2 R = .23, p = .001 y Ɛ2 R = .12, p = .047) in the subtest involves visual construction; unlike the multiple-choice subtest there was no significant difference, finding the worst performance in perimenopause. Conclusions: Working memory is dissociated, verbal working memory observed performance based on reproductive aging and visual working memory supports the participation of hormonal fluctuations. It is considered a sensitive measure to detect cognitive failures early, which could be associated with neurodegenerative diseases in the aging. When evaluating middle-aged women, it is important to consider the stage of menopausal status that is transiting, due to the possible comorbidity in the CNS.

Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Climacteric/physiology , Memory, Short-Term/physiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Neuropsychology
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(4): 254-259, Apr. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001353


ABSTRACT This study aimed to verify whether children with dyslexia have difficulties in executive functions (shifting, working memory, inhibition). Methods: A sample of 47 children (ages 8-13 years) participated in the study: 24 who were dyslexic and 23 controls with typical development. A battery of neuropsychological tests was used. Results: Results revealed executive function difficulties among the dyslexic children when compared with controls, encompassing selective attention modulation processes, shifting, and inhibitory control. These difficulties appeared to be affected by phonological working memory deficits, typically associated with dyslexia. Conclusion: Our findings support the consensus among scholars regarding the central involvement of phonological skill dysfunctions in dyslexia.

RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar se crianças com dislexia têm dificuldades nas habilidades de funções executivas (shifting, memória operacional e inibição). Métodos: Uma amostra de 47 crianças (idades entre 8 e 13 anos) participaram do estudo: 24 crianças disléxicas e 23 crianças com desenvolvimento típico. Uma bateria de avaliação neuropsicológica foi usada. Results: Os resultados revelaram dificuldades nas funções executivas nas crianças disléxicas quando comparadas com as controle, envolvendo processos de modulação de atenção seletiva, shifting e controle inibitório. Essas dificuldades parecem ser afetadas pelos déficits na memória operacional fonológica, tipicamente associada à dislexia. Conclusion: Assim, nossos achados suportam o consenso de que a disfunção central da dislexia está nas habilidades fonológicas.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Dyslexia/physiopathology , Executive Function/physiology , Reference Values , Attention/physiology , Phonetics , Case-Control Studies , Disability Evaluation , Memory, Short-Term/physiology , Neuropsychological Tests
Rev. cuba. obstet. ginecol ; 45(1): 137-146, ene.-mar. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093630


La memoria es la capacidad para aprender, organizar y fijar eventos de nuestro pasado y se encuentra íntimamente ligado a la función de la atención. Es capaz de guardar datos a través de mecanismos ultra complejos que se desarrollan en tres etapas: codificación, almacenamiento y evocación. La presencia de la amnesia impide que esta capacidad se desarrolle adecuadamente. La amnesia ocurre cuando se comprueba que alguien ha perdido o tiene debilitada la memoria. Hay varias causas de pérdida de la memoria, como ha sido señalado, por ejemplo, en la etapa del climaterio y la menopausia donde este aspecto es considerado para clasificar la intensidad del síndrome climatérico que se presenta con frecuencia en esta etapa. La persona que sufre este trastorno no es capaz de almacenar ni de recuperar información recibida con anticipación, ya sea por motivos orgánicos o funcionales. La amnesia (del griego ἀμνησία amnesia, olvido) es la pérdida parcial o completa de la memoria. Sus causas son orgánicas o funcionales. Muchas mujeres, cuando se encuentran embarazadas experimentan una pérdida parcial de memoria a corto plazo conocida como amnesia del embarazo, mumnecia, o lo que los anglosajones suelen llamar placenta's brain (cerebro de placenta). Durante el embarazo, las fluctuaciones hormonales que experimenta la mujer producen cambios en la actividad cerebral, provocando una pérdida parcial de memoria a corto plazo. Sobre este aspecto abordaremos el estado actual que hay sobre este tema(AU)

Memory is the capacity to learn, organize and fix events of our past and is intimately linked to the function of attention. It is capable of saving data through ultra-complex mechanisms that are developed in three stages: coding, storage and evocation. The presence of amnesia prevents this ability from developing properly. Amnesia occurs when it is proven that someone has lost or has weakened memory. There are several causes of memory loss, as has been pointed out, for example, in the climacteric stage and menopause where this aspect is considered to classify the intensity of the climacteric syndrome that frequently occurs in this stage. The person suffering from this disorder is not able to store or retrieve information received in advance, for organic or functional reasons. Amnesia (from Greek ἀμνησία amnesia, forgetfulness) is the partial or complete loss of memory. Many pregnant women experience a partial loss of short-term memory known as pregnancy amnesia, mumnecia, or placenta's brain as the Anglo-Saxons usually call it. During pregnancy, the hormonal fluctuations experienced by women produce changes in brain activity, causing partial loss of short-term memory. On this aspect, we will address the status on this topic(AU)

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/diagnosis , Amnesia/epidemiology , Memory Disorders/epidemiology , Memory, Short-Term/physiology , Knowledge
CoDAS ; 31(4): e20180181, 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019717


RESUMO Objetivo Mensurar o esforço auditivo com o uso de um paradigma de tarefa dupla de memória operacional e analisar a significância clínica do desempenho de indivíduos normo-ouvintes. Método Participaram 10 adultos jovens, entre 18 e 30 anos, de ambos os gêneros, normo-ouvintes classificados segundo a média quadritonal (500, 1000, 2000 e 4000Hz) e com nível sociocultural similar. Os participantes foram submetidos à anamnese audiológica, meatoscopia e audiometria tonal limiar. Para a mensuração do esforço auditivo, utilizou-se um paradigma de tarefa dupla, composto por tarefas de percepção de fala e memória operacional de logatomas, palavras reais e sentenças sem sentido. Anteriormente à mensuração, o paradigma de tarefa dupla foi realizado no silêncio com o intuito de treinar os participantes a desempenharem as tarefas adequadamente. Após a fase de treinamento, este paradigma foi realizado em duas situações de escuta distintas, nas relações sinal/ruído de +5 e -5dB, com o ruído do tipo White Noise. Resultados A comparação do desempenho por orelha, direita ou esquerda, nas duas relações sinal-ruído demonstrou efeito significante para as tarefas de percepção de fala de logatomas e sentenças sem sentido em ambas as orelhas, porém para a tarefa de esforço auditivo e memória operacional houve diferença significante apenas para a orelha direita. Conclusão Foi possível mensurar o esforço auditivo com o uso do paradigma proposto e este instrumento demonstrou ser sensível para a quantificação deste parâmetro auditivo.

ABSTRACT Purpose To measure listening effort using of a dual-task paradigm of working memory and analyze the clinical significance of the normal-hearing individuals' performance. Methods Participants were 10 young adults with similar socio-cultural level, aged 18-30 years, of both genders, classified as normal-hearing individuals based on the quadritonal average (500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 Hz). The participants were submitted to audiological anamnesis, meatoscopy, and pure tone audiometry. Listening effort was measured using a dual-task paradigm comprising the tasks of speech perception and working memory with logatomes, real words, and meaningless sentences. Prior to measurement, the dual-task paradigm was carried out in audiometric booth in order to train the participants to perform the tasks properly. After the training stage, this paradigm was conducted under two different hearing situations with white noise: signal-to-noise ratios of +5 and -5dB. Results Performance comparison per ear, right or left, for the two signal-to-noise ratios significantly influenced the speech perception tasks with logatomes and meaningless sentences in both ears; however, significant difference was observed only for the right ear in the tasks of listening effort and working memory. Conclusion Listening effort can be measured using the paradigm proposed, and this instrument was proven sensitive for the quantification of this auditory parameter.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Auditory Perception/physiology , Speech Perception/physiology , Acoustic Stimulation/methods , Audiometry, Pure-Tone , Task Performance and Analysis , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Memory, Short-Term/physiology
Rev. chil. neuropsicol. (En línea) ; 13(2): 58-62, dic. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1100358


El trastorno de Tourette (TT) es un trastorno del neurodesarrollo que aparece en la primera infancia caracterizado por la presencia de tics fónicos y motores que dificultan la socialización y el proceso de aprendizaje escolar. El TT posee una variada comorbilidad que incluye el trastorno por déficit de atención con hiperactividad (TDAH), el trastorno obsesivo compulsivo (TOC), y dificultades de aprendizaje y del comportamiento. Presentamos el caso de un adolescente de 13 años diagnosticado con TT y con TDAH a los 6 y 10 años respectivamente. El paciente ha tenido una escolarización dificultosa y se encuentra con tratamiento médico de clozapina, aripiprazol, haloperidol y litio. Se aplica una batería neuropsicológica para evaluar la atención e inhibición, organización visuoespacial, memoria de trabajo, flexibilidad cognitiva, memoria verbal y memoria no-verbal, con el propósito de describir su perfil cognitivo de funciones ejecutivas y memoria. El estudio reveló que la atención está deteriorada pero que la inhibición se encuentra preservada; esto confirma el diagnóstico de TDAH y establece el subtipo de inatento para el caso en estudio. Las demás funciones ejecutivas evaluadas se encuentran severamente descendidas, situación que es coincidente con el perfil desarrollado por otros autores para el TT con comorbilidad TDAH. Sin embargo, no es claro si la disfuncionalidad ejecutiva se debe al TDAH que presenta, o a factores sociales y culturales derivados de las dificultades de escolarización causadas por el TT.

Tourette's disorder (TD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that appears in early childhood characterized by the presence of phonic and motor tics that hinder socialization and the school learning process. TD has a varied comorbidity that includes attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), learning and behavioral difficulties. We present the case of a 13-year-old adolescent diagnosed with TD and with ADHD at 6 and 10 years old respectively. The patient has had a difficult schooling and is under medical treatment of clozapine, aripiprazole, haloperidol and lithium. A neuropsychological battery is applied to evaluate the attention and inhibition, visuospatial organization, working memory, cognitive flexibility, verbal memory and non-verbal memory, with the purpose of describing its cognitive profile of executive functions and memory. The study revealed that the attention is impaired but that the inhibition is preserved; This confirms the diagnosis of ADHD and establishes the inattentive subtype for the case under study. The other executive functions evaluated are severely descended, a situation that coincides with the profile developed by other authors for TD with comorbid ADHD. However, it is not clear if the executive dysfunctionality is due to the ADHD it presents, or to social and cultural factors derived from the difficulties of schooling caused by the TD.

Humans , Male , Adolescent , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/physiopathology , Tourette Syndrome/physiopathology , Attention , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/complications , Tourette Syndrome/complications , Executive Function/physiology , Inhibition, Psychological , Learning Disabilities/physiopathology , Memory, Short-Term/physiology
Rev. chil. neuro-psiquiatr ; 56(4): 241-250, 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-990863


Resumen La vejez se ha caracterizado por la existencia de una declinación natural de la memoria, como asimismo de su autoeficacia. La relación entre ambas ha sido objeto de varias investigaciones que confirman que la autoeficacia de la memoria afecta el rendimiento en tareas de memoria. Sin embargo, existe un grupo menor de investigaciones donde no se presenta dicha relación. El objetivo del estudio fue comparar la percepción de autoeficacia de la memoria con el rendimiento en tareas de memoria en adultos mayores y jóvenes. Los participantes fueron 200 adultos mayores y 111 jóvenes universitarios quienes respondieron dos instrumentos: uno de percepción de autoeficacia de memoria, y otro de rendimiento en tareas memoria operativa y/o memoria de corto plazo, ambos instrumentos fueron construidos y adaptados de forma tal que fueran comparables entre sí. Los resultados muestran que los adultos mayores presentan un menor rendimiento en casi todas las tareas de memoria y una leve superioridad en la percepción de autoeficacia de la memoria, existe una relación significativa entre ambas medicines. En cambio, en los jóvenes su percepción de autoeficacia fue levemente inferior, pero su rendimiento fue superior.

Aging has been characterized by a natural decline of memory, as well as by a decline in the perception of memory self-efficacy. The relationship between these two variables has been the subject of several studies, confirming that the perception of mnemonic self-efficacy affects actual performance on memory tasks. However, there is a smaller group of studies where this relationship has not been found. The objective of the present study was to compare the perception of self-efficacy of memory with performance in memory tasks in older and younger adults. Two hundred older adults and 111 university students participated in the study by responding two instruments: one Perception of Memory Self-Efficacy, and another one on Performance in Operational Memory tasks. Both instruments were constructed and adapted so that they be comparable. The results showed that older adults have a lower performance in almost all memory tasks and a slight superiority in the perception of memory self-efficacy, and a significant relationship was found between the two. On the other hand, in younger people's beliefs about their memory were slightly lower, but they performed better.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Perception/physiology , Self Efficacy , Memory, Short-Term/physiology , Age Factors
J. appl. oral sci ; 26: e20170414, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-954506


Abstract Reading requires the activation of several cognitive processes, some of which are basic, e.g. recognizing letters and words, whereas others are complex, such as working memory and ability to think about one's own learning strategies. One condition for fulfilling a complex cognitive task, such as understanding a text, is the ability to maintain and process information, which depends on working memory. Objective To analyze the ability of using metacognitive strategies for reading, the phonological working memory of school children with learning disabilities, and also determine if there is relation between these skills and reading comprehension. Method The sample consisted of 30 school-age children and teenagers of both genders, aged 8 to 12 years, who were enrolled in primary school. They were divided in two groups, experimental (EG) and control (CG). All children were subjected to evaluation of reading comprehension, phonological working memory, and use of metacognitive skills for reading. The results were compared between groups through the Mann-Whitney test, and correlation between variables was analyzed through Spearman correlation test. Result Statistical comparison between EG and CG showed statistically significant difference. Positive and effective correlation was observed between reading comprehension, phonological working memory and metacognitive tests. Conclusion children with learning disabilities presented deficits in phonological working memory and use of metacognitive strategies. The positive and effective correlation between the abilities analyzed suggests that failure in the phonological working memory and use of metacognitive strategies interfere with reading comprehension.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Reading , Comprehension/physiology , Metacognition/physiology , Learning Disabilities/physiopathology , Memory, Short-Term/physiology , Reference Values , Phonetics , Case-Control Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric , Dyslexia/physiopathology , Neuropsychological Tests
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 39(4): 302-308, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-899370


Objective: Cognitive impairment is a core feature of schizophrenia, related to dopaminergic dysfunction in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). It is hypothesized that functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs4680 of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene could mediate the relationship between cognition and dopamine activity in the PFC. Other COMT SNPs could also play a role. Methods: We evaluated the role of three COMT SNPs (rs737865, rs165599, and rs4680) in schizophrenia and their impact on three working memory tasks. For genetic association analyses, 212 individuals with schizophrenia and 257 healthy controls (HCs) were selected. The Visual Working Memory (VWM) Task, Keep Track Task, and Letter Memory Task were administered to 133 schizophrenics and 93 HCs. Results: We found a significant association of rs737865, with the GG genotype exerting a protective effect and the GA haplotype (rs4680/rs165599) exerting a risk effect for schizophrenia. COMT rs4680 AA carriers and rs737865 AA carriers scored lowest on the Keep Track Task. When the genotype*group interaction effect was evaluated, rs165599 exerted opposite effects for VWM and Keep Track task performance in patients and controls, with AA carriers scoring lowest on both tests among controls, but highest among patients. Conclusion: These data support the hypothesis that COMT polymorphisms may be associated with schizophrenia and modulate cognition in patients and controls.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Schizophrenia/genetics , Catechol O-Methyltransferase/genetics , Prefrontal Cortex/metabolism , Memory, Short-Term/physiology , Phenotype , Schizophrenia/physiopathology , Schizophrenia/metabolism , Haplotypes , Catechol O-Methyltransferase/metabolism , Case-Control Studies , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , Gene Frequency , Genotype , Neuropsychological Tests
CoDAS ; 29(6): e20160224, 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-890802


ABSTRACT Purpose To analyze the effect of education on sentence listening comprehension on cognitively healthy elderly. Methods A total of 111 healthy elderly, aged 60-80 years of both genders were divided into two groups according to educational level: low education (0-8 years of formal education) and high education (≥9 years of formal education). The participants were assessed using the Revised Token Test, an instrument that supports the evaluation of auditory comprehension of orders with different working memory and syntactic complexity demands. The indicators used for performance analysis were the number of correct responses (accuracy analysis) and task execution time (temporal analysis) in the different blocks. Results The low educated group had a lower number of correct responses than the high educated group on all blocks of the test. In the temporal analysis, participants with low education had longer execution time for commands on the first four blocks related to working memory. However, the two groups had similar execution time for blocks more related to syntactic comprehension. Conclusion Education influenced sentence listening comprehension on elderly. Temporal analysis allowed to infer over the relationship between comprehension and other cognitive abilities, and to observe that the low educated elderly did not use effective compensation strategies to improve their performances on the task. Therefore, low educational level, associated with aging, may potentialize the risks for language decline.

RESUMO Objetivo Analisar o efeito da escolaridade na compreensão auditiva de sentenças em idosos cognitivamente saudáveis. Método Foram avaliados 111 idosos normais, com idades entre 60 e 80 anos, de ambos os gêneros, divididos em dois grupos, de acordo com a escolaridade: baixa escolaridade (0 a 8 anos de ensino formal) e alta escolaridade (9 ou mais anos de ensino formal). Os indivíduos foram examinados por meio do Token Test Revisado, que dá suporte para a avaliação da compreensão auditiva de ordens com diferentes demandas de memória operacional e complexidade sintática. Os indicadores utilizados para análise do desempenho foram números de acertos (análise de acurácia) e tempo de execução da tarefa (análise temporal) nos diferentes blocos. Resultados O grupo de baixa escolaridade apresentou menor número de acertos que o grupo de alta escolaridade em todos os blocos do teste. Na análise temporal, os idosos de baixa escolaridade apresentaram maior tempo para execução das ordens nos primeiros quatro blocos, mais relacionados à memória operacional. Porém, os grupos apresentaram tempo de execução semelhante quanto aos blocos mais relacionados à compreensão sintática. Conclusão A escolaridade influenciou a habilidade de compreensão auditiva de sentenças em indivíduos idosos. A análise temporal permitiu inferir sobre a relação da compreensão com outras habilidades cognitivas e observar que os idosos de baixa escolaridade não utilizam estratégias eficazes de compensação para melhorar o desempenho na tarefa. Portanto, o baixo nível educacional, associado ao envelhecimento, pode potencializar os riscos para o declínio da linguagem.

Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aging/psychology , Comprehension/physiology , Auditory Perception , Brazil , Educational Status , Language , Language Tests , Memory, Short-Term/physiology , Middle Aged
CoDAS ; 29(4): e20160128, 2017. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039587


RESUMO Objetivo Comparar os resultados da Memória de Trabalho - Alça Fonológica (MTAF) em crianças com dificuldades específicas em aritmética. Método O estudo foi realizado com 30 crianças, com idade entre sete e nove anos que frequentavam a segunda ou terceira série do Ensino Fundamental da rede pública de ensino. Foram excluídas da pesquisa as crianças com sinais sugestivos de perda auditiva, alterações neurológicas, baixo desempenho na prova de compreensão leitora ou em acompanhamento fonoaudiológico. As crianças incluídas na pesquisa foram submetidas ao subteste de aritmética do Teste de Desempenho Escolar para divisão em dois grupos (G1 e G2). O G1 foi composto por crianças com baixo desempenho em aritmética e o G2, por crianças com desempenho médio/superior em aritmética. Todas as crianças foram submetidas à avaliação da MTAF por meio da prova de repetição de palavras sem significado. Para análise estatística, foi utilizado o teste de Mann-Whitney, considerados significativos os valores de p-valor <0,05. Resultados Participaram do estudo 20 meninas e 10 meninos, com idade média de 8,7 anos. O G1 foi composto por 17 crianças e o G2, por 13 crianças. Houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os grupos estudados para a repetição de palavras sem significado com três e quatro sílabas, com pior desempenho para o G1. Conclusão Os resultados deste estudo fornecem suporte para a hipótese de que a alteração na MTAF está relacionada com dificuldades em aritméticas.

ABSTRACT Purpose To compare the results of Loop Phonological Working Memory (LPWM) in children without global learning alterations, with lower and average/higher arithmetic performance. Methods The study was conducted with 30 children, between the ages of seven and nine years old, who attended the second or third grade of elementary school in the public network. Exclusion criteria were children with suggestive signs of hearing loss, neurological disorders, poor performance in the reading comprehension test or in speech therapy. The children included in the study were submitted to the subtest of arithmetic of Academic Achievement Test for division into two groups (G1 and G2). The G1 was composed of children with low performance in arithmetic and G2 for children with average/higher performance in arithmetic. All children were submitted to PWM assessment through the repetition of pseudowords test. Statistical analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney test and a p-value <0.05 was considered significant. Results The study included 20 girls and 10 boys, mean age 8.7 years. The G1 was composed of 17 children and G2 of 13 children. There was a statistically significant difference between the groups studied for the repetition of pseudowords with three and four syllables. Conclusion The results of this study provide support for the hypothesis that changes in phonological working memory are related to difficulties in arithmetic tests.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Speech/physiology , Cognition/physiology , Mathematics , Memory, Short-Term/physiology , Problem Solving/physiology , Reference Values , Audiometry/methods , Underachievement , Phonetics , Statistics, Nonparametric , Language Tests
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(4): e5892, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839278


Few studies have examined the influence of a low level of schooling on age-related cognitive decline in countries with wide social and economic inequalities by using the Cambridge Automated Neuropsychological Test Battery (CANTAB). The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of schooling on age-related cognitive decline using unbiased cognitive tests. CANTAB allows cognitive assessment across cultures and education levels with reduced interference of the examiner during data acquisition. Using two-way ANOVA, we assessed the influences of age and education on test scores of old adults (61–84 years of age). CANTAB tests included: Visual Sustained Attention, Reaction Time, Spatial Working Memory, Learning and Episodic Memory. All subjects had a minimum visual acuity of 20/30 (Snellen Test), no previous or current history of traumatic brain/head trauma, stroke, language impairment, chronic alcoholism, neurological diseases, memory problems or depressive symptoms, and normal scores on the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). Subjects were grouped according to education level (1 to 7 and ≥8 years of schooling) and age (60–69 and ≥70 years). Low schooling level was associated with significantly lower performance on visual sustained attention, learning and episodic memory, reaction time, and spatial working memory. Although reaction time was influenced by age, no significant results on post hoc analysis were detected. Our findings showed a significantly worse cognitive performance in volunteers with lower levels of schooling and suggested that formal education in early life must be included in the preventive public health agenda. In addition, we suggest that CANTAB may be useful to detect subtle cognitive changes in healthy aging.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cognition/physiology , Cognitive Aging/physiology , Cognitive Aging/psychology , Educational Status , Memory, Episodic , Memory, Short-Term/physiology , Age Factors , Analysis of Variance , Attention/physiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Geriatric Assessment/methods , Learning/physiology , Neuropsychological Tests , Reaction Time/physiology , Task Performance and Analysis , Time Factors
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 74(10): 785-790, Oct. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-796836


ABSTRACT Objective To perform a pilot study to investigate the association between working memory and cortical thickness in a sample of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children. Methods Seventeen children aged 7-10 years diagnosed with ADHD and 16 healthy children underwent a magnetic resonance scan for cortical thickness measurements. Data was correlated with working memory performance using the Backwards Digit Span subtest of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Results Working memory impairment, evidenced by lower scores on the Backwards Digit Span, was observed in patients with ADHD compared to healthy controls. There was a direct correlation between working memory and cortical thickness of the left medial temporal lobe (Spearman’s correlation coefficient: 0.499; p < 0.005). Conclusions Our data suggests, for the first time, a correlation between working memory, evaluated by the Backwards Digit Span, and left medial temporal cortical thickness.

RESUMO Objetivo Realizar estudo piloto para investigar a associação entre memória de trabalho e espessura cortical em crianças com transtorno de défict de atenção e hiperatividade (TDAH). Métodos Dezessete crianças com TDAH, entre 7 e 10 anos, e dezesseis crianças saudáveis foram submetidas a ressonância magnética para aferição de espessura cortical. Os dados foram correlacionados com desempenho da memória de trabalho usando a ordem inversa do subteste Dígitos da Escala de Inteligência Wechsler para Crianças. Resultados Prejuízos na memória de trabalho, evidenciado pela menor pontuação na ordem inversa do subteste Dígitos, foram observados em pacientes com TDAH, em comparação com crianças saudáveis. Observou-se correlação direta entre memória de trabalho e espessura do lobo temporal médio à esquerda (coeficiente de correlação de Spearman: 0,499; p < 0,005). Conclusões Nossos dados sugerem, pela primeira vez, uma correlação entre memória de trabalho, avaliada através da pontuação na ordem inversa do subteste Dígitos, e espessura do córtex temporal medial à esquerda.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/physiopathology , Temporal Lobe/anatomy & histology , Temporal Lobe/physiopathology , Memory, Short-Term/physiology , Reference Values , Temporal Lobe/diagnostic imaging , Wechsler Scales , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Case-Control Studies , Pilot Projects , Sex Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Age Factors , Statistics, Nonparametric , Neuropsychological Tests
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 38(3): 201-206, July-Sept. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-792743


Objectives: Depressive symptoms are associated with worse outcomes in patients with bipolar disorder (BD). However, scarce data are available regarding neurocognitive profiles across different areas of functioning among BD patients with moderate and severe depression. Our objective was to assess cognition and global functioning in a group of patients with bipolar depression. Methods: Data were available for 100 patients with bipolar depression (78% female) and 70 controls (64% female) paired by age and education level. Cognitive function was assessed with a neuropsychological test battery. Functioning was assessed with the Functioning Assessment Short Test. Results: In patients, severe depression was associated with poorer cognitive performance on measures of executive function. Patients with severe depression showed worse global functioning than those with moderate depression (z = 2.54, p = 0.011). In patients with severe depression, lower global functioning was associated with lower scores in working memory (r = -0.200, p = 0.010), and executive function (r = -0.210, p = 0.007; and r = 0.293, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Our findings suggest cognitive impairment and global functioning impairment are associated with the severity of depressive symptoms in bipolar depression. Intensive treatment of depressive symptoms in patients with BD is crucial to improve cognitive functioning and, consequently, functional outcomes.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Bipolar Disorder/physiopathology , Depression/physiopathology , Cognitive Dysfunction/physiopathology , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Severity of Illness Index , Case-Control Studies , Analysis of Variance , Cognition/physiology , Executive Function/physiology , Memory, Short-Term/physiology , Middle Aged , Neuropsychological Tests
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 38(2): 80-89, abr. jun. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-788003


Abstract Introduction: According to the literature, children's overall reactivity to stress is associated with their socioeconomic status and family environment. In turn, it has been shown that reactivity to stress is associated with cognitive performance. However, few studies have systematically tested these three constructs together. Objective: To investigate the relationship between family environment, salivary cortisol measurements and children's memory and executive function performance. Method: Salivary cortisol levels of 70 children aged 9 or 10 years were measured before and after performing tasks designed to assess memory and executive functions. Questionnaires on socioeconomic issues, family environment and maternal psychopathologies were administered to participants' families during the children's early childhood and again when they reached school age. Results: Data were analyzed by calculating correlations between variables and conducting hierarchical regression. High cortisol levels were associated with poorer working memory and worse performance in tasks involving executive functions, and were also associated with high scores for maternal psychopathology (during early childhood and school age) and family dysfunction. Family environment variables and changes in cortisol levels explain around 20% of the variance in performance of cognitive tasks. Conclusion: Family functioning and maternal psychopathology in early and middle childhood and children's stress levels were associated with children's working memory and executive functioning.

Resumo Introdução: De acordo com a literatura, o nível socioeconômico e o ambiente familiar estão associados à reatividade ao estresse na criança. Essa reatividade ao estresse, por sua vez, tem sido associada com desempenho cognitivo. No entanto, poucos estudos testaram sistematicamente esses três construtos ao mesmo tempo. Objetivo: Investigar a relação entre ambiente familiar, medidas de cortisol salivar e desempenho em memória e funções executivas das crianças. Método: Os níveis de cortisol salivar de 70 crianças com idade entre 9 e 10 anos foram medidos antes e depois de tarefas de memória e funções executivas. As famílias dos participantes completaram questionários sobre questões socioeconômicas, ambiente familiar e psicopatologia materna durante a primeira infância e a idade escolar da criança. Resultados: Correlações e regressão hierárquica foram realizadas para análise de dados. Níveis de cortisol elevados, bem como alta psicopatologia materna (na primeira infância e em idade escolar) e disfunção familiar foram associados com baixo desempenho em tarefas de funções executivas e memória de trabalho. As variáveis ambiente familiar e alterações nos níveis de cortisol explicam cerca de 20% da variação no desempenho de tarefas cognitivas. Conclusão: O funcionamento familiar e a psicopatologia materna no início e meio da infância, bem como os níveis de estresse das crianças, foram associados com a memória de trabalho e o funcionamento executivo das crianças.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Family , Psychology, Child , Psychological Tests , Saliva/chemistry , Social Class , Stress, Psychological/metabolism , Hydrocortisone/analysis , Cognition/physiology , Environment , Executive Function/physiology , Memory, Short-Term/physiology
MedicalExpress (São Paulo, Online) ; 3(2)Mar.-Apr. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-779131


BACKGROUND: Insomnia is the most commonly occurring sleep disorder: recent reports estimate that 25-30% of adults in the general population occasional instances of experience insomnia, while 10% suffer from disturbances severe enough to meet diagnostic criteria for insomnia. Little is known about the mechanisms, causes, clinical course, and consequences of this condition. Over 30 studies have been published on the matter but only a small proportion has found differences in the working memory of individuals with vs. without insomnia. OBJECTIVE: To summarize evidence regarding the differences in working memory performance between insomniac vs. normal adult sleepers. METHODS: The survey was conducted using an advanced search in the ISI Web of Science and MEDLINE/PubMed with the terms "sleep", "insomnia" and "working memory" as major descriptors; these were crossed with the following keywords: "psychological tests", "neuropsychology" and "performance". RESULTS: A total of 112 articles were identified in the search conducted in PubMed and Web of Science. After the screening, 102 articles unrelated to the proposed theme were excluded. Thus, 10 articles were analyzed by the eligibility and exclusion criteria, and included in this systematic review. CONCLUSION: The information resulting from the analysis of the reviewed articles suggests that mild, but not definitive deficits in cognitive performance might be masked by insignificant disparities in studies comparing insomniac individuals with normal sleepers. This shortcoming can be circumvented by larger and better-characterized samples, together with optimized methodological control of factors which might otherwise result in confounding variations among participants.

INTRODUÇÃO: A insônia é o distúrbio do sono mais comum: relatórios recentes estimam que 25-30% dos adultos sofrem episódios de insônia, enquanto 10% sofrem de distúrbio do sono suficientemente grave para cumprir os critérios de diagnóstico para insônia. Além disso, pouco se sabe sobre os mecanismos, causas, evolução clínica, e consequências desta doença crónica altamente prevalente. Mais de 30 estudos foram publicados sobre o assunto, mas apenas uma pequena proporção encontrou diferenças entre os indivíduos com e sem insônia, por exemplo, na memória de trabalho. OBJETIVO: Examinar as evidências sobre as diferenças entre adultos insones e normais no desempenho da memória de trabalho. MÉTODOS: A pesquisa foi realizada usando uma pesquisa avançada no ISI Web of Science e MEDLINE/PubMed com os termos "sleep", "insônia" e "memória de trabalho" como os principais descritores, que foram cruzados com as seguintes palavras-chave: "testes psicológicos", "neuropsicologia" e "performance". RESULTADOS: Um total de 132 artigos foram identificados na pesquisa realizada no PubMed e Web of Science; 20 duplicações foram excluídas. Após a triagem, 102 artigos foram excluídos, que não estavam relacionadas com o tema proposto. Assim, 10 artigos foram selecionados por critérios de elegibilidade e de exclusão, e incluídos na revisão sistemática. CONCLUSÃO: As descobertas relatadas em nosso estudo sugerem que os deficits leves mas não permanentes de desempenho cognitivo podem ser mascarados por disparidades insignificantes em estudos que comparam indivíduos com insônia com pessoas com sono normal. Tal deficiência pode ser contornada pela análise de amostras maiores e mais bem caracterizadas, em conjunto com o controle metodológico otimizado de fatores que potencialmente podem incorrer em variações entre os participantes.

Psychomotor Performance/physiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Memory, Short-Term/physiology , Neuropsychological Tests , Neuropsychology